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Sample records for understanding grammatical development

  1. Understanding Disorder Within Variation: Production of English Grammatical Forms by English Language Learners.

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    Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Anaya, Jissel B; Nieto, Ricardo; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Baron, Alisa

    2018-04-05

    This study examines English performance on a set of 11 grammatical forms in Spanish-English bilingual, school-age children in order to understand how item difficulty of grammatical constructions helps correctly classify language impairment (LI) from expected variability in second language acquisition when taking into account linguistic experience and exposure. Three hundred seventy-eight children's scores on the Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment-Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, & Goldstein, 2008) morphosyntax cloze task were analyzed by bilingual experience groups (high Spanish experience, balanced English-Spanish experience, high English experience, ability (typically developing [TD] vs. LI), and grammatical form. Classification accuracy was calculated for the forms that best differentiated TD and LI groups. Children with LI scored lower than TD children across all bilingual experience groups. There were differences by grammatical form across bilingual experience and ability groups. Children from high English experience and balanced English-Spanish experience groups could be accurately classified on the basis of all the English grammatical forms tested except for prepositions. For bilinguals with high Spanish experience, it was possible to rule out LI on the basis of grammatical production but not rule in LI. It is possible to accurately identify LI in English language learners once they use English 40% of the time or more. However, for children with high Spanish experience, more information about development and patterns of impairment is needed to positively identify LI.

  2. Process Writing and the Development of Grammatical Competence

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    Artunduaga Cuéllar, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of an action research study whose purpose was to apply alternatives for the development of grammatical competence in a group of third semester students of a Morphosyntax I course in an English language teaching undergraduate program at a Colombian public university. Given the fact that the teaching of grammar has…

  3. Process Writing and the Development of Grammatical Competence

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    Marco Tulio Artunduaga Cuéllar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an action research study whose purpose was to apply alternatives for the development of grammatical competence in a group of third semester students of a Morphosyntax I course in an English language teaching undergraduate program at a Colombian public university. Given the fact that the teaching of grammar has for a long time been a polemical issue, the study intended to find an effective and meaningful way to develop this competence in a contextualized manner and writing was the selected medium. The results indicate that the use of writing activities to develop grammar generates a mutually enriching process as both linguistic elements are enhanced.

  4. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children With SLI.

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    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points in time (T1, T2, T3) with 12-month intervals during a 2-year period. Participants were 30 monolingual Dutch children with SLI, age 6;5 (years;months) at T1; 30 typically developing peers, age 6;6 at T1; and 30 typically developing language-matched children, age 4;7 at T1. On the morphosyntactic accuracy measures, the group with SLI performed more poorly than both control groups. Error rates in the group with SLI were much higher than expected on the basis of mean length of T-units and scores on standardized language tests. Percentages of dummy auxiliaries remained high over time. No group differences were found for grammatical complexity, except at T3, when the group with SLI used fewer relative clauses than the typically developing peer group. The narrative analysis demonstrates different developmental trajectories for morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in children with SLI and typically developing peer and language-matched children. In the group with SLI, grammatical skills continue to develop.

  5. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074417258

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  6. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Wijnen, F.N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a

  7. Procedural memory and speed of grammatical processing: Comparison between typically developing children and language impaired children.

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    Clark, Gillian M; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-12-01

    Procedural memory has been proposed to underlie the acquisition of a range of skills including grammar, reading, and motor skills. In developmental language disorder (DLD) it has been suggested that procedural memory problems lead to the difficulties with grammar in this group. This study aimed to extend previous research by exploring associations between procedural memory and a range of cognitive skills, in children with and without language impairments. Twenty children with DLD and 20 age-matched non-language impaired children undertook tasks assessing procedural memory, grammatical processing speed, single word and nonword reading, and motor skills (as indexed by a pegboard task). For the DLD group, no significant correlations between procedural memory and any of the variables were observed. The typically developing group showed a significant correlation (r=.482, pprocedural memory and grammatical processing speed. Correlations between procedural memory and the remaining variables were all non-significant for this group. This study provides new evidence showing that grammatical processing speed is correlated with procedural memory in typically developing children. Furthermore, results suggest that the relationship with procedural memory does not extend to reading or the types of motor skills used on a pegboard task. For the DLD group the pattern of result indicate grammatical processing, reading, and motor sequencing are not supported by procedural memory or a common memory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Grammatical Accuracy in English-Speaking Children With Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study

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    Spencer, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We sought to evaluate the development of grammatical accuracy in English-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) over a 3-year span. Method Ten children who received CIs before age 30 months participated in this study at 3, 4, and 5 years postimplantation. For the purpose of comparison, 10 children each at ages 3, 4, and 5 years with typical hearing were included as well. All children participated in a story-retell task. We computed percent grammatical communication units (PGCU) in the task. Results Children with CIs showed significant improvement in PGCU over the 3-year span. However, they produced lower PGCU than children with typical hearing who had matched hearing age at 4 and 5 years postimplantation. At the individual level, some children with CIs were able to produce PGCU comparable to children with typical hearing as early as 3 years after implantation. Better speech-perception skills at earlier time points were associated with higher PGCU at later time points. Moreover, children with and without CIs showed similar rankings in the types of grammatical errors. Conclusion Despite having auditory-perceptual and information-processing constraints, children who received CIs before age 30 months were able to produce grammatical sentences, albeit with a delayed pattern. PMID:28384729

  9. Early Grammatical Development in Spanish Children with Down Syndrome

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    Galeote, Miguel; Soto, Pilar; Sebastian, Eugenia; Checa, Elena; Sanchez-Palacios, Concepcion

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze morphosyntactic development in a wide sample of children with Down syndrome (DS) ("n" = 92) and children with typical development (TD) ("n" = 92) with a mental age (MA) of 20 to 29 months. Children were individually matched for gender and MA (Analysis 1) and for vocabulary size…

  10. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

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    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  11. Grammaticality Differences between Spanish-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers

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    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Maldonado, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Background: A limited number of studies have analyzed grammaticality in monolingual Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Most of the available data are based on bilingual speakers. Aims: To extend previous studies by doing a more detailed analysis of grammatical types in monolingual Spanish-speakers with and without…

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE STYLISTIC COMPETENCE OF FUTURE PHILOLOGISTS: GRAMMATICAL ASPECT

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    Олена Вовк

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies a grammatical aspect of developing stylistic competence of students of linguistic departments. Particularly, the stylistic competence which is defined as a capacity to create adequate utterances under natural conditions of communication according to a concrete situation is characterized. To highlight the importance of acquiring stylistic competence the levels of speech development of an individual are indentified and the stages of teaching grammar are differentiated. The approaches to teaching stylistic grammar are characterized within a communicative framework and relevant skills are elucidated. The role of functional styles in teaching a foreign language is clarified. The idea of teaching students to be able to make register shifts and mixture of speech registers in the process of foreign language competence acquiring are highlihgted. The theoretical principles are illustrated with the appropriate examples of exercises.

  13. Sentence Repetition Test for Measurement of Grammatical Development in Farsi Speaking Children

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    Mohammad Kamali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: valid identification, prevention, and treatment of language disorders are a high priority for the speech and language professionals. One method for studying language development is sentence repetition that is faster to implement and analysis than other procedures. The aim of this project was constructing sentence repetition test as a quick measure of grammatical potency in 2.5 to 4 year old children.Methods: Sentences appropriate for 2.5 to 4 year old children were selected during several stages by speech and language pathologist and linguists. The validity of sentences was assessed by professional masters in this theme. Subsequently, 41 sentences including those with 80% high validity were selected as the test sentences. Appropriate pictures were also provided with sentences. The test was administrated to 72 children in 3 groups (2.5-3, 3-3.5, and 3.5-4 year olds, gender matched. The reliability was administered with a test-retest design across a 2 weeks interval.Results: Content validity Index for this test was 80%. "Test-retest reliability” was used for reliability of this test. The Interclass correlation coefficient for this test was 0.95 and standard error measurement was 7.45. The average of scores for sentence repetition, between groups was significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p= 0.014.Conclusion: This sentence repetition test has the appropriate validity and reliability as well as the capability of proper and quick assessment (screening of grammatical development in 2.5 to 4 year old Persian speaking children.

  14. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans.

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    Potgieter, Anneke P

    2016-05-20

    There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1) occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2) in all three the trilinguals' languages, regardless of input quantity. Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals' acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals' acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals' input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure.

  15. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

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    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  16. Grammatical Metaphor

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    Chinwe R. Ezeifeka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract writing presents problems to budding academics, especially in keeping to the generic structure and the requisite word counts by the various publishers. The article focuses on grammatical metaphor as a systemic resource for achieving proficiency in research abstract writing. Borrowing from Halliday and Matthiessen’s semantic domains beyond the clause and Halliday’s theorizing of the language of science, the article explores the various forms of transferences made possible by the grammar: from logical to experiential, from sequences to figures, elements and things, involving downgrading of linguistic units from higher semantic domains to lower ones. The resulting nominalization is seen as the single most powerful resource for effecting grammatical metaphor of the ideational type through its capacity for lexical packing. The article analyzes five randomly selected undergraduate research abstracts that exhibited an obvious lack of awareness of this systemic resource. By focusing on the sequences of figures from each abstract, comprising various numbers of clause nexuses, the article demonstrates how the judicious use of nominalization can simultaneously achieve word economy and information density, which are obvious marks of proficiency in this academic genre, and strongly recommends this grammatical strategy for students and budding academics.

  17. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans

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    Anneke P. Potgieter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. Objectives: To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1 occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2 in all three the trilinguals’ languages, regardless of input quantity. Method: Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals’ acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. Results: The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals’ acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. Conclusion: As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals’ input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure.

  18. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies. Objectives To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1) occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2) in all three the trilinguals’ languages, regardless of input quantity. Method Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals’ acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language. Results The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals’ acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing. Conclusion As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals’ input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure. PMID:27245133

  19. Grammatically Thinking

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    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching experience conducted and carried out as part of the coursework of first year students of architecture at Strathclyde University. The workshop is the Third of three workshops planned to take place during the course of the first year studio, aimed at introducing new ...... ways of thinking and introducing students to a new pattern of architectural education. The experiment was planned under the theme of “Evaluation” during the Final stage. A grammatical approach was chosen to deliver the methodology in the design studio, based on shape grammars....

  20. On the Relation Between Grammatical Number and Cardinal Numbers in Development

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    Barbara W Sarnecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child’s language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., ‘one’ and ‘two’. Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number ‘one’ earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic learn the meaning of ‘two’ earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for ‘oneness,’ ‘twoness,’ etc. are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change.

  1. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

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    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Disentangling early language development: modeling lexical and grammatical acquisition using an extension of case-study methodology.

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    Robinson, B F; Mervis, C B

    1998-03-01

    The early lexical and grammatical development of 1 male child is examined with growth curves and dynamic-systems modeling procedures. Lexical-development described a pattern of logistic growth (R2 = .98). Lexical and plural development shared the following characteristics: Plural growth began only after a threshold was reached in vocabulary size; lexical growth slowed as plural growth increased. As plural use reached full mastery, lexical growth began again to increase. It was hypothesized that a precursor model (P. van Geert, 1991) would fit these data. Subsequent testing indicated that the precursor model, modified to incorporate brief yet intensive plural growth, provided a suitable fit. The value of the modified precursor model for the explication of processes implicated in language development is discussed.

  3. The development of grammatical case distinctions in the use of personal pronouns by Spanish-speaking preschoolers.

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    Anderson, R T

    1998-04-01

    Data on personal pronoun development in Spanish-speaking children was obtained in this study. Forty monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 2;0 and 3;11 participated in the investigation. Two tasks were designed to obligate production of nominative and object pronouns in both reflexive and non-reflexive forms. Productive use and error analysis data were obtained and compared to previous data on pronoun development in English. By contrast with the order of productive use of grammatical case distinctions reported in the literature for English-speaking children, the children in the present study demonstrated a pattern in which nominative pronoun use preceded object case use. Implications of these findings for developmental theories that have been presented to explain pronoun development are discussed.

  4. The Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of AWE Feedback on ESL Students' Development of Grammatical Accuracy

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    Li, Zhi; Feng, Hui-Hsien; Saricaoglu, Aysel

    2017-01-01

    This classroom-based study employs a mixed-methods approach to exploring both short-term and long-term effects of Criterion feedback on ESL students' development of grammatical accuracy. The results of multilevel growth modeling indicate that Criterion feedback helps students in both intermediate-high and advanced-low levels reduce errors in eight…

  5. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

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    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  6. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

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    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  7. Theory of mind and emotion recognition skills in children with specific language impairment, autism spectrum disorder and typical development: group differences and connection to knowledge of grammatical morphology, word-finding abilities and verbal working memory.

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    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social perception abilities. To compare the performance of children with SLI, ASD and typical development (TD) in social perception tasks measuring Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. In addition, to evaluate the association between social perception tasks and language tests measuring word-finding abilities, knowledge of grammatical morphology and verbal working memory. Children with SLI (n = 18), ASD (n = 14) and TD (n = 25) completed two NEPSY-II subtests measuring social perception abilities: (1) Affect Recognition and (2) ToM (includes Verbal and non-verbal Contextual tasks). In addition, children's word-finding abilities were measured with the TWF-2, grammatical morphology by using the Grammatical Closure subtest of ITPA, and verbal working memory by using subtests of Sentence Repetition or Word List Interference (chosen according the child's age) of the NEPSY-II. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children with SLI or TD on the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest. Both SLI and ASD groups scored significantly lower than TD children on Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest of NEPSY-II. However, there were no significant group differences on non-verbal Contextual tasks of the ToM subtest of the NEPSY-II. Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest were correlated with the Grammatical Closure subtest and TWF-2 in children with SLI. In children with ASD correlation between TWF-2 and ToM: Verbal tasks was moderate, almost achieving statistical significance, but no other correlations were found. Both SLI and ASD groups showed difficulties in tasks measuring verbal ToM but differences were not found in tasks measuring non-verbal Contextual ToM. The

  8. A Neural Network Model of the Effects of Entrenchment and Memory Development on Grammatical Gender Learning

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    Monner, Derek; Vatz, Karen; Morini, Giovanna; Hwang, So-One; DeKeyser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To investigate potential causes of L2 performance deficits that correlate with age of onset, we use a computational model to explore the individual contributions of L1 entrenchment and aspects of memory development. Since development and L1 entrenchment almost invariably coincide, studying them independently is seldom possible in humans. To avoid…

  9. Modeling Systematicity and Individuality in Nonlinear Second Language Development: The Case of English Grammatical Morphemes

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    Murakami, Akira

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces two sophisticated statistical modeling techniques that allow researchers to analyze systematicity, individual variation, and nonlinearity in second language (L2) development. Generalized linear mixed-effects models can be used to quantify individual variation and examine systematic effects simultaneously, and generalized…

  10. Quirky Quotes and Needles in the Haystack: Tracing Grammatical Change in Untagged Corpora

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    Norde, Muriel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses pivotal theoretical and methodological problems of historical corpus linguistics. In two case studies from Swedish language history, the development of the epistemic adverb kanske and the group genitive respectively, it illustrates how the use of qualitative method in addition to corpus investigation can contribute to understanding grammatical change.

  11. Predictable grammatical constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    INF] as a grammatical construction consists in: 1) [méllo INF] is more resistant to restructuring than many other verbal periphrases with an INF; and 2) in LBG [méllo INF] seems to have grammaticalized — as one of its uses — a specialized function embedded in subjunctives, in which méllo...

  12. Grammatical inference algorithms, routines and applications

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    Wieczorek, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on grammatical inference, presenting classic and modern methods of grammatical inference from the perspective of practitioners. To do so, it employs the Python programming language to present all of the methods discussed. Grammatical inference is a field that lies at the intersection of multiple disciplines, with contributions from computational linguistics, pattern recognition, machine learning, computational biology, formal learning theory and many others. Though the book is largely practical, it also includes elements of learning theory, combinatorics on words, the theory of automata and formal languages, plus references to real-world problems. The listings presented here can be directly copied and pasted into other programs, thus making the book a valuable source of ready recipes for students, academic researchers, and programmers alike, as well as an inspiration for their further development.>.

  13. The count-mass distinction in typically developing and grammatically specifically language impaired children: new evidence on the role of syntax and semantics.

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    Froud, Karen; van der Lely, Heather K J

    2008-01-01

    By the age of three, typically developing children can draw conceptual distinctions between "kinds of individual" and "kinds of stuff" on the basis of syntactic structures. They differ from adults only in the extent to which syntactic knowledge can be over-ridden by semantic properties of the referent. However, the relative roles of syntax and semantics in determining the nature of the count-mass distinction in language acquisition are still not well-understood. This paper contributes to this debate by studying novel noun acquisition in a subgroup of children, aged 8-15 years, with specific language impairment, whose core deficits are limited to within the grammatical system (G-SLI), We conducted two experiments: a production task and a word extension task. Such children might be expected to rely to a greater extent than their age-matched peers on semantic properties of referents in order to assign noun interpretations, since by hypothesis they have greater difficulty in accessing and utilizing syntactic category distinctions than typically developing children. In the production task, the Children with G-SLI demonstrated rigid over-application of a pluralization rule which masked even basic knowledge of semantic information about individuated objects versus non-individuated substances. Age-matched control children only performed in this way when all syntactic and conceptual/perceptual cues were neutralized. In the word extension task, which required a non-verbal response, the Children with G-SLI showed evidence of only very limited abilities to use syntactic or semantic information for word-learning. Thus, developmental deficits in the grammatical system can be seen to impact on lexical acquisition as well as syntactic development. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to: (1) describe how syntactic (grammatical) impairment affects the ability to use syntactic cues for lexical acquisition, resulting in difficulties representing the structure of even

  14. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2004-11-05

    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Henon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front.

  15. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Henon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front

  16. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  17. Understanding users in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    , the guideline contain a step by step process to develop easy‐to‐open packaging. The guideline is constructed in a way that allows the enterprise to pick and choose in respect to the enterprise´s needs and competences. The main focus in the development of the guidelines has been to produce a tool that function...... observations is a tool for user understanding and that the first step towards better packaging, goes through consensus in the organization regarding the need for more easy‐opening packaging....

  18. Rara and grammatical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that grammatical theorizing and linguistic typologizing must go hand in hand and that rare typological features play a central role in the interaction of typology and theory. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses a sampling method that (compared to other sampling...... methods) offers the best chance of finding and identifying rara or rarissima (features and properties attested in very few languages), because the method in question is designed to generate samples that display the greatest possible linguistic variety. Section 3 discusses some relevant details about...... Functional (Discourse) Grammar and sections 4 and 5 are concerned with the crucial role of rara both in theory driven data collection and in data driven theory building....

  19. A neurolinguistic model of grammatical construction processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey, Peter Ford; Hoen, Michel; Inui, Toshio

    2006-12-01

    One of the functions of everyday human language is to communicate meaning. Thus, when one hears or reads the sentence, "John gave a book to Mary," some aspect of an event concerning the transfer of possession of a book from John to Mary is (hopefully) transmitted. One theoretical approach to language referred to as construction grammar emphasizes this link between sentence structure and meaning in the form of grammatical constructions. The objective of the current research is to (1) outline a functional description of grammatical construction processing based on principles of psycholinguistics, (2) develop a model of how these functions can be implemented in human neurophysiology, and then (3) demonstrate the feasibility of the resulting model in processing languages of typologically diverse natures, that is, English, French, and Japanese. In this context, particular interest will be directed toward the processing of novel compositional structure of relative phrases. The simulation results are discussed in the context of recent neurophysiological studies of language processing.

  20. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira

    2004-11-01

    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Hénon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front.

  1. Exploring the longitudinal relationships between the use of grammar in text messaging and performance on grammatical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Clare; Kemp, Nenagh; Waldron, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that use of texting slang (textisms) when text messaging does not appear to impact negatively on children's literacy outcomes and may even benefit children's spelling attainment. However, less attention has been paid to the impact of text messaging on the development of children's and young people's understanding of grammar. This study therefore examined the interrelationships between children's and young adults' tendency to make grammatical violations when texting and their performance on formal assessments of spoken and written grammatical understanding, orthographic processing and spelling ability over the course of 1 year. Zero-order correlations showed patterns consistent with previous research on textism use and spelling, and there was no evidence of any negative associations between the development of the children's performance on the grammar tasks and their use of grammatical violations when texting. Adults' tendency to use ungrammatical word forms ('does you') was positively related to performance on the test of written grammar. Grammatical violations were found to be positively associated with growth in spelling for secondary school children. However, not all forms of violation were observed to be consistently used in samples of text messages taken 12 months apart or were characteristic of typical text messages. The need to differentiate between genuine errors and deliberate violation of rules is discussed, as are the educational implications of these findings. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  2. Ausubel's understanding of concept development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of relatively new cognitivistic learning and cognition theories - the theory by American psychologist David Ausubel. We consider this theory to be very usable for teaching beginners or for cognition process. It is of utmost importance that first or elementary concepts concerning natural and social phenomena a pupil aquires need to be accurate, understandable and properly connected in a cause-effect sequence of conceptual systems so that items of knowledge aquired can be stable and usable. For correct understanding of Ausubel's claims concerning processes and procedures involved in the acquisition of elementary concepts, which is central to this investigation, it is necessary to address problems and questions concerning the following: the process of aquisition or construction of first concepts; how to base verbal learning; how is subsuming achieved, that is connecting of new and previously acquired concepts; what is the relation of this theory with other cognitivistic theories of learning, and, finally, what are critical views or evalutions which can make this theory truly productive in relation to teaching.

  3. Understanding users in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The consumers expect the packaging to be functional and to fulfil their specific needs in every way. A Danish survey showed that at least 40 per cent experience difficulties, when handling and opening packaging at least once a month, and as a consequence, 16 per cent of the consumers......, the guideline contain a step by step process to develop easy‐to‐open packaging. The guideline is constructed in a way that allows the enterprise to pick and choose in respect to the enterprise´s needs and competences. The main focus in the development of the guidelines has been to produce a tool that function...

  4. Symbolic Dynamics and Grammatical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bai-Lin; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    The following sections are included: * Formal Languages and Their Complexity * Formal Language * Chomsky Hierarchy of Grammatical Complexity * The L-System * Regular Language and Finite Automaton * Finite Automaton * Regular Language * Stefan Matrix as Transfer Function for Automaton * Beyond Regular Languages * Feigenbaum and Generalized Feigenbaum Limiting Sets * Even and Odd Fibonacci Sequences * Odd Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Kneading Map * Even Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Distinct Excluded Blocks * Summary of Results

  5. Grammatical competence of ESL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafisa, Palesa J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to report on a study investigating the grammatical competence of English Second Language teachers in secondary schools. This study came about as a result of the widespread concern that these teachers may not always be competent enough in English. We determined the teachers’ familiarity with standard English grammar as well as their acceptance of Black South African English features. The findings indicate that teachers had problems with the grammatical structures tested and accepted some Black South African English grammatical features as correct usage. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om verslag te doen oor ‘n studie wat die grammatikale vermoë van onderwysers van Engels Tweedetaal-onderwysers in sekondêre skole gemeet het. Die studie is gedoen na aanleiding van ‘n wydverspreide besorgdheid dat onderwysers van Engels nie altyd vaardig genoeg in Engels is nie. Ons het die onderwysers se bekendheid met standaard-Engels grammatika vasgestel asook hul aanvaarding van Swart Suid-Afrikaanse Engelse grammatikale verskynsels. Die bevindinge dui aan dat onderwysers probleme het met die grammatikale strukture wat getoets is en dat hulle sekere Swart Suid-Afrikaanse Engelse grammatikale verskynsels as korrek aanvaar.

  6. Exploring educators' understanding of developing learners' reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring educators' understanding of developing learners' reading skills and their readiness to implement CAPS. ... Journal for Language Teaching ... Phase English First Additional Language teachers understood about reading and teaching reading, and the strategies they used to develop learners' reading skills.

  7. Grammatical realization of Russian etiquette speech genres: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is devoted to the issue of grammatical approach application during the teaching of Russian etiquette speech for foreigners. In the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language, the issues related to the development of etiquette speech genres arise at all stages of language learning, beginning with the first ...

  8. The Dilemma of Grammatical Data in Travel Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    language learning and practising. In order to ensure flexible and easy access to the grammatical data, this development could best be achieved by the publica- tion of online travel dictionaries linked to associated online basic language courses, whereby consultation asynchronicity would truly become a functional asset.

  9. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  10. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  11. A Hybrid Approach for Correcting Grammatical Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for correcting grammatical errors in the sentences uttered by Korean learners of English. The error correction system plays an important role in GenieTutor, which is a dialogue-based English learning system designed to teach English to Korean students. During the talk with GenieTutor, grammatical error…

  12. The biological basis of language: insight from developmental grammatical impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K J; Pinker, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), a genetic developmental disorder, offers insights into the neurobiological and computational organization of language. A subtype, Grammatical-SLI (G-SLI), involves greater impairments in 'extended' grammatical representations, which are nonlocal, hierarchical, abstract, and composed, than in 'basic' ones, which are local, linear, semantic, and holistic. This distinction is seen in syntax, morphology, and phonology, and may be tied to abnormalities in the left hemisphere and basal ganglia, consistent with new models of the neurobiology of language which distinguish dorsal and ventral processing streams. Delineating neurolinguistic phenotypes promises a better understanding of the effects of genes on the brain circuitry underlying normal and impaired language abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Annotation: Understanding the Development of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    Background: Psychopaths are not only antisocial, but also have a callous and unemotional personality profile. This article selectively reviews evidence that psychopathic personality traits are an important factor in understanding and predicting the development of persistent antisocial conduct. Cognitive neuroscience research and more tentative…

  14. Understanding of the Impact of Leadership Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Leadership development is big business. But the size of the investment notwithstanding, it has been pointed out that the programs and activities devoted to leadership development are often based on little more than anecdotes, personal experience, and guesses about what might be effective......—for the individual and for the organization. In other words, leadership development can too often be an act of blind faith. In this blog I report on my preliminary work on understanding the conditions that might affect the impact of leadership development initiatives....

  15. Poor understanding? Challenges to Global Development Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Buchanan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As members of a global community, we cohabit a metaphorically shrinking physical environment, and are increasingly connected one to another, and to the world, by ties of culture, economics, politics, communication and the like. Education is an essential component in addressing inequalities and injustices concerning global rights and responsibilities. The increasing multicultural nature of societies locally, enhanced access to distal information, and the work of charitable organisations worldwide are some of the factors that have contributed to the interest in, and need for, understanding global development education. The project on which this paper reports sought answers to the question: to what extent and in what ways can a semester-long subject enhance and extend teacher education students’ understandings of and responses to global inequalities and global development aid? In the course of the project, a continuum model emerged, as follows: Indifference or ignorance ➝ pity and charity ➝ partnership and development among equals. In particular, this paper reports on some of the challenges and obstacles that need to be addressed in order to enhance pre-service teachers’ understandings of global development education. The study, conducted in Australia, has implications for global development education in other developed nations.

  16. The Impact of Implicit Tasks on Improving the Learners' Writing in Terms of Autonomy and Grammatical Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Nastaran

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners' ability to gain grammatical accuracy in their writing by noticing and correcting their own grammatical errors. Recent literature in language acquisition has emphasized the role of implicit tasks in encouraging learners to develop autonomous language learning…

  17. Some Dictionary Descriptions of Grammatical Structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Dictionary Descriptions of. Grammatical Structure. William Branford, Department of Linguistics, University of Cape Town opsomming: Enkele woordeboekbeskrywings van grammatikale struk- tuur. Hierdie artikel ondersoek enkele aspekte van die behandeling van grammatikale struktuur in vier resente woordeboeke ...

  18. Learning Transformation Rules to Find Grammatical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Lisa; Vilain, Marc; Yeh, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Grammatical relationships are an important level of natural language processing. We present a trainable approach to find these relationships through transformation sequences and error-driven learning. Our approach finds grammatical relationships between core syntax groups and bypasses much of the parsing phase. On our training and test set, our procedure achieves 63.6% recall and 77.3% precision (f-score = 69.8).

  19. Understanding the development of international environmental agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jens

    There are many different theoretical schools concerned with how international regimes develop, and each supplies its own interpretation focusing on one or a few aspects of the process. Such ‘one shot’ explanations may be fruitful for scientific debate, but less useful as conceptual frameworks...... for practitioners and planners manoeuvring in a complex world. On the basis of a review of selected theories of international and environmental regulation, this article initiates the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the development of internationalenvironmental agreements. The point...... of departure for developing the model is the actor-structure debate within social science and theory of international relations. Based on critical realism, a framework is developed specifying the relation between collective action problem situations and negotiation situations. It is argued that the main...

  20. ANALYSING THE STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL ERROR ON WRITING NARRATIVE TEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Janah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This qualitative study described about grammatical error on students narrative writing. The participants were the second semester students of STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in academic year 2013/ 2014. In collecting data,this study uses forms with general, emerging questions to permit the participant to generate responses. Then, gathering word (text from the participants, and collecting information from individual of participants. Data analysis tends to consist of text analysis, to involve developing a description and themes, then interpretation tends to sonsist of stating the larger meaning of the findings. After analysing the students writing, it was found that most of mistakes made by students were: missing subject, missing be in simple predicate, wrong simple predicate missing be, superfluous be, misinformation of passive form, the verb comes after the subject, pronoun form, agreement, and reference. Key Word: Grammar,Grammatical Error, Writing Skill, Narrative Text

  1. Information theory and artificial grammar learning: inferring grammaticality from redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Nevzorova, Uliana; Lee, Graham; Mewhort, D J K

    2016-03-01

    In artificial grammar learning experiments, participants study strings of letters constructed using a grammar and then sort novel grammatical test exemplars from novel ungrammatical ones. The ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings is often taken as evidence that the participants have induced the rules of the grammar. We show that judgements of grammaticality are predicted by the local redundancy of the test strings, not by grammaticality itself. The prediction holds in a transfer test in which test strings involve different letters than the training strings. Local redundancy is usually confounded with grammaticality in stimuli widely used in the literature. The confounding explains why the ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings has popularized the idea that participants have induced the rules of the grammar, when they have not. We discuss the judgement of grammaticality task in terms of attribute substitution and pattern goodness. When asked to judge grammaticality (an inaccessible attribute), participants answer an easier question about pattern goodness (an accessible attribute).

  2. The lexicographical handling of grammatical equivalence: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... utilise the format of the microstructure as a means to convey grammatical facts of the target language to the learner. Keywords: afrikaans, grammatical equivalence, learners' dictionaries, lexicography, macrostructure, microstructure, morphology, syntax, translating dictionaries, translation theory, trilingual dictionaries, zulu ...

  3. Grammaticality judgments in adolescents with and without language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.; Leonard, Laurence B.; Finneran, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Existing evidence suggests that young children with specific language impairment (SLI) have unusual difficulty detecting omissions of obligatory tense-marking morphemes, but little is known about adolescents' sensitivity to such violations. Aims The study investigated whether limitations in receptive morphosyntax (as measured by grammaticality judgments) were present at age 16 years, and if so, whether participants' profiles showed less sensitivity to omissions of tense and agreement morphemes than to (a) inappropriate uses (intrusions) of these same morphemes, and (b) omissions of morphemes that do not encode tense and agreement. We also compared adolescents with language impairment and nonverbal IQ more than 1 SD below the mean (nonspecific language impairment; NLI) to adolescents with SLI. Methods & Procedures Adolescents with SLI (n = 48), adolescents with NLI (n = 25), and adolescents with normal language development (NLD, n = 108) performed speeded grammaticality judgments of sentences presented over headphones. Half of the sentences were ungrammatical. They included omissions of nontense morphemes (-ing and possessive –s), omissions of tense morphemes (-ed and third person singular present –s), and intrusions of the same tense morphemes. The A' statistic was used as the dependent variable for comparisons across groups and item types. Outcomes & Results Overall, the NLD group was more sensitive to grammatical violations than the SLI and NLI groups, and there was no significant interaction of group and item type. Post-hoc analyses showed that the SLI group was less sensitive to violations than the NLD group on each item type, and the SLI and NLI groups did not differ. Across groups, performance on omission of past tense –ed was lowest, and properties of the items that may have contributed to this difference were explored. Conclusions & Implications The adolescents with language impairment in this study showed evidence of reduced sensitivity to

  4. Grammatical Categories in Robert Frost's Blank Verse: A Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, Roland Hazen

    Structural linguistic techniques were utilized to categorize the grammatical elements employed by Robert Frost in 46 blank-verse poems. Nineteen main grammatical categories and 26 verb sub-categories based on distinctive selection criteria were devised to examine the range and distribution of Frost's grammatical patterns. Five control poems by E.…

  5. Grammatical Metaphor and Its Difficulties in Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-feng

    2010-01-01

    Grammatical metaphor is the term used by Halliday to refer to meaning transference in grammar. Instead of the congruent realization of a norm, the metaphorical representation has become the norm in many instances. Metaphorical modes of expression are characteristic of all adult discourses (Halliday, 1994). The shift from congruent to metaphorical…

  6. Lexicographic presentation of grammatical divergence in Sesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on existing insights from the field of theoretical lexicography this article gives an innovative application to the relation of divergence by introducing the notion of grammatical divergence. In bilingual dictionaries with English and Sesotho sa Leboa as language pair lexicographers are confronted with a real challenge ...

  7. Aligning Grammatical Theories and Language Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second,…

  8. Contributions of children's linguistic and working memory proficiencies to their judgments of grammaticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Nicolette B; Redmond, Sean M; Archibald, Lisa M D

    2014-06-01

    The authors explored the cognitive mechanisms involved in language processing by systematically examining the performance of children with deficits in the domains of working memory and language. From a database of 370 school-age children who had completed a grammaticality judgment task, groups were identified with a co-occurring language and working memory impairment (LI-WMI; n = 18) or specific language impairment (SLI) with typical working memory skills ( n = 60) and matched control groups. Correct and incorrect use of grammatical markers occurred either early or late in sentence stimuli, imposing a greater working memory load for late-marker sentences. Children with SLI showed a lower preference for grammatical items than typically developing controls, regardless of error marker position. Children with LI-WMI demonstrated a performance pattern modulated by error marker position: Their preference for grammatical items was lower than typically developing controls for late but not early marker sentences. This pattern of results suggests that there are distinct and dissociable impacts of working memory and linguistic skills on metalinguistic functioning through a grammatical judgment task.

  9. Young children learning Spanish make rapid use of grammatical gender in spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Williams, Casey; Fernald, Anne

    2007-03-01

    All nouns in Spanish have grammatical gender, with obligatory gender marking on preceding articles (e.g., la and el, the feminine and masculine forms of "the," respectively). Adult native speakers of languages with grammatical gender exploit this cue in on-line sentence interpretation. In a study investigating the early development of this ability, Spanish-learning children (34-42 months) were tested in an eye-tracking procedure. Presented with pairs of pictures with names of either the same grammatical gender (la pelota, "ball [feminine]"; la galleta, "cookie [feminine]") or different grammatical gender (la pelota; el zapato, "shoe [masculine]"), they heard sentences referring to one picture (Encuentra la pelota, "Find the ball"). The children were faster to orient to the referent on different-gender trials, when the article was potentially informative, than on same-gender trials, when it was not, and this ability was correlated with productive measures of lexical and grammatical competence. Spanish-learning children who can speak only 500 words already use gender-marked articles in establishing reference, a processing advantage characteristic of native Spanish-speaking adults.

  10. Sustainable agriculture: Developing a common understanding for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of sustainability has become central to all sectors all over the world, from agriculture to environment to business, engineering and industrialization. The principle of sustainability is the same all over these sectors. However, the understanding of the term may vary from sector to sector depending on how it may be ...

  11. Education practitioners' understanding of professional development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The committee of Teacher Education Policy (COTEP) considers the professional development of practitioners as one way to improve the quality of professional practice. An analysis of the literature on professional development in education ...

  12. The Impact of Teaching Grammatical Structures on Writing Ability of Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of language studies, second language acquisition (SLA researchers have been searching for effective ways of improving learners’ language skills. With this in mind this study aimed to examine the effect of teaching grammatical structures on developing writing ability of Chabehar high school students. The research identified some effective strategies in improving writing ability of students. Twenty subjects were assigned in one group and were pretested/ post tested on the writing section. To obtain information on the effect of this model, some grammatical structures including conjunctions, adjective clause, adverb clause and noun clause were taught to learners. The topic of composition was to describe their town. The items which were considered to rate were length and rate in subordinate conjunctions, transitive adverbs, coordinate conjunctions, connectors in composition.. The results showed that teaching grammatical structures affects writing ability and there was a meaningful improvement compared with the beginning of the research.

  13. GRAMMATICAL CONSTRAINTS ON VERB PHRASES IN TWI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akos

    of the switch patterns that occur in Twi/English CS. This however does not mean it is ..... tone pattern of the stems of the verbs and these perform grammatical functions. For example, when pam is marked for the ... vowel in procrastinate is pronounced on a high tone to indicate a question. (10a) e-/dѐpèndì/. 3SG- depend.

  14. FROM GRAMMATICAL SEMANTICS TO GRAMMAR OF DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Б Уланова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an excerpt from the song « A Hard Rain’s A-Gonna Fall» by Bob Dylan, an American rock musician and a Nobel Prize laureate, and views song lyrics as a type of poetry. The author pays special attention to semantic potential of different word classes (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, numerals, prepositions and examines the way they contribute to the creation of personal and spatial deixis, narrative dynamics, the correlation between the individual and the universal, definiteness and indefiniteness. The paper analyses the grammatical framing of the lyrics and the violation of morpho-syn-tactic combinability. The author investigates the semantic features of «a-gonna» verb form and draws some conclusions about the discursive nature of A-prefixation. Grammatical features are studied in their close connection with stylistic devices (rhythmic and morpho-syntactic repetition, assonance and alliteration, allusion, symbols, etc. The conclusions drawn touch upon the fields of grammatical semantics and lin-guopoetics.

  15. Can Translation Improve EFL Students' Grammatical Accuracy? [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Ebbert-Hübner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This report focuses on research results from a project completed at Trier University in December 2015 that provides insight into whether a monolingual group of learners can improve their grammatical accuracy and reduce interference mistakes in their English via contrastive analysis and translation instruction and activities. Contrastive analysis and translation (CAT instruction in this setting focusses on comparing grammatical differences between students’ dominant language (German and English, and practice activities where sentences or short texts are translated from German into English. The results of a pre- and post-test administered in the first and final week of a translation class were compared to two other class types: a grammar class which consisted of form-focused instruction but not translation, and a process-approach essay writing class where students received feedback on their written work throughout the semester. The results of our study indicate that with C1 level EAP students, more improvement in grammatical accuracy is seen through teaching with CAT than in explicit grammar instruction or through language feedback on written work alone. These results indicate that CAT does indeed have a place in modern language classes.

  16. Constraints on probability distributions of grammatical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the constraints on probability distribution of grammatical forms within morphological paradigms of Serbian language, where paradigm is specified as a coherent set of elements with defined criteria for inclusion. Thus, for example, in Serbian all feminine nouns that end with the suffix "a" in their nominative singular form belong to the third declension, the declension being a paradigm. The notion of a paradigm could be extended to other criteria as well, hence, we can think of noun cases, irrespective of grammatical number and gender, or noun gender, irrespective of case and grammatical number, also as paradigms. We took the relative entropy as a measure of homogeneity of probability distribution within paradigms. The analysis was performed on 116 morphological paradigms of typical Serbian and for each paradigm the relative entropy has been calculated. The obtained results indicate that for most paradigms the relative entropy values fall within a range of 0.75 - 0.9. Nonhomogeneous distribution of relative entropy values allows for estimating the relative entropy of the morphological system as a whole. This value is 0.69 and can tentatively be taken as an index of stability of the morphological system.

  17. Grammatical Means of Temporality Expression in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulegen Asylbekovich Merkibayev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Creation problem of model of grammatical means of temporality expression in translation from English into Kazakh and Russian languages is considered in the article. At a choice of translation of transformations of aspectual-temporal categories of a verb from English into Kazakh and Russian languages it is considered not only grammatical compliance of categories of tense, but also the contextual use of a functional and semantic field of verbs, comparison of lexical temporality with positions of concepts, specific to each language world picture, with positions of modern philosophy and logic of language. Authors come to a conclusion that productive use of analytical forms in the Kazakh and English languages is the result of structural features of categories of tense and a type of English and Kazakh languages. Comparison of a phase of actions of a verb in English and Kazakh languages allows creation of reference model of grammatical means of expression of temporality in translation from English into Kazakh and Russian languages on the basis of a functional and semantic field of verbs, comparison of lexical temporality from positions specific on each language picture of the world.

  18. Creating Shared Understanding in Product development Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Tollestrup, Christian

    that this situation is part of many projects. Lack of shared understanding or frames is just one of the difficulties facing interdisciplinary design teams working in the early phases of innovation. Besides managing their different values, perspectives and interests that cause them to see different things as important...... and that nobody really understood each other. The situation described above could perhaps be taken out of several different contexts and scenarios. Most people, who have been working in teams, probably recognize it, and especially people with experi-ences from interdisciplinary teams can confirm...... of physical artifacts in a special setting and with a specific set of characteristics is. The objective of this book is to demonstrate how building these particular physical arti¬facts enable and stimulate the communication between team mem¬bers, users and stakeholders in interdisciplinary teams working...

  19. Understanding Technology: Key to Development. | Bvekerwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper observes that technology as a concept is not fully understood in the developing world. More often than not technology and science are taken to mean the same thing. It is argued here that the two terms are not synonymous but are actually two sides of the same coin. It is further illustrated that technology is not ...

  20. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get both in and out of the home. Preschool (Ages 3 to 5) By preschool, most kids have developed a strong sense of ... swim together. Issues that parents of elementary school-age kids might face include: Bad language. Children will pick up bad language and inappropriate ...

  1. Understanding Preservice Educators' Multicultural Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Audrey Green

    2012-01-01

    This study explored undergraduate teacher candidates' multicultural identity development. Forty-three participants were in two sections of the course Introduction to Education. The research questions investigated the ways in which candidates examine their cultural awareness, knowledge of diverse learners, and effective practices for 21st century…

  2. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  3. Developing Conceptual Understanding in Primary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoko, Hilary

    2002-01-01

    Outlines general guidelines for teaching conceptual development in science in the United Kingdom. Focuses on the introduction of new ideas in the primary classroom. Uses two examples of teaching to exemplify how relevant ideas of science can be introduced. Discusses the teacher's role in talking ideas into existence. (BT)

  4. Understanding of the Impact of Leadership Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and for the organization. I did some preliminary research about what conditions in the workplace may promote the impact of leadership development. In my study of managers in the Danish public sector, I looked at nine possible conditions that the transfer literature suggested were likely to be important in this...

  5. Understanding and predicting students' dishonesty: development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that the measure that we developed is a valid predictor of a person's level of honesty and has significant correlations with other well known and validated measures of such personality profiles. Secondly, we hypothesised that individuals with low levels of socialisation, as measured by Gough's 1987 revised ...

  6. Understanding and developing creativity: A practical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Donald J. Treffinger; Edwin C. Selby

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking and creative thinking are proposed as determinants to cope with the constant change society, and basically children are experiencing nowadays. Moreover, tools for the development of critical and creative thinking are discussed, and the creative problem solving toolbox is presented, involving tools for generating options, as well as tools for focusing options. The importance of the tools as significant basis for the learning process, as well as for the management of changes i...

  7. Image Understanding Architecture Prototype Evaluation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    2n. We have developed an algorithm (the MGRA discussed below), based on wormhole routing, that has routed a large number of communication patterns...inference and manipulation of object models are run in the SPA. To support distributed artificial intelligence processing, powerful processors are needed... artificial intelligence. A typical scenario with video input I might require that an interpretation of a changing scene be updated as video frames arrive

  8. Measuring the Effects of Recasts According to Grammatical Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    SATO, Rintaro

    2010-01-01

    The recast is the most frequently used feedback method across a spectrum of classroom settings (Lyster, 2007). Previous research has shown the potential advantages of the recast, although some problems have also been suggested. Previous studies reported that recasts to learners' grammatical errors were more frequently provided than to any other error types, but that the success rate in grammatical recasts was the lowest. After categorizing grammatical structures as either early developmental ...

  9. Understanding the population dimension in development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, P C

    1983-01-01

    In the Philippines initial efforts to adopt population policies focused on reducing rapid population growth through fertility control. The history of the national population welfare congress, which started in 1978, reflects this emphasis on family planning as a major deterrent to rapid population growth. It was only in recent years that the 2-way relationship between population and development came to be better appreciated. The 6th National Populaton Welfare Congress was a response to this need to broaden the scope of population concerns and integrate the population dimension into development planning. This viewpoint regards population not as a demand variable but as a factor that can be influenced by economic and social development. Dr. Mercedes B. Concepcion, dean of the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI), discussed population trends, prospects, and problems in a paper presented before the 6th congress. In 1980, she said, the Philippine population was 48.1 million persons, up by 11.4 million persons or 31%, over the3l.7 million enumerated in 1970. While the rate of populated growth remains high, data indicate a decreasing post-World War II trend, from 3.06% in 1948-60 to 2.68% in 1975-80. The proportion of the population below 15 has dropped by 2 percentage points, while the number of persons in the working ages 15-64 has increased. In 1 of the 3 group sessions during the congress, the participants tried to define the Philippines' population distribution goals, the requirement of an urban-rural balance, and priority intervention areas. In that session 2 main papers were presented -- one on human settlements and urbanization and the other on macroeconomic policies and their spatial implications. In another sessionplanners and researchers examined the socioeconomic and demographic impact of development programs, specifically the impact of rural electrification on fertility change in Misamis Oriental, a province in Southern Philippines. In the

  10. Understanding and developing creativity: A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Treffinger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking and creative thinking are proposed as determinants to cope with the constant change society, and basically children are experiencing nowadays. Moreover, tools for the development of critical and creative thinking are discussed, and the creative problem solving toolbox is presented, involving tools for generating options, as well as tools for focusing options. The importance of the tools as significant basis for the learning process, as well as for the management of changes in the creative problem solving solution, as well as its application from infancy to adulthood is discussed. Finally, recommendations about teaching and application of thinking tools are considered.

  11. FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION OF LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL FACTORS IN THE ENGLISH VERB SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sergeevna Kotova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the research conducted is revealing the peculiarities of lexical paradigmatics influence upon the usage of aspect and temporal verb forms and the opposite impact as well, i.e. the influence of aspect and temporal verb forms upon the lexical meaning of this verb groups under specific conditions of functioning. The lexical paradigmatics is considered as the system of mutually contrasted semantic features of particular verb groups. In this case, we analyze the paradigmatics in the middle language hierarchy for each language level separately. Methodology. The research is conducted synchronically on the material of the contemporary English verb system. Interaction of lexical and grammatical factors in the English verb system is examined in a functional aspect. Such consideration gives a possibility to differentiate the intrasystem phenomena and phenomena of pragmatic character and expose the system-structural mutual relations of lexical and grammatical factors. The research material is the verb as massive word group. From the point of view of interaction of lexical and grammatical factors in the functional and semantic field representing aspectuality, we get interested in the meaning which realizes in the opposition ofatelicity – telicity(telicity correlates the action with the limit, and atelicity demotes the action irrespectively to its limit. The technique applied to the analysis of lexical and grammatical factors in the English verb system is complex combining descriptive and comparative and functional methods. Results. Interrelations and interdependency of lexical and grammatical paradigmatics create particular sustainability in using the lexical unit of this paradigm with aspect and temporal verb forms. In this case, the tendencies of the language sign developing and changing are expressed in the process of the mutual substitution and interpenetration of grammatical forms primarily under the influence of paradigmatic

  12. The Primacy of Priming in Grammatical Learning and Intervention: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The author presents a tutorial on structural priming and its relevance to the study of grammatical development and language intervention. Method: The findings from structural priming studies are examined from the standpoint of the types of changes that occur in participants' language use, the contexts in which these changes occur, and the…

  13. The Ineffectiveness of the Provision of Input on the Problematic Grammatical Feature of Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the value of giving specific input on the use of articles on an undergraduate English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course. This topic was chosen as previous cohorts had generated a noticeable amount of errors in their use of articles, and developing written grammatical accuracy was one of the course's aims. Participants were…

  14. Indonesian Efl Advanced Learners' Grammatical Errors

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mardijono, Josefa

    2003-01-01

    This paper is based on an error analysis of the written work of the English Department students who have finished the seventh semester of a four-year undergraduate English Program. The source of the data consists of seventeen proposals for linguistics researches, as the final projects upon the completion of the undergraduate study year 2001 in Petra Christian University. The purpose of the study is to reveal the grammatical errors and to find out the types of errors and their frequency of occ...

  15. Grammatical Conception of Yuriy Shevel'ov: Nominative ↔ Vocative in the System of Substantial Categoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Zahnitko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Analysis of Yuriy Shevel'ov’s approaches to the interpretation of the morphological tier of language, as well as his examination of particular phenomena of this level – substantiality, verbality, and others – reflects not only the author's understanding itself of all the grammatical system as a whole, and morphological one in particular, but also represents the features of modification of scientific approaches in the history of linguistic thought of mid-twentieth century, its strengthening in the studies of the XX – XXI century. The researcher’s definition of nominative and vocative cases as interrelated within the categorical substantiality is of particular importance. Purpose: to determine the main components of interpretation of the status dimension of the nominative and vocative cases within morpho-substantial categoriality of Yuriy Shevel'ov with the definition of theoretical foundations and practical principles, revealing the patterns of establishing internal sentence dimension of the nominative and vocative cases. Results: In the case theory with reliance on the sequence of forms of dependencies in the internal sentence space Yuriy Shevel'ov distinguishes five cases: genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative. In the statement about the nominative as grammatically independent case the scientist relies on sentence. Two-dimensionality of grammatically independent case opposes to the one-dimensional grammatically dependent nominative that is traceable in syntactic positions of predicate and apposition. Yuriy Shevel'ov did not consider addressing that is not grammatically linked to the sentence with a specific expression as an individual case. The forms of vocative case show functional three-componentity, because in its functional-semantic paradigm it covers the function of the addressee – potential subject of action (primary function that is represented in formal grammar sentence structure by the main element of

  16. PREFACE: Scales of understanding in biological development Scales of understanding in biological development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The development of an adult organism from a fertilized egg remains one of the deep mysteries of biology. Great strides have been made in the past three decades, primarily through ever more sophisticated genetic analyses and the advent of live-cell imaging, yet the underlying principles governing development are elusive. Recently, a new generation of biological physicists has entered the field, attracted by the hallmarks of development— coordinated dynamics and pattern formation arising from cell-cell interactions—which reflect tantalizing analogs with many-body systems in condensed matter physics and related fields. There have been corresponding influxes of researchers from other quantitative disciplines. With new workers come new questions and foci at different scales in space, time and complexity. The reductionist philosophy of developmental genetics has become increasingly complemented by a search for effective mechanisms at higher scales, a strategy which has a proven track record of success in the study of complex systems in physics. Are there new and universal mechanisms of development, supra-genetic in nature, waiting to be discovered by focusing on higher scales, or is development fundamentally the intricately scripted unfolding of complex genetic instructions? In this special focus issue of Physical Biology, we present cutting-edge research into embryo development from a broad spectrum of groups representing cell and developmental biology, biological physics, bioengineering and biomathematics. We are provided with a sense of how this multidisciplinary community views the fundamental issue of scale in development and are given some excellent examples of how we can bridge these scales through interdisciplinary collaboration, in order to create new levels of understanding. We start with two reviews which will provide newcomers with a guide to some of the outstanding questions in the field. Winklbauer and Müller use the phenomenon of mesoderm spreading as

  17. An analytical commentary on some telling grammatical errors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence of some serious grammatical aberrations on nearly all the Frequency Modulation Stations (FM) in the Kumasi Metropolis. The paper argues that owing to the power of the electronic media, constant repetition of grammatical aberrations tend to exert a negative effect on learners, especially, the ...

  18. Grammatical Errors Produced by English Majors: The Translation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Hamid; Zarandi, Fatemeh Mahmoudi; Shariati, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency of the grammatical errors related to the four categories of preposition, relative pronoun, article, and tense using the translation task. In addition, the frequencies of these grammatical errors in different categories and in each category were examined. The quantitative component of the study further looked…

  19. Effects of Instructions on Theme Grading: Grammatical vs. Holistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follman, John; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Twelve college seniors in an English methods course were assigned to three treatment groups, Grammatical, Holistic, and Both. Each group received different instructions but graded the same 10 themes. Themes graded for grammatical errors received lower grades than the same themes graded holistically. (NH)

  20. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A; de Haan, Ger J

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language

  1. Grammatical Accuracy and Learner Autonomy in Advanced Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Ene, Estela

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to explore advanced ESL learners' ability to make improvements in grammatical accuracy by autonomously noticing and correcting their own grammatical errors. In the recent literature in SLA, it is suggested that classroom tasks can be used to foster autonomous language learning habits (cf. Dam 2001). Therefore, it is important to…

  2. Grammatical constraints on verb phrases in Twi/English code ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that items from the languages that participate in code switching (henceforth CS) do not occur at random. Rather they are guided by the grammatical rules of the languages involved. Verbs that participate in Twi/English CS also do not occur at random. They are constrained by the grammatical rules of ...

  3. Percent Grammatical Responses as a General Outcome Measure: Initial Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This report investigated the validity of using percent grammatical responses (PGR) as a measure for assessing grammaticality. To establish construct validity, we computed the correlation of PGR with another measure of grammar skills and with an unrelated skill area. To establish concurrent validity for PGR, we computed the correlation of…

  4. Second Language Grammatical Proficiency and Third Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…

  5. Sleep promotes the extraction of grammatical rules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L C Nieuwenhuis

    Full Text Available Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1 the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2 the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.

  6. INDONESIAN EFL ADVANCED LEARNERS' GRAMMATICAL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa J. Mardijono

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an error analysis of the written work of the English Department students who have finished the seventh semester of a four-year undergraduate English Program. The source of the data consists of seventeen proposals for linguistics researches, as the final projects upon the completion of the undergraduate study year 2001 in Petra Christian University. The purpose of the study is to reveal the grammatical errors and to find out the types of errors and their frequency of occurrence in the students' written work. The errors collected are identified and classified using Linguistic Category Taxonomy as a guideline. To describe the errors, Surface Strategy Taxonomy is employed to explain the ways surface structures are altered. The findings present the types of morphological and syntactic errors, their detailed description, and the frequency of occurrence of each error type. It is hoped that this study will give a new perspective in the advanced learners' grammatical errors, and provide data for teachers and syllabus designers dealing with English Grammar.

  7. Disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology in French speakers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Blanc, Romuald; Caldani, Simona; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2018-01-18

    Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES. The groups significantly differed in productivity with respect to nouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions and gender markers. Error analysis revealed that ASD speakers exhibited a disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology. They made gender, tense and preposition errors and they omitted determiners and pronouns in nominal and verbal contexts. ASD speakers may have a reduced sensitivity to perceiving and processing the distributional structure of syntactic categories when producing grammatical morphemes and agreement categories. The theoretical and cross-linguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Understanding MBA Consumer Needs and the Development of Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Lynn; Anderson, Murphy; Ingenito, Cristina; Duffy, David; Krimm, Paul; Thomson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The need to develop marketing strategies in higher education is evident. In order to develop effective strategies, marketers must understand the basic needs that their product fulfills. Exploratory research was utilized to identify and better understand the needs that motivate consumers to pursue an MBA degree. This paper emphasizes the importance…

  9. Understanding the development of temporary agency work in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.S. Koene (Bas); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.M. Groenewegen (John)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article develops an explanatory framework for understanding the growth and development of temporary agency work (TAW) and the related industry. The analysis shows that explanations based on economic logic are helpful in understanding the choice of TAW in general. These explanations,

  10. Understanding customer need in the new product development context

    OpenAIRE

    Äärynen, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    This thesis project concentrates on how understanding customer need and customer orientation can be improved in new product development. Understanding customer need during new product development process is very important for product success. The case company has decided to undertake new product development using LEAN principles. This change creates a need to improve the new product development process. This thesis offers recommendations for the case company’s new product devel...

  11. Data Mining for Grammatical Inference with Bioinformatics Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vivian F.; Aguilar, Ramiro; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, María N.; Corchado, Juan M.

    In this paper we describe both theoretical and practical results of a novel data mining process that combines hybrid techniques of association analysis and classical sequentiation algorithms of genomics to generate grammatical structures of a specific language. We used an application of a compilers generator system that allows the development of a practical application within the area of grammarware, where the concepts of the language analysis are applied to other disciplines, such as Bioinformatic. The tool allows the complexity of the obtained grammar to be measured automatically from textual data. A technique of incremental discovery of sequential patterns is presented to obtain simplified production rules, and compacted with bioinformatics criteria to make up a grammar.

  12. Questioning in Distributed Product Development Teams: Supporting Shared Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Distributed teams are an increasingly common feature of New Product Development (NPD). Key to the success of these teams is the development of both short and longerterm shared understanding. Lack of shared understanding has been recognized as a significant challenge, particularly in the context...... globally distributed NPD activities. Poor shared understanding can ultimately result in delays and rework. One major antecedent of shared understanding development is question asking. This work uses a quasiexperimental study to test the impact of questioning support on different types of distributed teams......, both homogeneous and heterogeneous. This extends theoretical insight into the development of shared understanding and contributes one of few empirical studies directly comparing the response characteristics of different team types. From a managerial perspective this work has implications for how...

  13. Description and grammatical analysis of Persian to Persian teaching series of Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Raisi

    2016-01-01

    writing and editing difficulties in expressing grammatical issues  10. Incomplete pictures  By considering this study, the following items are recommended to improve the grammatical structure of teaching Persian-to-Persian:  The review of design and curriculum of grammar and its compatibility with the updated materials by using the specialists' board of Persian grammar, teaching Persian language and its grammar based on the students' needs of learning these books to use Persian texts, cultures, to get four language skills, compatibility of grammatical concepts, and to adopt the same approach in designing and improving them, dependence on learning grammatical issues based on simply grammatical, scientific, and single-legal patterns, presenting efficiently grammatical issues to increase the students' four skills, using context especially communicational and conversational texts useful for students in teaching Persian grammar to understand the value of grammatical structures and their role, the sequence of materials and grammatical structures based on their frequency in language, ignoring the exceptional and rare items in grammatical issues, considering and emphasizing on teaching method from easy up to hard to make motivation and self-confidence in students and preparing them for next teachings, to cause the study of the regular grammar being delayed to advanced stages.

  14. Description and grammatical analysis of Persian to Persian teaching series of Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Raisi

    2016-02-01

    . Incomplete pictures  By considering this study, the following items are recommended to improve the grammatical structure of teaching Persian-to-Persian:  The review of design and curriculum of grammar and its compatibility with the updated materials by using the specialists' board of Persian grammar, teaching Persian language and its grammar based on the students' needs of learning these books to use Persian texts, cultures, to get four language skills, compatibility of grammatical concepts, and to adopt the same approach in designing and improving them, dependence on learning grammatical issues based on simply grammatical, scientific, and single-legal patterns, presenting efficiently grammatical issues to increase the students' four skills, using context especially communicational and conversational texts useful for students in teaching Persian grammar to understand the value of grammatical structures and their role, the sequence of materials and grammatical structures based on their frequency in language, ignoring the exceptional and rare items in grammatical issues, considering and emphasizing on teaching method from easy up to hard to make motivation and self-confidence in students and preparing them for next teachings, to cause the study of the regular grammar being delayed to advanced stages.

  15. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobben, Marit; D'Ascenzo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time (RT) data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter RTs as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N = 22) judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  16. Grammatical Structures in Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Н Гладкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how cultural information is embedded at the level of grammar and it treats grammar as inseparable from semantics and pragmatics. The study is done within the approach known as ethnosyntax. The article provides examples of cultural meaning embedded at the level of syntax relying on examples from Russian and English. In particular, it demonstrates variation in impersonal constructions in Russian and causative constructions in English. It then discusses variation in the use of grammatical structures due to the influence of cultural factors on the basis of ways of wording ‘requests’ in English and Russian. The linguistic examples in the discussion are sources from the Russian National Corpus for Russian and Collins Wordbanks Online for English. The article argues for the importance of culture-sensitive linguistic studies in language teaching.

  17. Supporting the development of shared understanding in distributed design teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Dekoninck, Elies A; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2017-01-01

    Distributed teams are an increasingly common feature of engineeringdesign work. One key factor in the success of these teams isthe development of short- and longer-term shared understanding.A lack of shared understanding has been recognized as a significantchallenge, particularly in the context o...

  18. Metamemory Development: Understanding the Role of Similarity in False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Dodson, Chad S.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the development of metamemory has focused primarily on children's understanding of the variables that influence how likely a person is to remember something. But metamemory also involves an understanding of why people occasionally misremember things. In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds (N = 38) were asked to decide whether another…

  19. Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and impacts on land type changes in Madagascar. ... explore and understand decisions and management strategies. We finally report on first outcomes of the game including land use decisions, reaction to market fluctuation and landscape change. RÉSUMÉ

  20. Grammatical Errors In Oral Recount Of Eighth Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda, Alvina; Wijaya, Bambang; Susilawati, Endang

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to find out the most frequent type of grammatical error in oral recount, the frequency of grammatical error and the main causes of students' grammatical error in oral recount. The reserach was carried out at SMP N 2 Sungai Raya. It was descriptive research and the sample was eighth grade students of VIII A. Data analysis showed that the most frequent type of errors was misinformation by 141 errors made.The percentage of errors were omission by 36,25 % (moderat...

  1. Agile Development and Software Architecture: Understanding Scale and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    Scrum Team A Scrum Team B Temporary sprint team 26 Agile Development and Software Architecture Robert L. Nord, SSTC, April 2012 © 2012 Carnegie...2012 Carnegie Mellon University Agile Development and Software Architecture: Understanding Scale and Risk Software Engineering Institute Carnegie... Agile Development and Software Architecture Robert L. Nord, SSTC, April 2012 © 2012 Carnegie Mellon University The challenge -1 Tradeoffs and their

  2. Supporting Parents with Two Essential Understandings: Attachment and Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eugenia Hepworth

    1999-01-01

    Readiness to learn is a constant state. Two critical aspects of early childhood provide parents sufficient understanding of their child's development: attachment and brain development. Children develop attachments to caregivers but need consistent parental care and love. Human brains continue to quickly grow during the first two years of life.…

  3. Exploiting Unlabeled Data for Neural Grammatical Error Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhuoran; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and correcting grammatical errors in the text written by non-native writers has received increasing attention in recent years. Although a number of annotated corpora have been established to facilitate data-driven grammatical error detection and correction approaches, they are still limited in terms of quantity and coverage because human annotation is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive. In this work, we propose to utilize unlabeled data to train neural network based gr...

  4. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...... critical events in the case, what led to the events, and what the consequences are. We discuss the implications for information systems research and in particular we discuss the contribution to project management of iterative and incremental software development.......Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...

  5. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a challenge for the IS project manager, since business change and information systems development usually are performed as separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage......-technical innovation in a situation where the organisational change process and the IS development process are parallel but incongruent. We also argue that iterative software engineering frameworks are well structured to support process interaction. Finally, we advocate that the IS project manager needs to manage...... the relationship between these two kinds of processes. To understand the interaction between information systems development and planned organisational change we introduce the concept of process interaction. We draw on a longitudinal case study of an IS development project that used an iterative and incremental...

  6. Adaptive CGFs Based on Grammatical Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer generated forces (CGFs play blue or red units in military simulations for personnel training and weapon systems evaluation. Traditionally, CGFs are controlled through rule-based scripts, despite the doctrine-driven behavior of CGFs being rigid and predictable. Furthermore, CGFs are often tricked by trainees or fail to adapt to new situations (e.g., changes in battle field or update in weapon systems, and, in most cases, the subject matter experts (SMEs review and redesign a large amount of CGF scripts for new scenarios or training tasks, which is both challenging and time-consuming. In an effort to overcome these limitations and move toward more true-to-life scenarios, a study using grammatical evolution (GE to generate adaptive CGFs for air combat simulations has been conducted. Expert knowledge is encoded with modular behavior trees (BTs for compatibility with the operators in genetic algorithm (GA. GE maps CGFs, represented with BTs to binary strings, and uses GA to evolve CGFs with performance feedback from the simulation. Beyond-visual-range air combat experiments between adaptive CGFs and nonadaptive baseline CGFs have been conducted to observe and study this evolutionary process. The experimental results show that the GE is an efficient framework to generate CGFs in BTs formalism and evolve CGFs via GA.

  7. Grammatical Morpheme Effects on Sentence Processing by School-Aged Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B; Miller, Carol A; Finneran, Denise A

    2008-07-01

    Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence.

  8. Indignation, practical rationality and our moral life: a grammatical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônadas Techio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2016v15n2p260 This paper offers a grammatical investigation of some important aspects of our moral life taking a scene from the movie Mr. Deeds Goes to Town as a test case. The main question I try to answer is whether there are situations in our moral discussions in which the proper and rational attitude is to show disagreement(e.g. by expressing indignation, as opposed to continuing the dialogue. Many philosophers seem committed to a conception of moral reasoning that takes as its end rational agreement among agents; from that perspective, expressing indignation would just amount to an irrational way of trying to get rid of the burdens put upon the agent's shoulders in the context of a moral discussion. Against that widespread viewIwill defend a Cavellian version of moral perfectionism, which takes rational disagreement as a legitimate (and even productive outcomeof moral arguments. That view, as we shall see, will be predicated upon a distinctive understanding of practical rationality, hence the importance of comparing moral discussion to other forms of rational engagement (e.g., aesthetic, scientific and mathematical.

  9. Are some parents' interaction styles associated with richer grammatical input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Colleen E; Hadley, Pamela A; Rispoli, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Evidence for tense marking in child-directed speech varies both across languages ( Guasti, 2002; Legate & Yang, 2007) and across speakers of a single language ( Hadley, Rispoli, Fitzgerald, & Bahnsen, 2011). The purpose of this study was to understand how parent interaction styles and register use overlap with the tense-marking properties of child-directed speech. This study investigated how parent interaction style, measured by utterance function, and parent register use when asking questions interacted with verb forms in child-directed input to identify interaction styles associated with the richest grammatical input. Participants were 15 parent-toddler dyads. The communicative function of parent utterances and the form of their questions were coded from language samples of parent-child play when children were 21 months of age. Verbs were coded for linguistic form (e.g., imperative, modal, copula). Directives and reduced questions were both negatively related to input informativeness (i.e., the proportion of unambiguous evidence for tense). Other-focused descriptives were positively related to input informativeness. Predictable overlap existed between the characteristics of parents' interaction styles and register use and their input informativeness. An other-focused descriptive style most strongly related to richer evidence for the +Tense grammar of English.

  10. Developments in the scientific and clinical understanding of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of fibromyalgia (FM) has made significant advances over the past decade. The current concept views FM as the result of central nervous system malfunction resulting in amplification of pain transmission and interpretation. Research done over the past years has demonstrated a role for polymorphisms of genes in the serotoninergic, dopaminergic and catecholaminergic systems in the etiopathogenesis of FM. Various external stimuli such as infection, trauma and stress may contribute to the development of the syndrome. The management of FM requires an integrated approach combining pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. The recent Food and Drugs Administration approval of pregabalin, duloxetine and milnacipran as medications for FM may herald a new era for the development of medications with higher specificity and efficacy for the condition. As our understanding of the biological basis and the genetic underpinning of FM increases, we hope to gain a better understanding of the true nature of the disorder, to better classify patients and to attain more rational therapeutic modalities.

  11. Supporting Staff to Develop a Shared Understanding of Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampey, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Assessment is not something that stands alone and teachers need support to develop their understanding of both assessment practices and the subject being assessed. Teachers at Shaw Primary School were fortunate to take part in the Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) project and, in this article, the outlines how science and assessment can…

  12. Mapping What Young Students Understand and Value Regarding Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Annika; Sporre, Karin; Ottander, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate how 10-12 year old Swedish students understand and value the issue of sustainable development. The responses from open-ended questions in a questionnaire have been analyzed through a content analysis based on a phenomenographic approach. The results show that there are…

  13. Understanding road users’ expectations : an essential step for ADAS development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtenbos, M. Jagtman, H.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Wieringa, P.A. & Hale, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    This article indicates the need for understanding road users’ expectations when developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Nowadays, technology allows more and more opportunities to provide road users with all sorts of information or even actively support aspects of the driving task.

  14. Chemical Reactions: What Understanding Do Students with Blindness Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy L. Micklos; Bodner, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the understanding of chemical equations developed by three students with blindness who were enrolled in the same secondary-school chemistry class. The students were interviewed while interpreting and balancing chemical equations. During the course of these interviews, the students produced diagrams using Braille symbols that…

  15. Developing Primary School Children's Understanding of Energy Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Colin; Summers, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Studies 34 elementary school children's understanding of five aspects of energy waste and the ways in which these conceptions develop following teaching. Concludes that the children had good prior awareness of some behaviors that save energy, but their reasons for thinking this were based largely on everyday intuitive ideas that involved…

  16. Fraction Development in Children: Importance of Building Numerical Magnitude Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Carrique, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse

    2016-01-01

    This chapter situates fraction learning within the integrated theory of numerical development. We argue that the understanding of numerical magnitudes for whole numbers as well as for fractions is critical to fraction learning in particular and mathematics achievement more generally. Results from the Delaware Longitudinal Study, which examined…

  17. Young children's understanding of stages of human development

    OpenAIRE

    濱田, 祥子; 杉村, 伸一郎

    2010-01-01

    The self-concept is composed through the interaction with others (Mead,1934). As selfconceptual study in early childhood, most targets the same age others. However, it is thought that the existence of the others at other stages of development brings the influence to the self-concept if the self-concept is composed by the interaction with others. The present study aimed to search for children's understanding of stages of human development and children's self-concept by the comparisons between ...

  18. Use of proteomics to understand seed development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu Yun; Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-06-01

    Rice is an important cereal crop and has become a model monocot for research into crop biology. Rice seeds currently feed more than half of the world's population and the demand for rice seeds is rapidly increasing because of the fast-growing world population. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying rice seed development is incompletely understood. Genetic and molecular studies have developed our understanding of substantial proteins related to rice seed development. Recent advancements in proteomics have revolutionized the research on seed development at the single gene or protein level. Proteomic studies in rice seeds have provided the molecular explanation for cellular and metabolic events as well as environmental stress responses that occur during embryo and endosperm development. They have also led to the new identification of a large number of proteins associated with regulating seed development such as those involved in stress tolerance and RNA metabolism. In the future, proteomics, combined with genetic, cytological, and molecular tools, will help to elucidate the molecular pathways underlying seed development control and help in the development of valuable and potential strategies for improving yield, quality, and stress tolerance in rice and other cereals. Here, we reviewed recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of seed development in rice with the use of proteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Grammatical Adaptation of English Loanwords of Gaming Industry in the Russian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen V. Gornostaev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the grammatical adaptation of borrowed from the English lexems in the sphere of the interactive entertainment industry. It has been given also other processes of development of language units of the thematic groups: phonetic, lexical, semantic. Nominations were taken by continuous sampling of periodicals (magazine «Gambling», various Internet sources and lively conversation, presented on Internet forums. The subject of the analysis is one-component substantive derivative and nonderivative nomination. During the study the following results were obtained. 1. The leading features of grammatical adaptation of anglicisms in the sphere of the gaming industry are: a the appearance of declinability, stabilization of generic relatedness (not only animated, but also inanimate nouns, b expansion of the capacity of the diversion, which is manifested in the formation of word-forming nest of three types - nest-pairs, nest-bundles and nest-chains. 2. Derivative words included in their composition, may belong to different parts of speech (nouns and verbs and formed by affix (suffixes and prefixing and non-affix (abbriviation, clipping, adding ways. 3. There are units in the language-recipient that have not undergone the process of grammatical adaptation: blotches and immutable acronyms.

  20. From a spatial adposition to a grammatical relations' marker: contact- and context-induced grammaticalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kolehmainen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of grammatical relations' marking that combines the advances of monolingual analysis with cross-linguistic comparison. It examines adpositions as grammatical relations' markers and the linguistic change which leads to the rise of adpositional objects from freely insertable spatial adverbials. Th is study concentrates on the Finnish adposition perään 'after'. An empirical monolingual corpus analysis shows that perään as a grammatical relations' marker is a productive device for argument linking in contemporary Finnish. In a cross-linguistic comparison, the properties of Swedish, German and Finnish adpositional objects with efter, nach and perään 'after, are studied with regard to the continuum between prototypical freely insertable adverbials and prototypical adpositional objects. A diachronic comparison, in turn, focuses on the development of adpositional objects from spatial adverbials and examines three alternative possibilities for perään: native grammaticalization, contact-induced grammaticalization and the interaction of both language-internal and -external factors.

  1. The Ineffectiveness of the Provision of Input on the Problematic Grammatical Feature of Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the value of giving specific input on the use of articles on an undergraduate English for Academic Purposes (EAP course. This topic was chosen as previous cohorts had generated a noticeable amount of errors in their use of articles, and developing written grammatical accuracy was one of the course’s aims. Participants were provided with input on the definite, indefinite and zero articles. This involved providing images of authentic article errors, and catering for the interpersonal learner, with emphasis on student: student interaction. Also, a newspaper article was incorporated to illustrate how grammar works at a textual level, and because research has shown that accuracy in the use of the definite article increases during contextualized tasks exploiting authentic materials learners can relate to. However, the lack of effectiveness of highlighting this grammatical feature is illustrated by the students’ post-input writing, which generated more errors than the pre-input task, pro rata. In the post-input essay, there was one error for every 25 of the noun phrases, the equivalent of an error every 131 words. In comparison, the rate of errors in the pre-input work was one in every 28 of the noun phrases, or an error every 153 words. Therefore, due to the 16.7% increase in post-input errors, in future, I will not focus on this grammatical feature when attempting to improve written accuracy.

  2. Children's developing understanding of what and how they learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M; Letourneau, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    What do children know about learning? Children between 4 and 10 years of age were asked what they thought the word learning meant and then engaged in a structured interview about what kinds of things they learned and how they learned those things. Most of the 4- and 5-year-olds' responses to these questions indicated a lack of awareness about the nature of learning or how learning occurs. In contrast, the 8- to 10-year-olds showed a strong understanding of learning as a process and could often generate explicit metacognitive responses indicating that they understood under what circumstances learning would occur. The 6- and 7-year-olds were in a transitional stage between these two levels of understanding. We discuss the implications of this development with children's theory-of-mind development more generally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing Scene Understanding Neural Software for Realistic Autonomous Outdoor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    frameworks Name Developer Language Computation Key reference Caffe Berkeley Vision and Learning Center C++, Python /Matlab CPU, GPU a Torch Collobert...environment for machine learning . Proc Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems; EPFL-CONF-192376; 2011. c Al-Rfou R et al. Theano: A Python ...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We present a deep learning neural network model software implementation for improving scene understanding

  4. EFL Teachers’ and Learners’ Perceptions of Grammatical Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Alhaysony

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates grammatical difficulty from the perspective of Saudi university students, of EFL as well as from the perspective of university teachers. It aims to find out which English grammar features are more difficult/less difficult than others. Furthermore, it attempts to determine the reasons and causes that account for such grammar difficulty. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were the two research instruments used in this study. A total number of 103 students and 85 university teachers took part in the questionnaire, while only 20 teachers and 25 students responded in the interview. All the participants were from Aljouf University (males and females. The results showed that some English grammar features were more difficult and some were less difficult than others. The obtained difficulty order determined by EFL learners and the one obtained by the teachers’ perceptions were compared. Some similarities and differences were found to exist in the rank order of the features for the two groups. The findings of the study may be beneficial to syllabus designers, material developers, teachers and EFL learners.

  5. GRAMMATICAL ERRORS FOUND IN ARTICLES’ ABSTRACTS OF INDONESIAN SCHOLARLY JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Wulandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to know the grammatical errors found in the articles’ abstracts of scholarly journals published by one of Indonesian Islamic State Colleges in 2008-2010. The theory used to analyze the data in this case study is Burt and Kiparsky’s theory, namely Surface Strategy Taxonomy. This theory devides errors into errors of omission, errors of addition, errors of misformation and errors of misordering. This results of the study show that there are 172 items of grammatical errors. The most frequent type of grammatical error is omission with the total number is 72 items or 41.9%. The second is errors of misformation which consist of 57 items or 33.1%. The next is errors of addition (27 items or 15.7% and finally is errors of misordering as the least number of errors with 16 items or 9.3%

  6. Internal Grammar and Children's Grammatical Creativity against Poor Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Belletti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the unexpected linguistic behavior that young children sometimes display by producing structures that are only marginally present in the adult language in a constrained way, and that adults do not adopt in the same experimental conditions. It is argued here that children's capacity to overextend the use of given syntactic structures thereby resulting in a grammatical creative behavior is the sign of an internal grammatical pressure which manifests itself given appropriate discourse conditions and factors of grammatical complexity and which does not necessarily require a rich input to be put into work. This poverty of the stimulus type situation is illustrated here through the overextended use of a-Topics and reflexive-causative passives by young Italian speaking children when answering eliciting questions concerning the direct object of the clause.

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging for understanding brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I

    2015-01-03

    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination.

  8. Developing Engineering Students’ Understanding of Sustainability Using Project Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Jollands

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Project based learning (PjBL can be an effective approach to developing graduate attributes, but it depends on how it is implemented. Chemical Engineering of RMIT University has a stream of PjBL subjects from first to final year. The projects are incrementally more complex but have the same goal: to choose a best process design, using management decision making tools to justify their choices. The tools include GEMI Metrics NavigatorTM. This paper reports an evaluation of whether students’ understanding of sustainability is enhanced by undertaking multiple projects, as well as use of sophisticated analysis tools. Student learning outcomes from intermediate and final subjects were compared using ConceptMaps and a focus group. The students’ understanding of sustainability increased substantially from 2nd to final year, similar to results reported in European studies. The spread of results was broad, attributed to range of student ability and differences between student cohorts. Development of understanding of sustainability was attributed to undertaking multiple projects and use of spread-sheeting tools. Use of the GEMI tool was identified as facilitating application of sustainability principles to process design decisions. Concept maps are a useful way to evaluate innovations in teaching sustainable engineering.

  9. Understanding energy technology developments from an innovation system perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, M.; Nygaard Madsen, A. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Gregersen, Birgitte [Aalborg Univ., Department of Business Studies (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    With the increased market-orientation and privatisation of the energy area, the perspective of innovation is becoming more and more relevant for understanding the dynamics of change and technology development in the area. A better understanding of the systemic and complex processes of innovation is needed. This paper presents an innovation systems analysis of new and emerging energy technologies in Denmark. The study focuses on five technology areas: bio fuels, hydrogen technology, wind energy, solar cells and energy-efficient end-use technologies. The main result of the analysis is that the technology areas are quite diverse in a number of innovation-relevant issues like actor set-up, institutional structure, maturity, and connections between market and non-market aspects. The paper constitutes background for discussing the framework conditions for transition to sustainable energy technologies and strengths and weaknesses of the innovation systems. (au)

  10. Using Language-Specific and Bilingual Measures to Explore Lexical-Grammatical Links in Young Latino Dual-Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Méndez, Lucía I

    2018-04-05

    This study examined the nature of the relation between language-specific vocabulary and conceptual lexical-semantic skills with grammatical abilities within and across languages in preschool Latino dual language learners (DLLs). Sixty-one typically developing, Spanish-English speaking DLLs from preschools serving low-income families participated in the study. Lexical, semantic, and grammar skills were assessed toward the end of the fall in both Spanish and English using normative and researcher-developed assessment instruments. Hierarchical linear regressions using baseline cross-sectional data were completed to determine the association of language-specific vocabulary and bilingual lexical and semantic abilities to grammatical skills measured by sentence repetition tasks in Spanish and English both within and across languages. Results from the study revealed that a considerable percentage of the variance in the grammatical ability of these Latino DLL preschoolers in both Spanish and English was explained by lexical variables in the same language (54% in English and 16% in Spanish). In the strong language (Spanish), bilingual semantic skills also played a role, explaining an additional 8% of the variance. Conceptual vocabulary was a significant predictor of English grammar in the model that excluded the language-specific vocabulary measures. These findings suggest that grammatical skills in the Latino preschoolers examined in the study are strongly related to language-specific measures of vocabulary. In contrast, no evidence supporting the relation between vocabulary and grammar skills across languages was observed. Findings from this study provide insight into the impact of bilingual lexical-semantic knowledge on the grammatical skills of dual-language preschool children developing language abilities in their 2 languages. Clinical implications are also discussed.

  11. Developing and Understanding Intelligent Contexts for Playing and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between......This short paper outlines experiences and reflections on the research and development project “Octopus” in order to describe and illustrate how intelligent context facilitates and embody learning. The framework is a research and development project where we have tried to work with new kinds...... structure and process or in a more philosophical way: The relationship between epistemology and ontology in a designed set up for learning. This paper therefore aims at illustrating how and why the “Octopus” works and functions in the school setting and discussing the relations between distinctions...

  12. Developing and Understanding Intelligent Contexts for Playing and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik

    of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in a primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between......This paper outlines experiences and reflections on the research and development project “Octopus” in order to describe and illustrate how intelligent context facilitates and embody learning and play. The framework is a research and development project where we have tried to work we new kinds...... structure and process (or flow) or it could be formulated in a more philosophical way: The relationship between epistemology and ontology in a designed set up for learning i.e. a classroom setting with learning mediated through intelligent tangible learning media. The tangible learning media...

  13. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  14. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  15. Persistent problems in SLI: which grammatical problems remain when children grow older?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinmeijer, I.

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical problems are a hallmark of SLI: most children with SLI seem to have problems with grammatical rules like inflection, agreement or those involved in complex syntactic structures. While grammatical abilities have been studied extensively in younger children with SLI, fewer studies have

  16. The recent development in understanding the periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, K.

    1986-01-01

    The recent development in understanding the periodic table of elements is reviewed. The author's concern is focussed on the effects which make different elements of a group of the periodic table to have different chemical properties, which result in that different members of a homologous series of compounds have different physical properties. The most important effect is due to the effective repulsion of the valence orbital of an atom from the core region by orthogonality with the core orbitals with the same azimuthal quantum number

  17. Developing An Analytic Approach to Understanding the Patient Care Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springman, Mary Kate; Bermeo, Yalissa; Limper, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data available to health-care institutions regarding the patient care experience has grown tremendously. Purposeful approaches to condensing, interpreting, and disseminating these data are becoming necessary to further understand how clinical and operational constructs relate to patient satisfaction with their care, identify areas for improvement, and accurately measure the impact of initiatives designed to improve the patient experience. We set out to develop an analytic reporting tool deeply rooted in the patient voice that would compile patient experience data obtained throughout the medical center. PMID:28725852

  18. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Péti, Márton

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; ‘climate change’ became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the ‘territorial system’-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of ‘general and territorial sustainability’ in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  19. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peti, Marton, E-mail: mpeti@vati.hu

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; 'climate change' became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the 'territorial system'-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of 'general and territorial sustainability' in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  20. International education: developing site visit guidelines to enhance understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel; Boykova, Marina; Driever, Marie J

    2009-02-01

    International educational activities, whether organized as study tours or conferences, often include visits to various health care or educational facilities. These visits can provide a unique perspective on health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing practice. To maximize learning during such visits, a clear focus and guidelines are needed. The experience of conducting a conference in Russia is used as a basis for developing recommendations and creating guidelines for site visits that promote understanding of the nursing role and the health care system in another country. This article describes the process of developing educational objectives and guidelines for clinical and educational site visits. It is hoped the examples will be useful in planning site visits for other international educational activities.

  1. Understanding watershed hydrogeochemistry: 1. Development of RT-Flux-PIHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chen; Li, Li; Shi, Yuning; Duffy, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Model development in hydrology and geochemistry has been advancing separately with limited integration. We developed a watershed hydrogeochemical code RT-Flux-PIHM to understand complex interactions between hydrological processes (PIHM), land-surface processes (FLUX—Noah Land Surface Model), and multicomponent subsurface reactive transport (RT). The RT module simulates geochemical processes including aqueous complexation, surface complexation, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and cation exchange. The RT module is verified against the widely used reactive transport code CrunchFlow. The code uses semidiscrete finite volume method and irregular gridding and offers data harvesting capabilities from national databases. The application of RT-Flux-PIHM is demonstrated in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). We aim to understand key processes that govern hydrogeochemical dynamics of the nonreactive chloride and reactive magnesium. Simulation results indicate that watershed characteristics, in particular topography, dictate the spatial distributions of water content and soil dissolution rates. Ion exchange provides buffering capacities and leads to a hysteresis loop of concentration and discharge relationship of magnesium, which differs from the open hysteresis of chloride. RT-Flux-PIHM offers physics-based modeling capabilities to integrate the vast amount of water and chemistry data that have now become available, to differentiate the relative importance of competing processes, and to test hypotheses at the interface of hydrology and geochemistry.

  2. Syntactic processes in speech production: The retrieval of grammatical gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Two picture-naming experiments tested the hypothesis that the speed with which native speakers of a gender-marking language retrieve the grammatical gender of a noun from their mental lexicon may depend on the recency of earlier access to that same noun's gender. Ss were 96 native speakers of Dutch.

  3. Representation and processing of grammatical gender in language production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriefers, H.J.; Jescheniak, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews recent empirical evidence on the representation and processing of grammatical gender in language production. The evidence comes from experimental studies on error free production, studies on the tip-of-the tongue phenomenon, and studies on naturally occurring or experimentally

  4. Validating Grammaticality Judgment Tests: Evidence from Two New Psycholinguistic Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaee, Payman; Suzuki, Yuichi; Kachisnke, Ilina

    2017-01-01

    Several previous factor-analytic studies on the construct validity of grammaticality judgment tests (GJTs) concluded that untimed GJTs measure explicit knowledge (EK) and timed GJTs measure implicit knowledge (IK) (Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005; R. Ellis & Loewen, 2007). It has also been shown that, irrespective of the time condition chosen,…

  5. A usage-based theory of grammatical status and grammaticalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter; Boye, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    of hitherto disparate phenomena into a motivated relationship, while certain well-entrenched criteria (such as ‘closed paradigms’) are shown to be incidental to grammatical status and grammaticalization. The central idea is that grammar is constituted by expressions that by linguistic convention are ancillary...

  6. Evolving Levels for Super Mario Bros Using Grammatical Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Nicolau, Miguel; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the use of design grammars to evolve playable 2D platform levels through grammatical evolution (GE). Representing levels using design grammars allows simple encoding of important level design constraints, and allows remarkably compact descriptions of large spaces of levels...

  7. A Grammatical Assessment of Preachers' Application of English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The observation of concord rules poses one of the greatest grammatical challenges in the use of English as a second language (L2) in Nigeria owing to the non-existence of the phenomenon in most Nigerian languages. This study investigates the degree of competence exhibited by Pastors in the application of English ...

  8. Recent trends in grammatical variation in Afrikaans varieties within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    88 geographic areas. Evidence in this regard is found in North America, in what seems to be geographically underdetermined distance between African American Vernacular English. (AAVE) and vernacular Anglo American varieties: The common core of AAVE grammatical features shared across distant urban locations as ...

  9. Collocations and grammatical patterns in a Multilingual Online Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Collocations and Grammatical Patterns in a Multilingual Online Term Bank. 393 the design of a variety of terminology tools. The E-Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Verbs in Science (DicSci) project, reported on by Alonso et al. (2011), the. ARTES project of which one outcome is the compilation of an online bilingual.

  10. Grammatical Metaphor in SFL: A Rhetorical Resource for Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on grammatical metaphor as a rhetorical systemic resource for achieving lexical economy and information density in academic writing. It explores the various forms of transferences which are made possible by the grammar: from logical to experiential, from sequences to figures, elements, things ...

  11. Grammatical Aspect in uences Event Duration Estimations: Evidence from Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flecken, M.E.P.; Gerwien, J.; Knauff, M.; Pauen, M.; Sebanz, N.; Wachsmuth, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of grammatical aspect marking in Dutch sentences, on speakers’ estimations of the duration of highly familiar, everyday events. We first established the ‘inherent’ or natural duration of different events (Exp. 1). This was then used for the manipulation of aspect

  12. Evolving Personalized Content for Super Mario Bros Using Grammatical Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    -adapted content by employing an adaptation mechanism as a fitness function in grammatical evolution to optimize the player experience of three emotional states: engagement, frustration and challenge. The fitness functions used are models of player experience constructed in our previous work from crowd...

  13. En otras palabras: Illustrated Grammatical Concepts and Communicative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfora, Juanita; Carfora, Lolita

    This manual, designed for teachers of Spanish as a second language, contains visual aids to illustrate certain grammatical concepts and related vocabulary. The manual consists of 30 tear-out blackline masters, each containing one to six separate cartoon pictures, to be used for classroom or homework activities in any sequence. Accompanying each…

  14. Peculiarities of Grammatical Properties in Nominal Word Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Klienkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines some peculiarities if grammatical properties of nominal word combinations based on the study of German-speaking Swiss press. The accumulated experience of linguists is analyzed and certain factors influencing the choice of syntactic relations in nominal word combinations with quantitative meaning are researched. It has been established that the choice of syntactic relations in such word combinations is determined by functional style, semantics and grammatical features of nouns - first or second components in a word combination. The aforementioned factors influencing the choice of syntactic relations in quantitative nominal word combinations are studied on the material of Germanspeaking Swiss press. The research revealed a number of peculiarities. First of all, German-speaking Swiss press uses such syntactic relation as genitive subordination quite often, not only on "special occasion" and unlike its use in Germany does not produce a magniloquent, pompous impression. Secondly, it has been established that the choice of syntactic relations in word combinations of the above-mentioned type of word combinations greatly depends on the semantic meaning of the noun - the first component of the word combination - and does not always coincide with the grammatical properties in nominal combinations in Germany. Thirdly, a clear dependence of syntactic relations choice is observed. Moreover, the article highlights the importance of grammatical features of the second component. These are such features as gender, number, case accompanied by noun declension. All the afore-mentioned features help to define the type of syntactic relations, which nominal quantitative word combinations may be connected by. The results of the comparisons of grammatical properties of quantitative nominal word combinations in German and Swiss press are demonstrated in a table below.

  15. Understanding the mechanism of base development of hydrogen silsesquioxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Chao, Weilun; Liang, Xiaogan; Griedel, Brian D.; Olynick, Deirdre L

    2009-01-09

    There have been numerous studies of electron beam exposed hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) development conditions in order to improve the developer contrast. For TMAH based development, improvements were made by going to higher TMAH normalities and heating the developer. Yang and Berggren showed development of electron beam exposed (HSQ) by NaOH with added Na salts (various anions) significantly improves the contrast. Here, we study the contrast and etching rates of 100 keV exposed HSQ in NaOH in the presence of LiCl, NaCl, and KCl salts and use this as a segway to understand the mechanisms governing contrast during development HSQ development. The basic mechanism of development of HSQ can be understood by comparing to etching of quartz in basic solutions. Hydroxide ions act as nucleophiles which attack silicon. When a silicon-oxygen bond of the Si-O-Si matrix is broken, Si-O{sup -} and Si-OH are formed which can reversibly react to form the original structure. When a Si-H bond is broken via reaction with hydroxide, Si-O{sup -} and H{sub 2} gas are formed. Salts can change the etching rates as a function of dose in a non-linear fashion to increase etch contrast. Figs. 1, 2, and 3 show contrast curves for HSQ developed in 0.25 N sodium hydroxide and with the addition of NaCl, LiCl and KCl salts at several concentrations. NaCl addition resulted in the highest contrast. Contrast improves with additional salt concentration while sensitivity decreases. Interestingly enough, addition of salt decreases the removal of material of NaOH alone at higher doses while increasing the rate at lower concentrations. Addition of LiCl salts improves contrast over NaOH alone. Furthermore, the sensitivity at all doses increases as the LiCl concentration increases, a salting out effect. Similar to NaCl salt behavior, the addition of KCl salts, improves contrast at the expense of sensitivity. However, unlike NaCl, even at very high doses, KCl addition increases removal rate of HSQ. We

  16. Study of zircaloy corrosion to develop mechanistic understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortner, S.; Swan, H.; Laferrere, A.; English, C.; Hyde, J.; Styman, P.; Jurkschat, K.; Hulme, H.; Pantelli, A.; Gass, M.; Allen, V.; Frankel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Predictions for the corrosion behaviour of Zircaloy cladding are based on empirical models. This results in significant uncertainties for forecasts beyond existing data e.g. for high burn-up, or when there has been a change in operating conditions. To allow for a more accurate prediction of corrosion behaviour a better understanding of the mechanisms involved is required. A program has been initiated with the aim of developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of out-of-pile Zircaloy corrosion behaviour. This paper reports the results of isothermal exposures of Zircaloy-4 to PWR water at 350 Celsius degrees. A variety of analytical techniques have been employed to analyse the corroded specimens, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography, micro-beam synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy. When the results of these techniques are compared, it becomes evident that the periodic transition from slow to fast oxidation rates results from the accumulation of stress relief processes in the metal (particularly plastic deformation, but also oxygen and hydrogen dissolution); at the metal-oxide interface (decomposition of the flat interface into undulations); and in the oxide (cracking). These reduce the in-plane compressive stresses near the metal-oxide interface but ultimately balance them with in-plane tensile stresses which encourage through-thickness cracking, and the percolation of the environment to the metal-oxide interface. This is noticed only if allowance is made for out-of-plane stresses in the thin oxide. (authors)

  17. Developing Lesson Design to Help Students’ Triangle Conseptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawanto, S.; Mulyana, E.

    2017-09-01

    The research was aimed to develop a lesson design so that students’ triangle conceptual understanding could be achieved. The method that be used in this research was qualitative with applied didactical design research (DDR). The DDR consisted of three main stepts, namely prospective analysis, metapedadicdactic analysis, and retrospective analysis. From the three stepts above, it was gained the empirical lesson design of triangle topic. The reseach results are: (1) there were some learning obstacles of students deal with the triangle topic, namely ontogenical, epietimological, and didactical obstacles; (2) implementaion of the lesson was conducted under three main stepts, namely action, formulation, and validation. For answering weather the design can be applied to other group of students, it was recommended that it cound be investigated by doing advanced reseach.

  18. Developing an understanding between people: the key to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alina

    2010-05-01

    Global health and international health are prominent concepts within development issues today. Health is at the heart of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and the idea of a human right to health and health care has taken more hold in the forefronts of our minds. In acknowledgement of the globalised and interdependent society in which we live, this reflective piece uses personal experiences of anthropology and travel throughout the author's medical education to illustrate the pressing need for a better understanding between health workers and local populations. Experiences in Ecuador, Peru, India and Nepal, highlight the plurality of medicine. They show how medical education in the UK forms only one part of medical knowledge, and in particular how clinical practice requires the appreciation of a wider context. Within a multi-cultural society, it is essential that medical students learn new skills for the future. Teaching Anthropology and Sociology within the curriculum in the UK can educate students about how knowledge is created within a culture and to appreciate the diversity between cultures. Consideration of patients' backgrounds and beliefs allows health workers to develop relationships with the local population, which can be of invaluable use in making global health equality a reality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Charles Darwin and the evolution of human grammatical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Hugh W; Christman, Sarah S

    2010-04-08

    Charles Darwin's evolutionary theories of animal communication were deeply embedded in a centuries-old model of association psychology, whose prodromes have most often been traced to the writings of Aristotle. His notions of frequency of occurrence of pairings have been passed down through the centuries and were a major ontological feature in the formation of associative connectivity. He focused on the associations of cause and effect, contiguity of sequential occurrence, and similarity among items. Cause and effect were often reduced to another type of contiguity relation, so that Aristotle is most often evoked as the originator of the associative bondings through similarity and contiguity, contiguity being the most powerful and frequent means of association. Contiguity eventually became the overriding mechanism for serial ordering of mental events in both perception and action. The notions of concatenation throughout the association psychology took the form of "trains" of events, both sensory and motor, in such a way that serial ordering came to be viewed as an item-by-item string of locally contiguous events. Modern developments in the mathematics of serial ordering have advanced in sophistication since the early and middle twentieth century, and new computational methods have allowed us to reevaluate the serial concatenative theories of Darwin and the associationists. These new models of serial order permit a closer comparative scrutiny between human and nonhuman. The present study considers Darwin's insistence on a "degree" continuity between human and nonhuman animal serial ordering. We will consider a study of starling birdsongs and whether the serial ordering of those songs provides evidence that they have a syntax that at best differs only in degree and not in kind with the computations of human grammatical structures. We will argue that they, in fact, show no such thing.

  20. Understanding Alginate Gel Development for Bioclogging and Biogeophysical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdel Aal, G. Z.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sarkisova, S.; Patrauchan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation strategies to mitigate the transport of heavy metals and radionuclides in subsurface sediments have largely targeted to increase the mobility and/or solubility of these compounds by the stimulation of biogeochemical activity of the metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter secrete and/or release out diverse biochemical molecule including, first of all, organic acids and biopolymers such as alginic acid, proteins and DNA. Alginate gel is one of the major components determining the structure of biofilm which causes clogging in porous media. Biopolymers composing biofilm having, at least, two main functions: to be a scaffold for a microbial biofilm, and to regulate the exchange of metabolites and ions between an environment and bacterial cells. Additionally, the accumulation of biopolymers and a matured biofilm within porous media was shown to contribute to a detectable biogeophysical signal, spectral induced polarization (SIP), in particular. Our objective is to understand the role of different biofilm components on the SIP response as the latter has been proposed as a non-invasive tool to monitor biofilm development and rate of clogging in the subsurface. Understanding the process of alginate gel development may aid in the understanding of the fate and transport of mineralized heavy metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils. Here we describe the reciprocal relationship between environmental chemistry and alginate gel development. Commercial (Sigma) alginic acid (AA) was used as a substratum for the preparation of a model gel. AA was solubilized by adjusting solutions with pH up to 4 with 0.1 NaOH. Both Ca(OH)2 or CaCl2 were used to initiate the gelation of alginate. pH, fluid conductivity, soluble Ca2+ concentration, and a yield of gelated alginate were monitored in both liquid and porous media after the interaction of calcium compounds with alginate. This study confirms the critical role of Ca2+ for alginate gelation, biofilm development

  1. THE ANALYSIS ON THE GRAMMATICAL ERRORS OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS ESSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sukarno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A language learner often faces many linguistic differences, especially if the native language and the target language are from different language families. The current study investigates the grammatical errors made by the first year students of the English Department, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Jember, Indonesia. The data were collected from 30 participants essays of Writing 01 class (documentary data conducted from August to December 2014. Having been identified, the errors were classified into various categorizations, and analyzed based on descriptive-interpretative method to find the possible sources of the errors. The research revealed that the learners committed ten types of grammatical errors, and the six mostly prominent errors were plural form, subject-verb agreement, verb tense, word form, subject/verb omission, and passive voice respectively. This research also showed that the errors mostly resulted from the different linguistic principles of Indonesian and English (interlingual transfer, and partly from the faulty of overgeneralization of English rules (intralingual transfer. The overt influences of Indonesian to English as well as the overgeneralization of English rules can provide the writing teachers and course designers with insightful guidelines for better understanding of the sources of errors, which in turn, can help them to apply the more appropriate approaches to manage the foreign language learners errors of the year students

  2. Grammatical Errors in Speaking Made by the Third Year English Department Students STKIP Abdi Pendidikan Payakumbuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervina Hervina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is important skill in the language learning. Many people assumed that study the language must be able to speak using the language. Besides that, language is a system of understanding to communicate with others. The researcher found out the error and hopefully it can be reflection in learning English. The method of this research is qualitative research. It is based on the research focus; to analyze the grammatical errors of English department students’ of STKIP Abdi Pendidikan Payakumbuh. The methods used by the researcher to get the data were observation, interview, and documentation. There were three activities on data analysis; data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/ verification. The result shows that the students have not mastered the use of verb groups. It can be seen from the number of the errors made. Although they had been taught about it before, they were still confused which one to use when making a grammatical sentence. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  3. Developing Primary School Children's Understanding of Energy Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Colin; Summers, Mike

    2000-01-01

    This was an interview study of 34 primary school children's understanding of five aspects of energy waste, and the ways in which these conceptions develop following teaching. The aspects covered were: (i) saving energy by `using less'; (ii) saving energy by using `just enough'; (iii) energy waste through unintended transfers; (iv) energy waste in a household device; and (v) the meaning of the term `efficiency'. It was found that this group of primary school children had good prior awareness of some behaviours which save (or conserve) energy, but their reasons for thinking this were based largely on intuitive `everyday' ideas which involved human-centred notions of energy in the particular contexts presented or the movement of `heat' or `cold'. Notions of waste due to unintended outcomes were seen in only a few pupils initially but after teaching became far more prevalent. The study showed that basic ideas about energy waste which underpin energy conservation (using less energy) and the critically important scientific concept of efficiency were made accessible to an `average' group of primary school children. Moreover, this was done by ordinary practitioners who are not specialist teachers of science but who have had their subject and teaching knowledge enhanced by appropriate training.

  4. Children's understanding of area concepts: development, curriculum and educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Trevor G; Parkinson, Kellie

    2010-01-01

    As one part of a series of studies undertaken to investigate the contribution of developmental attributes of learners to school learning, a representative sample of forty-two students (age from 5 years and 3 months to 13 years and 1 month) was randomly selected from a total student population of 142 students at a small private primary school in northern Australia. Those children's understandings of area concepts taught during the primary school years were assessed by their performance in two testing situations. The first consisted of a written classroom test of ability to solve area problems with items drawn directly from school texts, school examinations and other relevant curriculum documents. The second, which focused more directly on each child's cognitive development, was an individual interview for each child in which four "area" tasks such as the Meadows and Farmhouse Experiment taken from Chapter 11 of The Child's Conception of Geometry (Piaget, Inhelder and Szeminska, 1960, pp. 261-301) were administered. Analysis using the Rasch Partial Credit Model provided a finely detailed quantitative description of the developmental and learning progressions revealed in the data. It is evident that the school mathematics curriculum does not satisfactorily match the learner's developmental sequence at some key points. Moreover, the children's ability to conserve area on the Piagetian tasks, rather than other learner characteristics, such as age and school grade seems to be a precursor for complete success on the mathematical test of area. The discussion focuses on the assessment of developmental (and other) characteristics of school-aged learners and suggests how curriculum and school organization might better capitalize on such information in the design and sequencing of learning experiences for school children. Some features unique to the Rasch family of measurement models are held to have special significance in elucidating the development/attainment nexus.

  5. Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Madden-Lombardi

    Full Text Available Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.. To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant. Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend

  6. Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden-Lombardi, Carol; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle) should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle) should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.). To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant). Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use) and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand) or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend previous research

  7. Flexible word classes in linguistic typology and grammatical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Currently one of the most controversial topics in linguistic typology and grammatical theory concerns the existence of FLEXIBLE LANGUAGES, i.e. languages with a word class whose members cover functions that are typically associated with two or more of the traditional word classes (verb, noun...... to integrate the individual chapters under a single theoretical approach. It rather presents a wide range of novel descriptive facts and shows how some grammatical theories could accommodate these facts.3 Some of the chapters are primarily theoretically and typologically oriented, taking into account several...... languages (see esp. the contribution by Hengeveld; also those by Don and van Lier; Bisang). Other chapters combine a theoretical analysis with the description of flexibility in a single language (chapters by Gil, Peterson, and McGregor). Finally, a number of case studies of individual languages illustrate...

  8. Probabilistic orthographic cues to grammatical category in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; McMahon, Katie; Zubicaray, Greig de

    2012-12-01

    What helps us determine whether a word is a noun or a verb, without conscious awareness? We report on cues in the way individual English words are spelled, and, for the first time, identify their neural correlates via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a lexical decision task with trisyllabic nouns and verbs containing orthographic cues that are either consistent or inconsistent with the spelling patterns of words from that grammatical category. Significant linear increases in response times and error rates were observed as orthography became less consistent, paralleled by significant linear decreases in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the left supramarginal gyrus of the left inferior parietal lobule, a brain region implicated in visual word recognition. A similar pattern was observed in the left superior parietal lobule. These findings align with an emergentist view of grammatical category processing which results from sensitivity to multiple probabilistic cues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Grammatical error correction using hybrid systems and type filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Felice, M; Yuan, Z; Andersen, ØE; Yannakoudakis, H; Kochmar, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our submission to the CoNLL 2014 shared task on grammatical error correction using a hybrid approach, which includes both a rule-based and an SMT system augmented by a large webbased language model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that correction type estimation can be used to remove unnecessary corrections, improving precision without harming recall. Our best hybrid system achieves state of-the-art results, ranking first on the original test set and second on the test set...

  10. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manya Jyotishi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the “pragmatics-origins” argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a “grammatical-origins” argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., “What did the horse tickle?”, “What hugged the bird?”, “Where is the horse/bird?”. Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later

  11. Theory of Mind and Emotion Recognition Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development: Group Differences and Connection to Knowledge of Grammatical Morphology, Word-Finding Abilities and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social…

  12. Grammatical morphology in children learning English as a second language: implications of similarities with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether the expressive language characteristics of typically developing (TD) children learning English as a second language (ESL) have similarities to the characteristics of the English that is spoken by monolingual children with specific language impairment (SLI), and whether this could result in the erroneous assessment of TD English-language learners (ELLs) as language impaired. Twenty-four TD language-minority children who had been learning ESL for an average of 9.5 months participated in the study. The children's accuracy and error types in production of the following grammatical morphemes were examined in spontaneous and elicited speech: third person singular [-s], past tense [-ed], irregular past tense, BE as a copula and auxiliary verb, DO as an auxiliary verb, progressive [-ing], prepositions in and on, plural [-s], and determiners a and the. The elicitation probes were part of a recently developed standardized test for identifying language impairment, the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (TEGI; M. Rice & K. Wexler, 2001). The ELLs' accuracy rates and error patterns with the grammatical morphemes were similar to those that have been reported for same-age monolingual children with SLI, in both spontaneous and elicited speech. In addition, the ELL's elicitation probe scores were compared to the criterion scores and group means from the sample of monolingual children used to develop the TEGI and their performance on the TEGI was in the range of the clinical population even though there is no reason to suspect that any of these children is language impaired. Both analyses point to the possibility that TD ELLs could be mistaken as language impaired. The results provide information that can be used to set appropriate expectations of error patterns and rate of grammatical development in the early stages of ESL learning. The results also emphasize how the use of English standardized tests with nonnative English-speakers is

  13. Literature as Window: Developing Interracial Understanding through Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1988-01-01

    Using Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" as a case study, demonstrates the evocative power of fiction to promote interracial understanding. Creative art, by appealing to the imagination, can evoke feelings and insights that make human relationships vivid and personal. (BJV)

  14. Grammatical Conversion of Descriptive Narrative - an application of discourse analysis in conceptual modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Calway

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Fact-oriented conceptual modelling begins with the search for facts about a universe of discourse (UoD. These facts may be obtained from many sources, including information systems reports, tables, manuals and descriptive narrative both verbal and written. This paper presents some initial findings that support the use of discourse analysis techniques as an approach to developing elementary fact based sentences for information systems conceptual schema development from written text. Although this discussion paper only considers the NIAM (fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling method, the IS087 report from which the research case study is taken describes other conceptual methods for which the research contained in this paper could be applicable (e.g. Entity Relationship analysis. The case study could be modelled exactly in the form in which the text is initially found, but grammatical analysis focuses consideration on alternative, potentially better, expressions of a sentence, a theme which is described and demonstrated. As a result of having applied grammatical sentence simplification with co-ordinate clause splitting, each sentence could be expressed as a complete, finite, independent collection of declarative simple statements. The outcome from the application of the techniques described provides at a minimum a discourse analysis of descriptive narrative which will have retained its meaning and contextual integrity while at the same time providing a simplified and independent clause representation for input to the fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling procedure.

  15. A Case-based Reasoning Approach to Validate Grammatical Gender and Number Agreement in Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Across Latin America 420 indigenous languages are spoken. Spanish is considered a second language in indigenous communities and is progressively introduced in education. However, most of the tools to support teaching processes of a second language have been developed for the most common languages such as English, French, German, Italian, etc. As a result, only a small amount of learning objects and authoring tools have been developed for indigenous people considering the specific needs of their population. This paper introduces Multilingual–Tiny as a web authoring tool to support the virtual experience of indigenous students and teachers when they are creating learning objects in indigenous languages or in Spanish language, in particular, when they have to deal with the grammatical structures of Spanish. Multilingual–Tiny has a module based on the Case-based Reasoning technique to provide recommendations in real time when teachers and students write texts in Spanish. An experiment was performed in order to compare some local similarity functions to retrieve cases from the case library taking into account the grammatical structures. As a result we found the similarity function with the best performance

  16. Grammatical Aspect and Gesture in French: A kinesiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Доминик Бутэ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we defend the idea that research on Gesture with Speech can provide ways of studying speakers’ conceptualization of grammatical notions as they are speaking. Expressing an idea involves a dynamic interplay between our construal, shaped by the sensori-motoric and interactive experiences linked to that idea, the plurisemiotic means at our disposal for expressing it, and the linguistic category available for its expression in our language. By analyzing the expression of aspect in Speech with Gesture (GeSp in semi-guided oral interactions, we would like to make a new contribution to the field of aspect by exploring how speakers’ construal of aspectual differences grammaticalized in their language, may be enacted and visible in gesture. More specifically we want to see the degree to which event structure differences expressed in different grammatical aspects (perfective and imperfective correlate with kinesiological features of the gestures. To this end, we will focus on the speed and flow of the movements as well as on the segments involved (fingers, hand, forearm, arm, shoulder. A kinesiological approach to gestures enables us to analyze the movements of human bodies according to a biomechanical point of view that includes physiological features. This study is the first contribution focused on the links between speech and gesture in French in the domain of grammatical aspect. Grammatical aspect was defined by Comrie (1976 [1989] as involving the internal unfurling of the process, «[...] tense is a deictic category, i.e. locates situations in time, usually with reference to the present moment [...]. Aspect is not concerned with relating time of the situation to any other time-point, but rather with the internal temporal constituency of the one situation; one could state the difference as one between situation-internal time (aspect and situation-external time (tense » (Comrie, 1976 [1989]: 5. Can kinesic features express and make

  17. The Impact of an Instructional Intervention Designed to Support Development of Stochastic Understanding of Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Darcy Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic understanding of probability distribution undergirds development of conceptual connections between probability and statistics and supports development of a principled understanding of statistical inference. This study investigated the impact of an instructional course intervention designed to support development of stochastic…

  18. The Development of English Grammar and Reading Comprehension by Majority and Minority Language Children in a Bilingual Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlen, Anja K.

    2017-01-01

    Both for the first language (L1) and for all additional languages (L2 or L3), grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005). However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a…

  19. Cross-sectional studies of grammatical morphemes in autistic and mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, G; Pierce, S J; Streiner, D

    1980-03-01

    The frequency of occurrence of functors in obligatory contexts was studied in verbal autistic and mentally retarded children matched for nonverbal mental age, and the percentages of correct use of functors were rank-ordered. The grammatical complexity of their language was also described using a transformational grammar. The data were compared to those obtained in a normal group matched for mental age and to the data presented by Brown (1973) and deVilliers and deVilliers (1973) in younger children. The autistic subjects omitted functors frequently and independently of the grammatical complexity of their language. The rank ordering of morphemes was consistent within both the autistic and mentally retarded groups but showed no correlation between the two groups or to the rank ordering described by deVilliers and deVilliers. It is suggested that functors in autistic subjects may develop in an atypical but consistent order and that this may be due to specific semantic deficits, particularly in the areas of person and time deixis.

  20. Developing Understanding of Mathematical Modeling in Secondary Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the evolution of 11 prospective teachers' understanding of mathematical modeling through the implementation of a modeling module within a curriculum course in a secondary teacher preparation program. While the prospective teachers had not previously taken a course on mathematical modeling, they will be expected to include…

  1. Developing a Logotherapeutic Model for understanding Victims of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presently, there is no available logotherapeutic model for understanding the experiences of persons in crises, specifically the victims of sexual assault in Nigeria. The paper first reviewed the literature on some of the available models: equilibrium, cognitive and psychosocial transition. The author has added the ...

  2. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  3. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007), and in particular the authors' paper 'The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement'. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  4. DEVELOPING A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF REAL-WORLD AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission inventories are needed by EPA for air dispersion modeling, regional strategy development, regulation setting, air toxics risk assessment, and trend tracking. Therefore, it is extremely important that inventories be accurate and be updated frequently. The development an...

  5. Developments in the scientific and clinical understanding of fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Buskila, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of fibromyalgia (FM) has made significant advances over the past decade. The current concept views FM as the result of central nervous system malfunction resulting in amplification of pain transmission and interpretation. Research done over the past years has demonstrated a role for polymorphisms of genes in the serotoninergic, dopaminergic and catecholaminergic systems in the etiopathogenesis of FM. Various external stimuli such as infection, trauma and stress may contribut...

  6. The Impact of Implicit Tasks on Improving the Learners’ Writing in Terms of Autonomy and Grammatical Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Nazari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners' ability to gain grammatical accuracy in their writing by noticing and correcting their own grammatical errors. Recent literature in language acquisition has emphasized the role of implicit tasks in encouraging learners to develop autonomous language learning habits, so it is important to consider tasks, particularly implicit tasks, as an important part of language teaching. In this study 60 EFL students from two elementary English classes were chosen. The students of one class were engaged in an implicit task in which they compared the use of grammar in their own writing to the use of that grammar in a written text by a native speaker, and the other class received no such treatment. The results indicated that the subjects who had received the treatment performed much better on the post-test. The outcome of the delayed post-test also confirmed the superior performance of the learners in the experimental group showing that they had internalized the targeted structure. Thus such tasks are beneficial in terms of allowing learners to autonomously make improvements in terms of grammatical accuracy in their writings.

  7. Understanding the Causal Links between Financial Development and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Youssouf KIENDREBEOGO

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the causal relationship between financial development and international trade using data of 21 developed and developing countries from 1961 to 2010 and appropriate time series techniques that allow us to decompose the source of causation according to the order of integration of the variables and the possible presence of a cointegrating relationship. We analyze in detail the issue of integration of our series in order to use the most appropriate stationarisation techniques ...

  8. Understanding and education of nuclear power development issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction of nuclear power to China; the understanding of nuclear power in China, education of nuclear power among chinese people. Through such efforts of The Chinese Nuclear Association the Chinese people already have the basic knowledge and support the nuclear power in general. But there are about fifty percent of people who do not know the nuclear power stations in China and thirty-six percent who do not know the benefit of nuclear power because of the vast and different education level in some undeveloped rural areas where the education can not reach

  9. Teaching secondary science constructing meaning and developing understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Keith; McKechnie, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Now fully updated in its third edition Teaching Secondary Science is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of science teaching, providing a wealth of information and ideas about different approaches. With guidance on how children understand scientific ideas and the implications this has on teaching, teachers are encouraged to construct their own meanings and become reflective in their practice. Relating science to government agendas, such as the National Strategies, Assessment for Learning and Every Child Matters, this new edition reflects and maps to changes in national standards. Ke

  10. Reasons of differences in Grammatical Opinions among the Ancients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadh Alsawad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reasons of differences in Grammatical Opinions among the Ancients         Ryadh Alsawad *   Marzieh Ghorbankhani **     Abstract     The most important characteristic of the rules of Arabic language is their extent and diversity, so that they are difficult for learners to manage and learn. There are Different reasons that play role in formation of this diversity. Some reasons are due to the language itself, because it is a language of derivation it has the ability to expand and borrow words from other languages and interpret them based on the capabilities of its own native speakers. Another reason is because of the grammarians themselves who have undergone forgetting, errors, delusion or change in opinion. And some of these are general and come from cultural difference or incorrect punctuation and interpolating occurred in many of the views of grammarians, or because of tune and the music of the words. It may be caused by jurisprudential doctrinal differences raised among people. The research with a descriptive and analytical approach is an attempt to collect reasons for this multiplicity. one of the main results obtained by the study is that the language and its rules over the centuries have been influenced by the cultural, social and religious circumstances of life, and are subjected to the culture of grammarians and their sectarian affiliation, and we believe that this vulnerability is a double-edged sword whenever it leads to the enrichment of the language and its expansion, it leads to ambiguity and learning difficulty to learners .     Keywords : Syntax, Grammarian, Grammatical opinion, Grammatical dispute, Reasons of difference  * Assistant Professor, education faculty university of Dhi Qar, E-mail: ryalsawad@yahoo.com.  ** PhD student in Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan, E-mail: marziehghorbankhani@yahoo.com.

  11. Planning and production of grammatical and lexical verbs in multi-word messages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Michel Lange

    Full Text Available Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared to lexical words. First, based on the assumption that grammatical words are less crucial for communication and therefore paid less attention to, it is predicted that they show shorter articulation times and/or higher error rates than lexical words. Second, based on the assumption that grammatical words differ from lexical words in being dependent on a lexical host, it is hypothesized that the retrieval of a grammatical word has to be put on hold until its lexical host is available, and it is predicted that this is reflected in longer reaction times (RTs for grammatical compared to lexical words. We investigated these predictions by comparing fully homonymous sentences with only a difference in verb status (grammatical vs. lexical elicited by a specific context. We measured RTs, duration and accuracy rate. No difference in duration was observed. Longer RTs and a lower accuracy rate for grammatical words were reported, successfully reflecting grammatical word properties as defined by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models. Importantly, this study provides insight into the span of encoding and grammatical encoding processes in speech production.

  12. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    America, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

  13. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  14. Understanding Acceptance of Software Metrics--A Developer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarji, Medha

    2009-01-01

    Software metrics are measures of software products and processes. Metrics are widely used by software organizations to help manage projects, improve product quality and increase efficiency of the software development process. However, metrics programs tend to have a high failure rate in organizations, and developer pushback is one of the sources…

  15. Understanding the mechanism of base development of HSQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Chao, Weilun; Griedel, Brian; Liang, Xiaogan; Lewis, Mark; Hilken, Dawn; Olynick, Deirdre

    2009-06-16

    We study the dissolution mechanism of HSQ (hydrogen silsesquioxane) in base solutions with the addition of chloride salts to elucidate the development mechanism. Reaction mechanisms are proposed based on the dissolution mechanism of quartz. Development kinetics points to two dose-dependent development mechanisms. Considering ion sizes, both hydrated and non-hydrated, and ion exchange, we propose that a combination of a surface dominated reaction at higher doses and a matrix dominated reaction at lower doses accounts for the high development contrast with a NaOH base/NaCl salt mixture. The interplay between the hydrated and non-hydrated ion size leads to higher contrast developers, such as tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) with NaCl.

  16. Understanding Teaching Development Programs - the why and how they work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rump, Camilla Østerberg; Christiansen, Frederik V; Trigwell, Keith

    of teaching and innovation addressed, approaches to teaching (AT) using all 5 qualitative categories, self-efficacy beliefs (SEBs), institutional context of teaching , experience thereof, and strategies for dealing with it. Results show satisfactory outcome, and reveal interesting relationships between AT......Teaching development programs (TDPs) seem like a natural way to develop innovative teaching and learning environments. In the local programs of the authors, the participants do a project in the second semester of participation. In the project, the participants are required to plan, carry out......, and evaluate some form of student centered teaching, and innovative teaching formats are encouraged and often developed. However, the wider institutional impact of these developments is difficult to assess. Even though a number of primarily quantitative studies show generally positive results, only small...

  17. Understanding community benefit payments from renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Sandy; Johnson, Kate; Weir, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    It is increasingly common for renewable energy projects to make financial, or in kind, payments to local communities. These arrangements are variously described as ‘benefits payments’ or ‘compensation schemes’. Similar approaches are now being recommended for other forms of development with potential to engender opposition from local communities (e.g. nuclear power and fracking). While such payments are common, the level of payment, the institutional frameworks involved, and the nature of discourse, varies greatly. Existing literature has sought to record, rather than explain, the diversity of arrangements. To a large extent this diversity is rooted in the power dynamic between developer and community. Three UK case studies are used to highlight the diversity of arrangements, meanings, and power balances, within benefits arrangements. Finally, a typology is developed to illustrate the spectrum of potential arrangements. This typology gives insight into why various arrangements emerge in response to their specific contexts. - Highlights: • There are increasing expectations that energy projects will deliver community benefit payments. • In practice benefit arrangements display high levels of heterogeneity. • Much of this diversity can be explained by the power dynamic between developer and community. • A typology is developed to illustrate the spectrum of potential arrangements.

  18. Understanding Mammalian Germ Line Development with In Vitro Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M; Míguez-Forján, Jose M; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Medrano, Jose V

    2015-09-15

    Germ line development is crucial in organisms with sexual reproduction to complete their life cycle. In mammals, knowledge about germ line development is based mainly on the mouse model, in which genetic and epigenetic events are well described. However, little is known about how germ line development is orchestrated in humans, especially in the earliest stages. New findings derived from human in vitro models to obtain germ cells can shed light on these questions. This comprehensive review summarizes the current knowledge about mammalian germ line development, emphasizing the state of the art obtained from in vitro models for germ cell-like cell derivation. Current knowledge of the pluripotency cycle and germ cell specification has allowed different in vitro strategies to obtain germ cells with proven functionality in mouse models. Several reports during the last 10 years show that in vitro germ cell derivation with proven functionality to generate a healthy offspring is possible in mice. However, differences in the embryo development and pluripotency potential between human and mouse make it difficult to extrapolate these results. Further efforts on both human and mouse in vitro models to obtain germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may help to elucidate how human physiological events take place; therefore, therapeutic strategies can also be considered.

  19. A grammatical approach to customization of shape and composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Soumitra

    value of composite material properties. A grammar is a formal definition of a language written in transformational form. To address these issues, in this research a grammatical approach is developed that will generate a shape grammar to perform shape optimization, and then incorporate a composite material selection system and loading analysis techniques of Solid Mechanics in order to design load bearing components of irregular shape. The approach will be able to consider the user requirements in the very general text form, convert them to the design requirements for the component, generate optimized shape based on multiple design constraints, perform the complete design work, and generate the component. The major contributions include: (1) generating a shape grammar to represent functions of the load bearing component such a way that mass-customization of shape is possible, (2) developing a composite material customization system in order to satisfy directional property requirements, and (3) introducing a unique laminate design approach in order to satisfy design property requirements at the critical cross-sections locally that can result in highly efficient design compared to conventional design method. Verification of the approach will focus on its application to simultaneously explore shapes and customization of composite materials.

  20. Grammatical Gender and Mental Representation of Object: The Case of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Bjekic, Jovana; Radivojevic, Natalija

    2015-01-01

    A body of research shows that grammatical gender, although an arbitrary category, is viewed as the system with its own meaning. However, the question remains to what extent does grammatical gender influence shaping our notions about objects when both verbal and visual information are available. Two experiments were conducted. The results obtained…

  1. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Grammaticality and Utterance Length Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny; Fulcher-Rood, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This feasibility study examines the convergent and divergent validity of the Grammaticality and Utterance Length Instrument (GLi), a tool designed to assess the grammaticality and average utterance length of a child's prerecorded story retell. Method: Three raters used the GLi to rate audio-recorded story retells from 100 English-speaking…

  2. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    than not, strong vowels from the mother tongue were substituted for the weak sound / ə / which is the commonest vowel found in the weak forms of English grammatical words. Elision, which often occurs to English grammatical words, was also found not to manifest remarkably in this 'geo-tribal' variety of Nigerian English.

  3. Teachers and Peers as Communication Models to Teach Grammatical Forms to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin G.; Bobzien, Jonna L.; Schwartz, Kathryn S.; Raver, Sharon A.; Browning, Ellen L.; Hester, Peggy P.

    2016-01-01

    Structured input from both teachers and peers maximizes the opportunities for preschoolers to learn grammatical forms. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a teacher and a peer with typical hearing and language skills to model grammatically correct verbal responses to action "wh-" questions…

  4. The acquisition of grammatical gender in L2 German by learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years there has been an increase in research on the acquisition of morphological aspects of a second language (L2). Specifically, a number of studies have been conducted on the acquisition of grammatical gender in the L2. The study reported in this paper investigated the adult L2 acquisition of grammatical ...

  5. Grammaticality Judgments in Children: The Role of Age, Working Memory and Phonological Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of age, working memory span and phonological ability in the mastery of ten different grammatical constructions. Six- through eleven-year-old children (n = 68) and adults (n = 19) performed a grammaticality judgment task as well as tests of working memory capacity and receptive phonological ability. Children showed…

  6. Toddlers' Use of Grammatical and Social Cues to Learn Novel Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

    2016-01-01

    By their second birthday, children have begun using grammatical cues to decipher the meaning of newly encountered words. By 3 years of age, there is evidence that children are more reliant on grammatical than social cues to decipher verb meaning (Nappa, Wessel, McEldoon, Gleitman, & Trueswell, 2009). Here, we investigate children's reliance on…

  7. The Picture-Word Interference Paradigm: Grammatical Class Effects in Lexical Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Flavia; Collina, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Four picture-word interference experiments aimed to test the role of grammatical class in lexical production. In Experiment 1 target nouns and verbs were produced in presence of semantically unrelated distractors that could also be nouns and verbs. Participants were slower when the distractor was of the same grammatical category of the target. To…

  8. Language identification of information blocks based on lexico-grammatic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Kalegin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a continuation of the author's series of publications on the subjects of language identification of texts. In the article is being considered the creation of a technological basis for language identification systems of unstructured information blocks based on lexico-grammatical markers, in which are used the forms of verbs, verbal formations or functionally analogous constructions, are described method and algorithm for its software implementation. These developments will significantly reduce the resource intensity and improve the quality of such systems, which will give a significant economic effect and the possibility of creating fundamentally new technologies for determining the linguistic affiliation of information in a multilingual environment. Consequently, the study is of interest for computer linguists and developers of automatic word processing systems, such as: global monitoring systems, multilingual knowledge bases, automatic translation systems, information retrieval systems, document summarizing systems, literature catalogers, etc.

  9. Cross-Linguistic Lexical, Grammatical, and Discourse Performance on Oral Narrative Retells Among Young Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated relations among microlevel and macrolevel domains of oral narrative retells within and across the languages of Spanish-speaking bilingual children. Fifty-six first and second graders (Mage = 7 years, 3 months) were assessed on a retell task in Spanish and English. Two statistical analyses were conducted: (a) correlations within and across microlevel lexical (number of different words) and grammatical (mean length of utterance-word and subordination index) domains and (b) hierarchical regression to determine the influence of microlevel domains on a macrolevel discourse score. Results highlighted a number of significant within- and cross-language correlations, and identified vocabulary as a significant predictor of macrolevel discourse scores within both languages, while grammar was a predictor within English only. © 2015 The Author. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Understanding the Amazon Hydrology for Sustainable Hydropower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Chaudhari, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Construction of 147 new hydropower dams, many of which are large, has been proposed in the Amazon river basin, despite the continuous stacking of negative impacts from the existing ones. These dams are continued to be built in a way that disrupts river ecology, causes large-scale deforestation, and negatively affects both the food systems nearby and downstream communities. In this study, we explore the impacts of the existing and proposed hydropower dams on the hydrological fluxes across the Amazonian Basin by incorporating human impact modules in an extensively validated regional hydrological model called LEAF-Hydro-Flood (LHF). We conduct two simulations, one in offline mode, forced by observed meteorological data for the historical period of 2000-2016 and the other in a coupled mode using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model. We mainly analyze terrestrial water storage and streamflow changes during the period of dam operations with and without human impacts. It is certain that the Amazon will undergo some major hydrological changes such as decrease in streamflow downstream in the coming decades caused due to these proposed dams. This study helps us understand and represent processes in a predictable manner, and provides the ability to evaluate future scenarios with dams and other major human influences while considering climate change in the basin. It also provides important insights on how to redesign the hydropower systems to make them truly renewable in terms of energy production, hydrology and ecology.

  11. Developing Academic Literacies through Understanding the Nature of Disciplinary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarence, Sherran; McKenna, Sioux

    2017-01-01

    Much academic development work that is framed by academic literacies, especially that focused on writing, is concerned with disciplinary conventions and knowledges: conceptual, practical, and procedural. This paper argues, however, that academic literacies work tends to conflate literacy practices with disciplinary knowledge structures, thus…

  12. Emergent Comprehension: Understanding Comprehension Development among Young Literacy Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn Dooley, Caitlin; Matthews, Mona W.

    2009-01-01

    This article hones what is meant by "emergent comprehension". The authors define emergent comprehension as the period when young children, prior to conventional reading, engage in meaningful experiences that stimulate the development and use of meaning-making strategies with potential to affect later reading comprehension. The construct "emergent…

  13. Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donner, M.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there

  14. Public Understanding of Sustainable Development: Some Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent surveys of public opinion claim that there is now widespread acceptance of the need for sustainable development, and that the general public, through its social and consumer activity is already successfully engaged. However, in all this, the focus has primarily been on individual and family behaviours such as recycling and…

  15. Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donner, M.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there

  16. Understanding Personality Development: An Integrative State Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Katharina; van Zalk, Maarten; Back, Mitja D.

    2018-01-01

    While personality is relatively stable over time, it is also subject to change across the entire lifespan. On a macro-analytical level, empirical research has identified patterns of normative and differential development that are affected by biological and environmental factors, specific life events, and social role investments. On a…

  17. School library development and an understanding of information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the extent to which school library development correlates with information literacy competencies among students in selected Secondary Schools in Nigeria. The study design is correctional design. This study was predicated on a theoretical framework of Marlands Steps to research inform of nine ...

  18. Understanding the Career Development of Underprepared College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amber N.; Gibbons, Melinda M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career development of underprepared college students using relational career theory. Specifically, the constructs of family influence, locus of control, and career decision-making self-efficacy were explored as they relate to perceived success in college. Significant correlations between external locus…

  19. Understanding the Organizational Context of Academic Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Jay R.; Heineman, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a conceptual model that academic leaders can use to navigate the complex, and often contentious, organizational terrain of academic program development. The model includes concepts related to the institution's external environment, as well as internal organizational structures, cultures, and politics. Drawing from the…

  20. Developing a Frame of Reference for understanding configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Edwards, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of technical systems to develop a frame of reference of product configuration systems. Following a definition of the configuration task, product model and product configuration system the theory of technical systems are presented. Configuration systems are then related...

  1. Understanding the role of Dicer in astrocyte development

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ying-Hui; Howng, SYB; Huang, Y; Ptáček, L; Fu, YH

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Howng et al.The Dicer1 allele is used to show that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in astrocyte development and functions. While it is known that astrocytes that lack miRNAs are dysregulated, the in vivo phenotypes of these astrocytes are no

  2. Understanding regional metabolism for a sustainable development of urban systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, P

    1996-06-01

    Cities are the most complex forms of settlements which man has built in the course of his cultural development. Their "metabolism" is connected with the world economy and is run mainly by fossil energy carriers. Up to now there are no validated models for the evaluation of a sustainable development of urban regions.The guidelines for a "sustainable development" suggest the reduction of resource consumption. The article is concerned with the problem of how the "sustainable-development concept" can be transformed from a global to a regional scale. In urban settlements the strategy of final storage should be applied. By this, the subsystem waste management can be transformed within 10 to 15 years to a "sustainable status".With regard to the system "agronomy", the article concludes that agriculture in urban systems should focus on food production instead of promoting reduction of food production in favour of energy plants, which is not a suitable strategy.The main problems are the energy carriers. Transformation to a "sustainble status" is only possible by a reconstruction of the urban system, i.e. of buildings and the transportation network. The rate determining step in achieving such a status is the change in the fabric of buildings and in the type of transportation networks. The reconstruction of an urban system needs, mainly for economical reasons, a time period of two generations.

  3. Understanding partnerships in developing disabled entrepreneurs through participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, L; Lorenzo, T; Mdlokolo, P

    2006-03-15

    The paper reports on a community disability entrepreneurship project in Khayelitsha and Nyanga, Cape Town, South Africa. Disabled people, Disabled People South Africa ( a national organization made up by disabled people's organizations), a non-governmental organisation and occupational therapists from the University of Cape Town collaborated with the focus to achieve economic empowerment of disabled people though the establishment of micro-enterprises. Participatory Action Research strategies, which informed and monitored the effective development of the community disability entrepreneurship project, were carefully integrated with the existing principles of community development. The participatory action research process provided an opportunity for shared learning and development. This article reports on the challenges and strategies faced by disabled people in the quest to establish themselves as entrepreneurs. The challenges that were identified through analysis from the experiences of participants were starting with nothing, lack of capacity and complexity of establishing working relationships. The strategies used were building group identity and developing capacity together. Indicators of positive outcome that emerged from an inductive content analysis are presented and discussed.

  4. Understanding the Development of School Psychology in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Rik Carl; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Zhao, B. Yang; Hu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    School psychology is an important area within psychology, which has a short developmental history in Mainland China. Nonetheless, along with economic advances and social changes in Mainland China, school psychology is developing and becoming more important. Currently, people need to work harder and longer. This places many under pressure that may…

  5. Error-related activity and correlates of grammatical plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Doug J; Indefrey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG) activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase on two separate days spaced 1 week apart. The stimuli included grammatically correct phrases, as well as grammatical violations of gender and declension. Without feedback, participants' classification was near chance and did not improve over trials. During training with feedback, behavioral classification improved and violation responses appeared to both types of violation in the form of a P600. Feedback-related negative and positive components were also present from the first day of training. The results show changes in the electrophysiological responses in concert with improving behavioral discrimination, suggesting that the activity is related to grammar learning.

  6. Error-related activity and correlates of grammatical plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug eDavidson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase spanning two days spaced one week apart. The stimuli included grammatically correct phrases, as well as grammatical violations of gender and declension. Without feedback, participants' classification was near chance and did not improve over trials. During training with feedback, behavioral classification improved and violation responses appeared to both types of violation in the form of a P600. Feedback-related negative and positive components were also present from the first day of training. The results show changes in the electrophysiological responses in concert with improving behavioral discrimination, suggesting that the activity is related to grammar acquisition.

  7. Grammatical category mediates the bilingual disadvantage in word retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the scores. Language Quotient (LQ, Kertesz, 2006 was treated as a covariate to account for overall language proficiency for both picture naming and fluency. There was an interaction between grammatical category and bilingualism for both picture naming accuracy (F(1, 69 = 37.5, p< .001 and verbal fluency (F(1,60 = 5.2, p<.05, such that bilinguals scored lower than monolinguals for noun picture naming (F(1, 69 = 4.1, p< .05, LQ-corrected mean difference of 28.2% and animal fluency (F(1, 60 = 13.9, p< .001, mean difference = 3.2, but not for actions. This finding of comparable verb retrieval accuracy in high proficiency bilingual speakers could be attributed to fewer cross-language competitors for verbs (Bultena et al., 2013. This study suggests that 1 bilingual lexical organization is influenced by grammatical category; and 2 action naming tasks may be more reliable for neuropsychological testing of high proficiency bilinguals.

  8. Understanding Teaching Development Programs - the why and how they work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rump, Camilla Østerberg; Christiansen, Frederik V; Trigwell, Keith

    impacts are reported, and the question of why and how the programs work is not addressed. This study is based on 79 participant projects and interviews with 19 teachers of which 9 also did one of the participant projects. The data was analyzed in relation to specific learning outcome and level, types......Teaching development programs (TDPs) seem like a natural way to develop innovative teaching and learning environments. In the local programs of the authors, the participants do a project in the second semester of participation. In the project, the participants are required to plan, carry out...... of teaching and innovation addressed, approaches to teaching (AT) using all 5 qualitative categories, self-efficacy beliefs (SEBs), institutional context of teaching , experience thereof, and strategies for dealing with it. Results show satisfactory outcome, and reveal interesting relationships between AT...

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE NEUROINFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING CONCUSSION TO DEVELOP TREATMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI have been associated with long-term cognitive deficits relating to trauma-induced neurodegeneration. These long-term deficits include impaired memory and attention, changes in executive function, emotional instability and sensorimotor deficits. Furthermore, individuals with concussions show a high co-morbidity with a host of psychiatric illnesses (e.g. depression, anxiety, addiction and dementia. The neurological damage seen in mTBI patients is the result of the direct impact and mechanical injury, followed by a delayed neuroimmune response that can last hours, days and even months after the injury. As part of the neuroimmune response, a cascade of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released and can be detected at the site of injury as well as subcortical, and often contralateral, regions. It has been suggested that the delayed neuroinflammatory response to concussions is more damaging then the initial impact itself. However, evidence exists for favourable consequences of cytokine production following traumatic brain injuries as well. In some cases, treatments that reduce the inflammatory response will also hinder the brain's intrinsic repair mechanisms. At present, there is no evidence-based pharmacological treatment for concussions in humans. The ability to treat concussions with drug therapy requires an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological and neuroinflammatory changes that accompany concussive injuries. The use of neurotrophic factors (e.g. nerve growth factor and anti-inflammatory agents as an adjunct for the management of post-concussion symptomology will be explored in this review.

  10. Sleep-based memory processing facilitates grammatical generalization: Evidence from targeted memory reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Paller, Ken A

    2017-04-01

    Generalization-the ability to abstract regularities from specific examples and apply them to novel instances-is an essential component of language acquisition. Generalization not only depends on exposure to input during wake, but may also improve offline during sleep. Here we examined whether targeted memory reactivation during sleep can influence grammatical generalization. Participants gradually acquired the grammatical rules of an artificial language through an interactive learning procedure. Then, phrases from the language (experimental group) or stimuli from an unrelated task (control group) were covertly presented during an afternoon nap. Compared to control participants, participants re-exposed to the language during sleep showed larger gains in grammatical generalization. Sleep cues produced a bias, not necessarily a pure gain, suggesting that the capacity for memory replay during sleep is limited. We conclude that grammatical generalization was biased by auditory cueing during sleep, and by extension, that sleep likely influences grammatical generalization in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Planning and production of grammatical and lexical verbs in multi-word messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel; Messerschmidt, Maria; Harder, Peter

    2017-01-01

    that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared......Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose...... to lexical words. First, based on the assumption that grammatical words are less crucial for communication and therefore paid less attention to, it is predicted that they show shorter articulation times and/or higher error rates than lexical words. Second, based on the assumption that grammatical words...

  12. Managing Computer Systems Development: Understanding the Human and Technological Imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    tjq~ 2hancze, John-Wiley and sons, Inc 9B 12. Beckhard ~ Richard and Harris, Reuben Top 13. DeMarco, T., Sjruj~ed An 1 s is and L.in 150 14. Dickover...information system development. Beckhard and Harris [Ref. 12: pp. 16-19] identify two essential conditions for any change effort to be effectively managed...February 19814. 10. Nolan, Richard Lo, "Controlling the Costs of Data Services," j&KjX Bisinoss Reviews July-August 1977. 11. Tichy, NoelrM : ia~gn

  13. A genetic approach to understanding asthma and lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common heritable disease of the airways with recurrent episodes of symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction that has increased dramatically in prevalence. The disease is highly heterogeneous with varying age at onset and clinical presentation and most likely represents several...... their effect. In paper I, we investigated the known effect of adult lung function loci on the development of lung function and bronchial responsiveness in children from birth until 7 years of age in the COPSAC2000 birth cohort of 411 children. We measured lung function and bronchial responsiveness at one month...... of age using the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique in sedated neonates and repeated the measurements at age 7 utilizing traditional spirometry assessments. Lung function genetic variants identified in adults were not associated with neonatal lung function or bronchial...

  14. Geopolitical understanding of South Korea: development, tendencies and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Celaya Figueroa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of South Korea must be understood to the light of the environmental theories that insist on the paper of environment, including the geography and the culture, like conditioners of the political relations. The history of South Korea is confined in the history of the nations that from the opening from East to the West in the middle of century XIX play a important role like scene and reason for conflicts between the regional powers and, after 2ª World War, like scene of the conflict between the two superpowers. The objective of the present work is present Korea like a typical scene of the game of powers that represent geopolitics, for such effect is divided in three approaches: first it has to do with the geography of Korea like a strategic zone disputed by China, Japan and Russia in the middle of century XIX? the second approach talks about to the location of Korea like a geopolitical space where the two great triumphant ideologies of 2ª World War, Communism and Capitalism, and where a fight by this territory like political flag would be carried out? finally, the third approach talks about to the situation of two Coreas after the cold war locating the possible context of a possible reunification as well as scenes.

  15. Inflectional morphology in high-functioning autism: Evidence for speeded grammatical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Ullman, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    Autism is characterized by language and communication deficits. We investigated grammatical and lexical processes in high-functioning autism by contrasting the production of regular and irregular past-tense forms. Boys with autism and typically-developing control boys did not differ in accuracy or error rates. However, boys with autism were significantly faster than controls at producing rule-governed past-tenses ( slip-slipped, plim-plimmed, bring-bringed ), though not lexically-dependent past-tenses ( bring-brought, squeeze-squeezed, splim-splam ). This pattern mirrors previous findings from Tourette syndrome attributed to abnormalities of frontal/basal-ganglia circuits that underlie grammar. We suggest a similar abnormality underlying language in autism. Importantly, even when children with autism show apparently normal language (e.g., in accuracy or with diagnostic instruments), processes and/or brain structures subserving language may be atypical in the disorder.

  16. Experience and grammatical agreement: statistical learning shapes number agreement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R; Thornton, Robert; Macdonald, Maryellen C

    2010-02-01

    A robust result in research on the production of grammatical agreement is that speakers are more likely to produce an erroneous verb with phrases such as the key to the cabinets, with a singular noun followed by a plural one, than with phrases such as the keys to the cabinet, where a plural noun is followed by a singular. These asymmetries are thought to reflect core language production processes. Previous accounts have attributed error patterns to a syntactic number feature present on plurals but not singulars. An alternative approach is presented in which a process similar to structural priming contributes to the error asymmetry via speakers' past experiences with related agreement constructions. A corpus analysis and two agreement production studies test this account. The results suggest that agreement production is shaped by statistical learning from past language experience. Implications for accounts of agreement are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating linguistic relativity through bilingualism: the case of grammatical gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2008-07-01

    The authors investigated linguistic relativity effects by examining the semantic effects of grammatical gender (present in Italian but absent in English) in fluent bilingual speakers as compared with monolingual speakers. In an error-induction experiment, they used responses by monolingual speakers to establish a baseline for bilingual speakers and show that gender affects the semantic substitution errors made by monolingual Italian speakers compared with monolingual English speakers. They then showed that Italian-English bilingual speakers behave like monolingual English speakers when the task is in English and like monolingual Italian speakers when the task is in Italian, hence exhibiting appropriate semantic representations for each language. These results show that for bilingual speakers there is intraspeaker relativity in semantic representations and, therefore, that gender does not have a conceptual, nonlinguistic effect. The results also have implications for models of bilingual semantic memory and processing. (c) 2008 APA

  18. At grammatical faculty of language, flies outsmart men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Nüesch, Patrick; Stoop, Ralph Lukas; Bunimovich, Leonid A

    2013-01-01

    Using a symbolic dynamics and a surrogate data approach, we show that the language exhibited by common fruit flies Drosophila ('D.') during courtship is as grammatically complex as the most complex human-spoken modern languages. This finding emerges from the study of fifty high-speed courtship videos (generally of several minutes duration) that were visually frame-by-frame dissected into 37 fundamental behavioral elements. From the symbolic dynamics of these elements, the courtship-generating language was determined with extreme confidence (significance level > 0.95). The languages categorization in terms of position in Chomsky's hierarchical language classification allows to compare Drosophila's body language not only with computer's compiler languages, but also with human-spoken languages. Drosophila's body language emerges to be at least as powerful as the languages spoken by humans.

  19. Personalized blood glucose prediction: A hybrid approach using grammatical evolution and physiological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Contreras

    Full Text Available The large patient variability in human physiology and the effects of variables such as exercise or meals challenge current prediction modeling techniques. Physiological models are very precise but they are typically complex and specific physiological knowledge is required. In contrast, data-based models allow the incorporation of additional inputs and accurately capture the relationship between these inputs and the outcome, but at the cost of losing the physiological meaning of the model. In this work, we designed a hybrid approach comprising physiological models for insulin and grammatical evolution, taking into account the clinical harm caused by deviations from the target blood glucose by using a penalizing fitness function based on the Clarke error grid. The prediction models were built using data obtained over 14 days for 100 virtual patients generated by the UVA/Padova T1D simulator. Midterm blood glucose was predicted for the 100 virtual patients using personalized models and different scenarios. The results obtained were promising; an average of 98.31% of the predictions fell in zones A and B of the Clarke error grid. Midterm predictions using personalized models are feasible when the configuration of grammatical evolution explored in this study is used. The study of new alternative models is important to move forward in the development of alarm-and-control applications for the management of type 1 diabetes and the customization of the patient's treatments. The hybrid approach can be adapted to predict short-term blood glucose values to detect continuous glucose-monitoring sensor errors and to estimate blood glucose values when the continuous glucose-monitoring system fails to provide them.

  20. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  1. A Neural Network Architecture for Detecting Grammatical Errors in Statistical Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezcan Arda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a Neural Network (NN architecture for detecting grammatical errors in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT using monolingual morpho-syntactic word representations in combination with surface and syntactic context windows. We test our approach on two language pairs and two tasks, namely detecting grammatical errors and predicting overall post-editing effort. Our results show that this approach is not only able to accurately detect grammatical errors but it also performs well as a quality estimation system for predicting overall post-editing effort, which is characterised by all types of MT errors. Furthermore, we show that this approach is portable to other languages.

  2. Don’t omit –s!: a common grammatical error of Chinese speakers of English

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the common grammatical error of Taiwanese students in oral English, namely the omission of the final suffix -s in its three grammatical functions, especially in the 3 rd person singular. The major causes of this error are studied in this paper and further divided into two main categories, the grammatical and phonetic one. The omission of -s is primarily considered as interference error or “negative transfer” caused by non-inflectional nature of the Chinese la...

  3. Children's Aural and Kinesthetic Understanding of Rhythm: Developing an Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of aural and kinesthetic rhythm skill development in elementary school-age children. In this study, I examined my curriculum model for rhythm understanding, which included creating and implementing assessments of movement skills in meter and rhythm. The research questions were: 1.…

  4. A Cultural-Historical Model to Understand and Facilitate Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui Ling

    2015-01-01

    Parents and educators strive to help their children to develop optimally. Given the diversity of values and practices among dynamic modern populations it is important to understand all the dimensions that affect the development of children in their communities. A cultural-historical lens facilitates such a holistic understanding. Taking this lens,…

  5. Grammatical gender in the discourse of multilingual children's acquisition of German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari, Elke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of grammatical gender by multilingual pre-school children (aged six was investigated by observing their narration and discourse. It emerged that only three of the 17 children actually used gender to classify nouns. Grammatical agreement is acknowledged as a key feature of gender acquisition, and it reflects developmental steps. Children growing up with mostly bilingual German input at a low proficiency level had the greatest difficulties in acquiring gender and agreement in the group investigated.

  6. Grammatical Errors In The Translation Of Majalah Mahligai Tradisi, Pernikahan & Gaya Hidup Into English

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The thesis entitled „Grammatical Errors in the Translation of MAJALAH MAHLIGAI TRADISI, PERNIKAHAN & GAYA HIDUP into English‟ is a study on translation. This study appeared because of the importance of translation role in the translation product from Indonesian into English. It was conducted to answer the curiosity of the writer about what kinds of grammatical errors made by the translator in the translation product from Indonesian into English. This magazine was chosen because of many gramma...

  7. On projecting grammatical persons into social neurocognition: a view from linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    Though it draws on the grammatical metaphor of person (first, third, second) in terms of representations, Schilbach et al.'s target article does not consider an orthogonal line of evidence for the centrality of interaction to social cognition: the many grammatical phenomena, some widespread cross-linguistically and some only being discovered, which are geared to supporting real-time interaction. My commentary reviews these, and the contribution linguistic evidence can make to a fuller account of social cognition.

  8. The Difference of Grammatical Error in Writing Recount Text Between Natural Science and Social Science Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Imantha Eko Putra; Gintings, Elia Masa

    2013-01-01

    This study concerned on the difference of grammatical error in writing recount text between natural science and social science students. The objective of this study was to find out the difference of grammatical error in writing recount text between natural science and social science students. This research was conducted by using causal- comparative research. The subject of the study was the students of XI-IPA1 and XI- IPS1 of SMA Swasta Methodist Berastagi. The number of the samples was twent...

  9. The Blame Game: An investigation of Grammatical Aspect and Blame Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eerland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperfective aspect (i.e., Mark was 'punching' John is interpreted by the language processing system as a dynamic, unfolding sequence of actions, whereas perfective aspect (i.e., Mark 'punched' John is interpreted as a complete whole. A recent study showed that grammatical aspect can influence perceptions of intentionality for criminal actions (Hart & Albarracín, 2011. The current study builds on this finding. Five experiments examine whether grammatical aspect can also influence perceptions of blame, a concept related to intentionality. There were no effects of grammatical aspect on judgments of blame but the results showed an effect of narrated order (Experiments 1–3. First-mentioned actions made the agent more to blame for the outcomes than last-mentioned actions. This effect was not due to the order of the blame questions (Experiment 2 or influenced by the chronological order of the events (Experiment 3. Experiments 4 and 5 showed strong effects of grammatical aspect on temporal dynamics and revealed an interesting new finding. Grammatical aspect can influence the mental representation of a non-mentioned action. We discuss our results in light of the current literature on grammatical aspect effects.

  10. Resolving Conflicts in Natural and Grammatical Gender Agreement: Evidence from Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, Maya; Deutsch, Avital; Bock, Kathryn

    2015-08-01

    The present research investigated the attraction phenomenon, which commonly occurs in the domain of production but is also apparent in comprehension. It particularly focused on its accessibility to conceptual influence, in analogy to previous findings in production in Hebrew (Deutsch and Dank, J Mem Lang, 60:112-143, 2009). The experiments made use of the contrast between grammatical and natural gender in Hebrew, using complex subject noun phrases containing head nouns and prepositional phrases with local nouns. Noun phrases were manipulated to produce (a) matches and mismatches in grammatical gender between heads and local nouns; and (b) inanimate nouns and animate nouns with natural gender that served either as head or as local nouns. These noun phrases were the subjects of sentences that ended with predicates agreeing in gender with the head noun, with the local noun, or both. The ungrammatical sentences were those in which the gender of the predicate and the head noun did not match. To assess the impact of conflicts in grammatical and natural gender on the time course of reading, participants' eye movements were monitored. The results revealed clear disruptions in reading the predicate due to grammatical-gender mismatches with head and local nouns, in analogy to attraction in production. When the head nouns conveyed natural gender these effects were amplified, but variations in the natural gender of local nouns had negligible consequences. The results imply that comprehension and production are similarly sensitive to the control of grammatical agreement by grammatical and natural gender in subject noun phrases.

  11. Grammatical morphology is not a sensitive marker of language impairment in Icelandic in children aged 4-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical morphology continues to be widely regarded as an area of extraordinary difficulty in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). A main argument for this view is the purported high diagnostic accuracy of morphological errors for the identification of SLI. However, findings are inconsistent across age groups and across languages. Studies show morphological difficulty to be far less pronounced in more highly inflected languages and the diagnostic accuracy of morphology in such languages is largely unknown. This study examines the morphological use of Icelandic children with and without SLI in a cross-sectional sample of children ranging from preschool age to adolescence and assesses the usefulness of morphology as a clinical marker to identify SLI. Participants were 57 monolingual Icelandic-speaking children age 4-14 years; 31 with SLI and 26 with typical language development (TD). Spontaneous language samples were coded for correct and incorrect use of grammatical morphology. The diversity of use of grammatical morphemes was documented for each group at different age and MLU levels. Individual accuracy scores were plotted against age as well as MLU and diagnostic accuracy was calculated. MLU and morphological accuracy increased with age for both children with SLI and TD, with the two groups gradually approaching each other. Morphological diversity and sequence of acquisition was similar across TD and SLI groups compared based on age or MLU. Morphological accuracy was overall high, but was somewhat lower in the SLI group, in particular at ages below 12 years and MLU levels below 6.0. However, overlap between the groups was important in all age groups, involving a greater tendency for errors in both groups at young ages and scores close to or at ceiling at older ages. Sensitivity rates as well as likelihood ratios for each morpheme were all below the range considered acceptable for clinical application, whereas better specificity rates in some age

  12. Towards an Understanding of Enabling Process Knowing in Global Software Development: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Shared understanding of Software Engineering (SE) processes, that we call process knowing, is required for effective communication and coordination and communication within a team in order to improve team performance. SE Process knowledge can include roles, responsibilities and flow of information...... over a project lifecycle. Developing and sustaining process knowledge can be more challenging in Global Software Development (GSD). GSD distances can limit the ability of a team to develop a common understanding of processes. Anecdotes of the problems caused by lack of common understanding of processes...

  13. Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields for Bioinformatics applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martelli Pier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discriminative models are designed to naturally address classification tasks. However, some applications require the inclusion of grammar rules, and in these cases generative models, such as Hidden Markov Models (HMMs and Stochastic Grammars, are routinely applied. Results We introduce Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields (GRHCRFs as an extension of Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs. GRHCRFs while preserving the discriminative character of HCRFs, can assign labels in agreement with the production rules of a defined grammar. The main GRHCRF novelty is the possibility of including in HCRFs prior knowledge of the problem by means of a defined grammar. Our current implementation allows regular grammar rules. We test our GRHCRF on a typical biosequence labeling problem: the prediction of the topology of Prokaryotic outer-membrane proteins. Conclusion We show that in a typical biosequence labeling problem the GRHCRF performs better than CRF models of the same complexity, indicating that GRHCRFs can be useful tools for biosequence analysis applications. Availability GRHCRF software is available under GPLv3 licence at the website http://www.biocomp.unibo.it/~savojard/biocrf-0.9.tar.gz.

  14. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  15. Probabilistic grammatical model for helix‐helix contact site classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov Models power many state‐of‐the‐art tools in the field of protein bioinformatics. While excelling in their tasks, these methods of protein analysis do not convey directly information on medium‐ and long‐range residue‐residue interactions. This requires an expressive power of at least context‐free grammars. However, application of more powerful grammar formalisms to protein analysis has been surprisingly limited. Results In this work, we present a probabilistic grammatical framework for problem‐specific protein languages and apply it to classification of transmembrane helix‐helix pairs configurations. The core of the model consists of a probabilistic context‐free grammar, automatically inferred by a genetic algorithm from only a generic set of expert‐based rules and positive training samples. The model was applied to produce sequence based descriptors of four classes of transmembrane helix‐helix contact site configurations. The highest performance of the classifiers reached AUCROC of 0.70. The analysis of grammar parse trees revealed the ability of representing structural features of helix‐helix contact sites. Conclusions We demonstrated that our probabilistic context‐free framework for analysis of protein sequences outperforms the state of the art in the task of helix‐helix contact site classification. However, this is achieved without necessarily requiring modeling long range dependencies between interacting residues. A significant feature of our approach is that grammar rules and parse trees are human‐readable. Thus they could provide biologically meaningful information for molecular biologists. PMID:24350601

  16. Grammatical Means of Expressing Emotions in English Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Иванович Озюменко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of expressing emotions in different languages and cultures are nowadays of great interest among researchers. However, traditionally, more attention is paid to lexis, phraseology, prosody, and nonverbal signs of communication and grammatical means are ignored. Nevertherless, they also possess significant emotive potential. The goal of this article is to systematize some facts showing that grammar can implicitly convey various emotions of the speaker and impact the hearer, as well as to draw attention of language teachers and translators to this phenomenon. I will mainly focus on modal verbs and expressions, nontraditional use of tenses, nontraditional use of some adverbs, inverse word order and some other cases summing up the earlier described facts (Ozyumenko 2005-2006, 2007 and supplementing them with new observations. The article emphasizes that discovering emotive implicature, i.e. implicit emotive intention of the speaker, and revealing its meaning is sine qua non for successful intercultural communication and equivalent translation. The data for the research were taken from English language text books, grammar books, dictionaries and fiction. The study implements contextual, definitive, pragmatic, discourse and contrastive analyses.

  17. French Williams syndrome's ability to produce judgments of grammaticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertho, Marie; Ehret, Margot; Schweyer, Juliette; Tyson, Nathalie; Boloh, Yves

    2014-12-01

    This article reports grammatical judgment data from eighteen French Williams syndrome (WS) (mean CA = 21.10; Mean MA = 11.2). Participants had to detect ungrammatical sentences (13 amongst a set of 26 sentences) in telling whether a given sentence was well said or not. Agrammaticality could be due to errors in tense, person agreement, gender agreement, derivational or inflectional morphology, word order and so on. As a group, WS participants scored as seven-year-olds did, far below CA-controls and MA-controls. Scores did not improve with chronological age or mental age but they were related to total IQ and verbal IQ. They showed an important variability, one similar to what was observed in four-year-olds. Although a few WS individuals had good metasyntactic abilities, these abilities generally plateau in our WS group. They were not deviant, however, as the WS's profile of difficulties across items was qualitatively very similar to the one seen in seven-year-olds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  19. Developing Critical Understanding in HRM Students: Using Innovative Teaching Methods to Encourage Deep Approaches to Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael J. R.; Reddy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on developing critical understanding in human resource management (HRM) students in Aston Business School, UK. The paper reveals that innovative teaching methods encourage deep approaches to study, an indicator of students reaching their own understanding of material and ideas. This improves student employability…

  20. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  1. Developing Intercultural Understanding for Study Abroad: Students' and Teachers' Perspectives on Pre-Departure Intercultural Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, P.; Bavieri, L.; Ganassin, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on students' and teachers' perspectives on a programme designed to develop Erasmus students' intercultural understanding prior to going abroad. We aimed to understand how students and their teachers perceived pre-departure materials in promoting their awareness of key concepts related to interculturality (e.g., essentialism,…

  2. The interaction of grammatical aspect and temporal distance in motion descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eAnderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical aspect is known to shape event understanding. However, little is known about how it interacts with other important temporal information, such as recent and distant past. The current work uses computer-mouse tracking (Spivey, Grosjean, & Knoblich, 2005 to explore the interaction of aspect and temporal context. Participants in our experiment listened to past motion event descriptions that varied according to aspect (simple past, past progressive and temporal distance (recent past, distant past while viewing scenes with paths and implied destinations. Participants used a computer mouse to place characters into the scene to match event descriptions. Our results indicated that aspect and temporal context interact in interesting ways. When aspect placed emphasis on the ongoing details of the event and the temporal context was recent (thus, making fine details available in memory, this match between conditions elicited smoother and faster computer mouse movements than when conditions mismatched. Likewise, when aspect placed emphasis on the less-detailed end state of the event and temporal context was in the distant past (thus making fine details less available, this match between conditions also elicited smoother and faster computer mouse movements.

  3. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  4. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    OpenAIRE

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2011-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  5. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  6. Postscript: Researching Stochastic Understanding--The Place of a Developing Research Field in PME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truran, John

    2001-01-01

    Traces some aspects of the development of stochastics education and research to provide a background for understanding the place of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) Stochastics Group in the research process. (MM)

  7. The Relationship between Student Leaders' Constructive Development, Their Leadership Identity, and Their Understanding of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Valerie I.; Ploskonka, Jillian; Alvarez, Elphys L.; Dourdis, Steven; Dixon, Christopher; Bragger, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to use Day, Harrison, and Halpin's, (2009) theory of leadership development as a premise to investigate how students' constructive development is related to their leader identity development and understanding of leadership. Baxter Magolda's Model of Epistemological Reflection (MER, 1988, 2001) was used to understand…

  8. Understanding by Design (UbD) in EFL Teaching: Teachers' Professional Development and Students' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, Nihal; Altun, Sertel

    2017-01-01

    Concepts such as teachers' professional development and students' achievement act as the driving force for the development of each in a causal relationship in EFL teaching, as in many other disciplines. The purpose of this study is to investigate the change Understanding by Design (UbD) made on teachers' professional development and students'…

  9. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  10. Dynamic use of geoscience information to develop scientific understanding for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository. Scientific understanding dependent upon information from a number of geoscience disciplines is described. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. The authors point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure

  11. DIGCOMP: a Framework for Developing and Understanding Digital Competence in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    FERRARI Anusca; BRECKO BARBARA; PUNIE Yves

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the digital competence framework developed by EC JRC IPTS on behalf of DG Education and Culture with the overall aim to contribute to the better understanding and development of digital competence in Europe. Digital competence is one of the eight key competences for lifelong learning and is essential for participation in our increasingly digitalised society. It is therefore necessary to understand and define what digital competence is and consists of. The paper discusses v...

  12. Kyoto University Students' Grammatical Abilities and Listening Comprehension as Measured by the TOEFL PBT and GRE

    OpenAIRE

    Aotani, Masayasu

    2012-01-01

    Kyoto University students' grammatical and syntactic skills, as well as their short listening comprehension skills, were compared with the corresponding world averages as measured by TOEFL. Grammatical and syntactic skills were operationalized as the structure (gap filling) and written expression (grammatical error detection) section scores from the TOEFL PBT (Paper-Based-Test) and the scores from the GRE's gap filling questions. Short listening comprehension skills were operationalized as th...

  13. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE GAP BETWEEN KOREAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL AWARENESS AND PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Im Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the consistent emphasis on grammar instruction in English classrooms in South Korea, studies regarding grammar instruction have not yet been extensively conducted. The present study aims to discover the gap between learners’ grammatical awareness and their perception of major grammatical items. A total of 60 EFL learners from two local universities in South Korea participated in the study and were divided into two groups, a high-level and a low-level group. A set of tests was utilized to examine learners’ grammatical awareness and their perception of six major grammatical items—tense, prepositions, articles, voices, morphology, and vocabulary. The results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the scores of tense, article, and voice for grammatical awareness between the high-level and the low-level group. Also, both groups scored high for the category of voice while they received low scores for vocabulary and morphology. In addition, they showed a significant difference in the scores for the perceived difficulty of articles and voice. The high-level group perceived voice as the most difficult, whereas the low-level group perceived articles as the most difficult. These findings demonstrate a gap between the learners’ grammar awareness and perception and highlight a need to design an individualized curriculum for the effectiveness of teaching as well as self-initiated studying.

  14. Measuring and Comparing Academic Language Development and Conceptual Understanding via Science Notebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this quantitative study measured and compared the academic language development and conceptual understanding of fifth-grade economically disadvantaged English language learners (ELL), former ELLs, and native English-speaking (ES) students as reflected in their science notebook scores. Using an instrument they developed, the authors…

  15. Career Development Practitioners as Advocates for Transgender Individuals: Understanding Gender Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii

    2009-01-01

    Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…

  16. Children's Perspectives as "Touch Downs" in Time: Assessing and Developing Children's Understanding Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Pramling, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    In this article, getting access to children's perspectives is presented as a prerequisite for assessing as well as developing children's understanding. Children's perspectives are analysed through examples taken from three domains of knowledge: music, mathematics and nature. The issues of assessing and developing children's knowledge are discussed…

  17. The Development of Mature Capabilities for Understanding and Valuing Technology through School Project Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallies, Michael; Wellensiek, Anneliese; Lembens, Anja

    This paper describes a German project that developed students' capabilities for understanding and valuing biotechnology and genetic engineering, focusing on practical fieldwork with schools by an interdisciplinary team. The paper identifies the characteristics of individual and structural preconditions and their development during active project…

  18. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  19. Beyond Sally's missing marble: further development in children's understanding of mind and emotion in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Kramer, Hannah J; Kennedy, Katie; Hjortsvang, Karen; Goldfarb, Deborah; Tashjian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Research on the development of theory of mind (ToM), the understanding of people in relation to mental states and emotions, has been a vibrant area of cognitive development research. Because the dominant focus has been addressing when children acquire a ToM, researchers have concentrated their efforts on studying the emergence of psychological understanding during infancy and early childhood. Here, the benchmark test has been the false-belief task, the awareness that the mind can misrepresent reality. While understanding false belief is a critical milestone achieved by the age of 4 or 5, children make further advances in their knowledge about mental states and emotions during middle childhood and beyond. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of children's sociocognitive abilities in older age groups is necessary to understand more fully the course of ToM development. The aim of this review is to outline continued development in ToM during middle childhood. In particular, we focus on children's understanding of interpretation-that different minds can construct different interpretations of the same reality. Additionally, we consider children's growing understanding of how mental states (thoughts, emotions, decisions) derive from personal experiences, cohere across time, and interconnect (e.g., thoughts shape emotions). We close with a discussion of the surprising paucity of studies investigating individual differences in ToM beyond age 6. Our hope is that this chapter will invigorate empirical interest in moving the pendulum toward the opposite research direction-toward exploring strengths, limitations, variability, and persistent errors in developing theories of mind across the life span. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Retreat from Locative Overgeneralisation Errors: A Novel Verb Grammaticality Judgment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgood, Amy; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Rowland, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Whilst some locative verbs alternate between the ground- and figure-locative constructions (e.g. Lisa sprayed the flowers with water/Lisa sprayed water onto the flowers), others are restricted to one construction or the other (e.g. *Lisa filled water into the cup/*Lisa poured the cup with water). The present study investigated two proposals for how learners (aged 5–6, 9–10 and adults) acquire this restriction, using a novel-verb-learning grammaticality-judgment paradigm. In support of the semantic verb class hypothesis, participants in all age groups used the semantic properties of novel verbs to determine the locative constructions (ground/figure/both) in which they could and could not appear. In support of the frequency hypothesis, participants' tolerance of overgeneralisation errors decreased with each increasing level of verb frequency (novel/low/high). These results underline the need to develop an integrated account of the roles of semantics and frequency in the retreat from argument structure overgeneralisation. PMID:24830412

  1. Investigating Lexico-grammaticality in Academic Abstracts and Their Full Research Papers from a Diachronic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeh Valipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of science and academic knowledge has led to changes in academic language and transfer of information and knowledge. In this regard, the present study is an attempt to investigate lexico-grammaticality in academic abstracts and their full research papers in Linguistics, Chemistry and Electrical engineering papers published during 1991-2015 in academic journals from a diachronic perspective through quantitative research design. The focus of this paper is on transitivity, mood and theme analysis in the corpus according to Halliday's (1994 systemic functional linguistics model. So, all the attempts are to find the changes in abstracts and research papers of these disciplines and how they are to be positioned in different linguistic contexts over time. The results revealed that research papers employ the spectrum of possible lexical realization quite differently as compared to general English, especially concerning the use of specific lexical items. Also, the results of chi-squares of each discipline showed that there are significant differences between papers over time at .05 level of significance (.000< .05 with regard to the transitivity, mood, and theme.

  2. Lexical constraints in second language learning: Evidence on grammatical gender in German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobb, Susan C; Kroll, Judith F; Jackson, Carrie N

    2015-07-01

    The present study asked whether or not the apparent insensitivity of second language (L2) learners to grammatical gender violations reflects an inability to use grammatical information during L2 lexical processing. Native German speakers and English speakers with intermediate to advanced L2 proficiency in German performed a translation-recognition task. On critical trials, an incorrect translation was presented that either matched or mismatched the grammatical gender of the correct translation. Results show interference for native German speakers in conditions in which the incorrect translation matched the gender of the correct translation. Native English speakers, regardless of German proficiency, were insensitive to the gender mismatch. In contrast, these same participants were correctly able to assign gender to critical items. These findings suggest a dissociation between explicit knowledge and the ability to use that information under speeded processing conditions and demonstrate the difficulty of L2 gender processing at the lexical level.

  3. When leaf becomes neuter: event-related potential evidence for grammatical gender transfer in bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Schiller, Niels O

    2011-02-16

    This study addressed the question as to whether grammatical properties of a first language are transferred to a second language. Dutch-English bilinguals classified Dutch words in white print according to their grammatical gender and colored words (i.e. Dutch common and neuter words, and their English translations) according to their color. Both the classifications were made with the same hand (congruent trials) or different hands (incongruent trials). Performance was more erroneous and the error-elated negativity was enhanced on incongruent compared with congruent trials. This effect was independent of the language in which words were presented. These results provide evidence for the fact that bilinguals may transfer grammatical characteristics of their first language to a second language, even when such characteristics are absent in the grammar of the latter.

  4. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  5. Competition between Word Order and Case-Marking in Interpreting Grammatical Relations: A Case Study in Multilingual Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    The study examines strategies multilingual children use to interpret grammatical relations, focusing on their two primary languages, Lajamanu Warlpiri and Light Warlpiri. Both languages use mixed systems for indicating grammatical relations. In both languages ergative-absolutive case-marking indicates core arguments, but to different extents in…

  6. Effect of Different Teaching Techniques on the Acquisition of Grammatical Gender by Beginning German Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzt, Jessica; Kost, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The grammatical gender of German nouns continues to pose a challenge to second language learners. Following from a connectionist framework, this study explores the effect of two input enhancement techniques, color-coding and gendered actors, on the learning of grammatical gender by beginning learners of German during a vocabulary acquisition…

  7. Disasters and development: Part 2: understanding and exploiting disaster-development linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob S; DuFrane, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Disasters can impede the effectiveness of development resource allocation. The damage sustained from an event can be classified into four categories: (1) Loss of resources; (2) Interruption of programs and switching of crucial resources to other, shorter-term needs; (3) Negative impacts upon investment climates; and/or (4) Disruption of the non-formal sector (local businesses). Disasters have a particularly destructive economic impact in areas in which there are few alternatives for assets that are destroyed or in areas in which the resources already are at critical levels. Development processes can both increase and/or decrease the vulnerability of a society to hazards. There are dearly established linkages between poverty, marginalization, over-population, and vulnerability. To a large extent, vulnerability derives from poverty. The poor are more likely to live in vulnerable areas (slopes prone to landslides, flood plains, marginal agricultural land), have difficulty accessing education and information, have fewer assets to invest in resources to reduce vulnerability, and are more prone to become malnourished and have chronic illnesses that predispose them to injury and death. Development may be associated with the production of new hazards accepted by a society because the perceived benefits of the development project far exceed the relative risk associated with the project. Therefore, risk assessments must be part of any program planning and evaluation. Training and education are of critical importance in preventing increased vulnerability as a result of development strategies. Development also can progress in a manner that will result in mitigation of the impacts of an event on a given society (increase absorbing capacity and/or buffering capacity, elimination of hazards or the risk of them producing a disaster). Such mitigation measures can be either structural or nonstructural. There exists a wide range of options for incorporating mitigation measures in

  8. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  9. Dynamic use of geoscience information to develop scientific understanding for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository require a proper scientific understanding of the site response. Such scientific understanding depends on information from a number of geoscience disciplines, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics and hydrogeology. The information comes in four stages: (1) general regional survey data base, (2) surface-based testing, (3) exploratory shaft testing, and (4) repository construction and evaluation. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. We point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure. 2 figs

  10. Describing Pre-Service Teachers' Developing Understanding of Elementary Number Theory Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ziv

    2012-01-01

    Although elementary number theory topics are closely linked to foundational topics in number and operations and are prevalent in elementary and middle grades mathematics curricula, little is currently known about how students and teachers make sense of them. This study investigated pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of…

  11. Students' Perceptions and Development of Conceptual Understanding Regarding Trigonometry and Trigonometric Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse university level mathematics education students' perceptions on conceptual understanding of trigonometry and trigonometric functions and their content development of these concepts. A case study was conducted with 90 freshman students of Elementary Mathematics Department. The data were gathered via a scale; they included…

  12. A Design Study to Develop Young Children's Understanding of Multiplication and Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung

    2016-01-01

    This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in…

  13. Developing Essential Understanding of Functions for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gwendolyn; Beckmann, Sybilla; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Cooney, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Are sequences functions? What can't the popular "vertical line test" be applied in some cases to determine if a relation is a function? How does the idea of rate of change connect with simpler ideas about proportionality as well as more advanced topics in calculus? Helping high school students develop a robust understanding of functions requires…

  14. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Noticing of Students' Understanding of the Derivative Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Matamoros, Gloria; Fernández, Ceneida; Llinares, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This research study examines the development of the ability of pre-service teachers to notice signs of students' understanding of the derivative concept. It analyses preservice teachers' interpretations of written solutions to problems involving the derivative concept before and after participating in a teacher training module. The results…

  15. Development of a Student-Centered Instrument to Assess Middle School Students' Conceptual Understanding of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and field test of the Sound Concept Inventory Instrument (SCII), designed to measure middle school students' concepts of sound. The instrument was designed based on known students' difficulties in understanding sound and the history of science related to sound and focuses on two main aspects of sound: sound…

  16. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action: Understanding the MRV framework for developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir

    The objective of the publication is to enhance the knowledge of the policymakers and decision makers in developing countries on MRV systems,including requirement of operationalizing such a system. The paper is also aimed at increasing the understanding of MRV aspects among sectoral experts and de...

  17. Towards a Shared Understanding of Skill Shortages: Differing Perceptions of Training and Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Denise; Saunders, Mark N. K.; Beresford, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The question of how to develop human capabilities to meet current and future needs of organisations has become an important issue at national, organisational and individual levels. An essential ingredient is shared understanding of the skills and competences deemed necessary and/or desirable for current and future performance. Current indications…

  18. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  19. The development of English grammar and reading comprehension by majority and minority language children in a bilingual primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Anja K. Steinlen

    2017-01-01

    Both for the first language (L1) and for all additional languages (L2 or L3), grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005). However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a minority language background. This longitudinal study, therefore, examined minority and majority language children’s English grammar and reading compre...

  20. Reflection for learning: understanding the value of reflective writing for information literacy development

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, P.A.; Sen, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective writing has long been acknowledged as an important aspect of personal and professional development. There is increasing evidence of the use of reflective writing assessments and activities in the context of information literacy education, particular in Higher Education. Writing reflectively can help students to understand their own information literacy development and engage in deeper learning. Students on an undergraduate Business Intelligence module at the University of Sheffield...

  1. GRAMMATICAL MISTAKES IN RELATION TO ENGLISH COMPETENCY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Gde Sosiowati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at finding out the freshmen’s ability on English grammar. This is very important activity so that the English department knows their level of ability so that the teaching materials can be determined. The test is about structure, taken from TOEFL. The theory used is the theory English Language Teaching, especially Testing by Harmer (2001, in which the test is used as diagnostic test. The result of the test will provide the information about three crucial points on grammar that must be developed. This will help the related teacher to decide what items should be taught so that by the end of the semester, at least most of the students can reach the level of Intermediate, that is the level in which the students are capable of doing conversations on routines, u nderstanding lectures, understanding English TV programs (http://www.embassyenglish.com/student-life/yourlevel-of-english cited on 19 January 2015.

  2. Challenges and Changes: Developing Teachers' and Initial Teacher Education Students' Understandings of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Gillian; Haigh, Mavis

    2017-12-01

    Teachers need an understanding of the nature of science (NOS) to enable them to incorporate NOS into their teaching of science. The current study examines the usefulness of a strategy for challenging or changing teachers' understandings of NOS. The teachers who participated in this study were 10 initial teacher education chemistry students and six experienced teachers from secondary and primary schools who were introduced to an explicit and reflective activity, a dramatic reading about a historical scientific development. Concept maps were used before and after the activity to assess teachers' knowledge of NOS. The participants also took part in a focus group interview to establish whether they perceived the activity as useful in developing their own understanding of NOS. Initial analysis led us to ask another group, comprising seven initial teacher education chemistry students, to take part in a modified study. These participants not only completed the same tasks as the previous participants but also completed a written reflection commenting on whether the activity and focus group discussion enhanced their understanding of NOS. Both Lederman et al.'s (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 497-521, 2002) concepts of NOS and notions of "naive" and "informed" understandings of NOS and Hay's (Studies in Higher Education, 32(1), 39-57, 2007) notions of "surface" and "deep" learning were used as frameworks to examine the participants' specific understandings of NOS and the depth of their learning. The ways in which participants' understandings of NOS were broadened or changed by taking part in the dramatic reading are presented. The impact of the data-gathering tools on the participants' professional learning is also discussed.

  3. [Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Rayla Amaral; Veríssimo, Maria de La Ó Ramallo

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension), minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  4. It's Rather like Learning a Language: Development of talk and conceptual understanding in mechanics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincke, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students' talk about the subject. The paper presents an in-depth investigation of students' talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research goal was to investigate and understand how students develop an understanding of the concept of force and how they use and understand the term 'force'. Therefore, we make relation to the research field of students' preconceptions and the field of second language learning. Two classes of students (N = 47) were videotaped during a time period of nine lessons, each transcribed and analysed using a category system. Additional data were obtained via written tasks, logs kept by the students, and tests. The detailed analysis of the talk and the results of the tests indicate that students face difficulties in using the term 'force' scientifically similar to those in a foreign language instruction. Vygotsky already recognised a relationship between learning in science and learning a language. In this paper, important aspects of this relationship are discussed based upon empirical data. We conclude that in some respects it might be useful to make reference to the research related to language learning when thinking about improving science education. In particular, according to Selinker's concept of interlanguage describing language-learning processes within language instruction, the language used by the students during physics lessons can be viewed as a 'scientific interlanguage'.

  5. A Comparison of the Grammatical Production of Child Heritage Speakers of Spanish across Language and Grade: Kindergarten and Grade 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Rodriguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we elicited grammatical forms (oral production from a group of child heritage speakers of Spanish (N = 45 in English and Spanish, using the morphosyntax subtest of the Bilingual English–Spanish Assessment (BESA, (Peña et al. 2014. A cross-sectional design was used with 25 participants in kindergarten and 20 in first grade. All children spoke Spanish at home and attended English rural schools. We controlled for L2 class environment and socio-economic status. Research findings indicated children produced more target structures in L1 Spanish. This project supports the view that sequential bilingualism and continuous exposure to the heritage language may assist heritage speakers to maintain some L1 structures (Miller and Cuza 2013; Pascual y Cabo and Gómez Soler 2015. Patterns of L2 development are also addressed.

  6. Linguistic Feature Development Across Grades and Genre in Elementary Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mills, Shannon; Apel, Kenn

    2015-07-01

    As children develop skills in writing across academic contexts, clinicians and educators need to have a fundamental understanding of typical writing development as well as valid and reliable assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the progression of linguistic elements in school-age children's narrative and expository writing development. Narrative and expository writing samples produced by 89 children in Grades 2 through 4 were analyzed at the microstructure and macrostructure levels. Measures of receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, and reading comprehension were obtained. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 4 microstructure factors (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity, grammatical accuracy, and lexical density) and 1 macrostructure factor (e.g., a combination of organization, text structure, and cohesion). Multivariate analyses of covariance with reading comprehension as a covariate showed that productivity and macrostructure were sensitive to grade-level and genre differences and that expository grammatical complexity was sensitive to grade-level differences. Findings are discussed in light of grade-level standards for narrative and expository writing and current practices in writing assessment. Multiple suggestions are offered for clinical and educational implications, and specific directions are provided for future research.

  7. The everyday lives of video game developers: Experimentally understanding underlying systems/structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey O'Donnell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how tensions between work and play for video game developers shape the worlds they create. The worlds of game developers, whose daily activity is linked to larger systems of experimentation and technoscientific practice, provide insights that transcend video game development work. The essay draws on ethnographic material from over 3 years of fieldwork with video game developers in the United States and India. It develops the notion of creative collaborative practice based on work in the fields of science and technology studies, game studies, and media studies. The importance of, the desire for, or the drive to understand underlying systems and structures has become fundamental to creative collaborative practice. I argue that the daily activity of game development embodies skills fundamental to creative collaborative practice and that these capabilities represent fundamental aspects of critical thought. Simultaneously, numerous interests have begun to intervene in ways that endanger these foundations of creative collaborative practice.

  8. Developing mathematics edutainment media for Android based on students’ understanding and interest: a teachers’ review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningrum, W.; Waryanto, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper aimed to describe the development of interactive edutainment mathematics media using Construct 2 software for grade 7 Junior High School, and to determine the quality of the interactive edutainment media developed in regards to improve students’ understanding and interest. This research employs Research and Development design, which media was developed using ADDIE model consisting of analysing, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating. This paper focuses on the steps of development and validity of the interactive media from teachers’ point of view. The teachers review focuses on three aspects – instructional, audio-visual and operational design. The review suggested that the media was very good in regard to the three aspects, with the average score was 144.55 from the maximum score of 175. Several contexts used in the game, however, need to be adjusted to students age.

  9. Grammatical number processing and anticipatory eye movements are not tightly coordinated in English spoken language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eRiordan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of eye movements in world-situated language comprehension have demonstrated that rapid processing of morphosyntactic information – e.g., grammatical gender and number marking – can produce anticipatory eye movements to referents in the visual scene. We investigated how type of morphosyntactic information and the goals of language users in comprehension affected eye movements, focusing on the processing of grammatical number morphology in English-speaking adults. Participants’ eye movements were recorded as they listened to simple English declarative (There are the lions. and interrogative (Where are the lions? sentences. In Experiment 1, no differences were observed in speed to fixate target referents when grammatical number information was informative relative to when it was not. The same result was obtained in a speeded task (Experiment 2 and in a task using mixed sentence types (Experiment 3. We conclude that grammatical number processing in English and eye movements to potential referents are not tightly coordinated. These results suggest limits on the role of predictive eye movements in concurrent linguistic and scene processing. We discuss how these results can inform and constrain predictive approaches to language processing.

  10. Grammatical Error Diagnosis in Fluid Construction Grammar: A Case Study in L2 Spanish Verb Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuls, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    Construction grammar (CG) has been proposed as an adequate grammatical formalism for building intelligent language tutoring systems because it is highly compatible with the learning strategies observed in second language learning. Unfortunately, the lack of computational CG implementations has made it impossible in the past to corroborate these…

  11. Grammatical Constructions in Cri du Chat Syndrome--Findings from a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2009-01-01

    The literature on grammatical skills in persons with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS) is very limited, and the need for more knowledge in this area is thus evident, in particular for speech and language therapists working with individuals with this syndrome. This case study report describes the syntactic skills of a 14-year-old Norwegian girl with CCS.…

  12. Effects of Length, Complexity, and Grammatical Correctness on Stuttering in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…

  13. Basic lexical and grammatical transformations in translation of German print advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents basic lexical and grammatical transformations, which contribute to preserving the semantic and syntactic structure of a German advertising text and reproducing the image of the advertised product. This shows that the translation has the same communicative effect as that achieved by the source text.

  14. Iranian EFL Learners' Grammatical Knowledge: Effect of Direct and Metalinguistic Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Zahra Kheradmand; Saadat, Mahboobeh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the impact of direct and metalinguistic written corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners' grammatical knowledge. The participants were a convenient sample of students in two intact writing classes. The instruction provided in both groups was similar; however, the students in one group received direct…

  15. Noun or Verb? Adult Readers' Sensitivity to Spelling Cues to Grammatical Category in Word Endings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Nenagh; Nilsson, Jodi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The spelling of many disyllabic English word endings holds cues to their grammatical category, beyond obvious inflectional endings such as "-ing" for verbs. For example, some letter sequences are clearly associated with nouns (e.g., "-oon") and others with verbs (e.g., "-erge"). This study extended recent research by Arciuli and Cupples (2006),…

  16. Negative Input for Grammatical Errors: Effects after a Lag of 12 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Matthew; Backley, Phillip; Gallaway, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Effects of negative input for 13 categories of grammatical error were assessed in a longitudinal study of naturalistic adult-child discourse. Two-hour samples of conversational interaction were obtained at two points in time, separated by a lag of 12 weeks, for 12 children (mean age 2;0 at the start). The data were interpreted within the framework…

  17. Is the adjective distinct from the noun as a grammatical category in biblical Hebrew?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The adjective is a beleaguered category in biblical Hebrew grammar with many grammars of biblical Hebrew denying that the adjective is a category distinct from substantives. Within a variety of linguistic theories, the status of the adjective as a grammatical category is also debated. Cross-linguistically adjectives exhibit extraordinary variety: in some languages showing similarities to nouns, in others to verbs and in still others to both nouns and verbs. The debate concerning the status of the adjective is mirrored by the broader debate within contemporary linguistics concerning how the issue of grammatical categorisation ought to be approached. In this article, we re-examine the question of whether or not the adjective is a distinct grammatical category from the noun in biblical Hebrew. We approach the question of the status of the adjective as a grammatical category from two perspectives: morphology and syntax.

  18. Timed and Untimed Grammaticality Judgments Measure Distinct Types of Knowledge: Evidence from Eye-Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Loewen, Shawn; Jung, Sehoon; Park, Ji-Hyun; Gass, Susan; Ellis, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Grammaticality judgment tests (GJTs) have been used to elicit data reflecting second language (L2) speakers' knowledge of L2 grammar. However, the exact constructs measured by GJTs, whether primarily implicit or explicit knowledge, are disputed and have been argued to differ depending on test-related variables (i.e., time pressure and item…

  19. Incidental Acquisition of Grammatical Features during Reading in L1 and L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Kirschenbaum, Amit; Opitz, Andreas; Rogahn, Maria; Tschirner, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the initial stages of incidental acquisition of two grammatical properties of verbs (subcategorization and [ir]regularity) during reading in first language (L1) and second language (L2) German using an adjusted self-paced reading paradigm. The results indicate that L1 speakers are superior to L2 speakers in the…

  20. Factors of success and failure in the acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornips, L.; Hulk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine the factors that are proposed in the literature to explain the success—failure in the child L2 (second language) acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch definite determiners. Focusing on four different groups of bilingual children, we discuss four external

  1. Can Late L2 Learners Acquire New Grammatical Features? Evidence from ERPs and Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    We report a series of ERP and eye-tracking experiments investigating, (a) whether English-French learners can process grammatical gender online, (b) whether cross-linguistic similarities influence this ability, and (c) whether the syntactic distance between elements affects agreement processing. To address these questions we visually presented…

  2. Can Colors, Voices, and Images Help Learners Acquire the Grammatical Gender of German Nouns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias de Oliveira Santos, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of lexical items is arguably the most essential aspect of being able to communicate in a foreign language (Richards, 2000). Many studies have examined effective strategies for retaining the meaning of foreign words, but studies investigating the effectiveness of different methods for the retention of essential grammatical features of…

  3. Grammatical objections to the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, adopted at Cambridge in 1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1935-01-01

    It is generally known that botanical nomenclature, though sprung from mediaeval scientific Latin, and agreeing, in its orthography for the greater part, in its grammar as much as possible, with classical Latin, shows countless forms which not only from a classical-grammatical, but also from a

  4. The Representation of Grammatical Gender in the Bilingual Lexicon: Evidence from Greek and German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamoura, Angeliki; Williams, John N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the shared or independent nature of grammatical gender representations in the bilingual mental lexicon and the role word form similarity (as in the case of cognates) plays in these representations. In a translation task from Greek (L1) to German (L2), nouns that had the same gender in both languages were translated faster…

  5. The acquisition of grammatical gender in L2 German by learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In recent years there has been an increase in research on the acquisition of morphological aspects of a second language (L2). Specifically, a number of studies have been conducted on the acquisition of grammatical gender in the L2. The study reported in this paper investigated the adult L2 acquisition of.

  6. Aspects on Aspect : Theory and Applications of Grammatical Aspect in Spanish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González González, P.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of disciplines related to the grammatical phenomenon of aspect. There are several claims advocated in this thesis, according to the different disciplines dealt with in each chapter. Chapter 1 claims that intra-sentential semantic structure contains three potential

  7. The Relation of Utterance Length to Grammatical Complexity in Normal and Language-Disordered Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Hollis S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines mean length of utterance (MLU) in morphemes as a predictor of the grammatical complexity of the natural language corpora of normal preschoolers and of children and adolescents with delayed language, Fragile X Syndrome, Down Syndrome, and autism. (43 references) (GLR)

  8. Grammatical gender and the notion of default: insights from language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimpli, I.M.; Hulk, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the contrast in the timing of acquisition of grammatical gender attested in Dutch and Greek child learners. Greek children show precocious acquisition of neuter gender in particular, while Dutch children experience a long delay in the acquisition of neuter

  9. L1 Influence on the Acquisition Order of English Grammatical Morphemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira; Alexopoulou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    We revisit morpheme studies to evaluate the long-standing claim for a universal order of acquisition. We investigate the L2 acquisition order of six English grammatical morphemes by learners from seven L1 groups across five proficiency levels. Data are drawn from approximately 10,000 written exam scripts from the Cambridge Learner Corpus. The…

  10. ICALL for Improving Korean L2 Writers' Ability to Edit Grammatical Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ron; Choo, Jinhee; Lee, Gabseon Sunny

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates how a synergy of two technologies--Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) and corpus linguistic analysis--can produce a lasting improvement in L2 learners' ability to edit persistent grammatical errors from their writing. A large written English corpus produced by Korean undergraduate and graduate students…

  11. The Impact of Teacher Corrective Feedback on EFL Student Writers' Grammatical Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermsook, Kanyakorn; Liamnimitr, Jiraporn; Pochakorn, Rattaneekorn

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to provide information about teacher corrective feedback that would be helpful for EFL students' writing improvement. It focuses on feedback provided to correct grammatical errors made by student writers as the author finds that this type of errors can obstruct the effectiveness of students' pieces of writing and may result in…

  12. Grammatical versus Pragmatic Error: Employer Perceptions of Nonnative and Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna; Shanmugaraj, Nisha; Sipe, Jaclyn

    2016-01-01

    Many communication instructors make allowances for grammatical error in nonnative English speakers' writing, but do businesspeople do the same? We asked 169 businesspeople to comment on three versions of an email with different types of errors. We found that businesspeople do make allowances for errors made by nonnative English speakers,…

  13. The Dead Butler Revisited: Grammatical Accuracy and Clarity in the English Primary Curriculum 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Huw

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the grammatical description and advice contained in the new National Curriculum documentation from 2013, focusing on key stages 1 and 2. It builds on previous analyses of deficiencies in the systems of grammar and the materials in earlier incarnations of the National Curriculum. It…

  14. Categorizing with Gender: Does Implicit Grammatical Gender Affect Semantic Processing in 24-Month-Old Toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobb, Susan C.; Mani, Nivedita

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the interaction of implicit grammatical gender and semantic category knowledge during object identification. German-learning toddlers (24-month-olds) were presented with picture pairs and heard a noun (without a preceding article) labeling one of the pictures. Labels for target and distracter images either matched or…

  15. The usefulness of the grammaticality-acceptability distinction in functional approaches to language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between grammaticality and acceptability has been regarded with strong skepticism in functional linguistics because of its origin in Chomskyan linguistics. In this paper I will argue that the distinction is useful in functional linguistics, provided that it is based on a distincti...

  16. L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

  17. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs and prepositions occur in Standard English sentences, they are produced in their weak forms. The concern of this study is whether educated Yoruba English speakers appropriately use the weak forms of English grammatical words in their sentences or not. One hundred Educated ...

  18. Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphology by Internationally Adopted Children from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lara J.; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results…

  19. The Discriminant Accuracy of a Grammatical Measure with Latino English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure for the identification of language impairment (LI) in Latino English-speaking children. Specifically, the study examined the diagnostic accuracy of the Test of English Morphosyntax (E-MST; Pena, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias, Goldstein, & Bedore (n.d.) to determine (a)…

  20. A grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 English use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assessment tool for the grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 speech of four schizophrenics and four (non-psychotic) controls who were matched to the schizophrenics in terms of age, gender and first language (L1) and L2 dialects. Following a comparison of the types and frequency of the two groups' phonological, ...

  1. Enfocando la competencia linguistica: concienciacion gramatical (Focusing on Linguistic Competence: Grammatical Consciousness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Gavin

    1997-01-01

    Argues that communicative competence in Spanish as a second language can not be taught without giving attention to the grammatical component of language. Compares aspects of the traditional and communicative approaches to language teaching, refers to theory on grammar instruction, and offers examples of classroom activities supporting the learning…

  2. The Role of the Verb in Grammatical Function Assignment in English and Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heeju; Kaiser, Elsi

    2014-01-01

    One of the central questions in speech production is how speakers decide which entity to assign to which grammatical function. According to the lexical hypothesis (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994), verbs play a key role in this process (e.g., "send" and "receive" result in different entities being assigned to the subject…

  3. Do grammatical-gender distinctions learned in the second language influence native-language lexical processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Smith, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    How does learning a second language influence native language processing? In the present study, we examined whether knowledge of Spanish - a language that marks grammatical gender on inanimate nouns - influences lexical processing in English - a language that does not mark grammatical gender. We tested three groups of adult English native speakers: monolinguals, emergent bilinguals with high exposure to Spanish, and emergent bilinguals with low exposure to Spanish. Participants engaged in an associative learning task in English where they learned to associate names of inanimate objects with proper names. For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun's Spanish translation matched the gender of the proper name (e.g., corn-Patrick). For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun's Spanish translation mismatched the gender of the proper noun (e.g., beach-William). High-Spanish-exposure bilinguals (but not monolinguals or low-Spanish-exposure bilinguals) were less accurate at retrieving proper names for gender-incongruent than for gender-congruent pairs. This indicates that second-language morphosyntactic information is activated during native-language processing, even when the second language is acquired later in life.

  4. Generating or developing grounded theory: methods to understand health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology that aims to explain social phenomena, e.g. why particular motivations or patterns of behaviour occur, at a conceptual level. Developed in the 1960s by Glaser and Strauss, the methodology has been reinterpreted by Strauss and Corbin in more recent times, resulting in different schools of thought. Differences arise from different philosophical perspectives concerning knowledge (epistemology) and the nature of reality (ontology), demanding that researchers make clear theoretical choices at the commencement of their research when choosing this methodology. Compared to other qualitative methods it has ability to achieve understanding of, rather than simply describing, a social phenomenon. Achieving understanding however, requires theoretical sampling to choose interviewees that can contribute most to the research and understanding of the phenomenon, and constant comparison of interviews to evaluate the same event or process in different settings or situations. Sampling continues until conceptual saturation is reached, i.e. when no new concepts emerge from the data. Data analysis focusses on categorising data (finding the main elements of what is occurring and why), and describing those categories in terms of properties (conceptual characteristics that define the category and give meaning) and dimensions (the variations within properties which produce specificity and range). Ultimately a core category which theoretically explains how all other categories are linked together is developed from the data. While achieving theoretical abstraction in the core category, it should be logical and capture all of the variation within the data. Theory development requires understanding of the methodology not just working through a set of procedures. This article provides a basic overview, set in the literature surrounding grounded theory, for those wanting to increase their understanding and quality of research output.

  5. Development of the living thing transportation systems worksheet on learning cycle model to increase student understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, E.; Nurohman, S.; Widowati, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to know: 1) the feasibility LKPD review of aspects of the didactic requirements, construction requirements, technical requirements and compliance with the Learning Cycle. 2) Increase understanding of learners with Learning Model Learning Cycle in SMP N 1 Wates in the form LKPD. 3) The response of learners and educators SMP N 1 Wates to quality LKPD Transportation Systems Beings. This study is an R & D with the 4D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate). Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis in the form of advice description and assessment scores from all validates that was converted to a scale of 4. While the analysis of quantitative data by calculating the percentage of materializing learning and achievement using the standard gain an increased understanding and calculation of the KKM completeness evaluation value as an indicator of the achievement of students understanding. the results of this study yield LKPD IPA model learning Cycle theme Transportation Systems Beings obtain 108.5 total scores of a maximum score of 128 including the excellent category (A). LKPD IPA developed able to demonstrate an improved understanding of learners and the response of learners was very good to this quality LKPD IPA.

  6. Towards the Problem of Translating Grammatical Means of Protagonists’ Speech Characteristics in Fictional Discourse (English-Russian Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Kozarenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on translating techniques in reference to grammatical means of reflecting protagonists’ speech characetristics in fictional discourse. The research is based on English-Russian translations. Grammatical markers of protagonists’ speech are viewed as one of the most essential means of creating a fictional character and hence, objectivating the author’s intention. Any cases of neutralization of the above-mentioned grammatical markers are considered to lead to a substantional loss of both factual information and emotionalappraisive component in the majority of cases. Thus, compensation strategies with regard to grammatical markers of speech are seen as indispensable. The basic methods of reseach include the method of comparative analysis of the original and translated texts coupled with the method of contextual analysis. The equivalence of compensation relating to grammatical means of protagonists’ speech characterictics in translated text is assessed; in cases of neutralizations of grammatical markers the reasonability of neutralization is analyzed and compensation strategies are worked out; the most effective techniques are specificated. Functional transformation on a par with stylistic compensation based on lexical transformations are viewed among the most effective translating techniques with regard to grammatical means of protagonists’ speech characteristics.

  7. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Mosby, Vinnitta Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate th...

  8. Marketers Understanding Engineers and Engineers Understanding Marketers: The Opportunities and Constraints of a Cross-Discipline Course Using 3D Printing to Develop Marketable Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifschneider, Louis; Kaufman, Peter; Langrehr, Frederick W.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Marketers are criticized for not understanding the steps in the engineering research and development process and the challenges of manufacturing a new product at a profit. Engineers are criticized for not considering the marketability of and customer interest in such a product during the planning stages. With the development of 3D printing, rapid…

  9. Developing Public Health Initiatives through Understanding Motivations of the Audience at Mass-Gathering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Ranse, Jamie; Munn, Matthew Brendan

    2018-04-01

    This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population. A lot of these will depend on what the risks/hazards are with the particular populations in order to "target" them with public health interventions. Audience motivations tell the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services about the types of behaviors they should expect from the audience and how this may affect their health while at the event. Through these understandings, health promotion and event safety messages can be developed for a particular type of mass-gathering event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance. Health promotion and providing public information should be at the core of any mass-gathering event to minimize public health risk and to provide opportunities for the promotion of healthy behaviors in the local population. Audience motivations are a key element to identify and agree on what public health information is needed for the event audience. A more developed understanding of audience behavior provides critical information for event planners, event risk managers, and Emergency Medical Services personnel to better predict and plan to minimize risk and reduce patient presentations at events. Mass-gathering event organizers and designers intend their events to be positive experiences and to have meaning for those who attend. Therefore, continual vigilance to improve public health effectiveness and efficiency can become best practice at events

  10. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  11. Development and validation of a method for measuring depth of understanding in constructivist learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Lucia Falsetti

    A method for measuring depth of understanding of students in the middle-level science classroom was developed and validated. A common theme in the literature on constructivism in science education is that constructivist pedagogy, as opposed to objectivist pedagogy, results in a greater depth of understanding. Since few instruments measuring this construct exist at the present time, the development of such a tool to measure this construct was a significant contribution to the current body of assessment technologies in science education. The author's Depth of Understanding Assessment (DUA) evolved from a writing measure originally designed as a history assessment. The study involved 230 eighth grade science students studying a chemical change unit. The main research questions were: (1) What is the relationship between the DUA and each of the following independent variables: recall, application, and questioning modalities as measured by the Cognitive Preference Test; deep, surface, achieving, and deep-achieving approaches as measured by the Learning Process Questionnaire; achievement as measured by the Chemical Change Quiz, and teacher perception of student ability to conceptualize science content? (2) Is there a difference in depth of understanding, as measured by the DUA, between students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy and students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy favoring the constructivist group? (3) Is there a gender difference in depth of understanding as measured by the DUA? (4) Do students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy perceive their learning environment as more constructivist than students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy? Six out of nine hypothesis tests supported the validity of the DUA. The results of the qualitative component of this study which consisted of student interviews substantiated the quantitative results by providing additional information and insights. There was a significant difference in depth of

  12. Why should I care? Engaging students in conceptual understanding using global context to develop social attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, S. E.; Welstead, C.; Pritchard, M.

    2014-12-01

    A glance through the Harvard Business Review reveals many suggestions and research pieces reviewing sales and marketing techniques. Most educators will be familiar with the notion that making accurate first impressions and being responsive, whilst maintaining pace is critical to engaging an audience. There are lessons to be learnt from industry that can significantly impact upon our teaching. Eisenkraft, in his address to the NSTA, proposed four essential questions. This presentation explores one of those questions: 'Why should I care?', and discusses why this question is crucial for engaging students by giving a clear purpose for developing their scientific understanding. Additionally, this presentation explores how The ISF Academy has adapted the NGSS, using the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges and the IB MYP, to provide current, authentic global contexts, in order to give credibility to the concepts, understandings and skills being learnt. The provision of global contexts across units and within lessons supports a platform for students to have the freedom to explore their own sense of social responsibility. The Science Department believes that planning lessons with tasks that elaborate on the student's new conceptualisations, has helped to transfer the student's new understanding into social behavior beyond the classroom. Furthermore, extension tasks have been used to transfer conceptual understanding between different global contexts.

  13. Understanding political development through an intersectionality framework: Life stories of disability activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Nishida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how those who do not share their marginalized identities with their surrounding people (e.g., family members and thus community resources relating to these identities, initiate and experience political development. The concept of intersectionality is used as an analytical tool to examine how one's political development is mediated via one's intersecting identities, communities, and experience of social in/justices. Life story interviews were conducted with disabled activists to explore this question. The stories reveal how these activists, who had initially resisted identifying as disabled for various reasons, eventually used the politicizing experiences from nondisability identities and communities to reframe and reclaim their disability status. By tracing the political developments of disabled people, this article places importance on understanding the process in a holistic way and on developing activist communities and movements that acknowledge intersecting identities and in/justices.

  14. Developing a shared understanding of the Upper Mississippi River: the foundation of an ecological resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Kristen; Houser, Jeff N.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Hendrickson, Jon S.

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a large and complex floodplain river ecosystem that spans the jurisdictions of multiple state and federal agencies. In support of ongoing ecosystem restoration and management by this broad partnership, we are undertaking a resilience assessment of the UMRS. We describe the UMRS in the context of an ecological resilience assessment. Our description articulates the temporal and spatial extent of our assessment of the UMRS, the relevant historical context, the valued services provided by the system, and the fundamental controlling variables that determine its structure and function. An important objective of developing the system description was to determine the simplest, adequate conceptual understanding of the UMRS. We conceptualize a simplified UMRS as three interconnected subsystems: lotic channels, lentic off-channel areas, and floodplains. By identifying controlling variables within each subsystem, we have developed a shared understanding of the basic structure and function of the UMRS, which will serve as the basis for ongoing quantitative evaluations of factors that likely contribute to the resilience of the UMRS. As we undertake the subsequent elements of a resilience assessment, we anticipate our improved understanding of interactions, feedbacks, and critical thresholds will assist natural resource managers to better recognize the system’s ability to adapt to existing and new stresses.

  15. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  16. Grammatical production deficits in PPA: Relating narrative and structured task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barbieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Grammatical production impairments in primary progressive aphasia (PPA have been investigated using structured language tasks and analysis of narrative language samples (for review see Thompson & Mack, 2014; Wilson et al., 2012. However, little research has examined the relationship between them in PPA. Whereas structured tasks often assess production accuracy at different levels of syntactic complexity (e.g., Thompson et al., 2013, narrative measures typically assess overall lexical and grammatical usage (e.g., % grammatical sentences; noun-to-verb ratio, with lesser emphasis on complexity. The present study investigated the relationship between narrative measures of grammatical production and performance on structured language tests in the domains of syntax, verb morphology, and verb-argument structure (VAS. Materials and methods Data from 101 individuals with PPA were included. Participants completed a test battery including the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS, Thompson, 2011, the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Lee & Thompson, experimental version and the Northwestern Anagram Test (NAT, Thompson, Weintraub, & Mesulam, 2012. Grammatical production deficits were quantified as follows: for syntax, accuracy of non-canonical sentence production on the NAVS Sentence Production Priming Test (SPPT and the NAT; for morphology, the accuracy on finite verbs on the NAVI; for VAS, the accuracy of sentences produced with 2- and 3-argument verbs on the NAVS Argument Structure Production Test (ASPT. Cinderella narrative samples were analyzed using the Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis system (e.g., Thompson et al., 2012. For syntax, complexity was measured by the ratio of syntactically complex to simple sentences produced, whereas accuracy was indexed by computing the proportion of words with a locally grammatical lexical category. Morphological complexity was measured by mean number of verb

  17. UNDERSTANDING THAI CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS MANAGEMENT DURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerasak Thanasankit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.

  18. Understanding of Grassland Ecosystems under Climate Change and Economic Development Pressures in the Mongolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.; Chen, J.; Shan, P.; Pan, X.; Wei, Y.; Wang, M.; Xin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The land use and land cover change, especially in the form of grassland degradation, in the Mongolian Plateau, exhibited a unique spatio-temporal pattern that is a characteristic of a mixed stress from economic development and climate change of the region. The social dimension of the region played a key role in shaping the landscape and land use change, including the cultural clashes with economic development, conflicts between indigenous people and business ventures, and exogenous international influences. Various research projects have been conducted in the region to focus on physical degradation of grasslands and/or on economic development but there is a lack of understanding how the social and economic dimensions interact with grassland ecosystems and changes. In this talk, a synthesis report was made based on the most recent workshop held in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, of China, that specifically focused on climate change and grassland ecosystems. The report analyzed the degree of grassland degradation, its climate and social drivers, and coupling nature of economic development and conservation of traditional grassland values. The goal is to fully understand the socio-ecological-economic interactions that together shape the trajectory of the grassland ecosystems in the Mongolia Plateau.

  19. Curriculum development through understanding the student nurse experience of suicide intervention education--A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Inga; Webster, Brian J; Tee, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Suicide remains a global public health issue and a major governmental concern. The World Health Organisation argues for continued investment in education for front-line professionals, with a particular focus on nurses, to address the rising suicide levels. Considering this rate, it could be argued that suicide has impacted on the lives of many, including the student nurse population. Understanding the psychological impact, and influence on learning, whilst developing suicide intervention knowledge is crucial. However, little is known of the student experience in this complex and challenging area of skills development. This phenomenographic study examines the experiences of second year Bachelor of Nursing (mental health) students who participated in the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST). Experiences were illuminated through two focus groups, Experiences were distilled and categorised through hierarchically relationships to construct a group experiential field to illustrate understandings of the impact this approach has on learning Students found ASIST to be emotionally challenging yet an extremely positive experience through bonding, peer learning, and class cohesion. The supportive workshop facilitation was essential allowing for full immersion into role simulation thus developing student confidence. Appropriate pedagogy and student support must be considered whilst developing suicide intervention in the pre-registration curricula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Premaxillary-maxillary suture asymmetry in a juvenile Gorilla. Implications for understanding dentofacial growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J H

    1983-01-01

    A specimen of juvenile gorilla was found that had the premaxillary-maxillary suture coursing between the lateral deciduous incisor and deciduous canine on one side of the jaw, but between the central and lateral deciduous incisors on the other; in the latter, the suture also separates the alveolus of the lateral deciduous incisor from the crypt of the growing successional lateral incisor. Rather than dismiss this exception to the traditional dictum of tooth identification--which is based on the position to teeth relative to this suture--as some inconsequential anomaly, an attempt is made to understand how this can occur within the confines of present understanding of dentofacial growth and development and developmental theory. An hypothesis relating tooth and tooth class identification is presented in the context of ectomesenchymally predifferentiated stem progenitors and subsequent tooth class proliferation.

  1. LEARNING IN FRIENDSHIP GROUPS: DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING THROUGH SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl eSenior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the ‘case-by-case’ analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation and application to ‘real life’ contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding.

  2. The use of dialogic electronic journal writing to develop students' understanding of chemical bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sarah Collard

    The intent of this study is to examine how the implementation of a dialogic electronic journal writing environment continues the development of students' understanding of chemistry, specifically chemical bonding, through written communication between the individual students and their chemistry teacher. This study is framed within a constructivist theoretical context where students' understanding is constructed through written discussions with the educator, the students' interaction with the classroom environment, and his/her interaction with the computer environment. The research design of collective case study was employed to allow multiple perspectives and processes conveyed by the participants to be examined in the context in which they occurred while considering multiple sources of information. Data sources included electronic journal entries, classroom artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, which involved coding, categorizing, and interpreting for patterns and relationships. Four cases were reported in detail. This study found that the dialogic electronic journal-writing environment was an effective venue in revealing previously undiscovered students' alternative conceptions of chemical bonding. Opportunities to actively confront and reconcile such conceptions were afforded through educator/student dialogic written interaction. The dialogic electronic journal-writing environment was also critical in the identification of gaps in students' conceptual understanding linked to improper sequencing of chemistry content. This study also found that the on-line environment provided the educator the opportunity to scaffold chemical bonding concepts to meet the needs of the students involved in the study. This study concluded that the dialogic electronic journal-writing environment positively contributed to the development of student understanding. These findings may have practical implications for teachers in

  3. Crossing the river: Developing a strategy to support understanding of uncertainty within probabilistic climate projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.; Lamb, R.

    2010-09-01

    The UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) was established by government in 1997 to support the UK's engagement with becoming better adapted to a changing climate. As the lead organisation in the UK on climate change adaptation, UKCIP oversaw the development of the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) which were launched in June 2009 providing, for the first time, probabilistic climate projections for the UK. As with previous generations of UKCIP climate scenarios, they were freely accessible and intended for a whole spectrum of users, from technical experts to a lay audience. . Prior to the launch of UKCP09 it was acknowledged that users would need support in understanding key concepts, such as the uncertainty inherent in the projections, to be able to use them appropriately. The user support strategy was therefore developed. It is founded on robust pedagogical principles and draws on the latest thinking on public understanding of science (PUS) that places the user at the centre of the communication process. The adopted approach first identifies profiles of the key users of the climate projections and the ways in which they would use and access the data. Based on these profiles it is possible to identify a range of mechanisms that allow the user to engage with understanding the projections in different ways and situations including lectures, workshops and online learning. Within this blended strategy an exercise was developed specifically to support users' understanding of the concept of uncertainty within the probabilistic climate projections. The ‘Crossing the River' exercise encourages the participants to actively consider the nature of information they are using, and how it could be applied in a specific decision. Reflection and discussion are key elements in supporting the users' understanding of the concept and allowing them to apply the principles in the exercise to their own context. Their reflection is facilitated through a range of mechanisms that provide

  4. De la grammaire anglaise baladodiffusée au portfolio grammatical électronique : vers de nouvelles pratiques adaptées à l'ère du numérique Grammar podcasts and the grammar portfolio: designing new formats of instruction and developing simple research activities for EFL students in a multimedia learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Rémi Lapaire

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Les courtes émissions grammaticales de la BBC ou de MPR, disponibles en baladodiffusion, peuvent être utilisées pour amorcer une réflexion linguistique ou entreprendre un travail de remédiation avec les étudiants de langues étrangères, en environnement multimédia, au niveau L1. L'audition hebdomadaire de plusieurs grammatis personae, en contrepoint de la voix institutionnelle de l'enseignant responsable de l'atelier, crée non seulement une forme de "polyphonie métalinguistique", novatrice et stimulante, mais peut servir d'amorce à la constitution et à l'exploration de corpus. Les étudiants sont invités à créer leur propre "portefeuille grammatical électronique", incluant des remarques sur la forme et l'usage mais aussi des exemples authentiques et contextualisés de langue, sous forme écrite, orale, visuelle, vidéo. À travers ce type d'activité, l'étudiant adopte très tôt la posture active du chercheur en sciences du langage. Ainsi s'opère une redistribution des rôles et des identités, l'apprenant, même en grande difficulté, étant invité à confectionner ses propres matériaux ou ressources et à les mutualiser avec les autres membres du groupe.Grammar podcasts from the BBC or MPR may be used creatively in a multimedia learning environment to enhance the conceptual awareness of language functioning or for remedial work with 1rst year language students. The weekly audition of a cast of grammatis personae, combined with the voice of the official grammar workshop instructor, not only creates a new, stimulating form of metalinguistic polyphony but may also serve as a starting point for corpus design and investigation (classroom concordancing. Students are encouraged to create their own electronic grammar portfolio which may include descriptions of form and usage, authentic written, oral, pictographic and video examples, as well as simple, reliable teaching material that may be shared with other group members. Roles

  5. Student-Developed Simulations: Enhancing Cultural Awareness and Understanding Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Danette S; Randolph, Schenita D; Molloy, Margory A; Carter, Brigit; Cary, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    National and global initiatives to address the social determinants of health (SDH) are on the rise. On a parallel trajectory, increased cultural awareness is emerging as an integral strategy to improve the understanding of these social contributions to disease states, health inequities, and health disparities. Undergraduate nursing students developed modalities and role-played simulations as a teaching and learning strategy. The simulations demonstrated how nurses assess patients' unique needs and offer support and resources regarding patients' socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental needs. The student-developed simulations were an interactive teaching and learning strategy that offered several benefits, such as improved interpersonal skills, learned specific nursing roles, and improved cultural awareness. Student-developed simulations are an innovative teaching strategy for improving cultural awareness and learning more about SDH. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):243-246.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Experience-Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Gert

    2016-04-01

    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayla Amaral Lemos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. METHOD An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. RESULTS There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension, minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. CONCLUSION Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  8. Using a moot to develop students' understanding of human cloning and statutory interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Shaun D; Kind, Vanessa

    2017-09-01

    This article reports and analyses the method and findings from a 3-year interdisciplinary project investigating how the medium of law can support understanding of socio-scientific issues. Law represents one of the most important means by which society decides and communicates its values. Activities mirroring legal processes therefore have significant potential to inform, inspire and involve school students in exploring the conceptual, social and ethical issues relating to developments in biomedical science. This article focusses on an intervention-style study in which UK-based 16- to 17-year-old students role played a Supreme Court moot, developed by modifying a domestic appeal case concerned with whether the contemporary legislation covered the creation of cloned human embryos. We draw attention to how the science of cloning has been slightly misunderstood by the courts and in science materials provided to UK school students. We argue that moot-centred engagement activities offer great potential for science communication among post-16 students and, despite the limitations of the judicial process for addressing complex socio-scientific issues, such role plays aid development of scientific and sociolegal understanding, as well as enhancing students' self-confidence and argumentation skills.

  9. Understanding of xerostomia and strategies for the development of artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Hong-Seop

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia is becoming a major issue in dental and medical clinics with an increase of aged population. Medication is the most common etiology of xerostomia, while the most severe xerostomia generally occurs in patients with a history of head and neck radiotherapy. Xerostomic patients usually suffer from diminished quality of life due to various symptoms and complications. Decreased salivary output is a definite objective sign, but oral mucosal wetness is a more reliable factor for the evaluation of xerostomia. At present there are no effective therapeutic methods for the treatment of xerostomia. Sialogogues may have problematic side effects and their therapeutic effects last only brief duration. Artificial saliva typically does not produce satisfactory results in therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, further research and development of better therapeutic modalities are necessary. The basic concept for the development of ideal and functional artificial saliva is the mimicry of natural human saliva. We need proper candidate molecules and antimicrobial supplements to simulate the rheological and biological properties of human saliva. We also need better understanding of the interactions between the ingredients of artificial saliva themselves and between the ingredients and components of human saliva both in solution and on surface phases. In addition, we need accepted measures to evaluate the efficacy of artificial saliva. In conclusion, for the development of ideal artificial saliva, research based on the understanding of pathophysiology of xerostomia and knowledge about rheological and biological functions of human saliva are necessary.

  10. Genetic approaches to understanding the population-level impact of wind energy development on migratory bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonhof, Maarten J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Russell, Amy L. [Grand Valley State Univ. Allendale, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. Yet there is little data on bat population sizes and trends to provide context for understanding the consequences of mortality due to wind power development. Using a large dataset of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation for eastern red bats, we demonstrated that: 1) this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population; 2) the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions; and 3) for large populations, genetic diversity measures and at least one coalescent method are insensitive to even very high rates of population decline over long time scales and until population size has become very small. Our data provide important context for understanding the population-level impacts of wind power development on affected bat species.

  11. The Development of Danish OHS Regulation - Organizational Understanding and Program Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Jensen, Per Langaa; Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a major recent amendment of the Danish Working Environment regulation concerning the cooperation of health and safety between employees and employer. The amendment, which came into force in October 2010, consists of four elements: 1) change of terminology, 2) flexibility...... in organizing OHS, 3) link between the companies’ overall strategic management and OHS and 4) continuously competence development for the health and safety representatives. In this paper we present and analyze the individual elements of the legislative amendment. Subsequent we investigate the organizational...... understanding that underlies the amendment and we explore the program theory that the different elements of the reform subscribe to....

  12. Understanding the internet, website design and intranet development: a primer for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perriss, R W; Graham, R N J; Scarsbrook, A F

    2006-05-01

    The internet has become an essential part of daily life for almost all radiologists and yet few fully understand how this works or how best to harness the technology within the workplace. This article will explore the basics of computer networking which has allowed the internet to become a valuable resource. In addition, the process of designing and implementing a website or intranet site for the benefit of radiology departmental administration and education will be discussed. The options of how to develop a website, what to include, and how to achieve this using easy to use, freely available and low-cost software will also be explored.

  13. Understanding the spatial pattern of urban crime: a developing country's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, F.; Cheshire, J.; Johnson, S.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the published spatial analysis research of crime to date has been focused on Euro-American cities. This paper attempts to provide an insight on how we can better understand the spatial pattern of crime in a typical developing country’s setting. Data were obtained through extensive field mapping, a block environmental inventory (BEI) and a crime victimization survey to generate a GIS-database of the study area. Grid thematic maps (GTM) for different crime types were produced for visual...

  14. Understanding the internet, website design and intranet development: a primer for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriss, R.W.; Graham, R.N.J.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    The internet has become an essential part of daily life for almost all radiologists and yet few fully understand how this works or how best to harness the technology within the workplace. This article will explore the basics of computer networking which has allowed the internet to become a valuable resource. In addition, the process of designing and implementing a website or intranet site for the benefit of radiology departmental administration and education will be discussed. The options of how to develop a website, what to include, and how to achieve this using easy to use, freely available and low-cost software will also be explored

  15. Beyond Normal Competencies: Understanding Organisation Designs to Develop and Sustain IT-Related Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acklesh Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is apparent that IT resources are important for organisations. It is also clear that organisations unique competencies, their IT-related capabilities, leverage the IT resources uniquely to create and sustain competitive advantage. However, IT resources are dynamic, and evolve at an exponential rate. This means that organisations will need to sustain their competencies to leverage opportunities offered by new IT resources. Research on ways to sustain IT-related capabilities is limited and a deeper understanding of this situation is important. Amongst other factors, a possible reason for this lack of progress in this area could be due to the lack of validated measurement items of the theoretical constructs to conduct such studies. We suggest an environment in which organisations could build new and sustain their existing IT-related capabilities. We then report on the development of valid and reliable measures for this environment. The validated measures would be useful in extending our understanding on how firms could sustain their IT-related capabilities. This effort will provide a deeper understanding of how firms can secure sustainable IT-related business value from their acquired IT resources.

  16. Understanding Democracy and Development Traps Using a Data-Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shyam; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Spaiser, Viktoria; Sumpter, David J T

    2015-03-01

    Methods from machine learning and data science are becoming increasingly important in the social sciences, providing powerful new ways of identifying statistical relationships in large data sets. However, these relationships do not necessarily offer an understanding of the processes underlying the data. To address this problem, we have developed a method for fitting nonlinear dynamical systems models to data related to social change. Here, we use this method to investigate how countries become trapped at low levels of socioeconomic development. We identify two types of traps. The first is a democracy trap, where countries with low levels of economic growth and/or citizen education fail to develop democracy. The second trap is in terms of cultural values, where countries with low levels of democracy and/or life expectancy fail to develop emancipative values. We show that many key developing countries, including India and Egypt, lie near the border of these development traps, and we investigate the time taken for these nations to transition toward higher democracy and socioeconomic well-being.

  17. Understanding Democracy and Development Traps Using a Data-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shyam; Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Spaiser, Viktoria; Sumpter, David J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Methods from machine learning and data science are becoming increasingly important in the social sciences, providing powerful new ways of identifying statistical relationships in large data sets. However, these relationships do not necessarily offer an understanding of the processes underlying the data. To address this problem, we have developed a method for fitting nonlinear dynamical systems models to data related to social change. Here, we use this method to investigate how countries become trapped at low levels of socioeconomic development. We identify two types of traps. The first is a democracy trap, where countries with low levels of economic growth and/or citizen education fail to develop democracy. The second trap is in terms of cultural values, where countries with low levels of democracy and/or life expectancy fail to develop emancipative values. We show that many key developing countries, including India and Egypt, lie near the border of these development traps, and we investigate the time taken for these nations to transition toward higher democracy and socioeconomic well-being. PMID:26487983

  18. TEACHING GRAMMAR-IN-CONTEXT AND ITS IMPACT IN MINIMIZING STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadhi Nur Amin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching grammar-in-context to minimize students‘ grammatical errors in writing. The design of the study was a quasi-experimental with a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group. The samples of the study were taken from the population of the tenth-grade students. The control group was taught by conventional grammar which was separately given with writing skills. Likewise, the experimental one was treated by teaching grammar-in-context. The results of the study showed that the mean score in the post-test was higher than that in the pretest; and the mean score of experimental group increased 16.20 point after the treatment. This result indicated that teaching grammarin-context is considered to be effective in minimizing students‘ grammatical errors in writing.

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF ACEHNESE EFL STUDENTS’ GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING RECOUNT TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudwatin Nisak M. Isa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at finding empirical evidence of the most common types of grammatical errors and sources of errors in recount texts written by the first-year students of SMAS Babul Maghfirah, Aceh Besar. The subject of the study was a collection of students’ personal writing documents of recount texts about their lives experience. The students’ recount texts were analyzed by referring to Betty S. Azar classification and Richard’s theory on sources of errors. The findings showed that the total number of error is 436. Two frequent types of grammatical errors were Verb Tense and Word Choice. The major sources of error were Intralingual Error, Interference Error and Developmental Error respectively. Furthermore, the findings suggest that it is necessary for EFL teachers to apply appropriate techniques and strategies in teaching recount texts, which focus on past tense and language features of the text in order to reduce the possible errors to be made by the students.

  20. Does Grammatical Gender Influence Perception? A Study of Polish and French Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haertlé Izabella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can the perception of a word be influenced by its grammatical gender? Can it happen that speakers of one language perceive an object to have masculine features, while speakers of another language perceive the same object to have feminine features? Previous studies suggest that this is the case, and also that there is some supra-language gender categorisation of objects as natural/feminine and artefact/masculine. This study was an attempt to replicate these findings on another population of subjects. This is the first Polish study of this kind, comparing the perceptions of objects by Polish- and French-speaking individuals. The results of this study show that grammatical gender may cue people to assess objects as masculine or feminine. However, the findings of some previous studies, that feminine features are more often ascribed to natural objects than artifacts, were not replicated.

  1. Learning grammatical categories from distributional cues: flexible frames for language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Michelle C; Monaghan, Padraic; Christiansen, Morten H

    2010-09-01

    Numerous distributional cues in the child's environment may potentially assist in language learning, but what cues are useful to the child and when are these cues utilised? We propose that the most useful source of distributional cue is a flexible frame surrounding the word, where the language learner integrates information from the preceding and the succeeding word for grammatical categorisation. In corpus analyses of child-directed speech together with computational models of category acquisition, we show that these flexible frames are computationally advantageous for language learning, as they benefit from the coverage of bigram information across a large proportion of the language environment as well as exploiting the enhanced accuracy of trigram information. Flexible frames are also consistent with the developmental trajectory of children's sensitivity to different sources of distributional information, and they are therefore a useful and usable information source for supporting the acquisition of grammatical categories. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A translational neuroscience approach to understanding the development of social anxiety disorder and its pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S; Kalin, Ned H

    2014-11-01

    This review brings together recent research from molecular, neural circuit, animal model, and human studies to help understand the neurodevelopmental mechanisms underlying social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety disorder is common and debilitating, and it often leads to further psychopathology. Numerous studies have demonstrated that extremely behaviorally inhibited and temperamentally anxious young children are at marked risk of developing social anxiety disorder. Recent work in human and nonhuman primates has identified a distributed brain network that underlies early-life anxiety including the central nucleus of the amygdala, the anterior hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Studies in nonhuman primates have demonstrated that alterations in this circuit are trait-like in that they are stable over time and across contexts. Notably, the components of this circuit are differentially influenced by heritable and environmental factors, and specific lesion studies have demonstrated a causal role for multiple components of the circuit. Molecular studies in rodents and primates point to disrupted neurodevelopmental and neuroplastic processes within critical components of the early-life dispositional anxiety neural circuit. The possibility of identifying an early-life at-risk phenotype, along with an understanding of its neurobiology, provides an unusual opportunity to conceptualize novel preventive intervention strategies aimed at reducing the suffering of anxious children and preventing them from developing further psychopathology.

  3. Recent advances in understanding lung function development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Melén

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed critical contributions to our understanding of the determinants and long-term implications of lung function development. In this article, we review studies that have contributed to advances in understanding lung function development and its critical importance for lung health into adult life. In particular, we have focused on early life determinants that include genetic factors, perinatal events, environmental exposures, lifestyle, infancy lower respiratory tract infections, and persistent asthma phenotypes. Longitudinal studies have conclusively demonstrated that lung function deficits that are established by school age may track into adult life and increase the risk of adult lung obstructive diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, these contributions have provided initial evidence in support of a direct influence by early life events on an accelerated decline of lung function and an increased susceptibility to its environmental determinants well into adult life. As such, we argue that future health-care programs based on precision medicine approaches that integrate deep phenotyping with tailored medication and advice to patients should also foster optimal lung function growth to be fully effective.

  4. Understanding global health and development partnerships: Perspectives from African and global health system professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Amy; Brown, Garrett W; Harman, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Partnership is a key idea in current debates about global health and development assistance, yet little is known about what partnership means to those who are responsible for operationalising it or how it is experienced in practice. This is particularly the case in the context of African health systems. This paper explores how health professionals working in global health hubs and the health systems of South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia understand and experience partnership. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 101 professionals based in each country, Washington DC and Geneva between October 2012 and June 2013, the paper makes four key arguments. First, partnership has a legitimating function in global health policy processes for international development institutions, government agencies and civil society organisations alike. Second, the practice of partnership generates idiosyncratic and complicated relationships that health professionals have to manage and navigate, often informally. Third, partnership is shaped by historical legacies, critical events, and independent consultants. Fourth, despite being an accepted part of global health policy, there is little shared understanding of what good partnership is meant to include or resemble in practice. Knowing more about the specific socio-cultural and political dynamics of partnership in different health system contexts is critical to equip health professionals with the skills to build the informal relations that are essential to effective partnership engagement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A new method of analysis enabled a better understanding of clinical practice guideline development processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiago; May, Carl; Mason, James; Eccles, Martin

    2006-11-01

    To describe the process by which various forms of evidence are discussed, valued, and interpreted within the process of developing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and, in so doing, to develop a method for such studies. An observational study. Two guideline development groups were observed by a nonparticipant observer. The 21 meetings were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory and frame analysis. Qualitative analysis was complemented with descriptive statistics. The groups organized their discussion around four domains--'science', 'practice', politics', and 'process'--and used boundary work to mediate between these domains. Both groups spent most time discussing 'science', followed by 'practice' or its relation with 'science'. Our analysis offers an innovative, replicable method of analysis of guideline development that permits the identification of the proportions and interrelations between knowledge domains deployed by guideline groups. This analysis also suggests that the participation hierarchy observed here and by others might be an effect of the imbalanced use of knowledge domains in the construction of clinical guidance. This constitutes an important framework to understand the interplay of participants and knowledge in guideline development.

  6. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  7. Using aided AAC models, recasts, and contrastive targets to teach grammatical morphemes to children who use AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Cathy; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the effects of using aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) modeling and recasting on the expression of grammatical morphemes with children who used AAC. A single-subject, multiple-probe, across-targets design was used for the study. Three participants were each taught to use 3 grammatical structures. Intervention consisted of aided AAC models and recasts during storybook reading tasks. All three children readily began using the targeted grammatical morphemes. However, none of the participants maintained use of the first morpheme. Error analyses revealed that the children either omitted the targeted morpheme or replaced it with another morpheme. To address this issue, a second intervention phase was implemented for the targets that were not maintained. During this phase, various grammatical morphemes were contrasted with each other (e.g., past tense -ed vs. possessive 's). Following the second intervention phase, participants maintained all targets. Aided AAC models and recasts may be used as part of intervention packages designed to help children acquire production of grammatical morphemes; however, it is important to provide contrasts of grammatical forms to ensure acquisition. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  8. 122 A Lexico-Grammatical Interpretation of Ambiguity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Vanguard (June 17th). The ambiguity is both lexical and structural in the sense that looking at the lexical unit 'land' one could understand the expression in several ways such as: ▫ Surface of the earth that is not a sea. ▫ The area of grounds that somebody owns. ▫ Country or region in an emotional or imaginative way (e.g she.

  9. Young Bilingual Writers' Control of Grammatical Person in Different Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisk, Maria Estela

    2012-01-01

    Elementary writing instruction is often limited, mainly focused on personal narratives. Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics, this article reports on the writing of grade 3-5 bilingual children in a variety of genres. Analysis of their use of first, second, and third person provides insight into their understanding of genre and audience.…

  10. Teaching Grammar-in-context and Its Impact in Minimizing Students' Grammatical Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Yadhi Nur

    2015-01-01

    This study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching grammar-in-context to minimize students‘ grammatical errors in writing. The design of the study was a quasi-experimental with a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group. The samples of the study were taken from the population of the tenth-grade students. The control group was taught by conventional grammar which was separately given with writing skills. Likewise, the experimental one was treated...

  11. GenERRate: generating errors for use in grammatical error detection

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Jennifer; Andersen, Øistein E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of automatically generated ungrammatical data and its use in error detection, with a focus on the task of classifying a sentence as grammatical or ungrammatical. We present an error generation tool called GenERRate and show how GenERRate can be used to improve the performance of a classifier on learner data. We describe initial attempts to replicate Cambridge Learner Corpus errors using GenERRate.

  12. Grammatical Error Analysis in Tourism Objects Information of Websiteof Malang City Tour

    OpenAIRE

    YUDHARAHARJA, ADHITYA PRATAMA

    2013-01-01

    The internet website is widely used to promote tourism objects Internationally, especially the English written website. However, information should be well written. Sometimes incorrect tenses or structures of a sentence, which are called error, can cause multiple interpretations to the readers. Related to that, the writer conducted this study to reveal the grammatical errors in tourism object information of Malang City Tour website.This study is a qualitative one, which uses document or conte...

  13. The Use of Indirect Feedback to Reduce Students' Grammatical Errors in Writing an Analytical Exposition Text

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumawardhani, Annisa Bintang

    2015-01-01

    Feedback provision is a necessity for students in the process of writing. Thus, this research aims to discover the use of indirect feedback to reduce students' grammatical errors in writing an analytical exposition text. Furthermore, this study was conducted to find out students' response toward indirect feedback given as treatment. The study implemented a quasi- experimental design. The sample of this study involves 60 students as control group and experimental group. Students' writing and q...

  14. The Effect of Incidental Focus on Form on EFL Learners’ Grammatical Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaieh Abdollahzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Focus on form instruction is a kind of instruction that draws students, attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in meaning based instruction.  There are different types of focus on form instruction. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy among Iranian L2 learners. Eighty learners from Sahand language Institute in Miandoab after taking grammatical judgment test which was administered to homogenize them, were placed in two control and experimental groups. Learners in experimental group received feedback through recasting during retelling the reading passage according to principles of Jigsaw task. But learners in control group did not receive any feedback. After treatment, which lasted for eight sessions, post-test was given to both control and experimental groups to observe the difference resulted from the treatment. To be sure about the significance of the difference between post-test means of both groups, a t-test was used. The results at the end supported the hypotheses of the study and positive effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy of L2 learners. After that, for the purpose of analyzing the effect of incidental focus on form on accuracy of pronouns, tenses, articles and propositions separately, other tests (pronoun, article, tense, proposition tests was given to the learners in both control and experimental groups. The data collected was computed through t-test which revealed that the effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy of articles is greater than pronouns and tenses but incidental focus on form didn’t have any effect on accuracy of propositions. Pedagogical implications have been discussed. Keywords:  Focus on form, Incidental focus on form, recast, task, Accuracy

  15. The neural substrate of naming events: effects of processing demands but not of grammatical class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Simona; Tettamanti, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F; Della Rosa, Pasquale; Saccuman, Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    Grammatical class is a fundamental property of language, and all natural languages distinguish between nouns and verbs. Brain activation studies have provided conflicting evidence concerning the neural substrates of noun and verb processing. A major limitation of many previous imaging studies is that they did not disentangle the impact of grammatical class from the differences in semantic correlates. In order to tease apart the role of semantic and grammatical factors, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study presenting Italian speakers with pictures of events and asked them to name them as 1) Infinitive Verb (e.g., mangiare [to eat]); 2) Inflected Verb (e.g., mangia [she/he eats]); and 3) Action Noun (e.g., mangiata [the eating]). We did not find any verb-specific activation. However, reliable left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activations were found when contrasting the Action Noun with the Infinitive Verb condition. A second-level analysis indicated then that activation in left IFG was greatest for Action Nouns, intermediate for Inflected Verbs, and least for Infinitive Verbs. We conclude that, when all other factors are controlled, nouns and verbs are processed by a common neural system. In the present case, differences in left IFG activation emerge as a consequence of increasing linguistic and/or general processing demands.

  16. School-age children's metalinguistic awareness of grammaticality in verb form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, J C; Johnson, C J

    1990-03-01

    This study investigated 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old children's ability to monitor grammaticality in the past progressive, perfect progressive, and perfect verb forms. The children achieved a significantly higher rate of accurate judgments monitoring grammatical forms that ungrammatical forms. Age was a significant factor in error identification. Eight-year-olds were substantially better at identifying ungrammatical forms than were their younger schoolmates. Verb form, in conjunction with type of anomaly, significantly varied with respect to ease of identification. Errors of the auxiliary and suffix were easier for children to identify than an adverbial error which required a sentence analysis to determine the incompatibility. The context surrounding ungrammatical verb forms significantly affected monitoring ability. Anomalous forms in unrelated sentences were easier to identify as ungrammatical than anomalous forms in sentences taken from a story the children had just heard. It appears that school-age children prefer to maintain the semantic intent of the message rather than critically search for grammatical errors.

  17. Grammatical markers switch roles and elicit different electrophysiological responses under shallow and deep semantic requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Soshi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Static knowledge about the grammar of a natural language is represented in the cortico-subcortical system. However, the differences in dynamic verbal processing under different cognitive conditions are unclear. To clarify this, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment involving a semantic priming paradigm in which semantically congruent or incongruent word sequences (prime nouns–target verbs were randomly presented. We examined the event-related brain potentials that occurred in response to congruent and incongruent target words that were preceded by primes with or without grammatical case markers. The two participant groups performed either the shallow (lexical judgment or deep (direct semantic judgment semantic tasks. We hypothesized that, irrespective of the case markers, the congruent targets would reduce centro-posterior N400 activities under the deep semantic condition, which induces selective attention to the semantic relatedness of content words. However, the same congruent targets with correct case markers would reduce lateralized negativity under the shallow semantic condition because grammatical case markers are related to automatic structural integration under semantically unattended conditions. We observed that congruent targets (e.g., ‘open' that were preceded by primes with congruent case markers (e.g., ‘shutter-object case' reduced lateralized negativity under the shallow semantic condition. In contrast, congruent targets, irrespective of case markers, consistently yielded N400 reductions under the deep semantic condition. To summarize, human neural verbal processing differed in response to the same grammatical markers in the same verbal expressions under semantically attended or unattended conditions.

  18. Understanding continuous professional development participation and choice of mid-career general dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T; Wassif, H S

    2017-02-01

    Participating in continuing professional development (CPD) activities is a requirement for dental practitioners to keep their skills and knowledge up to date. Understanding the ways dental practitioners engage with professional development and the impact on practice is not fully known (Eaton et al. 2011, http://www.gdc-uk.org/Aboutus/policy/Documents/Impact%20Of%20CPD%20In%20Dentistry.pdf). The aim of this study was to gain insights into the ways that dentists reflect on their professional development and what may be influencing their choices. Empirical qualitative data were collected by semi-structured interviewing of five mid-career dentists. Using grounded theory, the data were analysed for themes about CPD choice and participation. Three themes were identified as influences to dentists' choices of CPD with pragmatic considerations of how new learning could benefit their patients and their practices. Dental practitioners were influenced by the requirements of external regulatory bodies which they did not consider to necessarily improve practice. Dentists working in primary care in the UK are undertaking CPD which is influenced by the pragmatic requirements of running a small business and to meet regulatory requirements. In this sample, dentists are not critically reflecting on their education needs when choosing their CPD activity. Protected learning time and organisational feedback and support are recommended as a way to promote more meaningful reflection on learning and to improve professional development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorw, Larry M.

    2000-01-01

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs

  20. Preceptors' understanding and use of role modeling to develop the CanMEDS competencies in residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Luc; Laughrea, Patricia-Ann

    2014-06-01

    Role modeling by preceptors is a key strategy for training residents in the competencies defined within the CanMEDS conceptual framework. However, little is known about the extent to which preceptors are aware of the importance of role modeling or how they perceive and enact it in their daily interactions with residents. The purpose of this study was to describe how preceptors understand and use role modeling to develop CanMEDS competencies in residents. In 2010, the authors conducted a descriptive qualitative study with preceptors in medical, surgical, and laboratory specialties who supervised residents on a regular basis at the Université Laval Faculty of Medicine (Québec, Canada). Respondents participated in semistructured, individual interviews. An inductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted using triangulation. Most participants highlighted the importance of role modeling to support residents' development of the CanMEDS competencies, particularly communication, collaboration, and professionalism, which preceptors perceived as "less scientific" and the most difficult to teach. Although most participants reported using an implicit, unstructured role modeling process, some described more explicit strategies. Eight types of educational challenges in role modeling the CanMEDS competencies were identified, including encouraging reflective practice, understanding the competencies and their importance in one's specialty, and being aware of one's strengths and weaknesses as a clinical teacher. Preceptors are aware of the importance of role modeling competencies for residents, but many do so only implicitly. This study's findings are important for improving strategies for role modeling and for the professional development of preceptors.

  1. Characterising the Development of the Understanding of Human Body Systems in High-School Biology Students--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapir, Zohar; Eberbach, Catherine; Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; Tripto, Jaklin

    2017-01-01

    Science education today has become increasingly focused on research into complex natural, social and technological systems. In this study, we examined the development of high-school biology students' systems understanding of the human body, in a three-year longitudinal study. The development of the students' system understanding was evaluated…

  2. Understanding the transport properties of metabolites: case studies and considerations for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J; Chu, Xiaoyan; Polli, Joseph W; Paine, Mary F; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2014-04-01

    Recent analyses demonstrated that metabolites are unlikely to contribute significantly to clinical inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated drug metabolism, and that only ∼2% of this type of drug interaction could not be predicted from the parent drug alone. Due to generally increased polarity and decreased permeability, metabolites are less likely to interact with P450s, but their disposition is instead more likely to involve transporters. This commentary presents case studies illustrating the potential importance of transporters as determinants of metabolite disposition, and as sites of drug interactions, which may alter drug efficacy and safety. Many of these examples are hydrophilic phase II conjugates involved in enterohepatic cycling, where modulation of transporter-dependent disposition may alter pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. The case studies suggest that characterization of metabolite disposition, toxicology, and pharmacology should not focus solely on metabolites with appreciable systemic exposure, but should take into consideration major excretory metabolites. A more thorough understanding of metabolite (phase I and II; circulating and excreted) transport properties during drug development may provide an improved understanding of complex drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that can alter drug and/or metabolite systemic and intracellular exposure. Knowledge and capability gaps remain in clinical translation of in vitro and animal data regarding metabolite disposition. To this end, useful experimental and modeling approaches are highlighted. Application of these tools may lead to a better understanding of metabolite victim and perpetrator DDI potential, and ultimately the establishment of approaches for prediction of pharmacodynamic and toxicodynamic consequences of metabolite transport modulation.

  3. Revisiting the 'disaster and development' debate - Toward a broader understanding of macroeconomic risk and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Junko; Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Keating, Adriana; Williges, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Debate regarding the relationship between socioeconomic development and natural disasters remains at the fore of global discussions, as the potential risk from climate extremes and uncertainty pose an increasing threat to developmental prospects. This study reviews statistical investigations of disaster and development linkages, across topics of macroeconomic growth, public governance and others to identify key challenges to the current approach to macro-level statistical investigation. Both theoretically and qualitatively, disaster is known to affect development through a number of channels: haphazard development, weak institutions, lack of social safety nets and short-termism of our decision-making practices are some of the factors that drive natural disaster risk. Developmental potentials, including the prospects for sustainable and equitable growth, are in turn threatened by such accumulation of disaster risks. However, quantitative evidence regarding these complex causality chains remains contested due to several reasons. A number of theoretical and methodological limitations have been identified, including the use of GDP as a proxy measurement of welfare, issues with natural disaster damage reporting and the adoption of ad hoc model specifications and variables, which render interpretation and cross-comparison of statistical analysis difficult. Additionally, while greater attention is paid to economic and institutional parameters such as GDP, remittance, corruption and public expenditure as opposed to hard-to-quantify yet critical factors such as environmental conditions and social vulnerabilities. These are gaps in our approach that hamper our comprehensive understanding of the disaster-development nexus. Important areas for further research are identified, including recognizing and addressing the data constraints, incorporating sustainability and equity concerns through alternatives to GDP, and finding novel approaches to examining the complex and dynamic

  4. Understanding the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies: A patent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, Vito; Ardito, Lorenzo; Dangelico, Rosa Maria; Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Governments’ strategies set important frameworks to develop and sustain low-carbon energy technologies. • Commercial activities play a key role in the low-carbon energy technologies’ development. • The number of patents that are based upon basic research is growing. - Abstract: Eco-innovations are being recognized as fundamental means to foster sustainable development, as well as to create new business opportunities. Nowadays, the eco-innovation concept is gaining ground within both academic and practitioner studies with the attempt to better understand the main dynamics underlying its nature and guide policymakers and companies in supporting its development. This paper contributes to the extant literature on eco-innovation by providing a comprehensive overview of the evolution of a specific type of eco-innovations that are playing a crucial role in the current socio-economic agenda, namely low-carbon energy technologies. Accordingly, we focus our attention on the related patenting activity of different countries and organizations over time, as well as on influencing policy initiatives and events. Hence, we collected 131,661 patents granted at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (U.S.PTO.) between 1971 and 2010, and belonging to the “Nuclear power generation”, “Alternative energy production”, and “Energy conservation” technological classes, as indicated by the International Patent Classification (IPC) Green Inventory. Our findings report the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies, as well as identify major related environmental programs, historical events, and private sector initiatives explaining those trends, hence revealing how these different circumstances have significantly influenced their development over time

  5. Understanding Teacher Perceptions in a Professional Development Program for a Middle Grade Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloney, Dericka B.

    The standards-based framework requires teachers to evaluate and in some cases change their instructional approach to more student-centered and inquiry-based in an effort to help students meet the standards. The rationale for this study was to determine the skills needed for teachers to be effective in a standard-based, problem-based learning (PBL) constructivist classroom. Traditionally, teachers in this school district transitioning from teacher to student-centered classrooms need new skills when implementing this type of instruction. A qualitative case study design served to highlight the research questions for this project study. The participants in this study participated in data collection activities that include a multiple-choice survey, an interview, and the sharing of their PBL units. Artifacts, professional development teaching resources, from the workshop added credence to the survey and interview responses. The findings from each research question addressed the teachers' perception of their understanding and the obstacles of instructional design, development, and implementation the participants encountered. The results of this study indicated that teachers had problems with designing and implementing this instructional strategy due to lack of time and resources. This data assisted the development of district specific PBL sustainable professional development program that could be adaptable to other curriculums and school systems. Social change resulting from this study could include a framework for developing K-12 professional development as well as instructional programs that incorporates PBL curriculum design to enhance the student's inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making skills that in turn should change their academic achievement and scores on high stakes test in science.

  6. THE STUDY OF GRAMMATICAL AND LEXICAL ERRORS RESULTING FROM L1 INTERFERENCE FOUND IN ENGLISH COMPOSITIONS MADE BY EIGHT GRADERS OF SMP NEGERI 13 MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida Yuniswati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to find out the kinds of lexical and grammatical errors caused by L1 interference or negative transfer of the mother tongue in writing compositions made by eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 13 Malang and the frequency of occurrence of errors. The focus of this study was identifying, describing, and classifying grammatical and lexical errors in students writing. Therefore, descriptive qualitative was considered appropriate for the design of the study. The subjects were 39 eighth grade students in 8A Class in the second semester of 2008-2009 academic years. The instrument used to collect the data was the students‘ writing tasks. The errors found were classified based on the error classification scheme developed by Kwary and Sugiri (2004. The result shows that there 586 errors resulting from L1 interference were found from 78 compositions. Some categories of errors in Kwary and Sugiri (2004 cannot be applied to the data, that is, if clause, embedded question, comparison, conjunction, and word class. No sentences containing those categories of errors found in the data. However, the researcher developed another category of errors that are not mentioned in the classification scheme by Kwary and Sugiri, that is, clause without subject that makes up 2.56% of all errors.

  7. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and Psychometric Properties of a Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E.; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child’s anxiety, parents’ perceived ability to cope with their child’s anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents’ understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child’s anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N = 192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children’s anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n = 83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877

  8. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-04-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Discriminant Accuracy of a Grammatical Measure With Latino English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure for the identification of language impairment (LI) in Latino English-speaking children. Specifically, the study examined the diagnostic accuracy of the Test of English Morphosyntax (E-MST; Peña, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, Goldstein, & Bedore (n.d.) to determine (a) whether use and exposure to Spanish had an effect on the performance of bilingual children compared with monolingual Latino children and (b) whether dialectal differences within Latino English speakers might result in performance differences and a greater incidence of misclassifications for children from Caribbean English backgrounds. Method One hundred and eleven children (i.e., 59 children with typical language development and 52 children with LI) were sampled from the Southwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. Southwestern children were of Mexican origin. Children from the Northeast were from Puerto Rican or Dominican backgrounds. Linear discriminant analyses evaluating group classifications on the basis of the E-MST were performed on exploratory and confirmatory data sets across 3 groups: Southwestern English-only proficient (SW EP) children, Southwestern English-dominant bilingual (SW EDB) children, and Northeastern (NE) children. Results Results of the exploratory discriminant analyses indicated good sensitivity for the SW EP children. The discriminant functions derived from the exploratory analysis were able to predict group membership in confirmatory discriminant analyses with fair sensitivity and good specificity for the SW EDB children and with fair sensitivity but poor specificity for the NE children. Children who were English-dominant bilingual were not more likely to be misclassified compared with their English-only proficient peers. However, nonmainstream English dialect differences appeared to affect classification accuracy and resulted in a greater number of misclassifications for the NE children with typical

  10. Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R. Kilfoil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word

  11. Developing and validating a conceptual survey to assess introductory physics students’ understanding of magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-03-01

    Development of validated physics surveys on various topics is important for investigating the extent to which students master those concepts after traditional instruction and for assessing innovative curricula and pedagogies that can improve student understanding significantly. Here, we discuss the development and validation of a conceptual multiple-choice survey related to magnetism suitable for introductory physics courses. The survey was developed taking into account common students’ difficulties with magnetism concepts covered in introductory physics courses found in our investigation and the incorrect choices to the multiple-choice questions were designed based upon those common student difficulties. After the development and validation of the survey, it was administered to introductory physics students in various classes in paper-pencil format before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts. We compared the performance of students on the survey in the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant magnetism concepts. We discuss the common difficulties of introductory physics students with magnetism concepts we found via the survey. We also administered the survey to upper-level undergraduates majoring in physics and PhD students to benchmark the survey and compared their performance with those of traditionally taught introductory physics students for whom the survey is intended. A comparison with the base line data on the validated magnetism survey from traditionally taught introductory physics courses and upper-level undergraduate and PhD students discussed in this paper can help instructors assess the effectiveness of curricula and pedagogies which is especially designed to help students integrate conceptual and quantitative understanding and develop a good grasp of the concepts. In particular, if introductory physics students’ average

  12. Developing and validating a conceptual survey to assess introductory physics students’ understanding of magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Development of validated physics surveys on various topics is important for investigating the extent to which students master those concepts after traditional instruction and for assessing innovative curricula and pedagogies that can improve student understanding significantly. Here, we discuss the development and validation of a conceptual multiple-choice survey related to magnetism suitable for introductory physics courses. The survey was developed taking into account common students’ difficulties with magnetism concepts covered in introductory physics courses found in our investigation and the incorrect choices to the multiple-choice questions were designed based upon those common student difficulties. After the development and validation of the survey, it was administered to introductory physics students in various classes in paper–pencil format before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts. We compared the performance of students on the survey in the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant magnetism concepts. We discuss the common difficulties of introductory physics students with magnetism concepts we found via the survey. We also administered the survey to upper-level undergraduates majoring in physics and PhD students to benchmark the survey and compared their performance with those of traditionally taught introductory physics students for whom the survey is intended. A comparison with the base line data on the validated magnetism survey from traditionally taught introductory physics courses and upper-level undergraduate and PhD students discussed in this paper can help instructors assess the effectiveness of curricula and pedagogies which is especially designed to help students integrate conceptual and quantitative understanding and develop a good grasp of the concepts. In particular, if introductory physics students’ average

  13. What enhances the development of emotion understanding in young children? A longitudinal study of interpersonal predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårstad, Silja B; Wichstrøm, Lars; Reinfjell, Trude; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid S

    2015-09-01

    We studied potential determinants of the development of children's emotion understanding (EU) from age 4 to 6 in a Norwegian community sample (N = 974) using the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Interpersonal predictors included the accuracy of parental mentalization, parental emotional availability, and teacher-reported child social skills. Intrapersonal child factors were child gender and verbal skills. Overall, children's EU increased significantly over time. After adjusting for child gender, age-4 EU, and parental socio-economic status, greater child verbal and social skills and greater parental mentalization each uniquely predicted growth in EU. Results are discussed in terms of theory and research on children's EU and parents' emotion socialization. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Grammatical Error Analysis in Recount Text Made by the Students of Cokroaminoto University of Palopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermini Hermini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out (1 Grammatical errors in recount text made by the English Department students of the second and the sixth semester of Cokroaminoto University of Palopo, (2 the frequent grammatical errors made by the second and the sixth semester students of English department students (3 The difference of grammatical errors made by the second and the sixth semester students. The sample of the study was 723 sentences made by 30 students of the second semester and 30 students of the sixth semester students in academic year 2013/2014 that were taken by cluster random sampling technique. The sentences were 337 (46.61% simple sentences, 83(11.48% compound sentences, 218 (30.15% complex sentences, 85 (11.76% compound complex sentences. The data were collected by using two kinds of instruments namely: writing test to find the students’ grammatical errors and questionnaire to find the solution to prevent or minimize errors. Data on the students’ errors were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The results of the study showed that the students made 832 errors classified into13 types of errors which consisted of 140 (16.82% errors in production of verb, 110 (13.22% errors in preposition, 106 (12,74% errors in distribution of verb, 98 (11.77% miscellaneous errors, 82 (9.85% errors in missing subject, 67(8.05% errors in part of speech, 61 (7,33% errors in irregular verbs, 58 (6.97% other errors in verb groups, 52(6.25% errors in the use of article, 24 (2.88% errors in gerund, 18 (2.16% errors in infinitive, 11(1.32% errors in pronoun/case, and 5 (0.6% errors in questions. The top six frequent grammatical errors made by the students were production of verb group, preposition, distribution of verb group, miscellaneous error, missing subject, and part of speech. The difference of both groups was the frequency in committing errors such as part of speech, irregular verb, infinitive verbs, and other errors in verb.

  15. Understanding Immune Cells in Tertiary Lymphoid Organ Development: It Is All Starting to Come Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth W.; Hill, David G.; Jones, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are frequently observed in tissues affected by non-resolving inflammation as a result of infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and allograft rejection. These highly ordered structures resemble the cellular composition of lymphoid follicles typically associated with the spleen and lymph node compartments. Although TLOs within tissues show varying degrees of organization, they frequently display evidence of segregated T and B cell zones, follicular dendritic cell networks, a supporting stromal reticulum, and high endothelial venules. In this respect, they mimic the activities of germinal centers and contribute to the local control of adaptive immune responses. Studies in various disease settings have described how these structures contribute to either beneficial or deleterious outcomes. While the development and architectural organization of TLOs within inflamed tissues requires homeostatic chemokines, lymphoid and inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules, our understanding of the cells responsible for triggering these events is still evolving. Over the past 10–15 years, novel immune cell subsets have been discovered that have more recently been implicated in the control of TLO development and function. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of these cell types and consider the potential to develop new therapeutic strategies that target TLOs. PMID:27752256

  16. UNDERSTANDING HOW HEALTHY WORKPLACES ARE CREATED: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE HEALTHY WORKPLACE PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Katrina M; Brand, Sarah; Ashby-Pepper, Julie; Abraham, Jane; Fleming, Lora E

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting health and well-being. We sought to understand how successful workplace health and well-being programs were developed and implemented to inform the development of a program for a National Health Service (NHS) hospital. Case studies of successful healthy workplace programs with 34 semi-structured employee interviews informed 12 interviews with NHS staff. Interviews were thematically analyzed using Nvivo. Themes were fed back to participants for further clarification and validation. Healthy workplace programs were characterized by senior management endorsement; collective sense of ownership; presence of visible "quick wins"; and a sense that participation was easy and fun, not mandated. Programs evolved organically, allowing trust to be built and activities to be developed with employees. Interviews with NHS staff suggested a lack of belief in the possibility of change in their workplace due to time and workload pressures, and a sense of an "us and them" relationship with management, as well as environmental barriers. A consistent pattern of how the conditions for a healthy workplace can be created, which map onto the results from the NHS ward staff, suggest that without creating an enabling environment for health-promoting behaviors, workplace programs will have poor uptake and retention.

  17. Frogs as integrative models for understanding digestive organ development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Mandy; Pickett, Melissa; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette

    2016-03-01

    The digestive system comprises numerous cells, tissues and organs that are essential for the proper assimilation of nutrients and energy. Many aspects of digestive organ function are highly conserved among vertebrates, yet the final anatomical configuration of the gut varies widely between species, especially those with different diets. Improved understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that orchestrate digestive organ development is pertinent to many areas of biology and medicine, including the regeneration or replacement of diseased organs, the etiology of digestive organ birth defects, and the evolution of specialized features of digestive anatomy. In this review, we highlight specific examples of how investigations using Xenopus laevis frog embryos have revealed insight into the molecular and cellular dynamics of digestive organ patterning and morphogenesis that would have been difficult to obtain in other animal models. Additionally, we discuss recent studies of gut development in non-model frog species with unique feeding strategies, such as Lepidobatrachus laevis and Eleutherodactylous coqui, which are beginning to provide glimpses of the evolutionary mechanisms that may generate morphological variation in the digestive tract. The unparalleled experimental versatility of frog embryos make them excellent, integrative models for studying digestive organ development across multiple disciplines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnitta Patricia Mosby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate the process of migration and resettlement as movement increases. A synthesis of existing studies would allow the development of sensitising concepts that could inform future research in the Torres Strait Islander context. This article presents a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies of the experiences of different Indigenous and minority groups at various stages of migration, displacement and resettlement. Articles were selected on contemporary movements (2001-2011 and importantly the inclusion of first person voice. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise common themes and a core construct. The overarching construct that became apparent from the metasynthesis was ‘continuity of being’ through staying connected to self, family and culture. Three themes emerged: ‘freedom to be’, ‘staying close’ and ‘forming anchor’. These were enacted through people valuing their personal, social, religious and political freedom and recognising the importance of maintaining or forming strong social and family networks. When researching the experiences of Torres Strait Islanders it will be necessary to focus on motivations for moving, and understand the processes for staying connected to kin and homeland in order to achieve the desired outcomes of successful resettlement under conditions of uncertainty.

  19. Gut microbiota: next frontier in understanding human health and development of biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Satya Prakash, Laetitia Rodes, Michael Coussa-Charley, Catherine Tomaro-DuchesneauBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: The gut microbiota is a remarkable asset for human health. As a key element in the development and prevention of specific diseases, its study has yielded a new field of promising biotherapeutics. This review provides comprehensive and updated knowledge of the human gut microbiota, its implications in health and disease, and the potentials and limitations of its modification by currently available biotherapeutics to treat, prevent and/or restore human health, and future directions. Homeostasis of the gut microbiota maintains various functions which are vital to the maintenance of human health. Disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium (gut dysbiosis is associated with a plethora of human diseases, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, colorectal cancer, metabolic diseases, and bacterial infections. Relevant underlying mechanisms by which specific intestinal bacteria populations might trigger the development of disease in susceptible hosts are being explored across the globe. Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota using biotherapeutics, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics, may favor health-promoting populations of bacteria and can be exploited in development of biotherapeutics. Other technologies, such as development of human gut models, bacterial screening, and delivery formulations eg, microencapsulated probiotics, may contribute significantly in the near future. Therefore, the human gut microbiota is a legitimate therapeutic target to treat and/or prevent various diseases. Development of a clear understanding of the technologies needed to exploit the gut microbiota is urgently required.Keywords: gut microbiota, human

  20. THE REPERCUSSION OF GRAMMATICAL AND CULTURAL CULPABILITY OF THE HOLY QUR’AN TRANSLATION TO RELIGIOUS HARMONY IN INDONESIA

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    Abdul Muta'ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, among the sources of Islamic radicalization in Indonesia is the interpretation of certain terminology in the holy Qur’an. In a relatively long period, religious understanding of Indonesian society is shaped by the official Translation of the Holy Qur’an by Ministry of Religious Affairs. However, this translation contains several mistakes, including mistakes in translating key terms relating to the issue of warfare, non-Muslims and killing. This eventually contributes to radicalization of some element of Muslim society in Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to analyze error translation of The Holy Qur’an verses. Content analysis theory is applied in this research with grammatical and cultural approach against the Holy Qur’an translation by Ministry of Religious Affairs of Indonesia (MORA. The research shows that 90 fatal errors in translation of The Holy Qur’an verses regarding infidels and polytheists are confirmed. The errors might be play role in the increasing religious disharmony in Indonesia. Furthermore, they arguably have fueled Islam-based terrorism acts.

  1. Grand challenges in developing a predictive understanding of global fire dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Wiggins, E. B.; Andela, N.; Morton, D. C.; Veraverbeke, S.; van der Werf, G.

    2017-12-01

    High quality satellite observations of burned area and fire thermal anomalies over the past two decades have transformed our understanding of climate, ecosystem, and human controls on the spatial and temporal distribution of landscape fires. The satellite observations provide evidence for a rapid and widespread loss of fire from grassland and savanna ecosystems worldwide. Continued expansion of industrial agriculture suggests that observed declines in global burned area are likely to continue in future decades, with profound consequences for ecosystem function and the habitat of many endangered species. Satellite time series also highlight the importance of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes as drivers of interannual variability. In many regions, lead times between climate indices and fire activity are considerable, enabling the development of early warning prediction systems for fire season severity. With the recent availability of high-resolution observations from Suomi NPP, Landsat 8, and Sentinel 2, the field of global fire ecology is poised to make even more significant breakthroughs over the next decade. With these new observations, it may be possible to reduce uncertainties in the spatial pattern of burned area by several fold. It is difficult to overstate the importance of these new data constraints for improving our understanding of fire impacts on human health and radiative forcing of climate change. A key research challenge in this context is to understand how the loss of global burned area will affect magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink and trends in atmospheric composition. Advances in prognostic fire modeling will require new approaches linking agriculture with landscape fire dynamics. A critical need in this context is the development of predictive models of road networks and other drivers of land fragmentation, and a closer integration of fragmentation information with algorithms predicting fire spread. Concurrently, a better

  2. The response of runoff generation to urban development: modelling and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2014-05-01

    The urbanisation process strongly changes natural catchment by increasing the impervious coverage and by creating a need for efficient drainage systems, resulting in a significant change of catchment hydrology from extreme floods to low flows. Thus, it is becoming important to quantify the impacts of urbanisation on runoff generation and to investigate the possibility of restoring pre-development flows in urban catchments for integrated urban stormwater management. Urban hydrological modelling emphasising on urbanisation effects has received substantial attention. However, the lack of good quality monitoring data in a same developing catchment limits model calibration for many of previous studies. In this concern, this study aims to describe and better understand the effects of urbanisation on catchment hydrology through modelling of a series of scenarios in a developing urban catchment of Saunalahdenranta (SR). The catchment is located at Espoo, southern Finland and has an area of about 13.2 ha. The catchment was developed rapidly from a rural area to a residential area during 2001-2006. Hydrological data were measured in two minutes intervals during the development period, when the imperviousness of the catchment changed from 1.5% to 37%. Precipitation-runoff relationship is simulated using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) that is firstly parameterised, calibrated, and validated for the scenario of highly developed residential catchment in 2006. The hydrological impacts of spatial resolution and model parameters, such as the delineation of subcatchment, flow width as well as Manning's roughness are evaluated and discussed. The calibrated model is then used to investigate, how the hydrological response to urbanisation was changing in the scenarios for the previous years (2001-2005) with different levels of urban development (represented by impervious surfaces). The predictions for the several scenarios provide a quantification of the hydrological impacts of

  3. Develop a quantitative understanding of rockmass behaviour near excavations in deep mines, part 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of the rock mass deformation near deep level stopes and the avoidance of damaging incidents of violent rock failure require a fundamental understanding of rock failure mechanisms. Research work to gain this understanding has been undertaken...

  4. Role of aspect in understanding tense: an investigation with adolescents with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Nichola J; van der Lely, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Morphosyntax has been well researched in specific language impairment (SLI) and there is general agreement that children with SLI have particular difficulties with tense-marking. Less well researched is the role that aspect plays in the difficulties found in tense-marking, especially as tense and aspect are often confounded in English. Initial investigation of the understanding of aspect in preschool children with SLI suggests that they are less sensitive to aspect and its interaction with tense than typically developing (TD) children. It is unclear, however, what is the developmental trajectory of their understanding of aspect and its interaction with tense and whether these difficulties are still found in older children and adolescents with SLI. To investigate comprehension of the grammatical aspect contrast between completed events using the simple past tense -ed/irregular (perfective grammatical aspect) and ongoing events using the past progressive (imperfective grammatical aspect). The role of lexical aspect was also investigated through the balanced use of verbs that were inherently telic (i.e. have a natural end-point) and verbs that required the addition of prepositional phrase for a telic interpretation when used in the perfective aspect condition. A sentence-picture matching task was administered to 10 participants with SLI (aged 12;10-16;8 years) and 30 language ability matched TD children who were split into three groups (mean ages: 5;10, 7;4 and 9;2). Adult-like performance was found by all groups on the perfective aspect condition, but only by the oldest group of TD children on the imperfective aspect condition. The performance of the group with SLI was consistent with their much younger language ability matched TD children in their understanding of the progressive -ing when used to describe ongoing events that have taken place in the past. The lexical aspect of the telicity of the verbs was not found to have any significant effect on performance

  5. Understanding the distinct experience of rural interprofessional collaboration in developing palliative care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, A; Kelley, M L; Williams, A M

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is one component of rural generalist practice that requires interprofessional collaboration (IPC) amongst practitioners. Previous research on developing rural palliative care has created a four-phase capacity development model that included interprofessional rural palliative care teams; however, the details of rural team dynamics had not been previously explored and defined. A growing body of literature has produced models for interprofessional collaborative practice and identified core competencies required by professionals to work within these contexts. An Ontario College of Family Physicians discussion paper identifies seven essential elements for successful IPC: responsibility and accountability, coordination, communication, cooperation, assertiveness, autonomy, and mutual trust and respect. Despite the fact that IPC may be well conceptualized in the literature, evidence to support the transferability of these elements into rural health care practice or rural palliative care practice is lacking. The purpose of this research is to bridge the knowledge gap that exists with respect to rural IPC, particularly in the context of developing rural palliative care. It examines the working operations of these teams and highlights the elements that are important to rural collaborative processes. For the purpose of this qualitative study, naturalistic and ethnographic research strategies were employed to understand the experience of rural IPC in the context of rural palliative care team development. Purposive sampling was used to recruit key informants as participants who were members of rural palliative care teams. The seven elements of interprofessional collaboration, as outline above, provided a preliminary analytic framework to begin exploring the data. Analysis progressed using a process of interpretive description to embrace new ideas and conceptualizations that emerged from the patterns and themes of the rural health providers' narratives. The

  6. Elementary pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding of dissolving: a Vygotskian concept development perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Pamela; Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2015-09-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and identify the nature and the interrelatedness of pre-service teachers' misconceptions and scientific concepts for explaining dissolving before, during, and after a 5E learning cycle lesson on dissolving, the intervention. Sample, design, and methods: Guided by Vygotsky's theory of concept development, the study focused specifically on the spontaneous, and spontaneous pseudo-concepts held by the 61 elementary pre-service teachers during a 15-week science methods course. Data included concept maps, interview transcripts, written artifacts, drawings, and narratives, and were thematically analyzed to classify concepts and interrelatedness. Results: Results of the study showed that spontaneous pseudo-concepts (1) dominated pre-service teachers' understandings about dissolving throughout the study, and (2) were simply associated with scientific concepts during and after the intervention. Conclusion: Collectively, the results indicated that the pre-service teachers' did not acquire a unified system of knowledge about dissolving that could be characterized as abstract, generalizable, and hierarchical. Implications include the need for (1) familiarity with pre-service teachers' prior knowledge about science content; (2) a variety of formative assessments to assess their misconceptions; (3) emphasizing the importance of dialectical method for concept development during instruction; and (4) skillful content instructors.

  7. Pharmaceutical quality by design: product and process development, understanding, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lawrence X

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pharmaceutical Quality by Design (QbD) and describe how it can be used to ensure pharmaceutical quality. The QbD was described and some of its elements identified. Process parameters and quality attributes were identified for each unit operation during manufacture of solid oral dosage forms. The use of QbD was contrasted with the evaluation of product quality by testing alone. The QbD is a systemic approach to pharmaceutical development. It means designing and developing formulations and manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality. Some of the QbD elements include: Defining target product quality profile; Designing product and manufacturing processes; Identifying critical quality attributes, process parameters, and sources of variability; Controlling manufacturing processes to produce consistent quality over time. Using QbD, pharmaceutical quality is assured by understanding and controlling formulation and manufacturing variables. Product testing confirms the product quality. Implementation of QbD will enable transformation of the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) into a science-based pharmaceutical quality assessment.

  8. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Sonntag, William E

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Ferenc; Freeman, Willard M.; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the Western world is aging, there is increasing awareness of age-related impairments in cognitive function and a rising interest in finding novel approaches to preserve cerebral health. A special collection of articles in The Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences brings together information of different aspects of brain aging, from latest developments in the field of neurodegenerative disorders to cerebral microvascular mechanisms of cognitive decline. It is emphasized that although the cellular changes that occur within aging neurons have been widely studied, more research is required as new signaling pathways are discovered that can potentially protect cells. New avenues for research targeting cellular senescence, epigenetics, and endocrine mechanisms of brain aging are also discussed. Based on the current literature it is clear that understanding brain aging and reducing risk for neurological disease with age requires searching for mechanisms and treatment options beyond the age-related changes in neuronal function. Thus, comprehensive approaches need to be developed that address the multiple, interrelated mechanisms of brain aging. Attention is brought to the importance of maintenance of cerebromicrovascular health, restoring neuroendocrine balance, and the pressing need for funding more innovative research into the interactions of neuronal, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and microvascular mechanisms of cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26590911

  10. Towards an understanding of the role of the environment in the development of early callous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Trentacosta, Christopher; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2015-01-01

    Key to understanding the long-term impact of social inequalities is identifying early behaviors that may signal higher risk for later poor psychosocial outcomes, such as psychopathology. A set of early-emerging characteristics that may signal risk for later externalizing psychopathology is Callous-Unemotional (CU) behavior. CU behavior predict severe and chronic trajectories of externalizing behaviors in youth. However, much research on CU behavior has focused on late childhood and adolescence, with little attention paid to early childhood when preventative interventions may be most effective. In this paper, we summarize our recent work showing that: (1) CU behavior can be identified in early childhood using items from common behavior checklists; (2) CU behavior predicts worse outcomes across early childhood; (3) CU behavior exhibits a distinct nomological network from other early externalizing behaviors; and (4) malleable environmental factors, particularly parenting, may play a role in the development of early CU behaviors. We discuss the challenges of studying contextual contributors to the development of CU behavior in terms of gene-environment correlations and present initial results from work examining CU behavior in an adoption study in which gene-environment correlations are examined in early childhood. We find that parenting is a predictor of early CU behavior even in a sample in which parents are not genetically related to the children. PMID:26291075

  11. Understanding the direct involvement of parents in policy development and school activities in a primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobin Bernie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that parental engagement with children’s learning and education is of vital importance. But, there is a tendency to confuse engagement with learning with engagement with the school. While all types of parents’ involvement can have a positive effect, it is actually what parents do with their child at home that has the greatest impact. However, unless parental involvement in learning is embedded in whole-school processes it is unlikely to as effective as possible. This paper documents an action research study that explores the inclusion of parents and home values in the construction of the teaching and learning environment. This was a small step towards positive parent-teacher collaboration, which allowed an exchange of knowledge, values and cultural background experiences. In acknowledging the ways in which the parents already engaged with their children’s learning, it began to enhance self-efficacy in their ability to directly affect this learning. This work has also provoked reflexive engagement of my influence and understanding of involving parents of children with additional and diverse learning needs. But, it also details the transformative journey that influenced my thinking about how we as a school could begin to develop whole-school processes to directly involve parents in policy development and school activities.

  12. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R.; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition. PMID:26091351

  13. Patient understanding of the revised USPSTF screening mammogram guidelines: need for development of patient decision aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Summer V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to examine patients’ understanding of the revised screening mammogram guidelines released by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF in 2009 addressing age at initiation and frequency of screening mammography. Methods Patients from the Departments of Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Obstetrics and Gynecology (n = 150 at a tertiary care medical center in the United States completed a survey regarding their understanding of the revised USPSTF guidelines following their release, within four to six months of their scheduled mammogram (March 2010 to May 2010. Results Of the patients surveyed, 97/147 (67% indicated increased confusion regarding the age and frequency of screening mammography, 61/148 (41% reported increased anxiety about mammograms, and 58/146 (40% reported anxiety about their own health status following the release of the revised screening guidelines. Most of the patients surveyed, 111/148 (75%, did not expect to change their timing or frequency of screening mammograms in the future. Conclusion Results from this survey suggested increased confusion and possibly an increase in patients’ anxiety related to screening mammography and their own health status following the release of the revised USPSTF screening mammogram guidelines to the public and subsequent media portrayal of the revised guidelines. Although the study did not specifically address causality for these findings, the results highlight the need for improvements in the communication of guidelines to patients and the public. Development of shared decision-making tools and outcomes should be considered to address the communication challenge.

  14. The Lay Public’s Understanding and Perception of Dementia in a Developed Asian Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Jia Tan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of dementia aims to improve treatment outcomes. However, poor perception and understanding of dementia are significant barriers. We aim to investigate the public’s perception of dementia and identify variables associated with the different profiles of public perception. Methods: A custom-designed questionnaire was used to assess laypersons’ knowledge and perception of dementia during a health fair at a public hospital in Singapore, a developed Asian nation. Out of a sample of 370 subjects, 32 declined to participate (response rate = 91.4%. Latent class analysis (LCA was used to identify meaningful subgroups of subjects from significant associations with multiple indicators of dementia awareness. Multinomial logistic regression was performed exploring variables associated with each of the subgroups derived from LCA. Results: The majority of the study participants were female (66.9%, 65 years or older (71.1%, and ethnic Chinese (88.1%. LCA classified the study participants into 3 subgroups: Class 1 (good knowledge, good attitude, Class 2 (good knowledge, poor attitude, and Class 3 (poor knowledge, poor attitude, in proportions of 14.28, 63.83, and 21.88%, respectively. Compared to other classes, participants with good knowledge and good attitude towards dementia (Class 1 were more likely to know someone with dementia and understand the effects of the disease, be married, live in private housing, receive higher monthly income, and not profess belief in Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism. Conclusion: Our results show that the public in Singapore may not be ready for screening initiatives and early dementia diagnosis. Education efforts should be targeted at lower socioeconomic groups, singles, and those of certain oriental religions.

  15. The numeracy understanding in medicine instrument: a measure of health numeracy developed using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Walker, Cindy M; Cappaert, Kevin J; Ganschow, Pamela S; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; McGinley, Emily L; Del Pozo, Sam; Schauer, Carrie; Tarima, Sergey; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Health numeracy can be defined as the ability to understand and apply information conveyed with numbers, tables and graphs, probabilities, and statistics to effectively communicate with health care providers, take care of one's health, and participate in medical decisions. To develop the Numeracy Understanding in Medicine Instrument (NUMi) using item response theory scaling methods. A 20-item test was formed drawing from an item bank of numeracy questions. Items were calibrated using responses from 1000 participants and a 2-parameter item response theory model. Construct validity was assessed by comparing scores on the NUMi to established measures of print and numeric health literacy, mathematic achievement, and cognitive aptitude. Community and clinical populations in the Milwaukee and Chicago metropolitan areas. Twenty-nine percent of the 1000 respondents were Hispanic, 24% were non-Hispanic white, and 42% were non-Hispanic black. Forty-one percent had no more than a high school education. The mean score on the NUMi was 13.2 (s = 4.6) with a Cronbach α of 0.86. Difficulty and discrimination item response theory parameters of the 20 items ranged from -1.70 to 1.45 and 0.39 to 1.98, respectively. Performance on the NUMi was strongly correlated with the Wide Range Achievement Test-Arithmetic (0.73, P < 0.001), the Lipkus Expanded Numeracy Scale (0.69, P < 0.001), the Medical Data Interpretation Test (0.75, P < 0.001), and the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test (0.82, P < 0.001). Performance was moderately correlated to the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (0.43, P < 0.001). The NUMi was found to be most discriminating among respondents with a lower-than-average level of health numeracy. The NUMi can be applied in research and clinical settings as a robust measure of the health numeracy construct.

  16. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  17. Experimental and Modeling Approaches for Understanding the Effect of Gene Expression Noise in Biological Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Holloway

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological development involves numerous chemical and physical processes which must act in concert to reliably produce a cell, a tissue, or a body. To be successful, the developing organism must be robust to variability at many levels, such as the environment (e.g., temperature, moisture, upstream information (such as long-range positional information gradients, or intrinsic noise due to the stochastic nature of low concentration chemical kinetics. The latter is especially relevant to the regulation of gene expression in cell differentiation. The temporal stochasticity of gene expression has been studied in single celled organisms for nearly two decades, but only recently have techniques become available to gather temporally-resolved data across spatially-distributed gene expression patterns in developing multicellular organisms. These demonstrate temporal noisy “bursting” in the number of gene transcripts per cell, raising the question of how the transcript number defining a particular cell type is produced, such that one cell type can reliably be distinguished from a neighboring cell of different type along a tissue boundary. Stochastic spatio-temporal modeling of tissue-wide expression patterns can identify signatures for specific types of gene regulation, which can be used to extract regulatory mechanism information from experimental time series. This Perspective focuses on using this type of approach to study gene expression noise during the anterior-posterior segmentation of the fruit fly embryo. Advances in experimental and theoretical techniques will lead to an increasing quantification of expression noise that can be used to understand how regulatory mechanisms contribute to embryonic robustness across a range of developmental processes.

  18. Chunk Learning and the Development of Spoken Discourse in a Japanese as a Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the development of spoken discourse among L2 learners of Japanese who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks. Participants in this study were 22 college students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course. They received instruction on a set of grammatical chunks in class through communicative drills and the…

  19. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  20. A design study to develop young children's understanding of multiplication and division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung

    2016-12-01

    This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in May-June and October-November. The focus in this article is on three key aspects of classroom teaching: instructional tasks, the use of representations, and discourse, including the mathematics register. Results from selected pre- and post-assessment tasks within a diagnostic interview showed that there were improvements in addition and subtraction as well as multiplication and division, even though the teaching had used multiplication and division problems. Students made progress on all four operational domains, with effect sizes ranging from approximately two thirds of a standard deviation to 2 standard deviations. Most of the improvement in students' number strategies was in moving from `counting all' to `counting on' and `skip counting'. The findings challenge the idea that learning experiences in addition and subtraction should precede those in multiplication and division as suggested in some curriculum documents.

  1. Limits to oil pricing: scenario planning as a device to understand oil price developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, O.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper underlines that the politicizing of the oil market makes economics, politics and even pure warfare important elements in the formation of the price of oil. The disagreement about which theory to use to analyze the market and the bad record of oil price forecasting indicates that conventional oil market models should be critically re-assessed. The scenario planning methodology presented in this paper may be one alternative approach. SP does not overthrow any other theories of the market. But it claims that no single discipline is able to tell the whole truth about the market. The SP approach stresses and clarifies the role of uncertainty in the development of oil prices and underlines the importance of the understanding of the functioning of the market. It argues that without a cross-disciplinary approach, with an adequate choice of parameters, at the right level of in-depth discussion, the analysis may lose essential input or drown in detail. As an example of the methodology, an analysis of development of oil prices in the nineties is presented. It is shown that lower (indicated as 15-20 S/bbl) and upper (indicated as 30-40 S/bbl) limits of the price in the long run can be constructed, based on economic, political and strategic reasoning. It is also argued that short run 'shocks' outside these limits may have become less likely, because: (1) the strategic petroleum reserves (SPR) will cut off the most extreme prices above the upper limit and (2) the existence of a supply side regulator, like OPEC, will prevent prices from dropping below the lower limit for any longer period of time. Sensitivity analysis tests the 'robustness' of the approach. 10 refs., 1 fig

  2. Development of animal welfare understanding drives change in minimum welfare standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J; Webster, J R

    2014-04-01

    The process by which societies adapt to increasing knowledge about the mental and physical capacities of animals and the ways in which they are affected by human activities has been described as a journey. Different countries and regions are at various stages of this journey, and will take a unique path, depending on their specific social and cultural dynamics. However, all participants are unified by an increasing awareness of, and concern for, animal welfare. This journey has been characterised by a number of landmark events, one of which was the release of the Five Freedoms concept. Although aspirational and abstract, as it did not outline specific practical goals, nonetheless this concept became a catalyst for moving animal welfare thinking in a new direction, and set up a number of important targets for research. This eventually led to a key shift in thinking from a focus on biological functioning and resources, to ways of assessing welfare outcomes in terms of animals' experiences, i.e. their affective states. Behaviour science played an important role in the interpretation of animals' affective experiences, receiving compelling support from parallel studies in affective neuroscience. An important aspect of our understanding of animal welfare is that affective states can be negative or positive. Enabling animals to perform specific behaviours at key times when they are needed is central to the achievement of positive affective states. Another important event has been the development of practical ways to shift the spectrum of affective states towards a positive balance and their incorporation into welfare codes and regulations. The recent focus on positive affective states does not mean that negative experiences should be given less attention. In fact, in those countries that are at the early stages of the journey, improving function and productivity may be the most effective way to promote some important aspects of animal welfare. For example, alleviating

  3. Grammatical Errors in English Essays Written by Thai EFL Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilak Khumphee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to three research objectives: 1 to investigate common types of grammatical errors based on their frequency of occurrence in English essay writing of Thai EFL undergraduate students, 2 to examine the effects of L1 interference on discovered grammatical errors, in particular, to find out whether there were any of the errors influenced by the students’ mother tongue (Thai language, and 3 to provide some essential pedagogical implications for second language learning and teaching. The subjects of this study were 83 second-year students majoring in English at Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, and they were drawn by using purposive sampling method. The study procedures consisted of 2 steps: 1 the students were asked to write an English essay, and 2 the researcher of this study analyzed the students’ essays by employing the study analysis framework which was adapted from Na-ngam’s (2005 error taxonomy and Richards’ (1971 error categories. The findings indicated that ; 1 there were 26 types of grammatical errors, with the total number of 4,909 errors, occurred in the students’ written work, and the five most common types of all were punctuation, nouns, prepositions, verbs, and articles respectively ; and 2 there were 1,560 out of 4,909 errors, which were categorized into 14 types, caused by the students’ L1 interference, Thai language. The five most frequent numbers of these types of errors fell into the use of plural form of nouns, omission of punctuation, wrong structures of complex sentences, omission of some parts of a sentence, and fragments respectively.

  4. Developing Deaf Students Fraction Skills Requires Understanding Magnitude and Whole Number Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Keith; Kelly, Ronald R.

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that fraction magnitude and whole number division are important precursors to learning and understanding fractions. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students are consistently challenged with learning fractions from K-12 through college. Sixty DHH college students were tested for both their understanding of magnitude between two…

  5. Concept Mapping as a Tool to Develop and Measure Students' Understanding in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sema; Erdimez, Omer; Zimmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Concept maps measured a student's understanding of the complexity of concepts, and interrelationships. Novak and Gowin (1984) claimed that the continuous use of concept maps increased the complexity and interconnectedness of students' understanding of relationships between concepts in a particular science domain. This study has two purposes; the…

  6. The Dead Ends of Language: The (mis)interpretation of a Grammatical Illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the so-called ‘comparative illusion’ or ‘dead end’ experimentally – a pseudo-elliptical, seemingly grammatical, but ill-formed sentence, e.g. More people have been to Paris than I have. Repeatability of the event and choice of quantifier (more vs. fewer) do not affect acceptability significantly, whereas plurality of the than-phrase subject does. The illusion is fast and (superficially) easy to parse, suggesting that it is (mis)interpreted directly, not via ellipsis resolu...

  7. Grammatical awareness in the spoken and written language of language-disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H; Kantor, M; Macnab, J

    1990-12-01

    Experiments examined grammatical judgement, and error-identification deficits in relation to expressive language skills and to morphemic errors in writing. Language-disabled subjects did not differ from language-matched controls on judgement, revision, or error identification. Age-matched controls represented more morphemes in elicited writing than either of the other groups, which were equivalent. However, in spontaneous writing, language-disabled subjects made more frequent morphemic errors than age-matched controls, but language-matched subjects did not differ from either group. Proficiency relative to academic experience and oral language status and to remedial implications are discussed.

  8. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  9. Grammatical Morphology in Monolingual and Bilingual Children With and Without Language Impairment: The Case of Dutch Plurals and Past Participles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Wijnen, Frank; Leseman, Paul; Blom, Elma

    2017-07-12

    Grammatical morphology is often a locus of difficulty for both children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children. In contrast to previous research that mainly focused on verbal tense and agreement markings, the present study investigated whether plural and past participle formation can disentangle the effects of LI and bilingualism and, in addition, can point to weaknesses of LI that hold across monolingual and bilingual contexts. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (n = 33 per group) were tested at 2 waves with a word formation task that elicited Dutch noun plurals and past participles. The quantity and quality of errors as well as children's development over time were examined. The plural formation task discriminated between monolingual children with and without LI, but a less differentiated picture emerged in the bilingual group. Moreover, plural accuracy showed fully overlapping language profiles of monolinguals with LI and bilinguals without LI, in contrast to accuracy scores on the past participle formation task. Error analyses suggested that frequent omission of participial affixes may be indicative of LI, irrespective of lingual status. The elicited production of past participles may support a reliable diagnosis of LI in monolingual and bilingual learning contexts. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5165689.

  10. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  11. Proteomics as an approach to the understanding of the molecular physiology of fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J; del Río, Luís A

    2011-08-12

    Fruit ripening is a developmental complex process which occurs in higher plants and involves a number of stages displayed from immature to mature fruits that depend on the plant species and the environmental conditions. Nowadays, the importance of fruit ripening comes mainly from the link between this physiological process in plants and the economic repercussions as a result of one of the human activities, the agricultural industry. In most cases, fruit ripening is accompanied by colour changes due to different pigment content and increases in sugar levels, among others. Major physiological modifications that affect colour, texture, flavour, and aroma are under the control of both external (light and temperature) and internal (developmental gene regulation and hormonal control) factors. Due to the huge amount of metabolic changes that take place during ripening in fruits from higher plants, the accomplishment of new throughput methods which can provide a global evaluation of this process would be desirable. Differential proteomics of immature and mature fruits would be a useful tool to gain information on the molecular changes which occur during ripening, but also the investigation of fruits at different ripening stages will provide a dynamic picture of the whole transformation of fruits. This subject is furthermore of great interest as many fruits are essential for human nutrition. Thus far different maturation profiles have been reported specific for each crop species. In this work, a thorough review of the proteomic database from fruit development and maturation of important crop species will be updated to understand the molecular physiology of fruits at ripening stages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling the epigenetic attractors landscape: toward a post-genomic mechanistic understanding of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Velderrain, Jose; Martinez-Garcia, Juan C.; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2015-01-01

    Robust temporal and spatial patterns of cell types emerge in the course of normal development in multicellular organisms. The onset of degenerative diseases may result from altered cell fate decisions that give rise to pathological phenotypes. Complex networks of genetic and non-genetic components underlie such normal and altered morphogenetic patterns. Here we focus on the networks of regulatory interactions involved in cell-fate decisions. Such networks modeled as dynamical non-linear systems attain particular stable configurations on gene activity that have been interpreted as cell-fate states. The network structure also restricts the most probable transition patterns among such states. The so-called Epigenetic Landscape (EL), originally proposed by C. H. Waddington, was an early attempt to conceptually explain the emergence of developmental choices as the result of intrinsic constraints (regulatory interactions) shaped during evolution. Thanks to the wealth of molecular genetic and genomic studies, we are now able to postulate gene regulatory networks (GRN) grounded on experimental data, and to derive EL models for specific cases. This, in turn, has motivated several mathematical and computational modeling approaches inspired by the EL concept, that may be useful tools to understand and predict cell-fate decisions and emerging patterns. In order to distinguish between the classical metaphorical EL proposal of Waddington, we refer to the Epigenetic Attractors Landscape (EAL), a proposal that is formally framed in the context of GRNs and dynamical systems theory. In this review we discuss recent EAL modeling strategies, their conceptual basis and their application in studying the emergence of both normal and pathological developmental processes. In addition, we discuss how model predictions can shed light into rational strategies for cell fate regulation, and we point to challenges ahead. PMID:25954305

  13. Development and understanding of multifunctional gold nanorings for photodynamic therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue

    Gold nanostructures of various geometries and dimensions are being broadly explored in the fast expanding field of nanomedicine due to the unusual combination of biocompatibility, versatility of surface functionalization, and localized surface-plasmon resonance (LSPR). Examples of relevant applications include biomedical imaging, clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Gold nanorings (Au NRs) are of particular interest because of their intricate structure and LSPR tunability over a wide wavelength range. A solution-based synthesis approach is yet to be developed, however, to allow exploration of Au NRs for basic and applied studies. This dissertation focuses on the fabrication, characterization, and evaluation of colloidal Au NRs for enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) of breast cancer cells. We have developed a novel synthesis strategy and associated pathways toward Au NRs by galvanic replacement reaction of Co nanoparticles (Co NPs) in HAuCl4 solution. We have shown that surface-chemistry mediated particle-particle interaction of the Co NPs that leads to their 1D chain-like assembly as sacrificial template is critically important for the growth of Au NRs. Otherwise, Au nanoshells or Au nanotubes may result. The Au NRs exhibit tunable LSPR wavelengths from visible to near-infrared (NIR) region via varying the aspect ratio, in agreement with our theoretical calculations using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. A layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method was used to load Al(III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulfonic acid (AlPcS4) photosensitizer (PS) onto the surface of Au NRs. We have revealed that the photosensitivity of AlPcS4 can be quenched unless desorbed from the surface of Au NRs in the cellular compartment. An eight-fold increase in PDT killing efficiency of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) has been achieved using LbL-assembled AlPcS4-Au NR complexes in comparison to AlPcS4 only or the mixture of AlPcS 4 and Au NRs. This strategy allows

  14. Understanding Nanoemulsion Formation and Developing a Procedure for Porous Material Growth using Assembled Nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeranossian, Vahagn Frounzig

    Nanoemulsions as an emerging technology have found many applications in consumer products, drug delivery, and even particle formation. However, knowledge gaps exist in how some of these emulsions are formed, specifically what pathways are traversed to reach the final state. Moreover, how these pathways affect the final properties of the nanoemulsions would affect the applications that these droplets possess. Some nanoemulsions possess unique properties, including the assembly of droplets. While the assembly of droplets is being studied in the Helgeson lab, work must be done to understand how the assembly itself could be used to control the growth of porous materials, such a hydrogels. Thus, this thesis aims to address two factors of nanoemulsions: the formation of water-in-oil nanoemulsions and the use of assemblying droplets in oil-in-water nanoemulsions to form macroporous hydrogels. To elucidate the formation mechanism of water-in-oil nanoemulsions, a combination of dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering were used to study the intermediate and final states of the nanoemulsion during its formation. These nanoemulsions were prepared by slowly adding water to an oil and surfactant mixture and were diluted to effectively measure using scattering techniques without multiple scattering events. To develop a procedure to use assembled nanoemulsions for the growth of porous materials, a combination of optical microscopy and diffusional studies were employed. Optical microscopy images taken at various stages of the procedure help elucidate how the pore sizes of the final porous material is related to the droplet-rich domains of the assembled nanoemulsion. Meanwhile, diffusional measurements help confirm the size and interconnectedness of the macropores. From the work done in the completion of my thesis, the formation mechanism of the water-in-oil nanoemulsion studied has been elucidated. The neutron scattering measurements show that during the

  15. Develop a quantitative understanding of rockmass behaviour near excavations in deep mines, part 2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of failure processes in rock is an essential adjustment to the analysis of observations of underground rock fracturing. The identification of mechanisms of deformation represents a basic step in understanding of rock mass behaviour...

  16. Accentuate the Negative: Grammatical Errors during Narrative Production as a Clinical Marker of Central Nervous System Abnormality in School-Aged Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) whether increased grammatical error rates during a standardized narrative task are a more clinically useful marker of central nervous system abnormality in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) than common measures of productivity or grammatical complexity and (b) whether combining the rate…

  17. Development and understanding of new membranes based on aromatic polymers and heterocycles for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are appealing as a power source for portable devices as they do not require recharging with an electrical outlet. However, the DMFC technology is confronted with the high crossover of methanol fuel from the anode to the cathode through the currently used Nafion membrane, which not only wastes the fuel but also poisons the cathode platinum catalyst. With an aim to overcome the problems encountered with the Nafion membrane, this dissertation focuses on the design and development of new polymeric membrane materials for DMFC and a fundamental understanding of their structure-property-performance relationships. Several polymeric blend membranes based on acid-base interactions between an aromatic acidic polymer such as sulfonated ploy(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and an aromatic basic polymer such as heterocycle tethered poly(sulfone) (PSf) have been explored. Various heterochylces like nitro-benzimidazole (NBIm), 1H-Perimidine (PImd), and 5-amino-benzotriazole (BTraz) have been tethered to PSf to understand the influence of pKa values and the size of the hetrocycles. The blend membranes show lower methanol crossover and better performance in DMFC than plain SPEEK due to an enhancement in proton conductivity through acid-base interactions and an insertion of the heterocycle side groups into the ionic clusters of SPEEK as indicated by small angle X-ray scattering and TEM data. The SPEEK/PSf-PImd blend membrane shows the lowest methanol crossover due to the larger size of the side groups, while the SPEEK/PSf-BTraz blend membrane shows the highest proton conductivity and maximum power density. To further investigate the methanol-blocking effect of the heterocycles, N,N'-Bis-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-isophthalamide (BBImIP) having two amino-benzimidazole groups bonded to a phenyl ring has been incorporated into sulfonated polysulfone (SPSf) and SPEEK membranes. With two 2-amino-benzimidazole groups, which could greatly increase the proton

  18. Exemplary, New Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching Second-Language Learners and Developing Academic Language: An Embodied Understanding of Practice Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Maria-Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, longitudinal study examines the perspectives on professional development of a group of exemplary, new secondary teachers of English Language Arts and Spanish (n = 4). This study explores the teachers' development through the lens of the "embodied understanding of practice" (EUP), a novel theoretical framework of…

  19. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  20. Grammatical Gender Trouble and Hungarian Gender[lessness]. Part I: Comparative Linguistic Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O. Vasvári

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define linguistic gender[lessness], with particular reference in the latter part of the article to Hungarian, and to show why it is a feminist issue. I will discuss the [socio]linguistics of linguistic gender in three types of languages, those, like German and the Romance languages, among others, which possess grammatical gender, languages such as English, with only pronominal gender (sometimes misnamed ‘natural gender’, and languages such as Hungarian and other Finno-Ugric languages, as well as many other languages in the world, such as Turkish and Chinese, which have no linguistic or pronomial gender, but, like all languages, can make lexical gender distinctions. While in a narrow linguistic sense linguistic gender can be said to be afunctional, this does not take into account the ideological ramifications in gendered languages of the “leakage” between gender and sex[ism], while at the same time so-called genderless languages can express societal sexist assumptions linguistically through, for example, lexical gender, semantic derogation of women, and naming conventions. Thus, both languages with overt grammatical gender and those with gender-related asymmetries of a more covert nature show language to represent traditional cultural expectations, illustrating that linguistic gender is a feminist issue.

  1. PHONOLOGICAL AND GRAMMATICAL PERFORMANCE OF DISABLED STUDENTS IN SLB NEGERI UNGARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhimatul Ifadah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, disabled students are taught in particular schools. The research was aimed to give an overview of phonological and grammatical performance of those students and to find out how the teachers deliver English. English was not taught since primary school due to the competence of the teachers and some complexities of the students themselves, so English taught only for those with cognitive or learning disability and autism. The English teachers at the school did not have qualification in English because their major was not English; however, this gave impact on their teaching. In the process of teaching, the students were much asked to listen and imitate the teachers’ pronunciation, and they always used pictures as media. Unfortunately, words found in the material distributed in the classroom pronounced differently by the teacher and he seems do not realize with this weakness. Meanwhile, in grammatical performance they always use present progressive in the process of teaching. The students were much taught lexical or vocabulary to simplify the concept of English subject.Hence, the students were already sat on the senior high level, and the material were the same with the elementary. Meanwhile, the students made many unappropriate pronunciation because the teacher inconsistently pronouncing the words or sentences. It is suggested that teachers should have adequate skill in English to help those students in English class, because in a classroom setting, communication means a lot of things, and it is represented by the sufficient competence in English skills.

  2. Understanding the Role of O-GlcNAc Modifications in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Neil, E.

    2011-06-16

    This project has contributed towards understanding the role of O-GlcNAc (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) transferases (OGTs) in plants. Through analyses of single and double mutants, we have investigated the unique and overlapping functions of SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY), the arabidopsis OGTs. This work showed that SEC functions as negative regulators of the long-day flowering pathway. SEC also has a positive role in regulation of rosette. An E. coli co-expression system that allows potential substrates to be co-expressed with and O-GlcNAc modified by SEC was developed. We showed that SEC is a bona fide OGT that modifies itself with single O-linked GlcNAc(s). Using this system, we tested a number of proteins that were hypothesized to be substrates of SEC and identified a number of substrates include GIGANTEA (GI), a component of the long day flowering pathway. The hypothesis that O-GlcNAc modification controls GI activity was tested by first mapping where E. coli-expressed SEC modifies GI and then assessing the activity of a non-modifiable mutant form of GI. The activity of the mutant form of GI was indistinguishable from that of wild type suggesting that either O-GlcNAc does not regulate GI activity or that additional modification sites exist on GI. In collaboration with Dr. Juan Antonio Garcia at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid the role of O-GlcNAc modification of the plum pox virus coat protein (PPV-CP) was investigated. SEC was shown to O-GlcNAc modify PPV-CP and the modification was shown to facilitate the infection process. E. coli-expressed SEC was shown to modify the same PPV-CP sites that are modified in plants. SEC has a large protein interaction domain called the TPR domain that has been hypothesized to have a role in determining the substrate specificity of the enzyme and/or to regulate its activity. A mutational analysis of the TPR domain did not find evidence for a role in substrate specificity but did obtain evidence that the domain regulates

  3. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings which identify normal brain development trajectories are presented. Results show that early brain development begins with the neural tube formation and ends with myelintation. How disturbances in brain development patterns are related to childhood psychiatric disorders is examined.

  4. Post-Institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European Children: Heterogeneity in the Development of Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.; Perlman, Susan B.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer; Pollak, Seth D.

    2006-01-01

    Post-institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European children participated in two emotion understanding tasks. In one task, children selected facial expressions corresponding to four emotion labels (happy, sad, angry, scared). The second task required children to match facial expressions to stories describing situations for these emotions. While…

  5. The Development of Children's Moral Sensibility: Individual Differences and Emotion Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Developmental changes and individual differences in children's conceptions of transgression were studied in 46 children from preschool through 1st grade. Differences in response to moral transgressions in kindergarten were related to mothers' control management and to siblings' friendly behavior in the preschool period, early understanding of…

  6. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  7. Cultural Narratives: Developing a Three-Dimensional Learning Community through Braided Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    Paula Underwood's "Learning Stories" braid together body, mind, and spirit to enable understanding that does not easily unravel. They tell of relationships among individual and community learning that parallel other ancient and contemporary ideas about learning in caring communities. Underwood's tradition considers learning sacred; everyone's…

  8. Professional Development Aligned with AP Chemistry Curriculum: Promoting Science Practices and Facilitating Enduring Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent revisions to the advanced placement (AP) chemistry curriculum promote deep conceptual understanding of chemistry content over more rote memorization of facts and algorithmic problem solving. For many teachers, this will mean moving away from traditional worksheets and verification lab activities that they have used to address the vast…

  9. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Examining Student Understanding of Fractional Concepts: An Historical Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkerson, Trena L.; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a group of mathematics educators and researchers met to examine rational numbers and why children have such an issue with them. An extensive review of the literature on fractional understanding was conducted. The ideas in that literature were then consolidated into a theoretical framework for examining fractions. Once that theoretical…

  10. 'Feeling good' unpacked : Developing design tools to facilitate a differentiated understanding of positive emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, J.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Fokkinga, S.F.; Ludden, G.D.S.; Cila, N.; Van Zuthem, H.

    2016-01-01

    The range of positive emotions experienced in human-product interactions is diverse, and understanding the differences and similarities between these positive emotions can support emotion-driven design. Yet, there is little knowledge about what kind of tool would be effective to leverage

  11. Developing an Organizational Understanding of Faculty Mentoring Programs in Academic Medicine in Major American Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer Zellers, Darlene

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the organizational and contextual factors associated with faculty mentoring programs in academic medicine within major research institutions in the United States, and explores the usefulness of organizational behavior theory in understanding these relationships. To date, many formal faculty mentoring programs are in operation…

  12. Understanding Pictures: A Study in the Design of Appropriate Visual Materials for Education in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David Addison

    The document attempts to integrate aspects of two lines of research relating to picture recognition and the comprehension of pictorial space. It also describes an empirical study carried out in Nepal which tested rural adult subjects' understanding of topological, euclidean, and projective concepts in regard to real objects and to pictures. The…

  13. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  14. Developing critical understanding by teaching action research to undergraduate psychology students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Gaby Jacobs; Prof. dr. Michael Murray

    2010-01-01

    Action research assumes the active engagement of the stakeholders, such as the community, in the research, and a multiple level process of reflection in order to evaluate and monitor the actions taken. This makes action research a suitable methodology to increase critical understanding of the

  15. Understanding the link between GMP and dough: From glutenin particles in flour towards developed dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, C.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Plijter, J.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clear correlations exist for glutenin macropolymer (GMP) quantity and rheological properties vs. wheat quality and dough rheological properties, but real insight in understanding these links is still missing. The observation that GMP consists of glutenin particles opens up new possibilities to

  16. The Development of Understanding of Evidence in Pre-University Biology Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schalk, H; van der Schee, J.A.; Boersma, Th.

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring the quality of investigations requires the understanding of procedures by which empirical evidence is obtained. This can be interpreted as becoming aware of and using criteria for evidence in one's mental structure. The question is whether this process can be observed in practice. In two

  17. Developing Students' Understanding of Industrially Relevant Economic and Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Claudia J.; Chapman, Clint; Pennybaker, Atherly; Subramaniam, Bala

    2017-01-01

    Training future leaders to understand life cycle assessment data is critical for effective research, business, and sociopolitical decision-making. However, the technical nature of these life cycle reports often makes them challenging for students and other nonexperts to comprehend. Therefore, we outline here the key takeaways from recent economic…

  18. Development of psychosocial case studies by students to improve their ability to understand and analyze human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña, Omar; Rodríguez Carballeira, Álvaro; Espelt, Esteve; Jiménez, Yirsa; Porrúa, Clara; Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Castrechini Trotta, Ángela; Codina, Núria (Codina Mata); Pestana, José Vicente; Vidal i Moranta, Tomeu

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an active learning methodology based on the development and analysis of case studies by college students and explores its effects on academic performance and on students' capacity of understanding and analysing human behaviour. A group of 54 students who were taking the course Social Psychology at the University of Barcelona developed written stories where psychosocial concepts were represented. Results showed that participants, after developing their own case studies, imp...

  19. Is the Non-unitary Subject a Plausible and Productive Way to Understand Development Bureaucrats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamas, P.A.; Sato, C.

    2012-01-01

    Development bureaucrats are the human instruments of the policies that mobilise funds, create organisations and underwrite interventions. For their home audiences development organisations need to present bureaucrats who are reliable instruments. In the field these same organisations need staff who

  20. How Earth Educators Can Help Students Develop a Holistic Understanding of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, R. R.; Metzger, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    With their expert understanding of planetary systems, Earth educators play a pivotal role in helping students understand the scientific dimensions of solution-resistant ("wicked") challenges to sustainability that arise from complex interactions between intertwined and co-evolving natural and human systems. However, teaching the science of sustainability in isolation from consideration of human values and social dynamics leaves students with a fragmented understanding and obscures the underlying drivers of unsustainability. Geoscience instructors who wish to address sustainability in their courses may feel ill-equipped to engage students in investigation of the fundamental nature of sustainability and its social and ethical facets. This presentation will blend disciplinary perspectives from Earth system science, philosophy, psychology, and anthropology to: 1) outline a way to conceptualize sustainability that synthesizes scientific, social, and ethical perspectives and 2) provide an overview of resources and teaching strategies designed to help students connect science content to the socio-political dimensions of sustainability through activities and assignments that promote active learning, systems thinking, reflection, and collaborative problem-solving.