WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding german philosopher

  1. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  2. Understanding Philosophical Counseling | Sivil | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philosophical counseling by exploring its points of convergence to and deviation from its complimentary parts – philosophy and counseling. The practical and applied orientation of philosophical counseling seems worlds apart from what many consider to exemplify philosophy – theoretical, intellectual and abstract concern ...

  3. PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Boychenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In order to consistently distinguish between violence, which is always primarily a destructive force, and the civilized use of force that involves constructive, creative goals, one should explore the main possible philosophical approaches to understand the nature of violence and try to give it a systematic outline. Methodology. This study uses a systematic approach to identify the internal relationship between different forms of violence and, accordingly, the counteraction against violence. Also, the author uses an axiology to identify the values that are the basis for distinguishing violence from its prototypes, as well as for the distinction between violence and coercion, as well as different types of coercion. Originality. This article presents significant clarifications on the classification of types of violence, in particular, it is clearly established that certain types of violence can not have ethical relevance, since they belong to the sphere of biology (expansion, aggression or social anthropology (cultural, institutional coercion. Actually violence or violence in the narrow sense implies the existence of will, consciousness and destructive purpose. Accordingly, counteraction against violence should include the formation of a certain non-violent type of will, non-violent culture and creative, constructive goals. This requires both personal effort and institutional support and the availability of appropriate moral traditions. Ethical theory is intended to clarify and systematize these efforts. In this sense, ethics is the core of practical philosophy. To the extent that the influence of ethics on changes in human culture and sociality in the counterfactual regime is increasing, one should also speak of the anthropological significance of ethics. Conclusions. From the socio-philosophical point of view, it is necessary to specify exactly which social institutions and in which constellation generate violence. The ethical aspect of

  4. The role of Philosophical Hermeneutics in contributing to an understanding of physiotherapy practice: a reflexive illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Rob; Mitchell, Theresa; Palmer, Shea

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of Philosophical Hermeneutics based on the work of German philosopher Hans Georg Gadamer. The concepts of the 'hermeneutic circle' as a vehicle for interpretation, management of the researcher's pre-understandings (prejudices), and the 'fusion of horizons' are introduced and illustrated by examples from the first author's research, before considering how rigour can be achieved in this type of research. The actual research study which aimed to explore how shared decision making and patient partnership are addressed by physiotherapists in the process of exercise prescription for patients with low back pain (LBP) is not the focus of this paper. However short descriptions of the study are used to explore issues surrounding a hermeneutic inquiry. For physiotherapists interested in research or considering undertaking an interpretive phenomenological inquiry, this theoretical discussion paper explores how Gadamer's philosophy offers a credible framework for undertaking such research. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    technology for printing an" aistr-buting informaticn and propaganda, including motion pictures , they Created a mass political awareness which broke past...1951 Lower Saxony Land.ag vote, the Party was banned by the Federal Constitutional Court in 1952,:for its direct link with the The German Rights...Westphalia NO National primarily in forbidden Offensive Bavaria & Saxony , December 1992 most members from FAP NB National Bloc neo-Nazi splinter forbidden

  6. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics: Concepts of reading, understanding and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Regan

    2012-01-01

    Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics is a popular qualitative research interpretive method aiming to explore the meaning of individual experiences in relation to understanding human interpretation. Gadamer identifies that authentic engagement with reading requires awareness of the inter-subjective nature of understanding in order to promote a reflective engagement with the text. The main concepts of Gadamer’s view of reading and understanding are explored in this paper in relation ...

  7. Understanding the "Other": Rethinking Multiculturalism in South Korea through Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; So, Kyunghee

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we interrogate the current state of multiculturalism and multicultural education in South Korea and offer a possible theoretical framework that is lacking in the field of multicultural education. We provide three principles of multicultural understanding grounded in Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics to inform multiculturalism in…

  8. The “Third Reich” in the German Legal, Philosophical and Political Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hamza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea that after the Nazi takeover, the German political propaganda machine strongly supported the naming of their land the “Third Reich” (Drittes Reich is a misperception shared by many historians, political scientists and legal scholars. It is much less known that Hitler himself was never in full support of this expression, even though it proved quite effective both before and after the NSDAP takeover. Leading conservative intellectuals and works had made this notion popular, such as Das dritte Reich by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck (1876-1925. Also, it can be ascertained that the idea of the “Third Reich” dates back a long time, given that traces of it are already present in Fichte’s philosophy. This paper explores the history of this notion and its variations, which are most revealing of German political, intellectual and institutional life in the first half of the 20th century.

  9. Sacred Torrents in Modernity: German Jewish Philosophers and the Legacy of Secularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemer Nils

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the ongoing interaction between the Jewish sacred past and its modern interpreters. Jewish thinkers from the eighteenth century reclaimed these ideals instead of dismissing them. Sacred traditions and modern secular thought existed in their mutual constitutive interdependence and not in opposition. When the optimism in historical progress and faith in reason unraveled in the fin de siècle, it engendered a new critical response by Jewish historians and philosophers of the twentieth century. These critical voices emerged within the fault lines of nineteenth and early twentieth century Jewish anti-historicist responses. What separated twentieth-century Jewish thinkers such as Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, and Gershom Scholem from their nineteenth-century forerunners was not their embrace of religion but their critical stance toward reason and their crumbling faith in historical progress.

  10. Teaching Games for Understanding Conference Supplement from the German Sport University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2016

    2016-01-01

    By bringing together the national German sports game community and an international scientific community in a joint conference, the 6th International Teaching Games for Understanding Conference (TGfU) Meets the 10th German Sports Games Symposium of the German Association of Sport Science (DVS), held July 25-27, 2016, at the German Sport University…

  11. Marking over 50 years of Franco-German understanding

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2013-01-01

    To mark the 50th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty between France and Germany, which established a basis for cooperation between the two countries in order to set the seal on a lasting peace, secondary school pupils came to CERN to research the Franco-German relationship.   Beneath the Microcosm Garden bubble chamber, Robert Jacob describes the BEBC project to secondary school students from the Pays de Gex and their German exchange partners. On 22 January 1963, German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and French President Charles de Gaulle signed the Elysée Treaty. This treaty of friendship cemented the partnership between the two countries, which had torn each other apart over the course of several devastating wars. Fifty years on, secondary school students from the Pays de Gex and their German exchange partners have been learning about Franco-German friendship. How was the partnership between the two countries built? Who were its architects? These questions brought them to C...

  12. Considering Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a referent for student understanding of nature-of-science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashford, Jared M.

    The purpose of this study is to examine philosophical hermeneutics as a referent for student understanding of Nature-of-Science (NOS) concepts. Rather than focus on a prescriptive set of canons used in addressing NOS pedagogy in K-12 schools, this study seeks to explicate a descriptive set of principles based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's theory of interpretation that has the potential for developing dispositions necessary for understanding. Central among these are the concepts of fore-structure, prejudice, temporal distance, and history of effect, all of which constitute part of the whole of the hermeneutic circle as envisaged by Gadamer. As such, Gadamer's hermeneutics is contrasted with Cartesian epistemology and its primacy of method, the Enlightenment's prejudice against prejudice, the modernist/progressive tendency to consider all situations as problems to be solved by relegating all forms of knowledge to techne, and the subjective nature of interpretation inherent in a hermeneutics of suspicion. The implication of such a conceptual analysis for NOS pedagogy is that student understanding is considered not so much as a cognitive outcome dependent on a series of mental functions but rather as an ontological characteristic of Dasein (being-human) that situates learning in the interchange between interpreter and text. In addition, the philosophical foundations implicit in addressing student understanding of NOS found in many curricular reform efforts and pedagogical practices in science education are questioned. Gadamer's hermeneutics affords science education a viable philosophical framework within which to consider student understanding of the development of scientific knowledge and the scientific enterprise.

  13. Why a philosopher needs others : Platonic and Stoic models of friendship and self-understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is about two ancient models of the relation between self-understanding and friendship. Here ‘self-understanding’ stands primarily for the understanding that our understanding has of itself. ‘Friendship’ stands for positive human relations in general. I argue in this dissertation

  14. A Philosophical Framework for Enhancing the Understanding of Artefacts in the Technology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Technology teachers should have a sound understanding and knowledge of artefacts in order to assist learners in the designing, making and evaluating of artefacts. Unfortunately, technology teachers in South African schools seem to have a poor grasp of the complexity of this important part of knowledge that is specific to technology. As a result,…

  15. Challenges to understanding spatial patterns of disease: philosophical alternatives to logical positivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J D

    1992-08-01

    Most studies of disease distribution, in medical geography and other related disciplines, have been empirical in nature and rooted in the assumptions of logical positivism. However, some of the more newly articulated philosophies of the social sciences, and of social theory, have much to add in the understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying disease distribution. This paper represents a plea for creative synthesis between logical positivism and realism or structuration, and uses specific examples to suggest how disease distribution, as a surface phenomenon, can be explained using deeper analysis.

  16. A New Philosophical Underpinning of Macromarketing Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new philosophical foundation for analyzing macromarketing issues, and for further development of macromarketing theory, building on the language philosophy developed by the German/British philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The building blocks are a number philosophical thoughts...... and concepts: “language is autonomous”, “concept”, “seeing as”, “language-games”, etc. In this paper these philosophical thoughts and concepts combine so that they over time form recursive processes which spiral. These processes are taken as the philosophical foundation for researching the language and actions...

  17. Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophical Papers is a generalist journal of philosophy edited in the Department of Philosophy at Rhodes University. The journal appears three times a year; the November issue of every year is topic-based and guest-edited. The journal is published by Routledge (Taylor & Francis). Information regarding submissions ...

  18. Initiative Within the Philosophy of Auftragstaktik: Determining Factors of the Understanding of Initiative in the German Army, 1806-1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    of Initiative in the German Army, 1806-1955 Martin Sonnenberger, Lieutenant Colonel (GS), German Army Diplom Kaufmann (univ), Universitat Bundeswehr ...understanding of tactical and operational initiative against the background of the current doctrinal framework of Auftragstaktik as defined by the Bundeswehr ...As far as US doctrinal terms equate to the definition and understanding in the Bundeswehr concept of Auftragstaktik, they are used for ease of

  19. Book Review | Pleasants | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Judging and Understanding: Essays on Free Will, Narrative, Meaning and the Ethical Limits of Condemnation, edited by Pedro Alexis Tabensky, Ashgate 2006. Philosophical Papers Vol. 37 (1) 2008: pp. 177-184 ...

  20. A Process-Philosophical Understanding of Organizational Learning as "Wayfinding": Process, Practices and Sensitivity to Environmental Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to articulate a practice-based, non-cognitivist approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the potential contribution of a process-based "practice turn" in social theory for understanding organizational learning. Findings: In complex, turbulent environments, robust…

  1. 'Pushing the limits of understanding': the discourse on primitivism in German Kulturwissenschaften, 1880-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Doris

    2008-09-01

    This paper addresses the significance of primitivism as a figure of thought during the emergence of Kulturwissenschaften--consisting of different fields of knowledge and disciplines--in Germany at the beginning of the twentieth century. Two interrelated problems in particular shaped the scholarly discourse on primitivism: first, the question of the existence and modes of operation of 'other' forms of thought and consciousness. Second, the epistemological question how these 'other' forms of thought could be recognized if the researcher him or herself belonged to a particular historically determined European mode of thought and perception. In this context the art of non-European 'primitives' and of the insane became a central topic. Its cross-disciplinary investigation ultimately arrived at a redefinition of a nexus of problems: the challenge to the old concept of art as well as to the dominant concept of psychopathology, that is, the definition of normality and deviancy. Both the non-European 'natives' and the European 'insane' received new importance as scientific objects for a wider range of fields of knowledge. This process was connected with an articulated need to expand and strengthen the faculty of subjectivity and intuition on the part of the Kulturwissenschaftler for means of investigation and understanding (verstehen). The discourse on primitivism in German Kulturwissenschaften reflected the crisis of knowledge and methology at the beginning of the twentieth century and was finally resolved by taking refuge in phenomenology and holism.

  2. Philosophical aesthetics and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskin, Aaron; Robson, Jon; Ichino, Anna; Goffin, Kris; Monseré, Annelies

    2018-01-01

    Philosophical aesthetics is the branch of philosophy which explores issues having to do with art, beauty, and related phenomena. Philosophers have often been skeptical about the place of empirical investigation in aesthetics. However, in recent years many philosophical aestheticians have turned to cognitive science to enrich their understanding of their subject matter. Cognitive scientists have, in turn, been inspired by work in philosophical aesthetics. This essay focuses on a representative subset of the areas in which there has been fruitful dialog between philosophical aestheticians and cognitive scientists. We start with some general topics in philosophical aesthetics-the definition of art and the epistemic status of aesthetic judgments. We then move on to discussing research concerning the roles that imagination and perception play in our aesthetic engagement. We conclude with a discussion of the emerging field of experimental philosophical aesthetics. WIREs Cogn Sci 2018, 9:e1445. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1445 This article is categorized under: Philosophy > Value. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Love, Truth, Peace and Death as Extolled by Selected Literary Philosophers: Inputs in Understanding Spirituality as a Transformative Agent of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study analyzed the selected works of the Christian mystics St. Augustine, St. Anselm, and William Blake as well as those of the Oriental mystics Confucius, and Rabindranath Tagore pointing out events and situations on how mysticism is reflected in their works. Likewise, this study tried to present how these identified literary philosophers extolled the meaning of love, truth, peace and death which serve as inputs in understanding spirituality as a transformative agent of the society. The selected writings consider the direct union of the human soul with the Divine through contemplation, meditation, prayer and love as the end of these mystics’ philosophy. For in these selected prose and poetry manifest their mystical attitude and the spiritual truth that the meaning of human existence is the mindful and enlightened manifestation of love as the core of human life and the divine supreme law that guides humanity. The spiritual manifestations of human existence find their noblest expressions and exemplifications on their lives and works. There surfaces a unifying thread interwoven in all their works which centers on the constant and balanced yearning of men to be united with the Divine. These inputs serve as a new paradigm in understanding spirituality as a transformative agent of society.

  4. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  5. Recovering the Philosophical Anthropology of Max Scheler for Leadership Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, a handful of German speaking scholars examined leadership through the lens of what came to be known as philosophical anthropology, a field of study inaugurated by Max Scheler. Not only do their contributions belong in the history of leadership studies, but the findings of philosophical anthropology…

  6. Take a stand on understanding: electrophysiological evidence for stem access in German complex verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Eva; Gondan, Matthias; Rösler, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lexical representation of complex words in Indo-European languages is generally assumed to depend on semantic compositionality. This study investigated whether semantically compositional and noncompositional derivations are accessed via their constituent units or as whole words. In an overt visual priming experiment (300 ms stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA), event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for verbs (e.g., ziehen, "pull") that were preceded by purely semantically related verbs (e.g., zerren, "drag"), by morphologically related and semantically compositional verbs (e.g., zuziehen, "pull together"), by morphologically related and semantically noncompositional verbs (e.g., erziehen, "educate"), by orthographically similar verbs (e.g., zielen, "aim"), or by unrelated verbs (e.g., tarnen, "mask"). Compared to the unrelated condition, which evoked an N400 effect with the largest amplitude at centro-parietal recording sites, the N400 was reduced in all other conditions. The rank order of N400 amplitudes turned out as follows: morphologically related and semantically compositional ≈ morphologically related and semantically noncompositional morphologically related primes produced similar N400 modulations-irrespective of their semantic compositionality. The control conditions with orthographic similarity confirmed that these morphological effects were not the result of a simple form overlap between primes and targets. Our findings suggest that the lexical representation of German complex verbs refers to their base form, regardless of meaning compositionality. Theories of the lexical representation of German words need to incorporate this aspect of language processing in German.

  7. Aspects of a Practical Understanding: Heidegger at the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to clarify some of our pre-conceived assumptions when we address issues of learning in practice. It argues that we need to develop an understanding of practice based on its own premises. For this purpose the German philosopher Martin Heidegger's (1889-1976) understanding of practice and learning is introduced. Heidegger…

  8. [On the philosophical genealogy of Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, C T

    1975-06-01

    The origins of psycho-analysis, like those of every other medico-psychological study, have their own particular scientific and specific social, historical and philosophical-theoretical presuppositions. Freud's philosophical genealogy is closely linked to classical german philosophy and subsequent philosophical movements. I. Kant, J.-F. Herbart, A. Schopenhauer, F. Nietzsche, E. v. Hartmann, G. T. Fechner, E. Mach, W. Ostwald, L. Feuerbach and others did not only emphasise the significance of drives and the unconscious in human behaviour, they also described many psychological mechanisms from depth psychology, (for example repression, condensation, substitution, sublimation). Some false theoretical trends in psycho-analysis (biologism, psychologism and simplifying psycho-energetics to simplify) can be explained to some extent by the influences mentioned above.

  9. Philosophical Papers: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As all correspondence will be carried out electronically, authors are requested to include a current e-mail address with their submissions. Submission of critical notices. Philosophical Papers welcomes critical notices of recent philosophical works. Unless invited, critical notices are treated as original articles. We prefer critical ...

  10. Is Proust a philosopher?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Fraisse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different philosophers pondered on Proust’s novel, including those who formulated a subtle hypothesis that philosophical thought that emerged from the novel went beyond the passages of philosophical character that could be found in Proust’s work. It is difficult to determine precisely Proust’s approach towards the novel which he, alternately, favors or disdains. A hypothesis has been formulated that In Search of Lost Time shapes the fiction in the style of Shelling’s and Schopenhauer’s philosophy; it is pointed out that the novelist developed a kind of rivalry between him and his second cousin Bergson. Proust received a thorough education in philosophy yet philosophy is only present in his novel in an anecdotal form. The debate that he starts between idealism and philosophical realism in his prose takes the form of a discussion between symbolism and naturalism. The reconstruction of Proust’s philosophical culture leads to the observation that it is, without a doubt, significantly influenced in different ways by two philosophers: Leibniz and Kant. Still, the writer does not admit to being impacted by any particular thinker; therefore, his narrator’s line of thought is constantly changing in such a way that any school of philosophical thought that appears in the novel is present only for a short while.

  11. Philosophical Hermeneutic Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.

  12. The scientist as philosopher philosophical consequences of great scientific discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Weinert, Friedel

    2005-01-01

    How do major scientific discoveries reshape their originators’, and our own, sense of reality and concept of the physical world? The Scientist as Philosopher explores the interaction between physics and philosophy. Clearly written and well illustrated, the book first places the scientist-philosophers in the limelight as we learn how their great scientific discoveries forced them to reconsider the time-honored notions with which science had described the natural world. Then, the book explains that what we understand by nature and science have undergone fundamental conceptual changes as a result of the discoveries of electromagnetism, thermodynamics and atomic structure. Even more dramatically, the quantum theory and special theory of relativity questioned traditional assumptions about causation and the passage of time. The author concludes that the dance between science and philosophy is an evolutionary process, which will keep them forever entwined.

  13. A puzzle for philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Lo Guercio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper I tackle a puzzle by Goldberg (2009 that challenges all of us as philosophers. There are three plausible thesis, separately defensible, that together seem to lead to a contradiction: 1 Reliability is a necessary condition for epistemic justification. 2 On contested matters in philosophy, philosophers are not reliable. 3 At least some philosophical theses regarding contested matters in philosophy are epistemically justified. In this paper I will assess the status of the puzzle and attempt to solve it. In the first section, I'll present the puzzle with a little more detail. Secondly, I'll provide some general arguments to show that the alleged puzzle is not a legitimate one. Finally, in section 3, I will argue that even assuming that the puzzle can be coherently formulated, Goldberg's arguments in favor of premise (2 are either unsound or too limited in their scope in order to represent a significant or interesting problem for philosophers.

  14. Autobiographies of philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lubas-Bartoszyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article Autobiographies of philosophers is composed of three parts. The first part presents the history of philosophic autobiography since antiquity and spiritual autobiography of Saint Augustine, through “Confessions” of J.J. Rousseau – the creator of modern autobiography, Pascal, G. Berkeley and S. Kierkegaard, back to “Ecce homo” of Nietzsche. The second part presents selected autobiographies of philosophers of the 20th century like an autobiography of B. Russell (three volumes, M. Bierdiaev, K. Jaspers. The third part is an interpretation of the intellectual autobiography of P. Ricoeur, in which the author reproduces history of intellectual and philosophic development and shows the dissimilarity of “idem” to his own identity.

  15. Introduction | Voice | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophical Papers. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 35, No 3 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Introduction | Metz | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophical Papers. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34, No 3 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Is Odysseus a philosopher?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to demonstrate that certain philosophical questions are articulated in Homer's Odyssey, especially those that consider the relationship between truth, probability, and falsehood. First, the author discusses the following two assertions: 'Nobody is my name' and 'Nobody will I eat last among his comrades.' When asked by the one-eyed giant Polyphemus what his name really is, Odysseus replies that his name is 'Nobody'. Thereon, Polyphemus says that he will eat 'Nobody', considering 'Nobody' to be 'Somebody'. What appears to be a word-game is in fact an indicator of the necessity to determine the role of negative pronouns in a language, as well as to question their referential status. The negative pronouns like nobody or no one imply the non-existence of someone who can be described as 'nobody' or 'no one'. They can only designate, but they are non-referential. Because Polyphemus does not understand the sense of the negative pronouns, he believes that there is such a man, who is called 'Nobody', and whom he will eat. Therefore, one may claim that Homer's Odysseus discovers the meaning and role of the negative pronouns in a natural language, as well as how the misuse of these words can become a generator in lying and deceiving. Homer distinguishes two types of lies: 1 the absolute falsehoods, which are lies under all circumstances, and 2 the falsehoods which 'seem like the truth'. Most of Homer's Odysseus fantastic tales are of that kind - they are neither true nor false, but they 'seem like the truth'. The truth status of fiction as resembling the truth is one of Homer's discoveries, since he held that his main protagonist's narrations are neither true nor false, but they resemble the truth. The narrations should be as consistent and plausible as possible, in order to describe not what really happened, but 'what could have been happened', as Aristotle would claim. In the course of the paper, the author has

  18. Energy transition: which investments for which competitiveness? Understanding German, Spanish and British strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document reports a study which aimed at a better understanding of energy transition strategies in Germany, Spain and United Kingdom. It outlines that these strategies are different and give contrasted results, that economic implication of energy transition programmes are also different. Two financing approaches are identified (mainly by private investors, or by mobilizing all types of financial support), and therefore two economic strategies (productivity-oriented investments, or search for a structural competitiveness with a new growth model). The report notices that there is no reference study of the impact of energy transition on employment

  19. Philosophical theories of probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. Philosophical Theories of Probability is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.

  20. Two Fundamental Problems and Two Periods of German Speculative Idealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ZOLOTUKHIN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author’s concerns are with the philosophical and theological problems integral to German Speculative Idealism. Two key ideas permeated the whole of German Idealism: the idea of divine self-realization / self-understanding and the idea of gravitating between the poles of theism and pantheism. The author attempts to explain how these two ideas are related throughout the course of German Idealism. He includes in this study not only Fichte /the elder/, Schelling, and Hegel, but also the so-called speculative theists (Fichte /the younger/ and others, whose thought in both ideology and methodology resembles that of Schelling and Hegel. The author demonstrates using the writings of the philosophers that the two ideas may be related though the concept of creativity . If God realizes himself in the world and through the world, then it makes sense to say that philosophical theology is replete with pantheism. But if the divine realization takes place ontologically before the process of creation and is in itself an act which takes place within the divine Being Himself, the process is then clearly theistic. Idealists of the older school do not link creation with the Absolute - they reject this point or they speak about creation in reference to the act of divine self-realization. Idealists of the younger generation, on the contrary, hold that the act of divine self-realization precedes that of creation. The author opines that it is this point which allows us to diff erentiate between a philosophical system which leans towards pantheism from one which tends toward theism. The older idealists were indeed mostly pantheists, while the younger generation was mostly theistic. In view of this, German Idealism may be considered to be divided into two periods

  1. Moderne Texte zum Hoeren und Verstehen im Deutschunterricht (Modern Texts for Hearing and Understanding in Teaching German)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzkamm, Wolfgang

    1977-01-01

    In Finland, German ranks third among foreign languages taught, and is declining. To encourage its study, one should avoid using long and uninteresting textbooks. As examples of good texts, W. Biermann's "Soldatenlied" and "Kleinstadtsonntag" are suggested. These portray facets of postwar Germany. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  2. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  3. Philosophical aspects of modern cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Cosmology is the attempt to understand in scientific terms the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. This ambition has been with us since the ancient Greeks, even if the developments in modern cosmology have provided a picture of the universe dramatically different from that of Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle. The cosmological thinking of these figures, e.g. the belief in uniform circular motion of the heavens, was closely related to their philosophical ideas, and it shaped the field of cosmology at least up to the times of Copernicus and Kepler.

  4. A practical approach to product design from a philosophical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Clarke, A.

    2008-01-01

    “Buy an identity or surprise your senses” are in short a few from the results of the course “Design for a specific Theme” by 4th grade students Industrial Design Engineering at Twente University. The theme in the title of this course is philosophical, based on the theory of globalization of German

  5. Philosophical Toys Today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2013), s. 173-196 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : philosophical toys * scientific instruments * modern visual culture Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. The philosopher in Plato’s state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s political theory rests on metaphysical principles that are understandable to only a few. It is assumed that only a narrow group of philosophers is able to put this theory into practice, and using repressive measures. The fewer the initiated the greater the repression. It is assumed that those who do not know the truth can neither predict their destiny nor do anything to make it better because they are unable to understand the goal and purpose of the repression. It is demonstrated that, in the imagined use of force, the sophists, who do acknowledge it, resort to repression to a much lesser extent than Plato’s philosopher. At first, Plato’s philosopher rejects the use of force as virtue, but it turns out to be indispensible, and in incomparably more aspects than it was in the sophists’ case. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179049

  7. PHILOSOPHERS BEFORE AND AFTER SPACEFLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Grigenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a Introduction: the human condition. b Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.

  8. Why a German "Oh" Is Not Necessarily an English "Oh": Showing Understanding and Emotions with Change-of-State Tokens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneweber, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-session teaching unit on German change-of-state tokens such as "oh," "ach" and "achso." Goal is to teach students the appropriate reaction through change-of-state tokens in various situations. Students are provided with authentic data based on empirical research in conversation analysis (CA).…

  9. Understanding and Evaluating L2 Personal Letter Writing: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Analysis of Student Texts in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cori

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a genre lens informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (cf. Halliday & Matthiessen, [Halliday, M. A. K., 2004]; Martin & Rose, [Martin, J. R., 2008]), this paper explores the text-structural and lexico-grammatical choices that second language (L2) writers of German make in personal letter writing. Close analysis of two student…

  10. INFORMATIZATION: PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosolapov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Computerization and informatization in recent decades gave the mankind automated electronic document management systems, automated process of production, Internet and network information resources WWW, expanded the communications capabilities and led to the globalization of the information society. At the same time gives rise to a number of processes of informatization philosophical and anthropological problems, that has become an existential character. It is necessary to identify and understanding of these issues on the basis of the gnoseological model of the evolution informatization paradigms and determine their main characteristics. Methodology. The system-activity approach was used; it allowed identifying and analyzing the impact of the main components of information and communication technologies (ICT for educational activities. And further to present them as a unified system of human activity in conditions computerization/informatization. The philosophical principles: a comprehensive review of the subject, the unity of the logical and historical, ascending from the abstract to the concrete was used. The general scientific principles: unity and development of the system, the decomposition hierarchy, individualization and cooperation, diversity and taxonomy were applied. Findings.The three-stage gnoseological model of the paradigms computerization/informatization evolution was proposed by the author. It is based on three information system characteristics: speed, interface and data access. The seven-bar anthrop-centric model, which is called the architecture of information systems (AIS, which describes the changes in their types of procuring, was proposed for each paradigm. The philosophical-anthropological problems that affect negatively its progress were formulated for each stage of modern information society transformation. Originality. The gnoseological model of development processes of informatization in the form of three

  11. Seneca's theology in its philosophical context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houte, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at a better understanding of the theological views of the Roman Stoic Seneca and the status of these views in relation to those of the earlier Stoics, and in the context of various other factors, such as the views of other philosophical schools and the purpose of Seneca's work.This

  12. Some Ondo Philosophical Proverbs for Practical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    understands the behaviour of their gods, reflects the ethics of society and philosophizes concerning life and death ... behavior of his gods, the facts of life, and death, the ethics of his society, the way to success and happiness, the ..... It is the tortoise one finds around that one puts fire under its bottom. The above proverb talks ...

  13. Philosophical foundations of education and its impact on teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student's poor performances in learning situations are often traced to a number of factors one of which is teacher ineffectiveness. This paper examines the concept of philosophical foundation of education and its impact on teachers' effectiveness. The paper stresses on the study and proper understanding of philosophical ...

  14. Possible objections to a philosophical approach to ancient Israelite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a certain consensus amongst biblical scholars that involving philosophy in the attempt to understand ancient Israelite religion is hermeneutically fallacious. A philosophical approach to ancient Yahwism is considered out of place, given the non-philosophical nature of the Hebrew Bible, the normative concerns of ...

  15. Od metafizyki do empirii. Antropologiczno-filozoficzne wizje człowieka [From metaphysics to empiricism. Philosophical anthropology on man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Chrobak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on three conceptions of man formulated within the German school of philosophical anthropology. I discuss, one by one, theories by Max Scheler, Helmuth Plessner and Arnold Gehlen. First, I emphasize the common to these theoreticians methodological assumptions consisting primarily in an opposition against the Cartesian dualism and in founding a ground for philosophical analysis in the results of scientific research. Second, I present their conceptions of man stressing at the same time dissimilarities that differ them from each other. These differences concern first and foremost their general orientation: while Scheler’s understanding of man is clearly determined by a metaphysical idea of a permanent essence of man, Plessner’s conception focuses rather on a dynamic, historical way of manifesting of their existence. Philosophy by Gehlen in turn presents a picture of man as a biological being who by their own effort, by emerging institutional reality, stabilizes their existence.

  16. Migrations and Diasporas. German Writers in Mexican Exile. Egon Erwin Kisch’s and Anna Seghers’ Promotion of Cross-Cultural Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Michaels

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The journalist and popular travel writer, Egon Erwin Kisch, and the well-known novelist and short story writer Anna Seghers were among the many left wing and communist intellectuals for whom Mexico was a haven during the Hitler years. Kisch traveled extensively in Mexico, immersed himself in its history and culture and interpreted Mexico for the other German exiles. On her return from exile Seghers became an important mediator in the GDR of Mexican and South American culture and a strong voice for crosscultural understanding

  17. Joseph Hooker: a philosophical botanist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-24

    Apr 24, 2008 ... Keywords. History of botany; Hooker Joseph Dalton; imperial science; philosophical botany ... However, he preferred to refer to himself as a philosophical botanist, rather than a professional. This paper explores the reasons for this choice, and analyses Hooker's imperial approach to plant classification, the ...

  18. Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Maurita

    2015-12-01

    Phenomenology since Husserl has always had a problematic relationship with empirical science. In its early articulations, there was Husserl's rejection of 'the scientific attitude', Merleau-Ponty's distancing of the scientifically-objectified self, and Heidegger's critique of modern science. These suggest an antipathy to science and to its methods of explaining the natural world. Recent developments in neuroscience have opened new opportunities for an engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science and through this, a re-thinking of science and its hidden assumptions more generally. This is so partly because of the shortcomings of conventional mechanistically-conceived science in dealing with complex and dynamic phenomena such as climate change, brain plasticity, the behaviour of collectives, the dynamics of various microbiological processes, etc. But it is also due to recent phenomenological scholarship focussed on the 'embodied' phenomenology of Husserl's Ideen II and Merleau Ponty's later ontology of nature which have helped to extend the insights of phenomenology beyond the narrowly 'human' to an understanding of nature (which includes the human) more generally. Thus re-contextualised, phenomenology is well placed to examine some of the assumptions that give rise to the reductionism and associated scientism which has characterised conventional science in its approach to the study of natural processes. In light of this, it might be suggested that the 'anti-science' of early articulations of phenomenology is more a hostility to the underlying assumptions of science as conventionally understood than to science itself - that it is scientism rather than science that is targeted. In this paper, I aim to show how a phenomenological naturalism might be seen as a necessary step towards the development of a non-reductionist and non-scientistic approach to scientific inquiry. A key to this is a reconceptualization of nature as inclusive of meanings and of mind. It

  19. REFLECTION OF PHILOSOPHIC THOUGHT ON LITERATURE: POSITIVIST AND MATERIALISTIC UNDERSTANDING IN TURKISH LITERATURE FELSEFİ DÜŞÜNCENİN EDEBİYATA YANSIMASI: TÜRK EDEBİYATINDA POZİTİVİST ve MATERYALİST ANLAYIŞ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa YÜCE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy plays a key role in growth of sciences through the human history. Thought liberalizes within communities in which philosophy develops and enlightenment of the community gains acceleration. There are significant contributions in civilization by not only philosophy but also literary thought. In due course philosophic and literary understandings form a complementary structure. Naturally it has positive effect on science. The west substitutes rationalism rather than scholastic understanding. Rationalism accompanies enlightenment. Efficiency of the individual is improved during such period beginning with Descartes. In time, a need to philosophize appears in any person. Change of mentality within Turkish society appears following Tanzimat (reorganization of Ottoman Empire unlikely from western society. Change of mentality within Turkish society takes up a long time and is rough. For us, there is no experience of an “age of enlightenment” as in the west. Turkish intellectual realizes the change and transition occurring throughout the world as contacts with the west. The imperial edict of Gülhane (Tanzimat Fermanı is confronted us as an indication of that change and transition. In this study, relationship between philosophy and literature as well as reflections of positivist and materialist understandings to our culture in parallel to such relationship were sought to be evaluated. İnsanlık tarihi boyunca bilimlerin gelişmesinde felsefe önemli rol oynar. Felsefenin geliştiği toplumlarda düşünce özgürleşir, toplumun aydınlanması ivme kazanır. Uygarlığın oluşumunda felsefenin olduğu kadar edebî düşüncenin de önemli katkısı olur. Zaman içinde felsefi ve edebî anlayış birbirini tamamlayan bir yapı oluşturur. Bu durum genel anlamda bilimleri de olumlu yönde etkiler. Batı, skolastik anlayışın yerine rasyonalizmi ikame eder. Rasyonalizm beraberinde aydınlamayı getirir. Descartes’le başlayan bu d

  20. La voix du philosophe Laruelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Kieffer

    2018-03-01

    (Abstract   What is a voice in the context of the arts and philosophy? In the space of the philosopher's voice, in the complex grammar of his language is played his philosophical timbre, his own space, his particular voice, composed of concepts, articulated by the laws of coherence of the common philosophical language, with hypnotic specificities. These specificities are precisely the fruit of processes formerly called rhetoric, which I call non-hypnotics (of generalized hypnotic space, one of whose functions is just to speak in a double space: the common reference space of the reader or listener, and the conceptual virtual space peculiar to the philosopher. To the extent that the reader must pay increased and permanent attention to this double space, the philosophical trance effect, equivalent to the Ericksonian hypnotic trance, is facilitated. The difficulty of this double reading is the incessant passage from one code to another, which is also a hypnotic fascination. Heidegger prolongs and renews its structures and draws some effects from them, which provoke in the mind of the reader as an over-flow, a saturation effect, which itself favors the philosophical trance. Thus, each voice seeks to captivate the mind by confusing it with concepts, which seem at first sight familiar, but which reveal themselves with the use which is made, like formidable concepts to the power of unaccustomed fascination. One of the pleasures of reading Lareuelle's philosophy is due to this type of fascination with the philosophical voice and its language.

  1. The philosopher and the phenomenologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Valli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the relation between philosophy and philosophical practice in the husserlian paradigm of phenomenology. The role and the method that Husserl conceives for the philosopher are related unavoidably to his theoretical system. During his long and hard work, he deals with the question of the genesis of logic in the platonic-aristotelic dichotomy, with the connection between philosophy and objective sciences and with the problem of phenomenology as descriptive practice. Thanks to this reflections, in The crisis of european sciences he conceives the role of the philosopher with a precise historical and ethical function. This new model represents one of the last philosophical systems as a universal theory.

  2. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Alilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to consider the relationship of philosophy and education; the article also reviews the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, a global model for a special educational activity. We also discuss the features of the philosophical approach to the issue of sustainable development. Discussion. In research, we use the method of socio-natural approach, a new educational paradigm that combines the theory and concept of training and education within the anthropocentric approach based on humanistic philosophical ideas which laid the basis for understanding the person as the subject of life, history and culture. We analyzed environmental and educational aspects of sustainable development in the current context. In order to address these challenges, philosophy produces new concepts, theories and paradigms. It is necessary to work on people's motivation and values, develop their cooperation skills, teach civic engagement and democratic by action rather than words. Only a highly educated society can generate environmental paradigm and implement the strategy of sustainable development. Conclusions. We recommend transferring research outcomes into practice in schools starting with elementary school, as well as in vocational schools and universities. Clarifying the essence of the concept of education for sustainable development is possible through philosophical understanding of its genesis and ideas.

  3. Shirakatsi Astronomical and Natural Philosophical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Lilit

    2016-12-01

    Our work is aimed at presenting Shirakatsi astronomical and natural philosophical views. Karl Anania Shirakatsi is classified as one of the world-class intellectual geniuses. He was endowed with exceptional talent and analyzing scientific understanding of natural phenomena. He refers his philosophical works to almost all fields of science, cosmography, mathematics, calendarology, historiography, etc. Shirakatsy's earnings of natural science and natural philosophy in medieval is too big He was the first prominent scholar and thinker of his time, creating a unique, comprehensive gitapilisopayakan system that still feeds the human mind. The scientific value of Shirakatsi has great importance not only for Armenians but also for the whole world of science, history, culture and philosophy. Shirakatsi can be considered not only national but also universal greatness.

  4. Epicureanism as a Foundation for Philosophical Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Fatić, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the manner and extent to which Epicurean ethics can serve as a general philosophy of life, capable of supporting philosophical practice in the form of philosophical counseling. Unlike the modern age academic philosophy, the philosophical practice movement portrays the philosopher as a personal or corporate advisor, one who helps people make sense of their experiences and find optimum solutions within the context of their values and general preferences. Philosophical counse...

  5. Further Questions: A Way Out of the Present Philosophical Situation (via Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Lawlor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Let us begin by assembling some signs of the present philosophical situation. On the one hand, the most important living French philosopher, Alain Badiou, calls for a “return to Plato,” despite the movement of anti-Platonism that dominated French and German thought in the 20th century. On the other hand, the present moment sees a resurgence of naturalism in philosophy in general (including and especially Anglophone analytic philosophy, despite the criticisms of naturalism that have appeared throughout the 20th century. Phenomenology seems to be at the center of both of these movements. On the one hand, it is the idea of a mathematized ontology that requires the return to Plato, a mathematized ontology constructed without a reflection on its transcendental grounds. On the other, the resurgence of naturalism is so strong that a book could be imagined and published with the bastard name of Naturalizing Phenomenology, as if the transcendental moment of phenomenology did not transform the very meaning of nature. These signs seem to indicate that we have entered into a phase of regression or even decline in philosophical thinking. If this interpretation of the signs is correct, if we have indeed entered into a phase of regression -- a twofold regression toward Platonism and toward naturalism -- we must ask the following question: is it possible for us to define something like a project or even a research agenda that would allow us to define a way of thinking that might lead us out of the present situation, a situation, it must be said, that seems dire for philosophy in general? If we can determine such a research agenda, perhaps we can also begin to understand what the tradition of “continental philosophy” has stood for.

  6. Philosophic foundations of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Physics concerns direct analysis of the physical world, while philosophy analyzes knowledge about the physical world. This volume combines both disciplines for a philosophical interpretation of quantum physics - an interpretation free from the imprecision of metaphysics, offering a view of the atomic world and its quantum mechanical results as concrete as the visible everyday world.Written by an internationally renowned philosopher who specialized in symbolic logic and the theory of relativity, this approach consists of three parts. The first section, which requires no background in math or p

  7. Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nabavi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwer’s view about Logic and Mathematics is explained.

  8. Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nabavi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwer’s view about Logic and Mathematics is explained.

  9. "'AchJA,' Dann Kenn Ich Das Auch!" Managing Understanding and Knowledge: On Teaching Response Tokens in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an instructional unit on the response token "achja" in everyday German conversation. The paper first provides a description of "achja" and its distinctive prosodic features based on empirical research in conversation analysis. The goal of the paper is to provide instructors of German with information and…

  10. C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physicist, philosopher, visionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goernitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.

  11. In Defense of Philosophical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Donnie J.

    1977-01-01

    Self defends his August, 1976 article (EJ 152 757) which is a philosophical analysis of John Dewey's pragmatist value theory as found in"Theory of Valuation". His comments are in response to Burnett's criticism in this month's issue (AA 526 451). (Author/RK)

  12. Moral Cognitivism | Lillehammer | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...

  13. Religion as a philosophical matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albinus, Lars

    Is it philosophically enlightening to regard religion as a kind of world-relation? How does philosophy itself relate to the world? And how is philosophy related to religion? In this book, Lars Albinus fleshes out these questions by trying to conceptualize human concerns with naming the world, mak...

  14. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  15. Joseph Hooker: a philosophical botanist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-24

    Apr 24, 2008 ... The nineteenth-century British botanist, Joseph Dalton Hooker, was one of the people whose career became a model for that of the modern, professional scientist. However, he preferred to refer to himself as a philosophical botanist, rather than a professional. This paper explores the reasons for this choice, ...

  16. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  17. Philosophical explorations on energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Robert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel

  18. Life Lessons from the Philosophers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A Boston school for grades 6-12 is making a deliberate effort to help students develop ethical minds. Each year, all students take an ethical philosophy class in which they discuss the school's core values and how these values are addressed in the writings of such philosophers as Aristotle and Rousseau. Through these classes, students develop a…

  19. Special Needs: A Philosophical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to illuminate a central concept and idea in special education discourse, namely, "special needs". It analyses philosophically what needs are and on what grounds they are defined as "special" or "exceptional". It also discusses whether sorting needs into ordinary and special is discriminatory. It is argued that individualistic…

  20. SUPERNATURALISM AND THE PHILOSOPHICAL CHARACTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philosophy or, rather, the exploitation of such positions by philosophers. In this essay, I do not intend to discuss the often-cited exclusion of. Africa in Hegel's philosophy of history from the historical races of the world, neither do I intend to look at views expressed earlier by Hume and Kant about Africans. “Hume, Kant and ...

  1. Choosing a Methodology: Philosophical Underpinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As a university lecturer, I find that a frequent question raised by Masters students concerns the methodology chosen for research and the rationale required in dissertations. This paper unpicks some of the philosophical coherence that can inform choices to be made regarding methodology and a well-thought out rationale that can add to the rigour of…

  2. Demystifying Meaning | Longworth | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some philosophers find linguistic meaning mysterious. Two approaches suggest themselves for removing the felt mystery, or demystifying meaning. One involves providing a substantive account of meaning in meaning-free terms. Although this approach has come under serious attack in recent years, Paul Horwich has ...

  3. Curriculum Development: A Philosophical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, William H.

    Presenting models based on the philosophies of Carl Rogers, John Dewey, Erich Fromm, and Jean-Paul Sartre, this paper proposes a philosophical approach to education and concludes with pragmatic suggestions concerning teaching based on a fully-functioning-person model. The fully-functioning person is characterized as being open to experience,…

  4. A Philosophical Treatise of Universal Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rathmanner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding inductive reasoning is a problem that has engaged mankind for thousands of years. This problem is relevant to a wide range of fields and is integral to the philosophy of science. It has been tackled by many great minds ranging from philosophers to scientists to mathematicians, and more recently computer scientists. In this article we argue the case for Solomonoff Induction, a formal inductive framework which combines algorithmic information theory with the Bayesian framework. Although it achieves excellent theoretical results and is based on solid philosophical foundations, the requisite technical knowledge necessary for understanding this framework has caused it to remain largely unknown and unappreciated in the wider scientific community. The main contribution of this article is to convey Solomonoff induction and its related concepts in a generally accessible form with the aim of bridging this current technical gap. In the process we examine the major historical contributions that have led to the formulation of Solomonoff Induction as well as criticisms of Solomonoff and induction in general. In particular we examine how Solomonoff induction addresses many issues that have plagued other inductive systems, such as the black ravens paradox and the confirmation problem, and compare this approach with other recent approaches.

  5. How to transform economics? A philosophical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kellecioglu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten years after the global financial crisis there is hardly any evidence that the theories, teaching and policies of mainstream economics have changed. This paper is an attempt to contribute to the greater understanding of this persistence, but also to the discussion on what the requirements are to materialise a transformation in economics, given the dismal outcomes in the world economy. The analytical approach of the paper is to utilise relevant philosophical accounts that point out attributes of dominant discourses, and methodological requirements to supersede an already dominant discourse. The objective is to contribute to an improved understanding of factors that obstruct or construct transformations in a knowledge field such as economics; and thereby contribute to transformation efforts, preferably for a more pluralist and emancipatory economics. Given the complexities and the tensions between different philosophical positions, the conclusions of this appraisal are summarised into five criteria that appear essential to realise a successful transformation in economics: critical juncture; dissimilarity; scholar validation; sensibility; and external power. It is suggested to revise efforts to fulfil these criteria as much, and as soon as possible, given the importance and urgency of changing the trajectory of our economies and societies.

  6. Teaching the Philosophical Concepts of the Holocaust Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Ralph J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines how social studies and history teachers can help students understand the intellectual origins of German Nazism during World War II. Suggests discussion questions and learning activities. (Author/DB)

  7. John Dewey--Philosopher and Educational Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Kandan

    2015-01-01

    John Dewey was an American philosopher and educator, founder of the philosophical movement known as pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leader of the progressive movement in education in the United States.

  8. Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    philosophy to business ethics and the ethics of organizations. Although the book covers a wide range of philosophers and philosophical movements, there is a core and deep unity of the book. This is the demonstration of how the conceptual resources of contemporary French philosophy from the early 20th Century...... to the present day can be applied to give us new perspectives on business ethics and the ethics of organizations.......This article gives an overview of my book French Philosophy and Social Theory. A Perspective for Ethics and Philosophy of Management, published by Springer 2014. As an extension of my earlier work on French philosophy, this book provides an application of important concepts from contemporary French...

  9. Philosophical introduction to set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The primary mechanism for ideological and theoretical unification in modern mathematics, set theory forms an essential element of any comprehensive treatment of the philosophy of mathematics. This unique approach to set theory offers a technically informed discussion that covers a variety of philosophical issues. Rather than focusing on intuitionist and constructive alternatives to the Cantorian/Zermelian tradition, the author examines the two most important aspects of the current philosophy of mathematics, mathematical structuralism and mathematical applications of plural reference and plural

  10. IMPLIED AUTHOR IN PHILOSOPHICAL NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Senkāne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article falls within a number of papers about research on specification of philosophical novels. The aim of this article is to analyze author’s function as a narrative category in classical philosophical novels (Franz Kafka "The Trial" (1925, "The Castle" (1926, Jean-Paul Sartre "Nausea" (1938, Hermann Hesse "The Glass Bead Game" (1943, Albert Camus "The Plague" (1947 and a novel of Latvian prose writer Ilze Šķipsna "Neapsolītās zemes" ["Un-Promised Lands"] (1970. The analysis is based on theoretical ideas of structural narratologists Gerard Genette, William Labov, Seymuor Chatman, Wolf Schmid, as well as philosophers Edmund Husserl, Jean-Paul Sartre, Paul Ricouer and semioticians Yuri Lotman (Юрий Лотман and Umberto Eco. The real author can ”enter” the text only indirectly—as an image, with the help of the storyteller, and the way how this ”entry” happens is determined by the narration of the real author or narrative (communication skills of the author. Thus, the author and implied author are functionally different concepts: author as a real person develops the concept idea, his intention is to define the concept under his original vision; narrator, in its turn, communicates with the reader, representing the concept, and his aim is to select appropriate means of communication with regard to reader’s perceptual abilities.

  11. Mario Bunge: Physicist and Philosopher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War.He learnt atomic physics and quantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taught himself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first South American philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise on Philosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of the Enlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planks of the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect for individuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy of science, educational research and science teaching are recognised - it is salutary to see the fruits of one person's pursuit of the Big'' scientific and philosophical picture.

  12. Philosophical Rationalism in Shia Kalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ali Dibaji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One important question that the emergence of philosophical or rational Kalam has raised is what rationalism in the so-called Kalami (theological schools actually means. This paper investigates the answers to the aforementioned question in Shi’a Kalam. Also, we have a comparative look at the philosophical Kalam and the rational one, concluding the identity of Shi’a Kalam with Shi’a philosophy. In this work, we have referred to three types of rationalism: personal, Vahmi (imaginal, and Hikmi (philosophical rationalism. In short, our answer to the above question would be that, Shi’a Kalam – specially in Khaje Nasir’s works – is based on Hikmah (philosophy, and so, rationalism in this school does not refer but to this approach. This type of rationalism is in contrast to the personal or Vahmi rationalism. As a matter of fact, Those Mutakalims (theologians, who use Hikmi rationalism, don’t try to criticize philosophy or elicit from it; they just try to employ the principles, foundations, and results of Hikmah to explain, justify, and defend their religious beliefs

  13. ON EVIDENCE: APPROACH FROM THE PHILOSOPHICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo García Rillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the term analytical evidence to reveal the original meaning of its application to account for hermeneutical situations in the world of life, the study was conducted from philosophical hermeneutics stating the following: viewpoint, understanding horizon and fusion of horizons. In the viewpoint uses of evidence are described. The horizon of understanding traces the history of the concept of evidence highlighting the perspective of Husserl. In the fusion of horizons evidence described in three levels of reality: perceived (evidence from beliefs, known (evidence from knowledge and constructed (deliberative evidence. We conclude that the historicity of the world allows rehabilitate the tradition and gives meaning to the evidence as the fact that it gets in the eyes through the original experience of hermeneutics situation that exists in practice.

  14. THE PRINCIPLES OF LAW. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Any scientific intercession that has as objective, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and applying. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for the updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  15. Philosophical Thinking and the Concept of Security in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper seeks to unpack the essentially contested concept of security, exposing its deep philosophical bases, for a better understanding of the concept by theorists involved in its interrogation. Relying on analytic and reflectively interrogative methods of social inquiry, the study has two inter-related objectives. First ...

  16. Some Ondo Philosophical Proverbs for Practical Living | Akinmade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eye and alert the unheeding ear to the marvels of everyday realities, this paper conceptualizes philosophy and African philosophy, bringing to the fore how in Ondo society man abstracts on events, make generalizations, understands the behaviour of their gods, reflects the ethics of society and philosophizes concerning life ...

  17. New Perspectives in Special Education: Contemporary Philosophical Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This book should be read by everyone who wants to understand special education today. "New Perspectives in Special Education" opens the door to the fascinating and vitally important world of theory that informs contemporary special education. It examines theoretical and philosophical orientations such as "positivism", "poststructuralism" and…

  18. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  19. Can a Rabbit Be a Scientist? Stimulating Philosophical Dialogue in Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; de Schrijver, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    Philosophical dialogue requires an approach to teaching and learning in science that is focused on problem posing and provides space for meaning making, finding new ways of thinking and understanding and for linking science with broader human experiences. This article explores the role that philosophical dialogue can play in science lessons and…

  20. Philosophical analysis of virtualization educational space problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Kolomiets

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Categorical imperative of the new spatial organization of education through its integration in the media space is its virtualization. It is possible in principle, given that both spaces are characterized by adaptability, ease transfer from one semiotic system to another, mobility, functionality, flexibility, allowing for their continuous restructuring. On the philosophical and educational perspective, for us it is important to note that the «idea» of media education space sets the goal of education, understanding of the complex and multi­level organization of information relations of the educational process is a simple link between empirical concepts and ideas about education space as integrity within the information society. Virtual dimension issues of educational space formed within one of the major philosophical and educational issues ­ problems of socio­cultural nature of education as a mechanism of becoming human in man. Today feature virtual philosophical analysis is understanding not just a technical phenomenon, but as a space of human existence, and therefore its educational space. It is in this sense the philosophy of education is important to apply the methodology of media philosophy in the development problems of media education space as a space of life, self­development and self­knowledge of man. Crisis and negative phenomena in postmodern education is not the result of the process of formation of modern electronic media and virtual media space. However, this specific problem requires analysis of education is in the context of new technologies of mass communication. The spread of the crisis of education in terms of media reality should be seen as a crisis of a man who fell into the information system, which is the media model and simulated education and awareness of life. Education in terms of media consumerism acts as a social technology and media culture «escape from thinking.» The transition from education information and

  1. Can One Learn to Think Critically? – A Philosophical Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Within nursing, critical thinking is a required skill that educators strive to foster in their students’ development for use in complex healthcare settings. Hence the numerous studies published measuring critical thinking as a terminal outcome of education. However, an important comparison between different philosophical underpinnings such as person, truth and the nature of nursing, and how one defines and utilizes critical thinking in practice, has been absent from discussions about critical thinking and learning. When one views critical thinking with varying philosophical lenses, important questions are raised and discussion is expanded. These questions illuminate different perspectives of critical thinking and attempt to explore whether critical thinking can be learned in nursing. The implications of taking a single philosophical viewpoint and a pluralistic approach to understanding critical thinking and learning are explored. PMID:21760871

  2. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  3. C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physicist, philosopher, visionary; C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physiker, Philosoph, Visionaer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goernitz, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.

  4. The philosophical aspect of learning inverse problems of mathematical physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes specific questions student learning inverse problems of mathematical physics. When teaching inverse problems of mathematical physics to the understanding of the students brought the information that the inverse problems of mathematical physics with a philosophical point of view are the problems of determining the unknown causes of known consequences, and the search for their solutions have great scientific and educational potential. The reasons are specified in the form of unknown coefficients, right side, initial conditions of the mathematical model of inverse problems, and as a consequence are functionals of the solution of this mathematical model. In the process of learning the inverse problems of mathematical physics focuses on the philosophical aspects of the phenomenon of information and identify cause-effect relations. It is emphasized that in the process of logical analysis applied and humanitarian character, students realize that information is always related to the fundamental philosophical questions that the analysis applied and the humanitarian aspects of the obtained results the inverse problem of mathematical physics allows students to make appropriate inferences about the studied process and to, ultimately, new information, to study its properties and understand its value. Philosophical understanding of the notion of information opens up to students a new methodological opportunities to comprehend the world and helps us to reinterpret existing science and philosophy of the theory related to the disclosure of the interrelationship of all phenomena of reality.

  5. A philosophical approach to quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2015-01-01

    This text presents an intuitive and robust mathematical image of fundamental particle physics based on a novel approach to quantum field theory, which is guided by four carefully motivated metaphysical postulates. In particular, the book explores a dissipative approach to quantum field theory, which is illustrated for scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics, and proposes an attractive explanation of the Planck scale in quantum gravity. Offering a radically new perspective on this topic, the book focuses on the conceptual foundations of quantum field theory and ontological questions. It also suggests a new stochastic simulation technique in quantum field theory which is complementary to existing ones. Encouraging rigor in a field containing many mathematical subtleties and pitfalls this text is a helpful companion for students of physics and philosophers interested in quantum field theory, and it allows readers to gain an intuitive rather than a formal understanding.

  6. A philosophical approach to quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2017-01-01

    This text presents an intuitive and robust mathematical image of fundamental particle physics based on a novel approach to quantum field theory, which is guided by four carefully motivated metaphysical postulates. In particular, the book explores a dissipative approach to quantum field theory, which is illustrated for scalar field theory and quantum electrodynamics, and proposes an attractive explanation of the Planck scale in quantum gravity. Offering a radically new perspective on this topic, the book focuses on the conceptual foundations of quantum field theory and ontological questions. It also suggests a new stochastic simulation technique in quantum field theory which is complementary to existing ones. Encouraging rigor in a field containing many mathematical subtleties and pitfalls this text is a helpful companion for students of physics and philosophers interested in quantum field theory, and it allows readers to gain an intuitive rather than a formal understanding.

  7. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  8. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  9. Evaluating the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mardiana; Pujiati Suyata

    2017-01-01

    The study was to: (1) identify the interpretation toward the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum; and (2) evaluate the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum. In order to achieve these objectives, the researchers implemented the method of philosophy interpretation, namely a method that might discover an individual’s paradigm through the texts or the articles that he or she composed. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the philosophical foundation of 2013 Curriculum the researchers ...

  10. What the Philosophical Interpretation of Quantum Theory Can Accomplish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Martin

    I argue that philosophical reflection can contribute to a better understanding of physical theories by performing conceptual clarification, epistemological analysis and ontological exploration. I begin by reconstructing early ontological interpretations of quantum theory, i.e., by explaining Copenhagen instrumentalism and the shift toward a quantum realism. I turn to entanglement, whose chief philosophical challenge is to understand which deeper property of nature it reveals. The trouble is that the EPR-correlations it gives rise to are not produced by common causation. Conceptual analysis shows that this failure is due to the violation of separability in quantum theory. In entangled states, it is the composite state that is primary since it cannot be neatly divided into two states that unambiguously pertain to the partial systems. As a result, total states are not produced by an interaction among the parts. This feature can be interpreted in ontological terms as suggesting a holist picture of nature. Another question of philosophical import concerns the quantum measurement problem and the contribution decoherence makes to its solution. The conceptual point is what, precisely, this problem amounts to and what we require considering it settled. The issue that divides the philosophical factions is whether a solution needs to show that superpositions are actually destroyed or whether it suffices to demonstrate that superpositions become unobservable.

  11. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  12. How cool is Nietzsche – an aid to remove the fear of great philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ester

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900 is far more accessible than many of his contemporaries. He has a tremendous sense of humour, plays with words and expressions,and he is not scared of attacking other philosophers like Hegel and Schopenhauer. Nietzsche’s use of figures is very significant thanks to the variations of these figures. The result of his style is a sort of inclusiveness towards the reader. Nietzsche seduces the reader to become a member of the select group of chosen thinkers. His central work “Thus spoke Zarathustra”, shows this strategy of conquering the reader or listener in a clear way. Nietzsche’s courage to ask other philosophers or “Geisteswissenschaftler” what their essence is can encourage us to ask essential questions. However, Nietzsche’s central value of life is too vague to be acceptable and caused a lot of political confusion during the previous century.

  13. The Philosophical Foundations of Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Aristotle

    The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative…

  14. Human Freedom and the Philosophical Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to describe the essential features of the Western philosophical tradition can often be characterized as "boundary work", that is, the attempt to create, promote, attack, or reinforce specific notions of the 'philosophical' in order to demarcate it as a field of intellectual inquiry. During the last century, the dominant tendency…

  15. Two Forms of Philosophical Argument or Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author looks at two forms of philosophical argument or critique. These are derived by himself from the work of the late Kantian scholar, Stephan Korner who, in his book "What is Philosophy?" (1969), draws a number of distinctions between different forms of "philosophical" argument or critique. The two forms of derived argument,…

  16. The historical and philosophical origins of normativism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh Novaes, C.

    2011-01-01

    Elqayam & Evans' (E&E's) critique of normativism is related to an inherently philosophical question: Is thinking a normative affair? Should thinking be held accountable towards certain norms? I present the historical and philosophical origins of the view that thinking belongs to the realm of

  17. Ethical issues in radiology: A philosophical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, S.

    2009-01-01

    Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)

  18. Philosophical foundations of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C O

    1993-08-01

    Although new and still emerging for us, qualitative research approaches have been receiving considerable attention for some time in other disciplines. Along with philosophical debates, there are debates about whether there needs to be a debate. On a philosophical level, there is irreconcilable conflict between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms. It is important to recognize this conflict, avoiding illogical compromise. Yet, proponents of each paradigm need to applaud both the existence of the other and the hybrid paradigms that inevitably are born of conflict. An apt beginning would be broader definitions of what constitutes science and research in nursing, eliminating the sense-organ bias that is so contrary to our philosophy for practice. This alone would provide qualitative nurse researchers with the sanction they need to progress in their exploration of various approaches to creating a science and a body of knowledge in, for, and about nursing practice. In the chapters to follow, readers will be introduced to several qualitative research approaches. Each approach represents an interpretation of the qualitative paradigm in nursing research, grounded in the general perspective of phenomenological philosophy. This perspective focuses on phenomena as they appear and recognizes that reality is subjective and a matter of appearances for us in our social world. Subjectivity means that the world becomes real through our contact with it and acquires meaning through our interpretations of that contact. Truth, then, is a composite of realities, and access to truth is a problem of access to human subjectivity. This perspective guides the qualitative researcher in nursing to the subject matter of lived experiences, which are the original contacts with a world, and of the processes and content of interpretation--the meaning attributions that constitute realities and perspectives for a future of possibilities in the world. Other consequences of a phenomenological

  19. The Dialogue of Heidegger with Pre-Socratic Philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Martín Morillas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1898-1976 attempted to outline in his second philosophy a hermeneutics of the thought of some philosophers (Anaximander, Parmenides and Heracleitus prior to the metaphysical development of Western thought. In several of his second work’s writings, Heidegger delimits, examines and reinterprets certain primitive Greek notions, which were especially appropriate for the jump from the «first beginning» of philosophy in Greece to the «other beginning» (not a metaphysical one of a «thinking of being» (Seinsdenken as «appropriating event» (Er-eignis. They are the pre-Socratic notions of Chreón (necessity, Lógos (thought-word, Móira (fate, Alétheia (truth y Ph?sis (nature-reality. Within the context of his long ontological research on the «essencing of being» (Seinswesen, Heidegger offers a reading in terms of an overcoming (Überwindung of metaphysical thought in general, understood as onto-theo-logy and marked by its «forgetfulness of being».

  20. ON TRANSLATION OF SOME PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS IN KARL MARX’S WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Pyotr N. Kondrashov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, that in Russian-speaking editions of K. Marx's works some philosophical concepts (produktiv, erzeugen, Erzeugung, Äußerung, Aneignung, Genuß, Arbeit, Verkehr, Gebrauchswert were translated as words with the productive and economic sense while Marx put philosophical, anthropological and existential connotations into these words in various contexts. It led to incorrect understanding of Marx's philosophy. The author of the article draws a conclusion about indispensability of new adequate translation of Marx's works and about radical reconsideration of its philosophical system.

  1. Whose Ethics? Which Wittgenstein? | Richter | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . I argue that we should distinguish not only between Wittgenstein's personal opinions and his philosophy, but also, within his philosophical work, between broadly methodological remarks and what Wittgenstein might call genuinely ...

  2. Philosophical and cultural perspectives on acoustics in Vedic Hinduism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. G.

    2004-05-01

    Acoustics plays a very important multi-faceted role in Vedic Hinduism. Vedas, that is an infinitely large collection of chants (mantras) in ancient Sanskrit language, form the foundational literature of Vedic Hinduism. The Vedic chants have specific acoustical qualities and intonations. The Vedic literature describes the various aspects of acoustics, namely, philosophical, spiritual, and cultural. The use of sounds from conch-shell, bells, cymbal in addition to the Vedic chants in rituals shows the spiritual aspects. Vedic literature discusses the role of sound in the philosophical understanding of our world. Music, both vocal and instrumental, plays an important role in the cultural aspects of Vedic Hinduism. It can be seen that certain musical instruments such as ``mridangam,'' a percussion drum, reflect scientific principles underlying in their design. This paper presents an overview of the various important and interesting roles of acoustics in Vedic Hinduism.

  3. Structure and unity. Trancendence-philosophical interpretation of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Since their beginnings at the begin of the 20th century quantum physics in the ontological and epistemological interpretation of their results is facing persistent difficulties, which could not be satisfactorily solved to this day. Some quantum phenomena are beyond of both our everyday understanding of the world and the classical-physical picture of the world, which is essentially based on the mechanics of Isaac Newton. They exceed our imagination and seem at least partly contradict logical and space-time laws. Transcendence-philosophical thinking, which exhibits a close structural relation to the logics of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and to the philosophical systems analysis, provides a set of methodological instruments, which can help to avoid some problems of quantum-theoretical interpretation, which are in striking contrast to the mathematically consistent formulation of quantum theory. This is paradigmatically shown by selected main themes of the quantum-theoretical discussion.

  4. Philosophical Enquiries into the Science of Sensibility

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeir, Koen; Deckard, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This chapter places Burke's Philosophical Enquiry in its broader context of a culture of sensibility. The three sections of this introductory essay broadly correspond to the three sections of this book. The first part, 'Science and sensibility', provides a background to the writing of Burke's Philosophical Enquiry and how it fits into the medical and scientific study of sensibility. The writing of this text in its particular eighteenth-century culture reflects both a reaction to overly mechan...

  5. Philosophical anthropology, anthropologic of philosophy and after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This expose deals, first of all, with suppositions, structure and range of human thinking that has been undertaken, very ambitiously, by "philosophical anthropology" at the beginning of the twentieth century. And then, through philosophical critique and self-critique of its status and limitations of this "discipline", it is indicating the orientation of recent controversy regarding the possibilities and characters of radical dismissal and/or reaffirmation of philosopheme "man".

  6. The Lublin Philosophical School: Founders, Motives, Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław A. Krąpiec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the Lublin Philosophical School; it explains its name, presents its founders, reveals the causes of its rise, and introduce the specific character of the School’s philosophy.It starts with stating the fact that in the proper sense, the term “Lublin Philosophical School” describes a way of cultivating realistic (classical philosophy developed in the 1950s by a group of philosophers at the Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. The Lublin Philosophical School is characterized by cognitive realism (the object of cognition is really existing being, maximalism (taking up all existentially important questions, methodological autonomy (in relation to the natural-mathematical sciences and theology, transcendentalism in its assertions (its assertions refer to all reality, methodological-epistemological unity (the same method applied in objectively cultivated philosophical disciplines, coherence (which guarantees the objective unity of the object, and objectivity (achieved by the verifiability of assertions on their own terms, which is achieved by relating them in each instance to objective evidence. The term is the name of the Polish school of realistic (classical philosophy that arose as a response to the Marxism that was imposed administratively on Polish institutions of learning, and also as a response to other philosophical currents dominant at the time such as phenomenology, existentialism, and logical positivism.

  7. [On the comprehensibility of German hospital quality reports: systematic evaluation and need for action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, J; Schubert, H-J; Schwappach, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current resolutions for quality reports of German hospitals as released in 2007 as well as on comprehensibility of these reports for patients. It is meant to analyse the textual information given by these quality reports. Its main objective was to attain a reliable assessment of their comprehensibility for patients on the basis of objective measuring methods. A further goal was to qualify eventual differences between large and small or private and public hospital operators. On the basis of the attained results conclusions on the appropriateness of the current legal situation and the existing criteria for quality reports were to be drawn. The textual system part of 200 German hospital reports was analysed as published in the Internet (latest download 28th May, 2007). The selection took place by means of a controlled sample. The sample structure essentially corresponds to the German hospital system structure in terms of bed numbers and its ratio of public and private operators. The analysis measured all formal text patterns as well as technical terms by means of a computer-aided device. The readability index for each text was calculated according to all known readability formulas for the German language. German hospital quality reports are readable only for those patients who dispose of above-average communicative skills. The analysed reports contain more than 10% technical terms while 17% of the chosen words and 60% of all sentences are too long. 10% of all sentences are too complex and 25% comprise more than three technical terms. To understand these texts at least an entrance qualification for higher education is required in accordance to readability indices. The texts' degree of complexity is comparable to that of philosophical papers. Most textual information given by German hospital quality reports is proven to be unreadable and incomprehensible for most patients. There are no fundamental differences concerning hospital size and

  8. Body, Mind and Spirit—Philosophical Reflections for Researching Education about the Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Eszter Morgan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This reflective essay draws a sketch of the theoretical and philosophical foundations in preparation for conducting a research project that investigates how German school learners deal with the memories of Shoah survivors. The essay explores some communication challenges and opportunities presented by the use of the double linguistic medium—German and English. The central philosophical argument is that there is a conceptual conflation of and confusion around the word Geist (spirit/mind, and that the difference between the spirit and the mind needs to be explored and clarified. For this purpose Hegel’s thoughts on the spirit are considered and related to theories of memory. Also, Theodor Lessing’s reflections on the origins of hatred are touched upon, which he traces back to the splitting of the spirit from the mind. How the body, mind and spirit work together is highlighted with a biographical example of a descendant of a Nazi perpetrator. By way of conclusion, the philosophical and methodological implications for researching education about the Shoah are briefly discussed.

  9. Christian mission agencies and the question of slavery in German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the imperial designs of their government, with little commitment to improving the wellbeing of Cameroonians. Little wonder colonial and missionization exploitation which is inseparable from the modern understanding of slavery was at its highest during the German era. Keywords: German Cameroon, German missions, ...

  10. PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF AESTETICS IN POST-CLASSICAL EPOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariia M. Skalska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To understand the dynamics of aesthetic conception as representative of the main directions of philosophical anthropology, identifying their contribution to the development of aesthetics and expand its research field. The condition of the study of the problem is the evolutionary process of adequateness, authenticity and alternativeness in determination of both the phenomenon of "aesthetic" and its role in philosophical and anthropological  convention. Methodology. Both the measurements of aesthetic as a unique, peculiar, specific and aesthetic dimensions of philosophical anthropology /systems of philisophy/ have in sight  the necessity to solve the same problem - the identification of new methodological basis. Theoretical results. The experience of theoretical researches of contemporary domestic and foreign philosophical and aesthetic schools іs generalized. The content of phenomenological and existential breakthrough in  modern age  of aesthetics іs revealed. The essence of "anthropological turn" in European philosophy of 20th century  as philosophical paradigm of the modern age and its impact on development of aesthetic theories of post-classical period was investigated. Conclusion. Philosophical and anthropological studies have amounted the "methodological synthesis" that appeared as the theoretical principles of the understanding of aesthetics due to its polystylistics.

  11. Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on more than a decade of research on the social implications of systems thinking, as well as practical experience in integrative, community-based approaches to education, this paper is an inquiry into philosophical and ethical considerations growing out of recent developments in systems thinking. In his foundational work on general system theory, Ludwig von Bertalanffy distinguishes between three general developments in the systems field: systems technology, systems science, and systems philosophy. These three dimensions of systems thinking each nurture distinct and often widely divergent theoretical and practical orientations. In his abstract for this session, Gary Metcalf asks whether the systems approach really has anything to offer. Science is a form of social feedback; it has created an enormous body of knowledge about the world and shaped humanity’s understanding of the nature of our collective reality. Knowledge then informs action. Assumptions built into scientific frameworks condition certain kinds of actions, as Bertalanffy has noted. Systems thinking as science nurtures a way of thinking that engenders a different kind of practice; systems as philosophy cultivates an ethic of integration and collaboration that has the potential to transform the nature of social organization. Although humanity still has a lot to learn about living more harmoniously and sustainably, systems thinking has made significant contributions in this direction in many fields, both theoretical and practical. The challenge is to integrate what we have learned, to communicate these insights to a larger audience, and to nurture institutional practices that honor the ethical principles inherent in the systems view.

  12. A Philosophical Perspective on Evolutionary Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Soyer, Orkun S; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) is an emerging hybrid approach that integrates methods, models, and data from evolutionary and systems biology. Drawing on themes that arose at a cross-disciplinary meeting on ESB in 2013, we discuss in detail some of the explanatory friction that arises in the interaction between evolutionary and systems biology. These tensions appear because of different modeling approaches, diverse explanatory aims and strategies, and divergent views about the scope of the evolutionary synthesis. We locate these discussions in the context of long-running philosophical deliberations on explanation, modeling, and theoretical synthesis. We show how many of the issues central to ESB's progress can be understood as general philosophical problems. The benefits of addressing these philosophical issues feed back into philosophy too, because ESB provides excellent examples of scientific practice for the development of philosophy of science and philosophy of biology.

  13. YHWH and the God of philosophical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J W Gericke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In popular orthodox Christian philosophical theology, it is often taken for granted that the divine philosophised about is none other than the Hebrew deity YHWH himself. Moreover , it is often assumed that the Old� Testament depicts YHWH as being, inter alia, single, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, and eternal. Now while it is to be admitted that there are indeed depictions of YHWH in the Old Testament in which his profile might be thought of as corresponding more or less to the popular philosophical ideal, it is also true that there are many representations that contradict it. In this article, the author looks at how the popular profile of� YHWH in the Old Testament as reconstructed by some philosophical theologians claiming to be �biblical�� is deconstructed when it is juxtaposed with alternative renderings of the divine in the same texts.

  14. Kantian Turning Point in Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bosáková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is treating the theme of a Kantian turning-point in the philosophical hermeneutics of H.- G. Gadamer based on of the harmonic relationship between metaphysics and science in Kantian philosophy from the point of view of the philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer. The philosophical work of Kant had such an influence on Gadamer that without exaggerating we can talk about the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics. Grondin, a former student of Gadamer, is talking about Kantian turning-point on the field of aesthetics, but in reality Kantian turning-point means much more than a mere change in the reception of the concept of judgement. It is a discovery of harmonical relationship between the beauty and the moral, between the reason and the sensitivity, between the modern sciences and the metaphysical tradition in the Kantian philosophy, made by Gadamer. This is what we call the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics.

  15. The German drought monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  16. Two Philosophical Views upon Morality and Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyas Abdulrahman, Wazir; Krabbe Krogholt, Mathilde; Simonsen, Anne Marie; Raun Westh, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Herein is the project entitled “Two Philosophical Views upon Morality and Religion”. The content of this project will include an introduction to the two philosophers, Immanuel Kant and Henri Bergson, which is followed by a close account of their ideas upon morality and religion in Kant’s works, The Critique of Pure Reason and The Critique of Practical Reason, and Bergson’s The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Furthermore, there will be a discussion of the major differences and similariti...

  17. The Possibility of Reconciliation between Epistemic Principles of the Quran and Philosophical Hermeneutic Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed mostafa Managheb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac One of the important issues in the field of new theology is philosophical hermeneutics and its impact on the interpretation of sacred texts. The real question is whether we can interpret the Quran according to this theory or not? In the past, hermeneutics was known as the science of interpretation especially the interpretation of sacred texts. In the twentieth century, having the philosophical approach to hermeneutics changed it as an effective knowledge in the field of human knowledge. Philosophical hermeneutics is based on ontological understanding and explaining the conditions and factors affecting the understanding. Philosophical hermeneutics is based on principles including: (1 understanding is a production not a reproduction i.e. the interpreter creates meaning to the text in the process of understanding and text meaning is not in relation to the author. According to his knowledge, conditions, and preferences, the reader creates meaning for the text. (2 human understanding is an accident and incident so understanding process has no authority to select criteria and logic for that method; as a result understanding is a non-systematic and uncontrollable matter. (3 understanding is a practical matter i.e. understanding a work or text is done based on the position of interpreter, his interests, conditions, and current expectations. (4 understanding is created based on the conversation between the interpreter and text. Understanding is obtained based on their effort and struggle. Therefore, understanding is the result of combining semantic horizon of interpreter with semantic horizon of work. (5 understanding is the result of the tradition and prejudices of the interpreter. Since the prejudices of the people are different, there is no common understanding among the people. (6 the historicity of understanding. Others’ understanding of text makes text history and this history is effective in its subsequent understanding and this

  18. The Trichotomy of Processes: a philosophical basis for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Widmeyer

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of trichotomy from the American philosopher Charles S. Peirce can be used to categorize processes into the triad of transactional, relational, and informational. The usefulness of these categories is explicated by a comparison with structuration theory and control theory, and elaborated with a consideration of democracy in a knowledge economy. These three example applications of the process triad show the generality of the conceptual categories and provide a natural way of bringing ideas from social and ethical theories into information systems design. Modeling the world and understanding business applications through the use of the Trichotomy of Processes should facilitate the development of more valuable information systems.

  19. Three philosophical approaches to the study of spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinley, Susan T; Kinney, Anita Y

    2007-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, there has been an expanded interest in the place that spirituality has in nursing practice, education, and research. The purpose of this article is to examine the study of spirituality from the perspective of 3 philosophical paradigms: empiricism, interpretivism, and poststructuralism. The strengths and weaknesses of the paradigms are identified through a review of an exemplar article for each. Each paradigm provides a unique approach to the development of knowledge, and thus makes its own contribution to the understanding of spirituality. It is the researcher's responsibility to identify the appropriate paradigm for the question.

  20. Arendt on Hobbes as the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Correia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In The Origins of Totalitarianism, when examine the elements and origins of total domination, Hannah Arendt devotes special attention to the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie. For Arendt imperialism is the truth of the bourgeois understanding of politics, according to which politics should not be more than a well-organized police force. The truth of bourgeois politics is the reduction of politics to mere force. Our purpose is to reconstruct this movement from the vantage point of arendtian appropriation of Hobbes, "the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie."

  1. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth / For Parents / Rubella (German Measles) ... Call the Doctor Print en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  2. Fiction and Conviction | Blackburn | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I claim that there is nothing so unusual in the interleaving of myth or fiction and history that Williams finds in Herodotus. I also reflect on the difficulty of separating acceptance of truth from acceptance of myth, metaphor, and model, not only in history but also in science. Philosophical Papers Vol.32(3) 2003: 243-260 ...

  3. Why Old Testament prophecy is philosophically interesting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... Comparative philosophical perspectives on Old Testament predictive prophecy are rare. Yet whilst the Old Testament is not explicit in its views on the relation between God and time, its narratives do contain implicit metaphysical assumptions regarding the nature of divine foreknowledge. In this article the ...

  4. Moral Attention: A Comparative Philosophical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The notion of moral attention allows the recognition of fundamental aspects of ethical life ignored or neglected by mainstream ethical theories. It is central to the theories of several notable female ethicists and many of them identify the French philosopher Simone Weil as the source of the contemporary use of this concept which invites…

  5. A comprehensive philosophical approach to Qohelet's epistemology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-23

    Apr 23, 2015 ... to find a suitable philosophical profile for Qohelet's concept of knowledge whilst ignoring a whole array of topics and ... drafting in the wake of the epistemological turn in 20th-century, right-wing analytic philosophy of religion (see ..... For what advantage has the wise man over the fool? And what does the ...

  6. Nietzsche, science, and philosophical nihilism | Bamford | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nietzsche offers us a critique of modern culture as threatened by a nihilistic crisis in values. Philosophy is specifically incorporated into Nietzsche's critique, resulting in the claim that modern philosophy, as well as modern culture, is nihilistic. But why should contemporary philosophers give this view credence? In this paper, I ...

  7. Forging national integrarion through philosophic interrogation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that the recipe is philosophical re-orientation towards instituting liberalism (in the original sense of the word) as national ethos. It is also argued that liberalism is a philosophy of freedom and justice upon which anvil great civilizations have been forged and great civilizations broken when they turned ...

  8. Choice and Culpability | Futter | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I take exception with a widely held philosophical doctrine, according to which agents are morally responsible only for actions they have intentionally done, or chosen to bring about. I argue that there are positive duties of consideration and proper regard that make sense of holding persons responsible in the ...

  9. Friendship and Belief | Keller | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I intend to argue that good friendship sometimes requires epistemic irresponsibility. To put it another way, it is not always possible to be both a good friend and a diligent believer. Philosophical Papers Vol.33(3) 2004: 329-351. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  10. Social space: Philosophical reflections | Strauss | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our analysis of the phrase 'social space' first of all concentrates on the modal or functional nature of the different aspects of reality, including the social and spatial aspects. Subsequently this leads to an analysis of the problem of modal analogies – one way in which an answer is given to the perennial philosophical problem ...

  11. Philosophical dimensions of Aliu Babatunde Fafunwa's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Philosophical dimensions of Aliu Babatunde Fafunwa's educational ideas. AOI Gabriel. Abstract. No Abstract. SOPHIA: An African Journal of Philosphy and Public Affairs Vol. 10 (1) 2007: pp.

  12. A comprehensive philosophical approach to Qohelet's epistemology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increasing number of studies have seen the light over the last few decades concerning the epistemology of the book of Ecclesiastes. The extant research seems to be limited to try to find a suitable philosophical profile for Qohelet's concept of knowledge whilst ignoring a whole array of topics and theories in contemporary ...

  13. The Philosophical Foundations of Modern Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dr Keekok

    2011-01-01

    An exploration of the philosophical foundation of modern medicine which explains why such a medicine possesses the characteristics it does and where precisely its strengths as well as its weaknesses lie. Written in plain English, it should be accessible to anyone who is intellectually curious, lay persons and medical professionals alike.

  14. Software theory a cultural and philosophical study

    CERN Document Server

    Frabetti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    This book engages directly in close readings of technical texts and computer code in order to show how software works. It offers an analysis of the cultural, political, and philosophical implications of software technologies that demonstrates the significance of software for the relationship between technology, philosophy, culture, and society.

  15. Introduction Robin Melrose The French philosopher Jacques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robin Melrose. The French philosopher Jacques Derrida has exercised an enourmous influence on French thought over the last twenty years, particularly with his technique of deconstruction, and more recently the influence has spread to English-speaking countries, in fields as diverse as literary theory, the study of popular ...

  16. A Philosophical Look at the Higgs Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the recent experimental detection of a Higgs-type particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the paper reviews philosophical aspects of the Higgs mechanism as the presently preferred account of the generation of particle masses in the Standard Model of elementary particle

  17. A philosophical investigaton into African values: towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on her traditional values, hence, devaluing those cherished and veritable autochthonous values that have the power to better her conditions. In this piece, through the method of philosophical investigation, a case is made to the effect that, in the devalued African values, among others, lie solutions to Africa's predicament.

  18. Introduction Robin Melrose The French philosopher Jacques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The French philosopher Jacques Derrida has exercised an enourmous influence on French thought over the last twenty years, particularly with his technique of deconstruction, and more recently the influence has spread to English-speaking countries, in fields as diverse as literary theory, the study of popular culture, feminist ...

  19. Virtue Ethics and Elitism | Svensson | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virtue, according to Aristotle, is something that we acquire gradually, via a developmental process. People are not just stuck with their characters once and for all, but can always aspire to become better (more virtuous). And that is plausibly the basic normative requirement of virtue ethics. Philosophical Papers Vol.

  20. Temporal Parts and Superluminal Motion | Balashov | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I accept Hudson's conditional but contend that his modus ponens is less plausible than the corresponding modus tollens. Reversed in this way, the argument stemming from the scenario raises the cost of mereological liberalism and advances the case for a principled restriction on diachronic composition. Philosophical ...

  1. Psychoanalysis as a Philosophical Revolution: Freud's Divergence From the Philosophy of Kant, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jason

    2016-08-01

    In his classic, The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche described a philosophical worldview that has many similarities to Freudian metapsychology. This paper uses Freud's theories to analyze The Birth of Tragedy, discussing the similarities and differences between Nietzsche's philosophy and Freudian metapsychology. The author suggests that while psychoanalysis was born from the spirit of German philosophy, in that it based itself on a similar concept of the unconscious, Freud diverged from his predecessors to create a new worldview, based on the acceptance and integration of unconscious desire. This revolutionary theory provided a new approach to humanity's moral and existential issues.

  2. About social and cultural aspects of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kostiuchkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the approaches to socio­cultural understanding of human nature in the context of philosophical anthropology, analyzes the essence of human nature contradictions inherent in the contradiction between biological and social components; author focuses attention on the concept of «identity» in the context of philosophical anthropology and characterization of the status of human life; put forward a reasoned statement that outlook, as the level of philosophical understanding of the world, combining both biological and social components of human nature. It is emphasized that universal principle transistorychnym public attitudes towards human life is the recognition of its absolute value in different dimensions ­ religious, philosophical, scientific. The author notes that religious, especially biblical doctrine emphasizes the value of human life that flows from dignity of man, created in God’s image, a rational being who comes to Earth as, in a sense, a representative of God. The article stresses the urgency of a new philosophical paradigm as an important ideological guideline that requires perceive and understand the biological basis of man is not as indispensable, but neutral background of social life, but as a basis upon which and through which a person is transformed into a cultural and civilized being.

  3. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  4. Aesthetics of the Human Image in Life and Iconography of the Ancient Philosophers in Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic and visual understanding of man is a hotly debated issue in contemporary culture. I found it important therefore to look at certain historical, cultural, aesthetical, philosophical and anthropological peculiarities of human image in Antiquity as reflected in the arts. The following aspects deserve special attention: the visualization of sense and values; the interaction of “ethos” (character and “soma” (body; the influence of the plastic images on the narrative ones; a normative typology of man; the significance of visual and acoustic perception. In this context, I studied ancient physiognomic; Aristotelian understanding of the acoustic and plastic arts; genesis, evolution and significance of the sculptural portrait image of man and the image of philosopher in Antiquity. I also pay attention to some methodological aspects of the study. As a result, there emerges an integral image of philosopher, which allows looking at the Greek culture from a fresh angle.

  5. The Links between Science, Philosophy, and Military Theory: Understanding the Past, Implications for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellegrini, Robert

    1997-01-01

    ... with an emphasis on its interpretation by the German Romanticist philosopher Immanuel Kant. He then shows how Newtonian science and Kant's philosophy affected the military theory of Carl von Clausewitz...

  6. The Links Between Science and Philosophy and Military Theory: Understanding the Past; Implications for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellegrini, Robert

    1995-01-01

    ... with an emphasis on its interpretation by the German Romanticist philosopher, Immanuel Kant. He then shows how Newtonian science and Kant's philosophy affected the military theory of Carl von Clausewitz...

  7. PHILOSOPHIC AND CLINICAL DISCOURSE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Skyrtach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to identify common and distinctive features of concepts and methodology of the problem of subject within different discourses, implicitly or explicitly relevant to the definition of "clinical" mode of human existence. The research methodology combines techniques of discourse analysis and basic principles of historical and philosophical studies. Originality of the research lies in definition of the clinical philosophical discourse as a special communicative process, where utterances not only focus on disease syndromes, and reveal phenomenology of inner experience of a pathological self, but also structure a certain type of sociality. Clinical discourse represents the space where the patient is treated not as a subject but as an object of disease. Ontology of clinical discourse prevails over ontology of disease, since its structures determine the notion of disease as such. Categorization of the disease, the idea of disease as a phenomenon subdued to professional authority leads to the idea of the need for patient’s isolation from the natural environment and removing him to special social institutions. The clinicist doctrines share the intention to reduce the patient’s self to its bodily dimension, while ignoring social determinants of psychological deviations. Conclusions of the study are summarized in the following positions: the current clinical discourse is based on the positivist-biological trend in humanitarian knowledge and it is the basis for the production and reproduction of medical and pharmaceutical repressive ideology; criticism of philosophical clinical discourse opens the possibility of overcoming the dominance of purely clinicist discourse; such a transformation is possible only after a paradigm shift in understanding the category of subject.

  8. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  9. Challenges in reading the Greek philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Aghili Dehkordi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Presocratics in 600 B.C founded new research ways in science and philosophy, wrote the first scientific essays, introduced basic conceptions of deduction, and abandoned mythological explanations, all we have of their works is but the fragments in the works of further doxographers, biographers, historians or philosophers who brought their statements between their own words. This would sometimes result in misunderstanding the presocratics’ purposes. Hermann Diels in his Doxographi Graeci raised a new method for dealing with doxography tradition. Diels’ new approach to doxography returned all this tradition to Aristotle’s pupil, Theophrastus. Some scholars like Jaap Mansfield criticized his disregard for the sophists like Gorgias and Hippias, and the successions of philosophers. According to his criticism, some matters like the Sophists’ influence on Plato, Aristotle’s definition of Doxa in the Placita and the influence of the succession and interpretation tradition on doxogtaphy are more noteworthy than Diels has thought.

  10. Naming Being - or the Philosophical Content of Heidegger's National Socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution discusses the philosophical meaning of the Martin Heidegger’s Rectoral address. First of all, Heidegger’s philosophical basic experience is sketched as the background of his Rectoral address; the being-historical concept of “Anfang”. Then, the philosophical question of the Rectoral

  11. Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II: Nosology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    by the editors and is followed by a commentary, resulting in a dynamic discussion about the nature of psychiatric disorders. This book will be valuable for psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health trainees and professionals with an interest in the questions and problems of psychiatric diagnosis......, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science....

  12. Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II: Nosology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric and psychological practice and research is critically dependent on diagnosis. Yet the nature of psychiatric diagnosis and the rules by which disorders should be created and organized have been highly controversial for over 100 years. Unlike simple medical disorders (like infectious di......, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science....

  13. Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II: Nosology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    Psychiatric and psychological practice and research is critically dependent on diagnosis. Yet the nature of psychiatric diagnosis and the rules by which disorders should be created and organized have been highly controversial for over 100 years. Unlike simple medical disorders (like infectious di......, as well as philosophers and philosophy students interested in the problems posed by psychiatry, particularly those working in the philosophy of science....

  14. HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL-LEGAL RESEARCH OF THE PHENOMENON OF THE GENDER AS THE FACTOR OF THE SOCIAL STATUS OF THE UKRAINIAN WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. Under the conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the European community, there is an urgent need to restructure all social institutions, freeing them from all forms of discrimination, including on the basis of gender. Modern problems of the state's socioeconomic development require a new look at the functional roles of men and women, as well as the understanding that the political, economic, cultural future of society depends on overcoming gender stereotypes that are deeply rooted in the social and individual consciousness and inhibit social progress, and also the development of democracy. That is why, today, it is extremely important to study the issue of social influence and the role of women and determine their social status against the backdrop of the historical development of our state. Purpose. The article studies the emergence and adoption of the phenomenon of gender as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman in the historical, philosophical and legal realm. Methodology. In the research process the authors used the methods of analyzing and synthesizing historical sources to study the content and main provisions of philosophical concepts and legal norms that formed the social status of a Ukrainian woman at different historical periods of society development, with their subsequent comparison and generalization. Originality. The work further develops the theory of gender processes with the use of interdisciplinary approaches to the study of the phenomenon of gender in the historical, philosophical and legal field as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman, to critically re-evaluate the value guidelines on the construction of modern society and the formation of new ideas about the role and model of behavior of men and women and their interaction in society. Conclusions. For a long time, the social status of women was formed under the influence of philosophical views and concepts, slowly turned into

  15. Basic philosophical texts in Medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Serbian philosophy took shape mostly through the process of translating Byzantine texts and revising the Slavic translations. Apart from the Aristotelian terminological tradition, introduced via the translation of Damascene’s Dialectic, there also was, under the influence of the Corpus Areopagiticum and ascetic literature, notably of John Climacus’ Ladder, another strain of thought originating from Christian Platonism. Damascene’s philosophical chapters, or Dialectic, translated into medieval Serbian in the third quarter of the fourteenth century, not only shows the high standards of translation technique developed in Serbian monastic scriptoria, but testifies to a highly educated readership interested in such a complex theologico-philosophical text with its nuanced terminology. A new theological debate about the impossibility of knowing God led to Gregory Palamas’ complex text, The Exposition of the Orthodox Faith. Philosophical texts were frequently copied and much worked on in medieval Serbia, but it is difficult to infer about the actual scope of their influence on the formation and articulation of the worldview of medieval society. As a result of their demanding theoretical complexity, the study of philosophy was restricted to quite narrow monastic, court and urban circles. However, the strongest aspect of the influence of Byzantine thought on medieval society was the liturgy as the central social event of the community. It was through the liturgy that the wording of the translated texts influenced the life of medieval Serbian society.

  16. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.

  17. Social-philosophical practices of success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Karpenko

    2017-01-01

    Is social-philosophical experts of success represent the complicated system of various world outlook, speech, mental factors and events in life of the various professional, age and subcultural bunches producing assessments under different visual angles, from positions of various social installations and identity in what the social philosophy of success expresses. In the course of forming social an expert (both in daily, and in an institutional discourse are shaped also theoretical ideas success: instrumental, is social-philosophical, is social-psychological, world outlook, historical and cultural, etc., characterising thereby various systems of a social discourse. Examination is social-philosophical the success expert shows the real complexity and ambiguity of the given appearance. Besides the presented typology constructed as the most approximate abstract plan, in each separate case probably build-up of typological models according to a principle ad hoc. It looks quite justified, considering that circumstance that representations about success and the successful person are constantly transformed and acquire new performances. Efficiency of the further examinations of a discourse and a success expert will depend on accepting of new heuristic approaches, capable to consider multidimensionality and ambiguity of the given phenomenon.

  18. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  19. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  20. Philosophical Presentation in Ptolemy’s Harmonics: The Timaeus as a Model for Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tolsa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ptolemy’s self-representation as philosopher is conventional in the Almagest but not so in Harmonics, which emulates Plato’s Timaeus and makes philosophy the result  of understanding harmonics rather than the premise.

  1. María Zambrano: a woman, a republican and a philosopher in exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA PALOMAR GALDÓN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this presentation is an attempt to understand the concept of exile in terms of the works of Spanish philosopher María Zambrano, a woman who left her country after the Spanish civil war and lived the life of an exile. This work focuses on the difficulties encountered by thinkers when they try to reflect on the experience of exile, and it aims to bring Zambrano’s thought on exile closer to her main philosophical concepts.

  2. The rigorous concept of aesthetics as philosophical discipline and its critics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gutiérrez Pozo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article’s aim is to clarify the philosophical sense of the term ‘aesthetics’, which hasboth an ontological dimension and a cognitive dimension. ‘Aesthetics’ has a rigorous meaning assensation, and the modern philosophical discipline of aesthetics emerged in relation with it. It was developed by Baumgarten and Kant. This concept of aesthetics meant an aesthetics understanding ofart. The reflection about art developed by Hegel, Heidegger and Adorno involves a critic against that rigorous concept of aesthetics, and the need of increasing the notion of aesthetics if we expect to continue being able to call ‘aesthetics’ their reflection about art.

  3. Parks and gardens in poetic reminiscences used to deliver philosophic ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdova Maria Sergeevna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analyzing the image of parks and gardens that helps to deliver philosophic ideas in fiction. The research bases on the novel “The French Lieutenant’s Woman” by John Fowles. The literary hermeneutics and reception-aesthetics methods are used. The paper deals with the reminiscences from Alfred Tennyson’s and Thomas Hardy’s poetry. The author draws a conclusion about their meaning for understanding the sense of the novel and John Fowles’s philosophic ideas as a whole.

  4. Journeying from the philosophical contemplation of constructivism to the methodological pragmatics of health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; King, Lindy

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents our journey through a contemplation of the philosophical origins of constructivism to consider its role as an active methodology in qualitative research. The first part of the paper summarizes the philosophical background of constructivism and the five principles underpinning this paradigm as described through the works of Guba and Lincoln. The philosophical roots of constructivism are then compared with postpositivism, critical realism and participatory inquiry. The paper moves on to consider their common methodological steps, before examining how the constructivist research strategy is being adopted and adapted within the pragmatics of health service research. Recent studies will be drawn upon to illustrate the use of constructivist methodology. Questions are raised about the role of philosophy and the extent to which it should or does underpin or influence qualitative research strategies. We believe that if researchers gain an understanding of both philosophy and methodology a richer and more robust study is likely to result.

  5. How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    How can one be both a philosophical ethicist and a democrat? In this article I conclude that it can be difficult to reconcile the two roles. One involves understanding, and reconciling, the conflicting views of citizens, and the other requires the pursuit of truth through reason. Nevertheless, an important function of philosophy and ethics is to inform and improve policy. If done effectively, we could expect better, and more just, laws and policies, thereby benefiting many lives. So applying philosophical thinking to policy is an important job. However, it comes with substantial difficulties, not least in reconciling, or choosing between, competing philosophical theories. Despite the importance of the task, and the apparent obstacles, there is relatively little literature on how to apply ethics to real-world policy-making. Democracies need ethicists who can engage in democratic debate and bridge the gap between philosophy and public policy. I offer some tactics here.

  6. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use ...

  7. Philosophical, logical and scientific perspectives in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights and explains the significance of philosophical, logical, and scientific principles for engineering education/training and engineering works. In so doing, it aims to help to rectify the neglect of philosophy and logic in current education and training programs, which emphasize analytical and numerical methods at the expense of the innovative practical and creative abilities so important for engineering in the past. Individual chapters examine the relation of philosophy, logic, and science to engineering, drawing attention to, for example, the significance of ethics, the rel

  8. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  9. Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, Santiago; Chhem, Rethy K.; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-01-01

    The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

  10. The Talmudic philosophical conception of business ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Talmud is considered to be one of the cornerstones of Judaism, Jewish business ethics and Jewish wisdom for business success. The Talmud has been the guide and main nerve center of the Jewish people. This article examines the philosophical conception of business ethics from a Talmudic perspective. The article used a conceptual approach as well as a review of related literature. It was found out that the road of the Talmud led not to philosophy and theology but to ethics, law and justice; it pursued not the abstract but the concrete. This article has therefore business and academic value.

  11. Homo religiosus : philosophical anthropology Viktor Emil Frankl 's .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius da Costa Meireles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work, entitled The Homo religiosus: the philosophical anthropology of Viktor Emil Frankl, is rooted in the anthropology of Frankl and aims to understand Frankl’s anthropology and its spiritual dynamic in religious experience. Using theoretical-bibliographical research with these main works—The Ignored Presence of God (1948, The Unconditioned Man (1949, Patient Man (1950, and The Search for God and Questions about the Meaning of Life (1984—this work traverses through Frankl’s anthropology, the spiritual dimension, the search for meaning, and one’s relationship with God. The work is divided into three parts. The first part consists of contextualization and critique. The second part puts forward a proposal, and the third part discusses the experience of the Homo religiosus.

  12. PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS VALUE LEVEL OF PERCEPTION OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Nekrasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the philosophical understanding of the problem of perception of values and antivalues. Beliefs, recognized among the people regarding the purposes to which it is important to strive for life, named values. They are the Foundation for moral principles and provide people with their human existence despite the fact that different cultures hold different principles. In the tribe Yanomami cruelty is considered a value. The expectation that men will defend their honor in combat, is to be the norm corresponding to this value. Anyway, the principles followed by the personality, are accounted for morality. Principles justify the norms and standards that support human being in his desire to be honest and sincere for that society in which he lives, and be worthy of its representative.

  13. The quantum universe: philosophical foundations and oriental medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas C; Yang, Keun-Hang

    2016-12-01

    The existence of universal principles in both science and medicine implies that one can explore their common applicability. Here we explore what we have learned from quantum mechanics, phenomena such as entanglement and nonlocality, the role of participation of the observer, and how these may apply to oriental medicine. The universal principles of integrated polarity, recursion, and creative interactivity apply to all levels of existence and all human activities, including healing and medicine. This review examines the possibility that what we have learned from quantum mechanics may provide clues to better understand the operational principles of oriental medicine in an integrated way. Common to both is the assertion that Consciousness is at the foundation of the universe and the inner core of all human beings. This view goes beyond both science and medicine and has strong philosophical foundations in Western philosophy as well as monistic systems of the East.

  14. [Neuroethics and Human Vulnerability in Philosophical Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to assess the potentials and limits of neuroethics. It argues that neuroscience and ethics should collaborate each other with mutual respect and preservation of their respective identities, scientific in the first case and philosophical in the second one ( neuroethics as cooperation). The text develops also a criticism in front of any attempt to replace the philosophical ethics by the neurosciences ( neuroethics as substitution). Consequently, the most appropriate ontological and anthropological foundations are explored to develop a cooperative neuroethics. These foundations refer to the Aristotelian hylomorphic conception of the substances. On such foundations it is possible to develop a collaborative neuroethics which includes two aspects: on the one hand, we have an ethics of neuroscience and, on the other one, a neuroscience of ethics. The first one shows us how to conduct neuroscience while preserving human dignity. The second one teaches us about the neurobiological basis of our moral agency. These bases enable our moral behavior without determining it. By studying them our vulnerability as moral agents emerges as evidence. This vulnerability, which is rooted in the very human nature, must be, as it is argued along the last pages of the text, recognized as well as mitigated.

  15. Conjoined Twins: Philosophical Problems and Ethical Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian; Persson, Ingmar

    2016-02-01

    We examine the philosophical and ethical issues associated with conjoined twins and their surgical separation. In cases in which there is an extensive sharing of organs, but nevertheless two distinguishable functioning brains, there are a number of philosophical and ethical challenges. This is because such conjoined twins: 1. give rise to puzzles concerning our identity, about whether we are identical to something psychological or biological; 2. force us to decide whether what matters from an ethical point of view is the biological life of our organisms or the existence of our consciousness or mind; 3. raise questions concerning when, if ever, it is morally acceptable to sacrifice one of us to save another; 4. force us to reflect on the conditions for ownership of organs and the justification of removal of organs for transplantation which causes the death of the donor; 5. raise questions about who should take decisions about life-risking treatments when this cannot be decided by patients themselves. We examine and suggest answers to these questions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Theories of Social Media: Philosophical Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many different views of social media coexist in the field of information systems (IS, such theories are usually not introduced in a consistent framework based on philosophical foundations. This paper introduces the dimensions of lifeworld and consideration of others. The concept of lifeworld includes Descartes’ rationality and Heidegger’s historicity, and consideration of others is based on instrumentalism and Heidegger’s “being-with.” These philosophical foundations elaborate a framework where different archetypal theories applied to social media may be compared: Goffman’s presentation of self, Bourdieu’s social capital, Sartre’s existential project, and Heidegger’s “shared-world.” While Goffman has become a frequent reference in social media, the three other references are innovative in IS research. The concepts of these four theories of social media are compared with empirical findings in IS literature. While some of these concepts match the empirical findings, some other concepts have not yet been investigated in the use of social media, suggesting future research directions. Keywords: Social media, Lifeworld, Consideration of others, Rationality, Historicity, Instrumentalism, Being-with, Presentation of self

  17. The Philosophical Problem of “Existence”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Djakhaia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Historically known for three major types of philosophy, that developed in parallel in every hu- man civilization, and therefore do not exclude each other, and in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity only complement each other in many different respects: scientific philosophy, anthro- pology and religious philosophy. The more we come to know and deeply immense world around us, the more clearly and insistently arises the main philosophical question: why something exists? After all, it would be easier if there was nothing at all, including the people asking this tricky question. Nevertheless, the world still exists (according to the “anthropic principle”, but, I ask, why? It does not matter, the existence of which there is a speech: the “matter”, “God”, “absolute spirit” or some- thing completely different. That search for an answer to this question (why should something there? Is the true purpose of philosophy, if at all, the problem is solvable (in the sense of Kant’s “metaphys- ics”. And then there is a special philosophical category “existence”, which requires a special study.

  18. Understanding and Explanation in France: From Maine de Biran's Méthode Psychologique to Durkheim's Les Formes Élémentaires de la vie Religieuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaus, Warren

    My task here is to compare the ways in which the relations between the human and the natural sciences were conceived in late nineteenth and early twentieth century France and Germany. Historical generalization may be a mug's game. But if I had to generalize, I would say that the French distinguished the human or cultural sciences from the natural sciences only in terms of their subject matters, while the Germans were more likely to try to distinguish them in terms of their goals, methods, foundations, and normative content as well. Although we may be able to find many philosophical positions among the French that resemble certain aspects of the thought of Wilhelm Dilthey, Wilhelm Windelband, or Heinrich Rickert, no one in France held exactly the same combination of philosophical views concerning the human sciences as that held by any of these German thinkers. In particular, no one in France tried to distinguish the human from the natural sciences in terms of understanding versus explanation in the way that Dilthey did. Thus, although there were other disputes in France in regard to the human sciences, such as that between Émile Durkheim and Gabriel Tarde over the role of psychology in sociological explanation, or that between sociologists and philosophers over the methods of ethics, there was no controversy analogous to the conflict among Dilthey, Windelband, and Rickert over the best way to distinguish the human from the natural sciences.

  19. The philosopher in a freemasons' lodge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolić Marinko V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fichte's Philosophy of Freemasonry took as its object the culture of a secret society, quite influential and widespread but no less obscure in times of Enlightenment and early Romanticism. He tried clarify it from the perspective of classical German idealism, and to use it for his own purposes: through it, Fichte sought to realize the idea of man as citizen of the world and thus to influence the so-called or public society, as well as politics.

  20. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    transforms Germanness into more of a lived experience of the territorially grounded, emplaced German society, opening up more space to migrants to become-German. In the conclusion, I consider how this potential opening up of Germanness continues to be threatened by concomitant developments, including...

  1. The enigma of energy: A philosophical inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro-Franceschi, Vidette

    1998-06-01

    A philosophical inquiry was undertaken to examine the enigma of energy in an attempt to clarify and further illuminate the basic ideas of energy. Beginning with the origin of the concept-Aristotle's conceptualization of energeia-and continuing through to the present day with an overview of the historical conceptual development of energy in Western science, an analysis and interpretation of the scientific and philosophic literature was performed. Literature regarding aspects of human sentience was also examined for underlying ideas of energy. And, finally, selected medical and nursing science theoretical frameworks were analyzed with the hope of further grasping the philosophical underpinnings related to the phenomenon of human energy. Certain ideas of energy became evident. Energy can be viewed as a process and this view works well within the physical science domain. When energy is viewed as a process it falls within the mechanistic tradition: things are viewed as particulate, and cause and effect related. However, energy can also be viewed as a phenomenon, a thing. As a phenomenon, energy is continually transforming and actualizing inherent potentials in a communal process. When energy is recognized as the sole phenomenon responsible for everything in existence, it becomes evident that all is essentially one. In addition, when energy is viewed in this manner it becomes increasingly difficult to deny the purposive character underlying all nature. It is argued that the mystery ultimately leads to something far beyond what we know exists. One of the intuitive feelings of this researcher was that there were at least two different ideas of energy in the sciences of medicine and nursing, which, while different, shared some common elements as well. An examination of Hippocrates', Nightingale's, Selye's, Levine's, and Rogers' ideas, as well as the basic tenets of alternative health care, revealed two distinct worldviews regarding human energy which are congruent with the

  2. The philosophical dialogue as a tool of inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cosentino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the tools of philosophical work, the dialogue, as form of live "transaction" between two or more persons, seems to have its beginning and its end with Socrates. Along the subsequent development of our philosophical tradition the dialogue reappears only as literary genre. The essay aims to suggest that the live philosophical dialogue, if offered in new forms as a distributed social practice arranged and supported by the professional skills of philosopher, shows some promise of widening the boundaries of the examined life.

  3. German-Chinese wedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2010-07-01

    German wind power technology is widely regarded as being ahead of its competitors worldwide. Combine this technology with production in China and a renowned designer and you should get a competitive product. (orig.)

  4. Social inequality: philosophical and sociological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Victorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality is the phenomena that is hypothetically the base for first human communities genesis. Modern model for capitalist society as market relations form fails to satisfy the needs of society’s social development, and strongly requires to create new social knowledge structure and new approach for inequality sociology theory development. Our study conceptual logic comprises routine, philosophic and ideological reflexions analysis to create new social inequality definition in the context of new sociologic knowledge structure. Social inequality is the one of key problems in global sociology; the need is obvious to extract social inequality into separate discipline. Inequality sociology target is the decision of theoretical and practical problems in the formation of comprehensive knowledge about inequality phenomena in modern community, and in the development of common and specialized theoretical-methodological base for inequality study.

  5. Notion of Identification: A Philosophical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human life should be good life in the real world which is not merely a function of objective facts but also a function of subjective factors like hopes, fears, interests, etc. Goodness, or excellence, is an ethical notion. The factors of good life cannot be identified solely by using the so-called factual (descriptive methods of identification. This means that the identification cannot be fully “objective” or fully “public”. Furthermore, there is a need for other methods of identification that also take into account certain “subjective” aspects of the object of identification. Following Jaakko Hintikka we call these methods contextual (perspectival methods of identification. Here ethics is not a set of ethical rules but rather the practical study of human life. How should we live our unique life? A philosophical-conceptual study is thus practical for this purpose. This is what Aristotle called practical wisdom (phronēsis.

  6. Germanic Verb Particle Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two closely related goals. The more "global" one is to present an overview of the variation conceming verb particles across the Germanic languages (see e.g. den Dikken 1995; Haiden 2005; Mclntyre 2007 and many others), and the more "local" one is to use some of this variation data...... to argue for Yiddish being an SOV-language like German and Dutch rather than an SVO-language like English and the Scandinavian languages....

  7. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  8. Reassembling mathematical practices: a philosophical-anthropological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen François

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first explore h ow Wittgenstein ’ s philosophy provides a conceptual tools to discuss the possibility of the simultaneous existence of culturally different mathematical practices. We will argue that Wittgenstein ’ s later work will be a fruitful framework to serve as a philosophical background to investigate ethnomathematics ( Wittgenstein 1973 . W e will give an overview of Wittgenstein’s later work which is referred to by many researchers in the field of ethnomathematics . The central philosophical investigation concerns Wittgenstein’s shift to abandon ing the essentialist concept of language and therefore deny ing the existence of a universal language. Languages — or ‘language games’ as Wittgenstein calls them — are immersed in a form of life, in a cultural or social formation and are embedded in the totality o f communal activities. This gives rise to the idea of rationality as an invention or as a construct that emerges in specific local contexts. In the second part of the paper we introduce, analyse and compare the mathematical aspects of two activities known as string figure - making and sand drawing, to illustrate Wittgenstein ’s ideas . Base d on an ethnomathematical comparative analysis , we will argue that there is evidence of invariant and distinguishing features of a mathematical rationality , as expressed in both string figure - making and sand drawing practices, from one society to another . Finally, w e suggest that a philosop hical - anthropological approach to mathematical practices may allow us to better understand the interrelations between mathematics and cul tures. Philoso phical investigations may help the reflection on the possibility of culturally determined ethnomathematics, while an anthropological approach, using ethnographical methods, may afford new materials for the analysis of ethnomathematics and its links to the cultural context. This combined approach will help us to better

  9. Anarchism and the nature of man: a philosophical appraisal | Ogan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work with the title “Anarchism and the Nature of Man: a Philosophical Appraisal” holds that Anarchism as a belief, movement or school of thought boils down to the age long philosophical problem of the relationship between authority and individuals or put differently, the problem of the justification of constituted authority ...

  10. Peirce and Rationalism: Is Peirce a Fully Semiotic Philosopher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While Peirce is a seminal figure for contemporary semiotic philosophers, it is axiomatic of a fully semiotic perspective that no philosopher or philosophy (semiotics included) can provide any final answer, as signs are always interpreted and the context of interpretation always varies. Semiosis is evolutionary: it may or may not be construed as…

  11. Philosophical and methodological analyses in Japanese particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardos, G. (Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Elmeleti Fizikai Tanszek)

    1984-01-01

    The history and philosophy of the Japanese school of dialectical materialism and its influence on nuclear and particle physicists are discussed. The ideas of main characters of this philosophical school are summerized. Parallel physical and philosophical works of Sakata are analyzed.

  12. Philosophical counselling: Towards a 'new approach' in pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... and counselling. In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling ... was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian spiritual schema of interpretation .... Personal self-esteem, for a male, required public.

  13. Ortega y Gasset as a philosopher of development | Ukutsemuya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, just as Ortega is qualified to be called a philosopher of culture, he is also by that token qualified to be philosopher of development; as culture and development are two concepts that speak of sustenance of the human person. Key Words: Ortega y Gasset, Development, The Human Person, Sustainable Societal ...

  14. Is it possible to do theology without philosophical presuppositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particularly in connection with the doctrine of God the unavoidability of philosophical presuppositions becomes apparent. The uncritical theological practice to speak about a concept of God is in need of the epistemological distinction between concept and idea, which is philosophical in nature. If this foundational distinction ...

  15. Philosophic sagacity and intercultural philosophy : beyond Henry Odera Oruka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosima, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, I attempt to contribute to the future of African and intercultural philosophy. This is undertaken by a comparative appraisal of the late lamented Kenyan philosopher Henry Odera Oruka's (1944-1995) philosophic sagacity, and intercultural philosophy as conceived by Dutch intercultural

  16. Philosophical Approaches of Religious Jewish Science Teachers Toward the Teaching of 'Controversial' Topics in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, Jeff; Dayan, Aliza; Orion, Nir

    2010-07-01

    This research examines the problems that religious Jewish science teachers in Israeli high schools have in coping with science subjects (such as geological time) which conflict with their religious beliefs. We do this by characterizing the philosophical approaches within Judaism that such teachers have adopted for dealing with such controversy. Thus, we surveyed 56 religious teachers using a Likert-type questionnaire developed for this research, as well as interviewed 11 teachers to more deeply probe their approaches. In addition, we surveyed 15 religious scientists, so that we could both contrast their views with our teacher samples as well as to better understand their coping strategies when confronted by scientific topics that challenge their beliefs. Results indicated that no single philosophical approach earned overwhelming support from the teachers or scientists. Instead, most of the subjects relate separately to each source of possible conflict in accordance with the philosophical approach that appears to be the most fruitful for resolving such conflicts. Moreover, both the scientists and the teachers felt less conflicted toward the specific subject of geological time, in comparison to issues connected to creation of the earth and (especially) evolution. The teachers did differ from the scientists in their preference toward philosophical approaches which help them better integrate the domains of science and religion. Based on our findings, we are able to suggest a set of strategies to help teachers overcome their difficulties in teaching 'controversial' science topics to a religiously oriented student population.

  17. The philosophical premises of the second King Report on corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the philosophical presuppositions of the second King Report on corporate governance for South Africa (hereafter referred to as the King II Report. Especially in the “Introduction and Background” section of the King II Report it is clear that the Report is premised upon a specific understanding of the present-day corporation and its moral obligations. The purpose of this article is to commit what Charles Taylor called “an act of retrieval” in which the philosophical premises of the King II Report will be unearthed and exposed. It will be argued that the view of the present-day corporation that underlies the King II Report could be related back to a number of debates on the notion of the comtemporary corporation and its moral responsibilities that have been played out since the 1970s. It will be indicated how these debates provide the philosophical foundations for the view of the comtemporary corporation and its moral obligations that is espoused in the King II Report. The claim made in the Report that the African world view and culture influenced the Report’s notion of corporate governance will also be critically reviewed. Finally it will be attempted to evaluate to what extent the recommendations of the King II Report live up to its own philosophical premises.

  18. [Different philosophical traditions for knowledge development in nursing sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ariane; Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Gendron, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    doctoral studies in nursing engage a critical reflections about philosophical traditions inherent to knowledge development. critical realism, hermeneutics, postmodernism and poststructuralism refer to philosophical traditions that are generally less explored in nursing, although they are attracting greater attention. this paper offers an introductory presentation to these traditions as the authors also reflect upon their contribution to nursing knowledge development in. for each tradition, ontological and epistemological properties are presented to provide an overview of their main features. Contributions to nursing knowledge development are then discussed. ontology refers to stratified, fixed and changing, or multiple realities, depending on the philosophical tradition. Likewise, epistemology emphasizes the explanatory power of knowledge, intersubjectivity, or inherent power dynamics. the diversity of philosophical traditions represents an asset that can significantly contribute to the advancement of the nursing discipline. clarification of the philosophical dimensions that underlie knowledge development is essential for doctoral nursing students in the process of developing their research projects and future programmes of research.

  19. Philosophical midwifery and the birthpangs of modern cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, George; Urani, John

    1993-01-01

    Philosophical considerations sometimes direct developments in physics. Such influence most frequently operates during the genesis of new fields. The birth of modern cosmology provides clear evidence of the interaction between philosophical issues and the shape and direction of a new physical discipline. Philosophical controversy between E. A. Milne and other astrophysicists, including A. S. Eddington, James Jeans, and H. P. Robertson, directly affected the models, methods, and very nature of cosmological science for future generations. Today's standard space-time metric, for example, resulted from responses by Robertson and A. G. Walker to philosophical challenges presented in Milne's proposals to scrap the very idea of expanding ``space.'' Analysis of published works, unpublished manuscripts and correspondence, and personal interviews illustrates the role philosophical considerations played in development of this new field in physics.

  20. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church. Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word

  1. The Philosophical Works of Ludwik Fleck and Their Potential Meaning for Teaching and Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marc; Heering, Peter; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Eilks, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses essential elements of the philosophical works of Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961) and their potential interpretation for the teaching and learning of science. In the early twentieth century, Fleck made substantial contributions to understanding the sociological character of the nature of science and explaining the embedding of science in society. His works have several parallels to the later and very popular work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Thomas S. Kuhn, although Kuhn only indirectly referred to the influence of Fleck on his own theories. Starting from a short review of the life of Ludwik Fleck, his philosophical work and its connections to Kuhn, this paper elaborates upon and illustrates how his theories can be considered for science education in order to provide learners with a better understanding of the nature of scientific endeavor and the bi-directional science-to-society links.

  2. Literary work in the measurements of philosophical and anthropological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kozyryeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the specific features of literary work in the understanding of human existence. The essential features of anthropological turn in the European humanitarian thought of the XX century are analyzed. These features are notable for their attempt to determine the specificity; fundamentals and spheres of human existence itself; human individuality; creative abilities; basing on a person himself; for the attempt to explain not only its own nature but also the meaning and nature of the world around us; at the same time these features accumulate heuristic; philosophical; scientific; socio­economic and humanitarian ideas. The article explains the role of modern literary anthropology in understanding the spiritual; humanistic principles regarding human existence in the society of global changes. It’s proved that literature is a creative product that is able to define new areas of human existence and to “write them down” in an existing “topography of culture”. The theory of literary anthropology as a separate field of knowledge can’t be reduced to a universal method of research of literature’s development. The modern society of dynamic changes encourages not only to reevaluate relatively established human values but also to rethink place and role of human in the dynamic socio­economic practices and its ability to cultural transformation that characterizes the literary work.

  3. Anania Shirakatsi's Cosmographical and Natural Philosophical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielyan, Eduard

    2014-10-01

    The observation of the heaven and celestial bodies has taken place since ancient times in the Armenian Highland. The notions of the sphericity of the Earth and celestial bodies, and other theses (about elements, comparative sizes of celestial bodies, antipodes, earthquakes, criticism of astrology, etc.) were reflected and elaborated in "Cosmography" of Anania Shirakatsi (VII century AD), as well as "Ashkharhatsoyts" ("Geography") of Movses Khorenatsi (V century AD) and his continuer Anania Shirakatsi. The road of observation and study of the Milky Way - the fundamental kernel of the development of astronomy - has led the human mind to galaxies, the cognition of the infinite capabilities of the development of matter, that is to say, from the studies of the elements constituting the Earth and other spherical bodies in the Universe (studied by Aristotle) to the Heliocentric system by Copernicus (1473-1543), from the cosmogonic ideas of Democritus (460-370 BC) about the multitude of worlds and the character of the Milky Way and their reflection in natural philosophic views of Anania Shirakatsi to the discovery of non-stationary objects and processes in the Universe owing to the activity of the nuclei of galaxies, according to the cosmogonic conception of academician Victor Ambartsumyan. Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage greatly contributed to the development of Armenian and world natural scientific thought.

  4. [Worldviews and philosophical basis of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowska, A T

    2001-01-01

    The article presents three standpoints on the question of moral permissibility of human cloning and shows the philosophical principles of it. 1. The moral consent to human cloning with the purposes of reproduction and therapy. The followers of human cloning refer to materialistic anthropology also to subjectivistic, relativistic and utilitarian ethics. 2. Those, who are adverse to human cloning with the purpose of reproduction, but they acquiesce to the so-called therapeutic cloning. They reject that human embryos and foetuses are individuals who come under protection of law. 3. Those, who reject human cloning for the purposes of reproduction and therapy alike. They assent to a personalistic anthropology and Christian ethics. A human being was created by God and human life begins at the moment of insemination. All three groups use various argumentation. The arguments for and against cloning are extracted from biology as well as psychology, philosophy, law and religion. The author of the article takes the last standpoint, but she does not see such arguments, that might convince the opposite parties to a suit.

  5. LEGAL AID IN INDIA: RETUNING PHILOSOPHICAL CHORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid in India has evolved over the last few decades since 42nd Amendment to the Indian Constitution. This paper attempts to provide philosophical underpinnings suggesting how legal aid model has evolved over the years and excogitate a newer trajectory for its future evolution. It delves into weighing Kant’s imperfect duty justifying a charity based regime and marks a transition to utilitarian model suggesting requirement of institutional need to address issues of basic liberty of ‘access to justice.’ It also spells out Rawls’ principles of justice and attempts to explore their applicability in the Indian context, to chart out a road map for future. While contrasting different models on legal aids, it makes a finding that, India doesn’t accord priority to liberty of access to justice. The Indian Supreme Court has emerged as a bastion of liberty but the finer details of the enactment has been messed up by the Indian lawmakers. The lower compensation to lawyers and lack of alternative incentives in attracting established litigators, testifies this. There is a convergence in Kantian duty of benevolence and Rawls’ liberty principle but in the world of moral relativism, a fair compensation must precede before imposing any obligation on lawyers to take up pro bono matters, as doing so, is likely to compromise their ‘true needs.’

  6. German for physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  7. [The anti-philosophical anthropology in the Hippocratic treatise De Vetere Medicina (On Ancient Medicine)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    The Hippocratic treatise De Vetere Medicina (On Ancient Medicine) has been the focus of attention among classical scholars and historians of medicine. The author attacks in ch. 20 doctors and sophists who base their own medical theories and methods on philosophical anthropology taken from the contemporary natural philosophers. Many attempts have been made to elucidate, as opposed to their philosophical inquiry into human nature, the author's way of understanding it, which still remains unclear. I draw attention to the following points to make it clear that the conceptual framework of the author's medical anthropology is different from theirs. Their philosophical inquiry into human nature has its starting point in fundamental element(s), from which human beings were originally formed. The author focuses on human beings as existent in their present states, whose conditions and functions must be investigated through interrelations between them and their external factors, such as foods and drinks. A medical investigation into the interrelations will give us a scientific idea about human body, whose constituents are taken to be a large number of humors, reacting against some external factors and accordingly making us feel pain. This may presuppose that, in the author's medical anthropology, human body is conceptually demarcated as the physical or material aspect of human being, within which all physiological events depending on external factors and the humors take place. In their philosophical anthropology, however, human body doesn't seem to have been clearly conceptualized as such, because our experience of feeling pain should be judged to take place within the actions of the fundamental element(s), which must be supposed to constitute our cognitive self.

  8. PHILOSOPHEME OF SYMBOL AND CONCEPT OF THE MEANING: PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Kretov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to find out the meaning of the symbolic nature of the philosophical and anthropological knowledge deployment, as well as symbolic forms of correlation between artificial and natural in the consciousness of human identity and their fixation in the language and also in the forms and structures of culture. The research is based on the methodology of historical and philosophical analysis in synchronic and diachronic aspects, principles of hermeneutic understanding and reconstruction and phenomenological descriptions. Scientific novelty is represented by the postulating such predications of symbolic structures of language and consciousness as multipanorama and transfinite, justification of the ontological status of symbol and symbolism. The symbolic functioning character of language metaphor in scientific discourse and especially the symbolic dimension of semantic field of language and culture, as well as their symbolic association was fixed. The author proves the thesis about the symbolic nature of a holistic, means forming, philosophical knowledge of man, and the relation between the underlying symbolic and metaphorical structures of language and the mechanisms of consciousness, which finds its expression, in particular, in the language of science. The symbolic design that transmits the philosophical aspects of meaning that go beyond definition and formal-logic descriptions is used. In the comparison of the concepts of spiral dynamics, memetics and autopoiesis the existence of a specific symbolic dimension of the semantic field of language, culture and consciousness is postulated. Conclusions of the article define the role of symbol and symbolic and metaphorical constructions and structures of language in forming the discourse of modern philosophical anthropology, which would include the whole thesaurus of language and culture.

  9. Open-Framework Germanates and Nickel Germanates : Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiliang

    2012-01-01

    Microporous materials have a wide range of important applications in separation, gas adsorption, ion-exchange and catalysis. Open-framework germanates are a family of microporous compounds and are of particular interest. This thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of new open-framework germanates as well as introducing the transition-metal nickel into germanate structures. One new microporous germanosilicate, SU-78 and four new open-framework germanates, SU-74, SU-75, SU-69 and ...

  10. PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF EXILE. ON TIME AND SPACE EXPERIENCES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías eSilva Rojas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the experience of exile from an interdisciplinary perspective, philosophy and mainy psychiatry, trying to understand the experiences of both space and time that people who live in exile have. The main purpose is to try to understand the experience of exile by rehearsing a psychopathological perspective to address it, so it can help with the treatment of disorders that come with this experience. The latter without cloistering it to the psychologically insane. Furthermore, the article tries to exploit the experience and reflection of philosophers and thinkers who, being exiled themselves, tried to understand and explain this radical human experience.

  11. The Philosopher In The Newspaper: Serhiy Krymsky As A Public Intellectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Andriy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of philosophical and journalistic spheres, mediatization of philosophy are main problems of this article. Author considers public philosophy of contemporary Ukrainian philosopher Serhiy Krymsky and determines a role of philosophical journalism in modern media discourse.

  12. Specifics of methodology historical and philosophical researh of hesychasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Klimenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research methodology of  Hesychasm ­ one of the most important schools of the Byzantine philosophy, which played a significant role in the development of modern civilization. However, to date it remains a kind of «terra incognita» for the world historical and philosophical thought. Hesychasm is a kind of Christian mystical worldview that is embodied in a certain spiritual practices that form the basis of Orthodox asceticism. Even half a century ago, history of philosophy left without attention of philosophical and theological teachings of the authors of the late antiquity and the early middle ages, be they Christian thinkers or the neo­Platonists. The era of post­Plotins philosophers Neoplatonists or commentators on Aristotle considered as a period of decline of this philosophy and the time of the rise of irrationality. For the same reason it was considered that the system of Christian thinkers cannot and should not be subject to the historical and philosophical science. This fully relates Hesychasm. However, on the basis of works of the French philosopher P. Ado, the paper argues that philosophy in late antiquity when there is Hesychasm is first of all a way of life, and therefore Hesychasm can be considered as a specific philosophical school of Christian asceticism. The main modern method of historical and philosophical studies is the hermeneutical reconstruction of cultural meaning of the philosophical texts, however, Hesychasm cannot be reduced to the «amount of texts» or rational philosophical discourses. When learning is impossible not to take into account the existing experience, what is behind the lyrics: the experience of the inner purification, «the noetic prayer, which often has verbal reflection. Therefore, along with the use of hermeneutic and semiotic principles of research work with the texts, there is a problem of the analysis of the experience of spiritual practices. This requires the use

  13. Three Religious Philosophic Models of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Pivovarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The research paper deals with the concept of creativity and is aimed at demonstrating the paradoxical nature of the creative action. Generally, in modern world, creativity is defined as the «newness creating». However, this is not the only viewpoint, as in different cultures there traditionally compete three generalized definitions of creativity: 1 newness is a recurrence of the old; 2 newness is a unique synthesis of old forms; 3 newness arises from nothing. It has been demonstrated that the above formulas of creativity originate from the three equally strong religious traditions – pantheism, panentheism and monotheism. According to the author, the pantheistic scheme, being applied to human creativity, explains the specificity of scientific theoretical activity. In scientific sphere, as it is well-known, the highest creative achievement is related to discovery (not invention of fundamental laws of nature dissimilated in a variety of natural phenomena, and predeter- mining them. From the panentheistic model, on the other hand, the secular philosophy deduces the special theory of human creativity, viewed as a free construction and invention, rather then simple discovery of something that already exists. Evidently, the given model appeals to the engineering sphere providing the basis for a number of theories related to inventions and rationalizations. Therefore, the mechanism of inventions is quite simple, and the mass creativity training is possible. Whereas, according to monotheism, creativity is necessarily related to mystery, and therefore, this sort of training is impossible, and the pedagogic technology of creativity is regarded as non- sense. However, such opposing views are quite lawful being proved by the numerous facts of innovations in human history. Using the method of philosophic dialectics, the author achieves a paradoxical synthesis of the above mentioned alternative positions. In author’s opinion, the paradox of creativity

  14. Three Religious Philosophic Models of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Pivovarov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  The research paper deals with the concept of creativity and is aimed at demonstrating the paradoxical nature of the creative action. Generally, in modern world, creativity is defined as the «newness creating». However, this is not the only viewpoint, as in different cultures there traditionally compete three generalized definitions of creativity: 1 newness is a recurrence of the old; 2 newness is a unique synthesis of old forms; 3 newness arises from nothing. It has been demonstrated that the above formulas of creativity originate from the three equally strong religious traditions – pantheism, panentheism and monotheism. According to the author, the pantheistic scheme, being applied to human creativity, explains the specificity of scientific theoretical activity. In scientific sphere, as it is well-known, the highest creative achievement is related to discovery (not invention of fundamental laws of nature dissimilated in a variety of natural phenomena, and predeter- mining them. From the panentheistic model, on the other hand, the secular philosophy deduces the special theory of human creativity, viewed as a free construction and invention, rather then simple discovery of something that already exists. Evidently, the given model appeals to the engineering sphere providing the basis for a number of theories related to inventions and rationalizations. Therefore, the mechanism of inventions is quite simple, and the mass creativity training is possible. Whereas, according to monotheism, creativity is necessarily related to mystery, and therefore, this sort of training is impossible, and the pedagogic technology of creativity is regarded as non- sense. However, such opposing views are quite lawful being proved by the numerous facts of innovations in human history. Using the method of philosophic dialectics, the author achieves a paradoxical synthesis of the above mentioned alternative positions. In author’s opinion, the paradox of creativity

  15. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 3 October 1990 the division of Germany into two states came to an end. The. German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany and in doing so ceased to exist. This epoch-making event took place peacefully and in agreement with all Germany's friends, allies and European neighbours.

  16. The philosophical implications of quantum non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Paul Christopher

    2000-07-01

    The overarching metaphysics encompassing almost all of science incorporates notions readily recognizable as basic intuitions, such as the separability of nature into parts, and a causal architecture necessitating that influences going from one place to another transit every point in between. Astonishingly, developments in quantum mechanics have all but proven this metaphysics false. An overview of Bell's Theorem sets the stage for a discussion of the philosophical significance of quantum non-locality. An account of the overarching metaphysics of Western science explicates why the violation of the Bell Inequalities is so astonishing, drawing particular attention to the historical and metaphysical issues surrounding action-at-a-distance, and the demands for causal continuity and a finite propagation speed for causal influences. The Chapter Three exegesis of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument contends that a modified version of their ``reality criterion'' side-steps the impression that the argument only goes through under an overly strong realist position, but the truly surprising story underlying the EPR correlations-unforeseen by Einstein and Bohr-comes in the next chapter's examination of Jon P. Jarrett's analysis of non-locality into two composite conditions associated with Einstein's underlying metaphysical principles. This in turn leads to a deeper analysis of the philosophical basis for Einstein's resistance to quantum mechanics. Having seen that a range of ordinary causal and common- cause explanations for the EPR correlations are excluded or burdened with untoward implications, Chapter Seven proposes an information-theoretic analysis of the holistic connection exhibited in quantum phenomena, helping us to better understand in what way constraints on relational holism are responsible for the world appearing to be causally classical. These constraints lead to ``local locality'': the apparent manifestation of a local causal structure when the domain is

  17. German Jewish Intellectuals and the German Occupation of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wyrwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 1914 the majority of German Jews expressed their patriotic approval of the war and their loyalty to the German state. They identified with Germany, and a large number signed up voluntarily for military service at the front. The Jewish population in Germany affirmed the war not least because it was directed against Russia, the harshest adversary of the Jews. This paper concentrates on the first acts of war conducted by the German military forces during the German occupation of Belgium; it examines whether and in what way German-Jewish Intellectuals perceived Germany’s violation of Belgian neutrality and the new feature of war as a war against a civilian population. The first part examines autobiographical sources to reconstruct the experiences and the perception of German Jewish soldiers, German military rabbis, and other German Jewish witnesses to the war. The second part then analyzes the coverage of German Jewish newspapers regarding the warfare against Belgium; and, finally, the third and last part scrutinizes the commentaries of German Jewish intellectuals and socialist Jews [Jewish socialists?] regarding the German war against Belgium.

  18. Poincaré, philosopher of science problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    DiSalle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers from the Poincaré Project of the Center for the Philosophy of Science, University of Lisbon, bringing together an international group of scholars with new assessments of Henri Poincaré's philosophy of science—both its historical impact on the foundations of science and mathematics, and its relevance to contemporary philosophical inquiry. The work of Poincaré (1854-1912) extends over many fields within mathematics and mathematical physics. But his scientific work was inseparable from his groundbreaking philosophical reflections, and the scientific ferment in which he participated was inseparable from the philosophical controversies in which he played a pre-eminent part. The subsequent history of the mathematical sciences was profoundly influenced by Poincaré’s philosophical analyses of the relations between and among mathematics, logic, and physics, and, more generally, the relations between formal structures and the world of experience. The papers in this col...

  19. 'Epistemological break' and 'philosophical revolution' - a critique of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philosophical revolution”. Implied in this taxonomisation of Althusser is the claim that objective and factual factors alone characterize science whereas philosophy is the theoretical field for class struggle and subjective factors. However, this ...

  20. Humanistic Psychology: Theoretical-Philosophical Overview and Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamachek, Don E.

    1982-01-01

    Provides a theoretical and philosophical overview of humanistic psychology which emphasizes self-concept, self-fulfillment, and self-realization. Discusses the contributions of phenomenology, existential psychology, and the strengths of humanistic psychology. (JAC)

  1. Study protocol of the ASD-Net, the German research consortium for the study of Autism Spectrum Disorder across the lifespan: from a better etiological understanding, through valid diagnosis, to more effective health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Poustka, Luise; Bachmann, Christian; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hoffmann, Falk; Kanske, Philipp; Kirsch, Peter; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rietschel, Marcella; Roepke, Stefan; Roessner, Veit; Schad-Hansjosten, Tanja; Singer, Tania; Stroth, Sanna; Witt, Stephanie; Wermter, Anne-Kathrin

    2017-06-02

    the German Research Network for Mental Disorders, funded by the BMBF (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research). The highly integrated structure of the ASD-Net guarantees sustained collaboration of clinicians and researchers to alleviate individual distress, harm, and social disability of patients with ASD and reduce costs to the German health care system. Both clinical trials of the ASD-Net are registered in the German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00008952 (registered on August 4, 2015) and DRKS00010053 (registered on April 8, 2016).

  2. Philosophical Anthropology, Ethics and Political Philosophy in an Age of Impending Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arran Gare

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper it is argued that philosophical anthropology is central to ethics and politics. The denial of this has facilitated the triumph of debased notions of humans developed by Hobbes which has facilitated the enslavement of people to the logic of the global market, a logic which is now destroying the ecological conditions for civilization and most life on Earth. Reviving the classical understanding of the central place of philosophical anthropology to ethics and politics, the early work of Hegel and Marx is explicated, defended and further developed by interpreting this through developments in post-mechanistic science. Overcoming the opposition between the sciences and the humanities, it is suggested that the conception of humans developed in this way can orient people in their struggle for the liberty to avert a global ecological catastrophe.

  3. BIOGRAPHY OR A DECLARATION OF PHILOSOPHICAL AMBITION: HOW TO READ ECCE HOMO BY NIETZSCHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Schneider Hardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the book Ecce homo, by Nietzsche, defending that the text is an interpretation of the philosopher himself on her own thought, not to give the book a sacred tone, nor to stress his biography, but affirming a dissonant thought that indicates his philosophical ambition. With no constraints, Nietzsche presents his conflicts, passions, deceptions, announcing a tragic dimension of life that is not guided by pessimism, but by happiness of living intensely, understanding suffering as one of the facets of life. His philosophy derives from a life demand, transfigured by an experience that promotes self cultivation and the possibility of “becoming what one really is” through the “applying” of one’s own genealogic method.

  4. The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: contrasts in philosophical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which human nature is conceptualized regarding human potentials and well-being; (b) epistemology, specifically, the choice of research strategies for the empirical study of these concepts; and (c) practical philosophy, particularly the goals and strategies adopted when conducting therapy or undertaking counseling interventions. Because of this philosophical divide, adherents of the two perspectives may best be advised to pursue separately their shared desire to understand and promote human potentials and well-being.

  5. Physiology as the antechamber to metaphysics: the young William James's hope for a philosophical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, P J

    1999-11-01

    In the 5 years before 1878, when his career in psychology was becoming established, William James wrote a series of notes and reviews assessing the work of many of the pioneers in the new field. Adopting a public and confident voice, even while he was privately still uncertain and searching, James criticized the dogmatism of positivist and idealist claims to the study of the human brain and mind. In his short writings of 1873-1877, James started to formulate his own middle path. His first steps on that path show that he did not reject either scientific or philosophic inquiry; instead, he viewed scientific knowledge as a way to understand philosophical questions more deeply. Saving his sharpest critiques for positivism, James endorsed scientific investigation without materialist assmptions. While his career in psychology was still only a hope, James treated science as a means toward humanist insight.

  6. The Transcendence in Lucian Blaga’s Philosophical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian Manolache

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of the conference on Transcendence and Immanence - a topic buiding on the dialogue between philosophy and theology in the modern and post-modern time -, among the produced subjects, a discussion was held on the role played in respect with this dailogue by the inter-war famous philosophers, such as Lucian Blaga and Dumitru Stăniloaie. Below, we will present the issue of Transcendence according the the philosopher-poet Lucian Blaga’s vision; his vis...

  7. The Vienna Roundabout. On the Significance of Philosophical Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hrachovec, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    There are three sentimental centres of 20th-century philosophical geography: Todtnauberg, Frankfurt and Vienna. Their exceptional status results not only from having given rise to decisive philosophical movements but also from the weight of stories about victimization and exile lacking with regard to Paris, Berkeley and Cambridge. Each of these centres is compromised in its own way: the Schwarzwald cottage from which Heidegger emerged to take over the Rektorat of Freiburg University and to wh...

  8. Simulation and Irrationality | Galgut | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I hope to show how a recent theory in the philosophy of mind concerning how we 'read' the minds of others—namely, Heal's version of simulation theory—is consistent with the view that the kind of understanding we bring to bear on the irrational is different in kind from the way we understand one another in the ...

  9. Student articulation of a nursing philosophical statement: an assignment to enhance critical thinking skills and promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2009-06-01

    The development of a personal philosophical statement about nursing is a useful assignment for both undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Students are asked to write a paper describing their philosophical views about nursing related to the metaparadigm concepts and include in-depth examples from their clinical practice to illustrate these views. This article includes information regarding important preparatory activities and handouts to facilitate the writing and evaluation of this assignment. There are many potential benefits of this complex assignment. It promotes students' reflection on their personal clinical practice experiences and engages students in mental and verbal dialogue that elicits their philosophical ideas about the metaparadigm concepts. These activities promote critical thinking and reflective clinical practice, act as a foundation for building theoretical understanding, and promote confidence in learning about nursing and other theories.

  10. Researching pharmacist managerial capability: philosophical perspectives and paradigms of inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    In successful community pharmacy business enterprises suitably responsive actions to meet ever-increasing change require capable pharmacy managers who readily learn and adapt. Capability as a concept is generally understood to be the ability of a manager to identify and act to solve unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar situations. Capability is characterized by adaptability and flexibility. However, different understandings of the concept 'capability' and what it means to be 'capable' are indirect and incomplete. This paper aims to clarify current theories regarding the concept of 'capability' at the level of the individual, and through this to make more explicit what is known about the phenomenon, but more particularly, how we know what we know. The analysis includes the concept of 'competence' because explanations of capability include competence, and the two concepts are not clearly separated in the literature. By probing the epistemological origins of current theory concerning both concepts, the limiting taken for granted assumptions are revealed. Assumptions about context and time, and the psychological theory through which individuals are assumed to perceive, know and learn, are illuminated. The analysis, in connection with the literature, shows how the interpretive philosophic research approach may reveal a different and useful theoretical perspective for explaining capability as a dynamic performance. It is suggested that such a perspective may narrow the gap between the theory of capability and its practice. The interpretive perspective holds potential to reveal how capability, as performed by successful community pharmacy managers, might be further researched and strengthened. This paper supports the challenging suggestion that pharmacy social research needs to rebalance the dominance of purely empirical research by exploring interpretive methodologies to better understand human actions and relations in the context of pharmacy. Crown Copyright © 2015

  11. The philosophical terrain of behavior analysis: a review of B. A. Thyer (Ed.), The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P A

    2000-09-01

    The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis.

  12. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  13. World War I and Propaganda Poster Art: Comparing the United States and German Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jon Kaminski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some similarities and differences between propaganda art used by Germany and the United States during World War I. The first section briefly looks at aesthetic theory and addresses the philosophical question of whether war propaganda posters are, in fact, ‘art’ at all. Then images of various posters that were popular and widely published by both nations are shown and discussed. This paper concludes that while there are many thematic similarities between the posters used by both sides, there are also some important differences. The most obvious difference between the German and American propaganda art was in regard to the overall tone of the posters and the colors used in the presentation. The images used have been downloaded from a reputable website that depicts reproductions of the posters that were used during WW1. Understanding the nature of the propaganda used by each side can help shed light on the attitudes and sentiments towards the war held by political elites and citizens alike.

  14. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  15. [German language physician rating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D; Reimann, S

    2012-08-01

    could be found in one of the 6 German language physician rating sites. Of the randomly sampled physicians, between 3% and 28% were evaluated by at least one patient. On average, the ratings for the total sample (on a scale of 1=good to 3=poor) ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, which clearly represents a positive trend. There were no differences found in terms of quantity and quality of ratings, or concerning the identifiability of physicians in the cases of Thuringia and Hamburg. The various PRS vary significantly in the selection and explanation of criteria for the evaluation of medical quality and, respectively, patient satisfaction. The specific selection and explanation of certain evaluation criteria could have a lasting effect on the understanding of physician quality and patient self-conception in the case of increased utilisation of PRS. The lack of standards for medical evaluation for PRS as well as poorly differentiated reviews, since reviews were usually positive, generally speak for the need for full text comments on PRS. This would enable peer-to-peer communication amongst users, especially regarding the practical relevance of evaluation criteria. Through this interaction between PRS users, user-oriented standards can be established and the advanced use of physician rating sites can be promoted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Curriculum design and German student exchange for Sino-German Bachelor program majored in optoelectronics engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Xu, Boqing; Schreiner, Rupert; Jia, Hongzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ning; Seebauer, Gudrun; Zhu, Jiyan

    2017-08-01

    Different higher education backgrounds in China and Germany led to challenges in the curriculum design at the beginning of our cooperative bachelor program in Optoelectronics Engineering. We see challenges in different subject requirements from both sides and in the German language requirements for Chinese students. The curriculum was optimized according to the ASIIN criteria, which makes it acceptable and understandable by both countries. German students are integrated into the Chinese class and get the same lectures like their Chinese colleagues. Intercultural and curriculum challenges are successfully solved. The results are summarized to provide an example for other similar international programs.

  17. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  18. Heritage of the romantic philosophy in post-Linnaean botany Reichenbach's reception of Goethe's metamorphosis of plants as a methodological and philosophical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of the reception and development of Goethe's metamorphosis of plants as a methodological and philosophical framework in the history of botanical theories. It proposes a focus on the textbooks written by the German botanist Ludwig Reichenbach and his first attempt to use Goethe's idea of metamorphosis of plants as fundamental to his natural system of plants published under the title 'Botany for Women', in German Botanik für Damen (1828). In this book, Reichenbach paid particular attention to Goethe's sensitive views on the essence of nature; he regarded Goethe's idea of metamorphosis in the plant kingdom as an ideal model to interpret connections of natural phenomena, in particular as a conceptual frame for a natural system. Furthermore, he aimed to develop the philosophical statement of the metamorphosis, in which he called for nature-philosophical conceptions in order to materialize his representation of plant "affinities," and of a kind of "ontogeny" of the whole plant kingdom. This paper demonstrates that, between speculative views and empirical attempts, the extent to which Reichenbach actually belonged to a new "school" of thought, which left its mark on the history and philosophy of botany.

  19. Harmonies of disorder Norbert Wiener : a mathematician-philosopher of our time

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, Leone

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the entire body of thought of Norbert Wiener (1894–1964), knowledge of which is essential if one wishes to understand and correctly interpret the age in which we live. The focus is in particular on the philosophical and sociological aspects of Wiener’s thought, but these aspects are carefully framed within the context of his scientific journey. Important biographical events, including some that were previously unknown, are also highlighted, but while the book has a biographical structure, it is not only a biography. The book is divided into four chronological sections, the first two of which explore Wiener’s development as a philosopher and logician and his brilliant interwar career as a mathematician, supported by his philosophical background. The third section considers his research during World War II, which drew upon his previous scientific work and reflections and led to the birth of cybernetics. Finally, the radical post-war shift in Wiener’s intellectual path is considered, e...

  20. Philosophical and theoretical content of the nursing discipline in academic education: A critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Maria Luisa; Telaretti, Fabia; Alvaro, Rosaria; Kangasniemi, Mari

    2017-10-01

    Nursing as clinical practice, management and research are based on nursing philosophy and theory. Thus, the philosophical and theoretical content is required to be incorporated in academic education in order to enable nurses' skills for reflection, analysis, and thinking about the profession. The aim of this review was to describe what is known of the philosophical and theoretical content of the nursing discipline within academic education. A critical interpretive synthesis (CIS). Electronic searches were performed across four databases, CINAHL, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science, for papers published in English from 1980 to 2016. The selection of original articles was based on stages, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were used. Quality of the selected papers were evaluated by method sensitive appraisal criteria. The five phases of CIS were used to combine the selected data. The searches resulted 9148 titles, whereas 13 were selected. Nurses need philosophical and theoretical education in order to be aware of human health and explain the complexity of the human experience of illness. The philosophy of science, the philosophy of care, and theory development were highlighted as the key contents in nursing academic education as these subjects are central to the discipline that ensures that nurses acquire advanced skills. A model was developed that linked disciplinary issues the progression nursing science through the influence of advanced skills. Based on the findings in this study the philosophical and theoretical content of nursing discipline crates a basis for the academic education and enables a professional and exclusive vision for nurses. It provides an overall understanding of people's lives and support nurses to achieve deeper awareness of the meaning of illness and health in a person lifespan what is needed on the evidence-based decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Causality in cancer research: a journey through models in molecular epidemiology and their philosophical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Vineis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last decades, Systems Biology (including cancer research has been driven by technology, statistical modelling and bioinformatics. In this paper we try to bring biological and philosophical thinking back. We thus aim at making different traditions of thought compatible: (a causality in epidemiology and in philosophical theorizing—notably, the “sufficient-component-cause framework” and the “mark transmission” approach; (b new acquisitions about disease pathogenesis, e.g. the “branched model” in cancer, and the role of biomarkers in this process; (c the burgeoning of omics research, with a large number of “signals” and of associations that need to be interpreted. In the paper we summarize first the current views on carcinogenesis, and then explore the relevance of current philosophical interpretations of “cancer causes”. We try to offer a unifying framework to incorporate biomarkers and omic data into causal models, referring to a position called “evidential pluralism”. According to this view, causal reasoning is based on both “evidence of difference-making” (e.g. associations and on “evidence of underlying biological mechanisms”. We conceptualize the way scientists detect and trace signals in terms of information transmission, which is a generalization of the mark transmission theory developed by philosopher Wesley Salmon. Our approach is capable of helping us conceptualize how heterogeneous factors such as micro and macro-biological and psycho-social—are causally linked. This is important not only to understand cancer etiology, but also to design public health policies that target the right causal factors at the macro-level.

  2. A philosophical examination of Mead's pragmatist constructivism as a referent for adult science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dean Russel

    claims of constructivist learning theories need to be identified and assessed independently of any empirical support that these learning theories might enjoy. This in turn calls for educational experiences for graduate students of education that incorporate philosophical understanding such that future educators might be able to recognize and weigh the philosophically laden claims of adult learning theories.

  3. The Centrality of Philosophical Anthropology to (a Future) Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gare, Arran

    2016-01-01

    While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology. However, it is suggested that current defenders of philosophical anthropology have not done it justice. To appreciate its importance it is necessary accept that we are cultural beings in which the core of culture is the conception of what are humans. This is presupposed not only in thought but in social practices and forms of life. This was understood by Aristotle, but modernity has been straightjacketed by the Seventeenth Century scientific revolution and Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, identifying knowledge and with techno-science and eliminating any place for questioning this conception of humans. The only conception of humanity that could successfully challenge and replace Hobbes' philosophical anthropology, it is argued, is Hegel's philosophical anthropology reformulated and developed on naturalistic foundations. This involves subordinating science to a reconceived humanities with a fundamentally different role accorded to ethics, placing it at the center of social life, politics and economics and at the centre of the struggle to transform culture and society to create an ecologically sustainable civilization.

  4. Philosophical Aspects of Global Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutinaa, Tatyana V.; Baksheev, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper is determined by understanding of global environmental problems in the context of social ecology. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of main modern environmental global problems created by the equipment representing a public and social basis for the practical transformation of public relations and also the…

  5. Musical Hunger: A Philosophical Testimonial of Miseducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon Simone Weil's conception of beauty as food, this essay proposes musical hunger as a metaphoric way of understanding a particular species of "cultural miseducation" as conceived by Jane Roland Martin, that disadvantages children musically and perhaps therefore also spiritually. It examines such musical miseducation with regard to an…

  6. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto......-Germanic, and speaks for Gothic and Gutnish preserving the original Proto-Germanic meaning of the etymon. These semantics provide a missing link for connecting Pro-to-Germanic *lambiz- with PIE *h₁él-n-/*h₁l-ón- ‘red deer’....

  7. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  8. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  9. The German Humpback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Ploeen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies find a monotonic positive relationship between a firm’s internationalization and its foreign exchange hedging. We argue that high levels of internationalization can reduce the need for foreign exchange hedging through diversification (e.g. sales to several markets) and operational...... hedging (matching of cash flows and operational flexibility). We employ multivariate regression analysis and find an inverse U-shape relationship (“humpback”) for large listed non-financial German firms. Foreign exchange hedging activity peaks when half of sales (or long-term assets) is outside Europe. We...

  10. Metaphor, skepticism, understanding Metaphor, skepticism, understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Martins

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts.

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts

  11. A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues. PMID:24596845

  12. A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ehsan Karbasizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  13. A brief philosophical encounter with science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  14. The ‘Philosophical paintings’ of the Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharoula A. Petraki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine Plato’s appropriation of poetic language in the Republic and argue that, despite his criticism of poetry in Books 3 and 10, poetic language is justifiably weaved into the philosophical fabric to depict the corrupt, the ugly and the base. In specific terms, Plato’s adaptation of several poetic motifs and images in the Republic becomes more meaningful if we choose to pay attention to Socrates as a quasi painter in the dialogue and interpret his philosophical images as philosophy’s response to the deceptive dramatic representations of poetry. Thus the art of painting, which is also criticised in Republic Book 10, in Plato’s hands becomes a philosophical tool which helps him investigate the relation of our mundane sense-perceptive world to the metaphysical realm of the Ideas and humans’ place in it.

  15. Turing's three philosophical lessons and the philosophy of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2012-07-28

    In this article, I outline the three main philosophical lessons that we may learn from Turing's work, and how they lead to a new philosophy of information. After a brief introduction, I discuss his work on the method of levels of abstraction (LoA), and his insistence that questions could be meaningfully asked only by specifying the correct LoA. I then look at his second lesson, about the sort of philosophical questions that seem to be most pressing today. Finally, I focus on the third lesson, concerning the new philosophical anthropology that owes so much to Turing's work. I then show how the lessons are learned by the philosophy of information. In the conclusion, I draw a general synthesis of the points made, in view of the development of the philosophy of information itself as a continuation of Turing's work.

  16. Time, chance, and reduction philosophical aspects of statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hüttemann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Statistical mechanics attempts to explain the behavior of macroscopic physical systems in terms of the mechanical properties of their constituents. Although it is one of the fundamental theories of physics, it has received little attention from philosophers of science. Nevertheless, it raises philosophical questions of fundamental importance on the nature of time, chance and reduction. Most philosophical issues in this domain relate to the question of the reduction of thermodynamics to statistical mechanics. This book addresses issues inherent in this reduction: the time-asymmetry of thermodynamics and its absence in statistical mechanics; the role and essential nature of chance and probability in this reduction when thermodynamics is non-probabilistic; and how, if at all, the reduction is possible. Compiling contributions on current research by experts in the field, this is an invaluable survey of the philosophy of statistical mechanics for academic researchers and graduate students interested in the foundat...

  17. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  18. Status of the human embryo: Philosophical Foundations from Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia de Oliveira Schpallir Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulty in demonstrating the moment of ontogenesis in which personalization takes place, we sought to define, from a philosophic point of view, the nature of the human embryo regarding its individuality, using Phenomenology, specifically reflections of philosophers Bourghet and Merleau-Ponty on the embryo. Although the statement of their individuality does not entail ethical content in itself, from the point of view of ethical responsibility, it is an extremely important fact to be considered in the bioethical reflection about the moment of ontogeny from which human life must (ethical duty be protected.

  19. Philosophical engineering toward a philosophy of the web

    CERN Document Server

    Halpin, Harry

    2013-01-01

    This is the first interdisciplinary exploration of the philosophical foundations of the Web, a new area of inquiry that has important implications across a range of domains. Contains twelve essays that bridge the fields of philosophy, cognitive science, and phenomenologyTackles questions such as the impact of Google on intelligence and epistemology, the philosophical status of digital objects, ethics on the Web, semantic and ontological changes caused by the Web, and the potential of the Web to serve as a genuine cognitive extensionBrings together insightful new scholarship from well-known an

  20. Addressing the Philosophical Confusion Regarding Constructivism in Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Pedro J.

    2006-02-01

    In the Chemical Education Today section of the May 2003 issue of this Journal , Eric Scerri wrote about the consequences of what he regards as a philosophical confusion in the work of constructivist chemical education researchers. This issue has important implications for both the teaching and practice of science. I offer a view of the confusion that places the emphasis on the careless use of philosophical terms that Scerri noted and on the tendency of psychological constructivists to go from psychological premises to unwarranted epistemological conclusions.

  1. TOWARDS A GERMAN LANGUAGE FRAMEWORK FOR MALAYSIABASED MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES (MNCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Waltraud Brigitte Mayr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study is to introduce an approach to managing business communication based on the German language needs of employees in multinational companies in Malaysia and the expectations of employers in the teaching of German in their companies. As additional variables, training for sustainable development (ESD and for maximizing the mutual understanding in personal interactions is included. Design / methodology / approach – This paper is reflecting on the spectrum of ideas about the teaching of German in German companies in Malaysia that was obtained through the author’s earlier target situation analysis in MNCs in Malaysia. In addition to a variety of methods that is incorporated to engage students in the learning process, a ‘meaning negotiation’ approach is applied in order to deal with the intercultural communication practices. Results - The paper outlines a set of topics and strategies that can assist employees in intercultural interaction contexts in a German Malaysia-based company. It draws them together into a conceptual framework of required skills in a German beginner class. Originality / Benefits - This study contributes to the current issues concerning the German mediation requirements in the management field.

  2. PHILOSOPHICAL-CULTURAL CONCEPTION OF TELEVISION AS A VISUAL PRACTICES OF XX-XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Tormakhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to analyze the philosophical and cultural ideas about television, which is a leading visual practice of XX century. It does not lose its relevance in the beginning of the XXI. The role of television lies in visual presentation and formation of the basic norms of taste and traditions of different social groups. Television is the leading communicative practice, which consideration is represented differently in modern science. Research methodology involves an appeal to the philosophical and cultural concepts, representing different approaches to the understanding of television. The paper considers the views of Western scholars, such as R. Arnheim, M. Wolff, A. Kroker, G. Lipovetsky, M. McLuhan, D. Mulvin, J. Mittell, N. Postman, L. Saffhil, J. Sterne, E. Thompson, J. Fiske, S. Shapiro. During analysis of the issue of the specific nature of television content the works of Russian scientists – T. Savitskaya, N. Samutina and Polish contemporary author – R. Sapenko were used. Originality lies in the depiction of the main approaches to the study of television as a visual communicative practice. Deployment of the author's position within the designated issues is presented as a historical digression – from the first attempts at understanding the phenomenon of television to the newest scientific theories that have found expression in contemporary American philosophical and cultural thought. Results of the study can be used in the training course "Visual communication and practices." Conclusions indicated that the majority of contemporary visual practices based on certain patterns, embedded TV. Despite the emergence of new media practices, TV does not lose relevance, everywhere present in the culture, which means that his research will allow a better understanding of the specificity of cultural creativity process.

  3. POLITICAL DIALOGUE AS THE BASIS OF FOREIGN POLICY: A CASE STUDY OF MODERN RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zaytseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available His article deals with political dialogue as the basis of the progressive development of interstate cooperation and one of the few ways to diminish interstate tensions without use of military force. With the growing list of new threats and challenges it is very important to work out an effective mechanism of interstate cooperation and to use it in foreign policy. Political dialogue helps to form the basis for cooperation between states to ensure the security, political and socio-economic stability of countries. Moreover, the political dialogue in its various forms is no longer a seldom-used private practice. It is the "all-encompassing reality" now the study of which is necessary for understanding of the social, economic, and humanitarian phenomena in the international relations. The author analyzes principles, functions, rules of constructive interstate dialogue, reflects the conditions of the development of a true political dialogue and reveals the situation of its "stylization" The provisions presented in this article are presented from the viewpoint of practical use in the development of a constructive foreign policy. At the same time the author points to their philosophical basis, identifies regularities and characteristics from the standpoint of philosophical knowledge. As a practical demonstration of carrying on the political dialogue the article presents a brief description of Russian-German political relations at the present stage. Bilateral relations between these two countries, based on the rich history, consilience of main positions in resolving of international problems, largely reflect the basic terms and principles of a competent political dialogue.

  4. Political Dialogue As The Basis Of Foreign Policy: A Case Study Of Modern Russian-German Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zaytseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available His article deals with political dialogue as the basis of the progressive development of interstate cooperation and one of the few ways to diminish interstate tensions without use of military force. With the growing list of new threats and challenges it is very important to work out an effective mechanism of interstate cooperation and to use it in foreign policy. Political dialogue helps to form the basis for cooperation between states to ensure the security, political and socio-economic stability of countries. Moreover, the political dialogue in its various forms is no longer a seldom-used private practice. It is the "all-encompassing reality" now the study of which is necessary for understanding of the social, economic, and humanitarian phenomena in the international relations. The author analyzes principles, functions, rules of constructive interstate dialogue, reflects the conditions of the development of a true political dialogue and reveals the situation of its "stylization" The provisions presented in this article are presented from the viewpoint of practical use in the development of a constructive foreign policy. At the same time the author points to their philosophical basis, identifies regularities and characteristics from the standpoint of philosophical knowledge. As a practical demonstration of carrying on the political dialogue the article presents a brief description of Russian-German political relations at the present stage. Bilateral relations between these two countries, based on the rich history, consilience of main positions in resolving of international problems, largely reflect the basic terms and principles of a competent political dialogue.

  5.  Phronesis and authenticity as keywords for philosophical praxis in teacher training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2007-01-01

    of respectively sensing and understanding the Being-dimension. This existence philosophical  approach opens up for a new kind of praxis of Philo-Sophia, which could be realized in teacher  training, when the focus is on how to become more mindful and aware of the Bildung-process in  education and guidance....... The essay suggests that this Being-dimension can be approached through the  emergence of Communities of Wonder between the teacher and teacher student in the classroom or  guidance session.   Udgivelsesdato: December...

  6. Kierkegaard - le Philosophe, le Juge et le Droit (Kierkegaard – the Philosopher, the Judge and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le fameux théologien et philosophe Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 dans son oeuvre souvnt utilize expressions et metaphors pris du monde judiciare. Il pare, quíl est bien au courant quant´au monde des jurists de son age et place. La plupart des expressions sont pris du droit penal et de la procédure pénale. Le criminel comme individu ou l’objet de línterrogation et comme coupable es tun des ses images favorites. Dans ses oeuvres Ou-bien … Ou bien et Etapes su la chemin de la vie nous encontrons un juge danois avec la possibilité de suivre ses reflections sur son travail et l’éthique d’un repésentant de la justice locale. Le juge est une des masques sous lesquelles Kierkegaard s’adresse a nous. Les oeuvres de Kierkegaard et l’utilisation des expressions prises du monde du droit sont ici présentées dans un contexte contemporaire du doit et vie á Copenhague dans les années entre 1840 et 1855 en contrastant les différances entre le narrative de Kierkegaard selon lequel le doit peut server comme example et sur l’autre côté son concept transcendental de l’être coupable. The famous Danish theologian and existentialist philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 in his work often used expressions or metaphors taken from judicial life, which reveals him as familiar with the legal world of his time and place. Most expressions are taken from penal law and penal procedure. The criminal as individual or the object of interrogation and guilt is one of his favorite images. In his Enten-Eller (Either/or and Stadier paa Livets Vej (Stages on Life’s Way we even meet a Danish judge and follow his reflections on his work and the ethics of a representative of local Justice. The judge is one of the masks under which Kierkegaard presents his thinking. Kierkegaard’s works and his use of expressions taken from the legal world are presented in the contemporary context of law and life in Copenhagen in the 1840ies however contrasting the

  7. Capabilities and Choices: Do They Make Sen'se for Understanding Objective and Subjective Well-Being? An Empirical Test of Sen's Capability Framework on German and British Panel Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffels, Ruud; Headey, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    In Sen's Capability Approach (CA) well-being can be defined as the freedom of choice to achieve the things in life which one has reason to value most for his or her personal life. Capabilities are in Sen's vocabulary therefore the real freedoms people have or the opportunities available to them. In this paper we examine the impact of capabilities alongside choices on well-being. There is a lot of theoretical work on Sen's capability framework but still a lack of empirical research in measuring and testing his capability model especially in a dynamic perspective. The contribution of the paper is first to test Sen's theoretical CA approach empirically using 25 years of German and 18 years of British data. Second, to examine to what extent the capability approach can explain long-term changes in well-being and third to view the impact on subjective as well as objective well-being in two clearly distinct welfare states. Three measures of well-being are constructed: life satisfaction for subjective well-being and relative income and employment security for objective well-being. We ran random and fixed effects GLS models. The findings strongly support Sen's capabilities framework and provide evidence on the way capabilities, choices and constraints matter for objective and subjective well-being. Capabilities pertaining to human capital, trust, altruism and risk taking, and choices to family, work-leisure, lifestyle and social behaviour show to strongly affect long-term changes in subjective and objective well-being though in a different way largely depending on the type of well-being measure used.

  8. Traditional Moral Values of the Oromo of Ethiopia: A Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of my PhD dissertation titled “Traditional Moral Values of the Oromo of Ethiopia: A Philosophical Appraisal of Gada System”. The dissertation ventures to accomplish three missions – one is the mission of bringing the traditional moral values of the Oromo people to light, the other is to critically evaluate the ...

  9. Lipman, Dewey, and Philosophical Inquiry in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses Matthew Lipman's approach to inquiry as shaped and fashioned by John Dewey's model of scientific inquiry. Although Lipman's program adopted the major aspects of Dewey's pedagogy, at least two characteristics of that program stand out as radically different--his use of relatively free-form philosophical discussions to teach…

  10. Odera Oruka's Philosophic Sagacity: Problems and Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the implications and challenges of Odera Oruka's conversation approach to the study of contemporary African philosophy as enunciated in his “Philosophic sagacity”. In Oruka's method, African philosophy is conceived as a joint venture and product of both the ancient (traditional) and modern African

  11. Functional Democracy In Nigeria: A Philosophical Evaluation Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper centres on a philosophical evaluation of democratic ethics vis- a- vis its functionality in Nigeria. It outlines the qualities of a genuine democracy having adequately conceptualised the term and its associated problems in the Nigerian context. The paper concludes with suggestions that would improve the ...

  12. A discourse on moderation as a philosophical concept | Airoboman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a contemporary attempt to revivify interest in the ancient philosophical concept of moderation. It attempts a conceptual analysis of the concept of moderation as virtue. It examined this concept hand in hand with sensual desire and holds that appetites and passions need not be eradicated completely, but instead, ...

  13. Oral tradition in African philosophical discourse: a critique of Sophie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to discuss the place of oral tradition in African philosophical discourse. In doing this, the nature of oral tradition as well as its forms is critically discussed taking into cognizance Sophie Oluwole‟s scholarship on oral tradition in African philosophy. Oluwole defends the thesis that oral tradition almost ...

  14. Ethics in the Light Of Wittgenstein | Mulhall | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines a number of ways in which Wittgenstein's later philosophical method has been appropriated for moral philosophy. The work of Paul Johnston, Sabina Lovibond and Cora Diamond is discussed in relation to the following questions. Is there a sustainable distinction between ethics and meta-ethics (in the ...

  15. Should psychology be ‘positive’? Letting the philosophers speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief commentary on the value of optimism in therapy. It draws on the philosophical writings of Schopenhauer and Aristotle. It suggests that the modern preoccupation with optimism may be as extreme as the bleak pessimistic outlook favoured by Schopenhauer. PMID:25237498

  16. A Philosophical Wish List for Research in Music Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2006-01-01

    Within a framework provided by the traditional trio consisting of metaphysics, epistemology and ethics, a first stab is made at a wish list for MIR-research from a philosophical point of view. Since the tools of MIR are equipped to study language and its use from a purely sonic standpoint, MIR re...

  17. Philosophizing about Teacher Dissatisfaction: A Multidisciplinary Hermeneutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological reflection, I describe the multidisciplinary hermeneutic process of philosophizing about teacher dissatisfaction. I discuss how philosophy serves as a starting point for interpretive work based on interviews with former teachers and readings of qualitative and quantitative research on teacher attrition and dissatisfaction.…

  18. A Philosophical Perception Of Emotion In Morality | Omoyefa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In answering the question what is the standard of morality, some philosophers argue that reason is the moral standard. By reason, they mean whatever action is in accordance with reason is morally right and whatever action is opposed to reason is morally wrong. The rationalists contend further that morality is the function of ...

  19. The Wenzi : creation and manipulation of a Chinese philosophical text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Els, Paul van

    2006-01-01

    The Wenzi is a Chinese philosophical text that is traditionally ascribed to a disciple of Laozi, the alleged founder of Daoism. The text was read, discussed, quoted and admired by the lettered class in imperial China for centuries, until the Northern Song dynasty. From the Southern Song dynasty,

  20. Daring to Question: A Philosophical Critique of Community Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Community music is a successful concept in the world of music and music education. Based on ethnomusicological research, community music tries to implement the notion of music for all that transforms societies and people. While celebrating informal learning and the musical amateur, community music has never really been philosophically challenged…

  1. Is 'Education' a Thick Epistemic Concept? | Siegel | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is 'education' a thick epistemic concept? The answer depends, of course, on the viability of the 'thick/thin' distinction, as well as the degree to which education is an epistemic concept at all. I will concentrate mainly on the latter, and will argue that epistemological matters are central to education and our philosophical ...

  2. Philosophical foundations of human rights: the Yoruba example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some foundations have been provided for the social validity of human rights in Western philosophical literature. Some African scholars have also sought to ground the notion of human rights within the traditional African cultural beliefs and practices. There is, however, a dearth in literature on the Yoruba notion of human ...

  3. John Locke: A Philosopher of Liberty or Slavery? | Hassan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Locke: A Philosopher of Liberty or Slavery? M Hassan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  4. Philosophical enquiry as a pedagogical tool to implement the CAPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... In this paper, we argue that philosophical enquiry, as practised using community of enquiry pedagogy, is an appropriate ... final-year student group consisted of seventy-four students, of whom 30 volunteered to participate in focus group discussions at the end of ..... of disrespect on the social media sites …

  5. Religion and Societal Development: A Philosophical Appraisal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Obi: Religion and Societal Development: A Philosophical Appraisal of African Situation. 150 ... concerning the existence, nature, and worship of a deity or deities and divine involvement in the universe and human life. Societal development, on the other, involves the process ... that the present stage of the less developed ...

  6. Human Dignity: Concept, Discussions, Philosophical Perspectives : Interdisciplinary Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duwell, Marcus

    The following introduction aims at an overview of relevant conceptual and philosophical distinctions and questions that discussions about human dignity are confronted with. I will mainly focus on questions about ‘human dignity’ that are relevant within the context of the human rights framework.

  7. The Effective Education Professional: Politician, Psychologist, Philosopher, Professor, and Parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Barbara I.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims crisis in education, in part, has been caused by the rigidity of the education professional to continue in a traditional role. Contends for the school to become more responsive to the psychosocial-educational needs of students, the education professional must expand the pedagogical role to the five Ps: politician, psychologist, philosopher,…

  8. Has Adult Education any Philosophical Basics? | Akpama | Sophia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to prove that the emerging discipline of Adult Education has philosophical basics which form the hub of its theory and practice. Skeptics and some non-professionals widely ridicule and misjudge the discipline of adult education as lacking intellectual depth and value assumptions to befit the status of a ...

  9. Philosophical and Pedagogical Principles of Transnational Higher Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchenko, Maria; Avshenyuk, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical and pedagogical principles of transnational higher education development in the second half of the XX--at the beginning of the XXI century are revealed based on the authentic scientific research sources and reflections of prominent scientists. Review of scientific works, devoted to the problems of education transnationalization,…

  10. Integrating philosophical and bioethical perspectives in life sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to contextualise and highlight the need for integration of philosophical and bioethical perspectives in curriculation for courses at tertiary level in order to provide students with opportunities to engage with these issues in preparing them to be responsible teaching facilitators. To arrive at norms and values ...

  11. Citizenship Education and Philosophical Enquiry: Putting Thinking Back into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Dean; Piper, Heather

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we argue for a purposeful re-introduction of philosophical enquiry to the process and pedagogy of citizenship education. We suggest the development of philosophy and critical thinking skills may usefully improve social and political awareness in young people. Moving beyond the boundary of the formal curriculum, we encourage the…

  12. A Philosophical Inquiry into the Nature of Computer Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Holle

    2003-01-01

    The most important step in leading students in an exploration of the philosophical issues regarding art created with a computer is first to guide them in exploring ontological concepts and questions asked about the nature of art and computer art, before investigating related issues of epistemology, value, and criticism. Students need to understand…

  13. A Philosophical Approach to Claims about Vaccinations and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Isidoro

    2017-01-01

    By highlighting the critical thinking that (1) analyzes and evaluates arguments for claims about vaccinations and autism, and (2) engages in a form of methodological skepticism that systematically and continuously asks Critical Questions, a philosophical approach is introduced to deal directly and systematically with students' (and publicly…

  14. More than "Mere Ideas": Deweyan Tools for the Contemporary Philosopher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey was born into a world ripe for philosophical reconstruction, as scientific advancement, technological innovation, and social reinterpretation reconfigured the intellectual landscape. Dewey rendered his world intelligible through three important "moral ideas": (1) The voice and the perspective of "the other" is an essential source for…

  15. Opportunities and Possibilities: Philosophical Hermeneutics and the Educational Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrey, Loren G.

    2014-01-01

    The opportunities that philosophical hermeneutics provide as a research tool are explored and it is shown that this qualitative research method can be employed as a valuable tool for the educational researcher. Used as an alternative to the standard quantitative approach to educational research, currently being the dominant paradigm of data…

  16. Prisoners' Right to Education: A Philosophical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhaus, John

    2014-01-01

    Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares: "Everyone has the right to education." This implies that the right to education and training applies to all persons, including all persons in prison. This position is considered here from a philosophical point of view and it will receive some support. Yet it is not obvious…

  17. Scientific attitude in political inquiry: A philosophical appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... what “man” aims for are peace, happiness and development. There is also an imperative need for integration of methodological individualism (a derivative of scientific attitude) and the methodological holism (a derivation of the artistic attitude) and for this to be successful has to rest on philosophical ontology and ethics.

  18. Why People are Atypical Agents | Ross | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I argue that the traditional philosophical approach of taking cognitively and emotionally competent adult people to be the prototypical instances of agency should be revised in light of current work in the behavioral sciences. Logical consistency in application is better served by taking simple goal-directed and ...

  19. Social research design: framework for integrating philosophical and practical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kathryn Burns

    2014-09-01

    To provide and elucidate a comprehensible framework for the design of social research. An abundance of information exists concerning the process of designing social research. The overall message that can be gleaned is that numerable elements - both philosophical (ontological and epistemological assumptions and theoretical perspective) and practical (issue to be addressed, purpose, aims and research questions) - are influential in the process of selecting a research methodology and methods, and that these elements and their inter-relationships must be considered and explicated to ensure a coherent research design that enables well-founded and meaningful conclusions. There is a lack of guidance concerning the integration of practical and philosophical elements, hindering their consideration and explication. The author's PhD research into loneliness and cancer. This is a methodology paper. A guiding framework that incorporates all of the philosophical and practical elements influential in social research design is presented. The chronological and informative relationships between the elements are discussed. The framework presented can be used by social researchers to consider and explicate the practical and philosophical elements influential in the selection of a methodology and methods. It is hoped that the framework presented will aid social researchers with the design and the explication of the design of their research, thereby enhancing the credibility of their projects and enabling their research to establish well-founded and meaningful conclusions.

  20. Higher education and general studies in Nigeria: A philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education and general studies in Nigeria: A philosophical investigation. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... national policy on education on tertiary or higher education reveals a startling chasm of gap between the goals of the policy through General Studies Programme and their expected actualizations.

  1. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  2. Ethics in cyberspace- a philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesna, J. Lourdu; Niveditha, D.

    2012-08-01

    Encouraging students to expand their search for knowledge in cyberspace has brought in new dimension, on the handling of the new technology by the students and brought to light whether or not our curriculum demand such leap development and furthermore will student use the Internet in more socially responsible way. Children begin to learn ethical values right from birth through?families?and?religious?institution.?They?are?considered?as?primary?sources?for?a?childís?ethical?education?while?schools have the responsibility to teach and reinforce some moral values. New technologies bring about the need to interpret old values in new ways, but also may call for the creation of new codes of conduct when new actions are made possible with the use of technology. Children can quickly identify whether the behavior is right or wrong in real world but when students use virtual world behavior may not be as easily judged to be right or wrong. This study attempts to show the prevailing misconception thecyber ethics among students. This paper examines basis ethical issues when students have had to make ethical decisions. The study will qualitatively explore the level of understanding of teachers concerns and role in bringing in an ethical behavior on students on the Internet. If a student encounters unsafe behavior on the Internet, the student will be able to behave and act appropriately.

  3. The Role of Philosophers in RCR Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Comstock

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The expanding moral circle lends coherence to the usual hodge-podge of canonical RCR topics.  As it is in a person’s own interest to report falsification, understand fabrication, avoid plagiarism, beware of intuition, and justify one’s decisions, it is useful to begin RCR discussions with the principle that we ought to do what is in our own long-term best interests. As it is in the interest of a person’s research group to articulate their reasons for their conclusions, to write cooperatively, review manuscripts professionally, and report statistics transparently, one can introduce the principle that we ought to keep our promises and contracts. As it is a basic matter of rights to respect human subjects, mentor inclusively, recognize intellectual property, and reveal both conflicts of interests and collaborations with private industry, an RCR instructor can introduce the idea that we ought to respect each individual’s moral rights. Finally, as many animals can feel pain, are subjects of their own lives, and have interests of their own, we must take seriously our role in their welfare as research subjects. In this last step, we expand the circle fully, considering animal experimentation, duties to future generations and the natural environment, and the larger social responsibilities of researchers while adopting a utilitarian principle: We ought to do what will maximize aggregate happiness.

  4. Postmodernism: A Reaction to the Terrorism of the Modernist Philosophical Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manzoor A. Khalidi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the concluding part of a series of two papers exploring and explaining the concept of postmodernism. The approach adopted for examining the postmodern phenomenon was to picture it as a collage incorporating three distinct but interrelated concepts/themes: one, postmodernism as an epoch; two, postmodernism as a signifier of the problematical features or the limits of modernity; and three, postmodernism as a reaction to the terrorism of the modernist philosophical thought. The first two of these were discussed in the paper published in the pervious issue of the Market Forces. This paper involves an examination of the third theme: postmodernism as a reaction to the terrorism of the modernist philosophical thought which has been described as positivistic, technocentric, and rationalistic, and the belief in linear progress, absolute truths, the rational planning of ideal social orders, and the standardization of knowledge and production. The approach adopted for this paper involves the use of the term ‘post’ as a counter concept and a broad-gauged cultural and intellectual movement that is re-conceptualizing the way we experience and understand the world around us. It involves a re-examination of eight areas of our knowledge base that form the basis of our conceptual foundations. These are: the concept of truth; the concept of theory; the concept of representation; the concept and the relationship between the author, the text, and the reader; the concept of subject; the problematic of disciplinary research; the concept of space; and the concept of history. The discussion involves an examination of the normally accepted definitions of these concepts and the counter-concepts or the alternative definitions offered within the realm of postmodern philosophical thought. Investigation into the counter-concepts is aimed as understanding how postmodernism represents a departure in our way of thinking regarding the best strategy for

  5. Comparison of the Wise and Philosophical Ideas in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and Nasser Khusraw’s Book of Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Zanalimahmodabadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of Iran has deep links with Shahnameh and Persian literature. In fact, it is not possible to talk about Iran as a rich culture and disregard Persian literature and brilliant works of Persian literature. According to most scholars in the field of literature and culture, Iranians have been people of wisdom, thought, and philosophy. Ferdowsi and Nasser Khusraw hold a special place in this regard because we are faced with ethical, philosophical, and religious ideas in the works of both poets. Different effects of the Iranian Wisdom are presented in their poems; the effects include ethics, philosophy, logic, medicine, music, determinism and free will, fate, arithmetic and geometry, astronomy etc. Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and Nasser Khusraw’s Book of Poems are sublime manifestation of ideological and philosophical ideas of Iranians. Apart from the similarities and differences, Ferdowsi and Nasser Khusraw’s poems represent praise of wisdom, God, and human freedom as basic elements in the ontology of Persian culture. Hence, in addition to understanding and explanation of Ferdowsi, Nasser Khusraw’s day and age, and the importance of these two poets in Iran's development of wisdom and philosophical thought, this research tries to describe their similarities and differences in ideological and philosophical subjects.

  6. Interpretive Hermeneutic Phenomenology: Clarifying Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The philosophical orientation of Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenology is explored in this paper. Gadamer offers a hermeneutics of the humanities that differs significantly from models of the human sciences historically rooted in scientific methodologies. In particular, Gadamer proposes that understanding is first a mode ...

  7. Philosophical Aspects of Homosexuality in Ancient Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton ADĂMUŢ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current opinion on how Greeks lived and considered love is the following: love is seen as a sensual desire, a desire of possession. What we understand today by love (feeling plus passion did not interest the Greeks. The Greek love is the love as impulse, as desire, as need of reunification, so that any erotic act is the sign of an imperfection. The lover sees in the loved one just an existence of a higher degree. Only to love something inferior is a pathologic sign, and when love is like this, the inferior cannot get the best part of the love. Therefore, more valuable is to be loved than to love. Since the Greek feels the love as a necessity, he does not make anymore the distinction between love as such and the other needs of human nature. Maybe love is the most intense need, it can as well be the deepest or the noblest, but in the end, it remains what it is – a need, and it differs from the others not by nature but by degree and harmony. I used the last term for the following reason: because needs are of a sensitive nature (bodily, love seeks to satisfy itself in harmonious bodies, and the Greek is not ashamed of the natural part (bodily of love. As much chastity the natural love generates as the need of drinking, eating (it is true that, of and among creatures man is the only one who drinks without being thirsty and eats without being hungry. The same is with the need or use of eros.

  8. Agreements and Divergences in German Idealism: Regarding the Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ochoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of German Idealism is marked by points of agreement and divergence among those who attempted to complete a task that might have remained unfinished in terms of its first formulations and that would lead to the definitive constitution of philosophy. In this sense, the correspondence among Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel makes it possible to unravel, to some extent, the non-explicitassumptions underlying the systems of these thinkers, since it reveals the questions,objectives, initial formulations, discussions, and differences that would later acquire a systematic structure. This article attempts to show how despite the intention of these philosophers to remain faithful to an original impulse, that allegedfidelity was based on essential misunderstandings.

  9. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  10. Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes : the Ukrainian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Skalatskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to consider the prospects of social and philosophical analysis of the product (clothes of fashion brand. In social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes, its fashion shows there is a range of discursive questions: the use and the definition of the concepts «designer» and «brand»; thematic focus of the brand (fabrics, colors, prints, shapes its semantics; format of representation of fashion collection in dependence; and a number of other structural elements. In the analysis of fashion trends or seasonal collections the concepts designer or brand are used. The concept «brand» contains an economic component, certain calculations, and intangible assets (goodwill; design work is subject to market needs and the interests of consumers (for analysis of the individual designer the biographical method is used. Theoretical analysis of fashion cannot be made apart from empirical material. A performative approach of K. Wolfe can be the methodology of the social and philosophical research of fashion show. The advantages of this method of the research are to determine fashion as performative space, staging ideas of the designer in the fashion show and making clothes. Implementation of performative approach allowed considering thematic focus of the brand of clothes and format of its representation in seasonal fashion shows on the example of Ukrainian brand «Domanoff». Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes can be divided into the following main components, excluding aesthetic and economic aspects: the use of the concepts designer and brand (a set of aesthetic, economic, social and subjective components and design`s view; review of the semantics of clothes and staging (by providing clothes in the form of seasonal fashion shows of collections. For complex social and socio­philosophical analysis of fashion brand it necessary to have: the press release (description, designer`s interview (disclosure of early

  11. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Ulrich; Koring, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ageing management (AM) programmes have been launched in many countries. In the USA ageing management activities were initiated to demonstrate the long term integrity of nuclear power plants for plant life extension purposes. Also in other countries e.g. Switzerland AM programmes became an important issue. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published recommendations concerning the physical ageing of safety relevant systems. As a consequence of these international developments, the ageing management aspect was introduced to Germany, too, although plant life extension is definitely not the key subject in the German nuclear industry, today. The situation in Germany concerning long term integrity of safety relevant NPP-systems and components is determined by the requirements stated in regulations and codes. They contain basic requirements for continuous precaution measures according to the current state-of-the-art starting already with the plant commissioning. This included demands for redundant safety and for surveillance measures. A continuous adjustment related to the requirements of the respective state-of-the-art is provided by the German utilities and submitted to the responsible safety authority to demonstrate an appropriate integrity status of the safety relevant systems. In Germany, no specific programme named ageing management exists. The measures concerning long term integrity of safety relevant components are performed under different names. Nevertheless, the German utilities understand that the subject 'Ageing Management' is comprehensively covered by the entirety of the different precaution and maintenance measures and regulations already established. This paper presents the existing German utility integrity concept and its sound application to ageing management issues. (authors)

  12. Cosmos of science philosophical problems of the internal and external worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Earman, John

    1998-01-01

    The inaugural volume of the series, devoted to the work of philosopher Adolf Grünbaum, encompasses the philosophical problems of space, time, and cosmology, the nature of scientific methodology, and the foundations of psychoanalysis.

  13. Philosophical Hermeneutics and the Ethical Function of Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kidder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Karsten Harries’ book, The Ethical Function of Architecture, raises the question of how architecture can be interpretive of and for our time. Part of Harries’ pursuit of this question is done in dialogue with the philosophy of Martin Heidegger, whose evocatively expressed ontology of building and dwelling recovered, in philosophical and poetic terms, the power of buildings to symbolize and interpret the most fundamental truths of being and human existence. The present essay identifies contributions to this hermeneutic and ontological approach to architecture drawn from the philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer, emphasizing Gadamer’s notions of play (Spiel, symbol, and the relation of the present to the past. While Gadamer expanded upon Heidegger’s hermeneutic, he also diverged from Heidegger in ways that mitigate some of the difficulties that Harries and others have found with Heidegger’s archaism, rural romanticism, and singularity of philosophical focus.

  14. The quantum world philosophical debates on quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zwirn, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    In this largely nontechnical book, eminent physicists and philosophers address the philosophical impact of recent advances in quantum physics. These are shown to shed new light on profound questions about realism, determinism, causality or locality. The participants contribute in the spirit of an open and honest discussion, reminiscent of the time when science and philosophy were inseparable. After the editors’ introduction, the next chapter reveals the strangeness of quantum mechanics and the subsequent discussions examine our notion of reality. The spotlight is then turned to the topic of decoherence. Bohm’s theory is critically examined in two chapters, and the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics is likewise described and discussed. The penultimate chapter presents a proposal for resolving the measurement problem, and finally the topic of loop quantum gravity is presented by one of its founding fathers, Carlo Rovelli. The original presentations and discussions on which this volume is based t...

  15. The Philosophical Anthropology of José Manzana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gómez Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main focus and interest of José Manzana’s philosophical anthropology is centred on the human condition, the sense of man’s action, the possibility of knowledge… and all that refers to «vertical transcendence», towards the Absolute, which finally culminates in God. With his philosophical anthropology, Manzana aims to ground on a transcendental method of reflection the conditions of man and his different options as a human being. The objective of this author is to clarify human existence by identifying his moment of creation. The aforementioned reflection brings us to three main dimensions of the individual: the human being as an inquiring entity, his interpersonal dimension and his awakening to the Transcendental.

  16. Bayesians versus frequentists a philosophical debate on statistical reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Vallverdú, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This book analyzes the origins of statistical thinking as well as its related philosophical questions, such as causality, determinism or chance. Bayesian and frequentist approaches are subjected to a historical, cognitive and epistemological analysis, making it possible to not only compare the two competing theories, but to also find a potential solution. The work pursues a naturalistic approach, proceeding from the existence of numerosity in natural environments to the existence of contemporary formulas and methodologies to heuristic pragmatism, a concept introduced in the book’s final section. This monograph will be of interest to philosophers and historians of science and students in related fields. Despite the mathematical nature of the topic, no statistical background is required, making the book a valuable read for anyone interested in the history of statistics and human cognition.

  17. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…

  18. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...... that, in late Proto-Germanic, became predictable from the phonotactic structure of the root....

  19. Danish-German Submarine Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sender, Johannes F.; Lucas, Edward R.

    Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly.......Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly....

  20. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-01-01

    The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...

  1. The Transcendence in Lucian Blaga’s Philosophical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Manolache

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the conference on Transcendence and Immanence - a topic buiding on the dialogue between philosophy and theology in the modern and post-modern time -, among the produced subjects, a discussion was held on the role played in respect with this dailogue by the inter-war famous philosophers, such as Lucian Blaga and Dumitru Stăniloaie. Below, we will present the issue of Transcendence according the the philosopher-poet Lucian Blaga’s vision; his vision is tructured into a Trilogy in his work: The Trilogy of Knowledge - The Dogmatic Aeon, The Luciferic Knowledge, The Transcendental Censorship - The Trilogy of the Culture - Horizon and Style; The Mioritic Space; The Genesis of the Metaphor and The Meaning of Culture - and The Trilogy of Values - Science and Creation; Magic Thinking and Religion; Art and Value. In these trilogies, the philosopher - poet elaborates, from an original metaphysical point of view, on the dimension of the knowledge of Transcendence - which he would define in in The Horizon of Mystery and Revelation. His vision will be addressed in a new theory of knowledge, which the philosopherpoet Lucian Blaga would distinguish as Paradisiac knowledge and Lucifer knowledge, within a new Metaphysics that would allow access to Transcendence and to the wonders beyond. Postulating the existence of certain faculties of Conscience, his Metaphysics would become, according to the Theory of Transcendence, a must for the human spirit; a proof for his approach would be the great philosophical systems of the world, from the antique to the modern.

  2. Euthanasia in South Africa: Philosophical and theological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Mojalefa L.J. Koenane

    2017-01-01

    Debates on euthanasia (or �mercy killing�) have been a concern in moral, philosophical, legal, theological, cultural and sociological discourse for centuries. The topic of euthanasia inspires a variety of strong views of which the �slippery slope� argument is one. The latter warns that the principle(s) underlying any ethical issue (including euthanasia) may be distorted. Scholars� views on euthanasia are influenced mainly by cultural, personal, political and religious convictions. In South Af...

  3. Philosophical dissertation: a didactic strategy between orality and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Jazmin Barreto Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of the didactics of philosophy has been marked by different theoretical and practical positions. This article attempts to further the theorization on the use of philosophical dissertation as a practical strategy, reconstructing the ideas of professor Miguel Angel Gomez Mendoza. Likewise, we propose dissertation as an oral practice, based on the educational practices and argumentative field that pertain to philosophy.

  4. Can One Learn to Think Critically? – A Philosophical Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Within nursing, critical thinking is a required skill that educators strive to foster in their students’ development for use in complex healthcare settings. Hence the numerous studies published measuring critical thinking as a terminal outcome of education. However, an important comparison between different philosophical underpinnings such as person, truth and the nature of nursing, and how one defines and utilizes critical thinking in practice, has been absent from discussions about critical...

  5. The adaptation nature and content: a philosophical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Попович, О. В.

    2014-01-01

    Philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of adaptation is urgently needed, as the scientific discourse confirms the diversity within the meaning of adaptation and missing not only an integrative concept, but consistency in terminology of allied sciences. According to etymological definition of "adaptation" (from the latin words "adaptatio" (adaptation) and "adaptio" (adapt) allows to interpret it as a process and as a result of adjustment. In the development of the science of great importance...

  6. A Student's Guide to German American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Gregory

    This book is designed to help the novice in understanding how to conduct genealogical research for German ancestors. A brief introduction to each chapter offers ideas on topics for research and resources to consult. Chapters include: (1) "Why Trace Your Roots?"; (2) "The History of Germany and German Emigration"; (3)…

  7. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  8. Image of Europe from Abroad: The Pleasures and Pitfalls of Teaching German Cinema in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Jennifer Marston

    2006-01-01

    This article describes strategies specific to teaching German film courses at American universities, particularly how to capture the interest of students who have not studied film previously and have little understanding of German culture, history, or the language. I suggest starting with discussions on the interrelatedness of "foreign…

  9. Revisiting Mary Daly: Towards a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelie Wood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available I was a tenderfoot in feminist discourse when I started my research on patriarchy, feminism, and Mary Daly. In my thesis, one aspect I engaged was Daly’s battle with gender issues in Christian theology. From the beginning I was troubled by Mary Daly’s views on God, men, and women in her discourse on Christianity. Daly undoubtedly contributed to the discussion on gender issues in the Christian faith, but her focus on androcentrism and her interpretations of Scripture led her to abandon the Christian faith. Mary Daly has written extensively on patriarchy as it is found in religion – particularly in the Christian faith – and how it filters through society. In her critique of patriarchy she set her course to dismantle the facade of a patriarchal and misogynistic God as the root of patriarchy. Daly did not see any positive qualities of the Christian faith and completely rejected other interpretations of a God whose person embraces both male and female qualities. Against this background I will evaluate Daly’s post-Christian feminist theological and philosophical paradigm. I propose that Daly has a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm wherein there are four main players. The ‘Who is who’ in Daly’s quadripartite patriarchal theological and philosophical paradigm are the patriarchal male, the patriarchal female, the patriarchal God and the biophilic woman.

  10. Spirituality in the Philosophical Thought of Seyyed Hossein Nasr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Khunaeni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality for Seyyed Hossen Nasr is an inner reality that becomes a religious central in Islam. It is the esoteric dimension hidden in the reality of exoteric Islam. That view on spirituality brings Nasr to the philosophical thought that cannot be separated from religious metaphysical doctrine. Nasr argues that philosophy is more than just a ratio but also the activity of intellect that can reach the meta-cosmic nature to find the essence of truth namely the universal and eternal truth that lies behind the physical and relative truth. The philosophical efforts to find this truth are a combination of the optimizing potential of reason and intellectual intuition. Nasr refers to ḥikmah or wisdom as a kind of philosophy that combines logic and intellectual intuition. That philosophical view brings Nasr on a dualistic view of nature which not only has a cosmic dimension as such but also has a meta-cosmic dimension. This dualistic view is his fundamental reason in formulating the concept of metaphysical cosmology as a solution to the crisis of modern science that has caused a variety of ecological damage due to the secular vision.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i2.812

  11. Mario Bunge: Physicist, philosopher and defender of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Matthews

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War. He learnt atomic physics andquantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taughthimself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first SouthAmerican philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology,sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise onPhilosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of theEnlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planksof the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect forindividuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy ofscience, educational research and science teaching are recognised – it is salutary to see the fruits of one person’spursuit of the ‘Big’ scientific and philosophical picture.

  12. Intelligibility of Standard German and Low German to Speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is

  13. Isócrates, professor de philosophía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Sidnei Pagotto-Euzebio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo apresenta o magistério de Isócrates (436-338 a.C., autor ateniense contemporâneo de Platão, e suas concepções acerca da forma e dos propósitos da paideía ou educação, que ele denominava, em seu conjunto, philosophía. Para tanto, descrevem-se o rol dos alunos que Isócrates teria tido, a popularidade de sua escola e o testemunho, por outros autores da Antiguidade, de sua influência educativa. Em seguida, discute-se a definição isocrática de philosophía, apresentada, por vezes, como um empenho intelectual conjugado à experiência; em outros momentos, como a cultura ou paideía criada por Atenas, cidade em que o lógos, em seu duplo sentido de razão e discurso, ocupava lugar de excepcional importância. Por fim, passa-se dessa definição geral de philosophía para aquela que a apresenta como um procedimento educativo deliberado, sendo que o professado por Isócrates em sua escola seria, segundo ele, o único a merecer, de todo direito, o título de philosophía. Descreve-se, então, a philosophía de Isócrates, com seus princípios mais importantes, a dóxa, ou opinião; a empeiría, ou experiência, e o kairós, ou ocasião, indicando as justificativas para essa opção e os resultados esperados de tal programa educativo, e de que modo tais princípios estariam presentes no que chamaríamos de seus métodos pedagógicos, dos quais se destaca a prática de Isócrates de submeter suas próprias obras à crítica de seus alunos, em um formato de discussão ou debate próximo do que denominaríamos, hoje, de seminário.

  14. Val Plumwood’s Philosophical Animism: Attentive Inter-actions in the Sentient World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of her eventful and productive life, Val Plumwood was turning toward Indigenous people and cultures as a way of encountering the lived experience of ideas she was working with theoretically. At the same time, she was defining herself as a philosophical animist. As I understand her term, she was making connections with animism as a worldview, but rather than mimic or appropriate indigenous animisms she was developing a foundation that could be argued from within western philosophy. Her beautiful definition of philosophical animism is that it “opens the door to a world in which we can begin to negotiate life membership of an ecological community of kindred beings.” Thus, her animism, like indigenous animisms, was not a doctrine or orthodoxy, but rather a path, a way of life, a mode of encounter. In the spirit of open-ended encounter, I aim to bring her work into dialogue with some of my Australian Aboriginal teachers. More specifically, I focus on developing an enlarged account of active listening, considering it as the work participants engage in as they inter-act with other sentient creatures. I take a country or place based perspective, engaging with life on the inside of the webs and patterns of connection.

  15. Can Artificial Intelligences Suffer from Mental Illness? A Philosophical Matter to Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2017-04-01

    The potential for artificial intelligences and robotics in achieving the capacity of consciousness, sentience and rationality offers the prospect that these agents have minds. If so, then there may be a potential for these minds to become dysfunctional, or for artificial intelligences and robots to suffer from mental illness. The existence of artificially intelligent psychopathology can be interpreted through the philosophical perspectives of mental illness. This offers new insights into what it means to have either robot or human mental disorders, but may also offer a platform on which to examine the mechanisms of biological or artificially intelligent psychiatric disease. The possibility of mental illnesses occurring in artificially intelligent individuals necessitates the consideration that at some level, they may have achieved a mental capability of consciousness, sentience and rationality such that they can subsequently become dysfunctional. The deeper philosophical understanding of these conditions in mankind and artificial intelligences might therefore offer reciprocal insights into mental health and mechanisms that may lead to the prevention of mental dysfunction.

  16. Stop, look, listen: the need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; Broome, Matthew; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-01-01

    One of the leading cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) proposes such experiences result from a disturbance in the process by which inner speech is attributed to the self. Research in this area has, however, proceeded in the absence of thorough cognitive and phenomenological investigations of the nature of inner speech, against which AVHs are implicitly or explicitly defined. In this paper we begin by introducing philosophical phenomenology and highlighting its relevance to AVHs, before briefly examining the evolving literature on the relation between inner experiences and AVHs. We then argue for the need for philosophical phenomenology (Phenomenology) and the traditional empirical methods of psychology for studying inner experience (phenomenology) to mutually inform each other to provide a richer and more nuanced picture of both inner experience and AVHs than either could on its own. A critical examination is undertaken of the leading model of AVHs derived from phenomenological philosophy, the ipseity disturbance model. From this we suggest issues that future work in this vein will need to consider, and examine how interdisciplinary methodologies may contribute to advances in our understanding of AVHs. Detailed suggestions are made for the direction and methodology of future work into AVHs, which we suggest should be undertaken in a context where phenomenology and physiology are both necessary, but neither sufficient. PMID:23576974

  17. Scientific perspectivism: A philosopher of science's response to the challenge of big data biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callebaut, Werner

    2012-03-01

    Big data biology-bioinformatics, computational biology, systems biology (including 'omics'), and synthetic biology-raises a number of issues for the philosophy of science. This article deals with several such: Is data-intensive biology a new kind of science, presumably post-reductionistic? To what extent is big data biology data-driven? Can data 'speak for themselves?' I discuss these issues by way of a reflection on Carl Woese's worry that "a society that permits biology to become an engineering discipline, that allows that science to slip into the role of changing the living world without trying to understand it, is a danger to itself." And I argue that scientific perspectivism, a philosophical stance represented prominently by Giere, Van Fraassen, and Wimsatt, according to which science cannot as a matter of principle transcend our human perspective, provides the best resources currently at our disposal to tackle many of the philosophical issues implied in the modeling of complex, multilevel/multiscale phenomena. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure and unity. Trancendence-philosophical interpretation of quantum physics; Struktur und Einheit. Transzendenzphilosophische Interpretation der Quantenphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, Juergen

    2013-07-01

    Since their beginnings at the begin of the 20th century quantum physics in the ontological and epistemological interpretation of their results is facing persistent difficulties, which could not be satisfactorily solved to this day. Some quantum phenomena are beyond of both our everyday understanding of the world and the classical-physical picture of the world, which is essentially based on the mechanics of Isaac Newton. They exceed our imagination and seem at least partly contradict logical and space-time laws. Transcendence-philosophical thinking, which exhibits a close structural relation to the logics of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and to the philosophical systems analysis, provides a set of methodological instruments, which can help to avoid some problems of quantum-theoretical interpretation, which are in striking contrast to the mathematically consistent formulation of quantum theory. This is paradigmatically shown by selected main themes of the quantum-theoretical discussion.

  19. Translating textbooks: Russian, German, and the language of chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Using the cases of three Russian chemistry textbooks from the 1860s--authored by Freidrich Beilstein, A. M. Butlerov, and D. I. Mendeleev--this essay analyzes their contemporary translation into German and the implications of their divergent histories for scholars' understanding of the processes of credit accrual and the choices of languages of science.

  20. Machine Translation in the German Classroom: Detection, Reaction, Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steding, Soren

    2009-01-01

    There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments. The problem for the educator is to distinguish…

  1. MARTIN HEIDEGGER’S BLACK NOTEBOOKS AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karpenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the key strategies of philosophical criticism of Heidegger’s Black Notebooks, whose achievement is realized in the following tasks: 1 to identify the body of texts that represent the discourse of philosophical criticism of Heidegger notes; 2 to reveal the typological features of the different strategies of interpreting Black Notebooks; 3 to reconstruct a thematic horizon of Heidegger studies, opened up by discussion on published notes. The methodology combines elements of discourse analysis with traditional methods of historical and philosophical criticism. Scientific novelty is expressed in the following: 1 philosophical discourse of the Notebooks’ reception includes texts of narrowly specialized character (Gatherings collection of articles, as well as reflections of key philosophers (A. Badiou, J.-L. Nancy 2 basic strategies in philosophical critique of Black Notebooks convey the overall structure of the discourse of interpretation of Heidegger’s legacy, distributed between apologetics and ideological criticism; 3 Black Notebooks have exacerbated the problem of architectonics of Gesammtausgabe and formed the textual basis for the study of "silence" period in philosophical life of Heidegger. Conclusions. The discourse of philosophical critique of Heidegger’s notes proves evidence for ideological charge of philosophizing and justifies socially oriented approaches of historical and philosophical studies examining philosophizing as a special cultural practice, not as a form of sublime creativity.

  2. An Introduction to the Medieval English: The Historical and Literary Context, Traces of Church and Philosophical Movements in the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Zare Behtash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transition from Greek to medieval philosophy that speculated on religion, nature, metaphysics, human being and society was rather a rough transition in the history of English literature. Although the literature content of this age reflected more religious beliefs, the love and hate relationship of medieval philosophy that was mostly based on the Christianity with Greek civilization was exhibited clearly. The modern philosophical ideologies are the continuation of this period’s ideologies. Without a well understanding of the philosophical issues related to this age, it is not possible to understand the modern ones well. The catholic tradition as well as the religious reform against church called Protestantism was organized in this age. In Medieval Period, philosophy and theoretical thoughts related to the Christianity were well-organized and the philosophy, science and theoretical thoughts served religion. Philosophy had different forms and orientations in various stages of this period. One of these philosophical thoughts was the Augustinian philosophy which was strongly in favor of church with its different practices and styles. It used Platonic and Neo-Platonic traditions to prove that faith is the result of divine dispensations, not the result of human will power and wisdom. On the other hand, according to Aquinas, we experience different types of the effects that existed in the world around us. He believed that we assign an effective cause to each effect we experienced around us. Additionally, he claimed that reasoning was the only way to reach the real faith. In fact, philosophy of Medieval Period attempted to prove that religious assertions and ideologists were in search of matching their philosophical beliefs with the beliefs of Christianity. Christianity as the dominant factor in Middle English Literature helped English to be stablished as a literary language.

  3. A Mythological, Philosophical and Astronomical approach of our solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivas, Sotirios; Kastanidou, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Teaching Geography in the first Class of Gymnasium - secondary education we will focus in Solar System: Astronomical approach: Students will look and find the astronomical data of the planets, they will make comparisons between the sizes of their radius, they will find the distance from the Sun, they will search the relative motion, they will calculate the gravity on each planet, etc. Mythological approach: We will search the names and meanings of the planets based on Greek mythological origin. Philosophical approach: Regarding the philosophical approach of the "solar system" we will look and find: • Why planets are called so? • How did planets get their names? • What are the periods of Greek astronomy? • What were the astronomical instruments of ancient Greeks and who did built them? • What were the Greek philosophers and astronomers? When did they live and what did they discover? • Which method did Eratosthenes of Cyrene apply about 206B.C. to serve a real measurement of the earth's radius? • What was the relationship between science and religion in ancient Greece? Literature approach: At the end of the program students will write their opinion in subject "Having a friend from another planet" based on the book of Antoine de Saint - Exupéry "The little prince". Law approach: A jurist working in Secondary Education will visits our school and engages students in the Space Law. Artistic approach: Students will create their own posters of our planetary system. The best posters will be posted on the school bulletin board to display their work. Visit: Students and teachers will visit the Observatory of Larissa where they will see how observatory works and talk with scientists about their job. They will look through telescopes and observe the sun.

  4. Anglo-german – a colloquial language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years more and more words from English entered in German language, which ledto the formation of a colloquial language called "Denglisch" from "Deutsch - German" and"Englisch - English". Denglisch differs from the Anglicisms through the fact that here are observedsyntactic and morphological rules of the German language, which proves the power of Germangrammar.In the article below we follow the areas where the colloquial language is used morefrequently and how it is used by German speakers. Denglisch is fought by the German linguists,who recommended the use of English words, only if there is not a similar term in German.

  5. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...... imposed on complex verbs of the V* type (=verbs with separable prefixes). This results in such verbs being morphologically unexceptional, i.e., having a full set of forms but syntactically peculiar (‘‘immobile''), i.e., they can only occur in their base position. Any movement is incompatible with either...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...

  6. Identity in Physics A Historical, Philosophical, and Formal Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    French, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Can quantum particles be regarded as individuals, just like books, tables and people? According to the 'received' view - articulated by several physicists in the immediate aftermath of the quantum revolution - quantum physics itself tells us they cannot: quantum particles, unlike their classical counterparts, must be regarded as 'non-individuals' in some sense. However, recent work has indicated that this is not the whole story and that the theory is also consistent with theposition that such particles can be taken to be individuals, albeit at a metaphysical price. Drawing on philosophical acc

  7. Philosophical Reflections made explicit as a Tool for Mathematical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Sune; Andresen, Mette

    2009-01-01

        A new construct, ‘multidiciplinarity', is prescribed in the curricula of Danish Upper Secondary Schools by governmental regulations since 2006. Multidisciplinarity offers a good chance to introduce philosophical tools or methods in mathematics with the aim to improve the students' learning...... for making students reflections in the mathematics class explicit to themselves. In our paper, we present a combination of two stratifications of reflections which were developed recently in works by other authors. The paper outlines our model and exemplifies its use on the teaching of mathematical models...

  8. About the principle of dignity: philosophical foundations and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Staffen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2017v38n75p43 This paper, starting from deductive method, aims to analyze the coexistence mechanisms of the philosophical foundations of the principle of human dignity by the legal practice, both in legislative documents as judicial decisions. On the metaphysical aspects that keeps in its wake, the principle of human dignity opens spaces for criticism of the consistency and coherence of that principle in legislative works, notably, in judicial decisions. Finally, it is concluded that while the reputation based on dignity is a universal virtue, its content depends largely on social, religious and traditional of certain communities.

  9. On a Philosophical Motivation for Mutilating Truth Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons colours, or better the conceptual organisation of the colour system, could be relevant to the philosophy of logic is that they necessitate some mutilation of truth tables by restricting truth functionality. This paper argues that the so-called ‘Colour Exclusion Problem’, the first great challenge for Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, is a legitimate philosophical motivation for a systematic mutilation of truth tables. It shows how one can express, through these mutilations, some intensional logical relations usually expressed by the Aristotelian Square of Oppositions, as contrariety and subcontrariety.

  10. A Philosophical vs. a Psychological Perspective on Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2016-03-01

    This paper questions to what extent borders are to be understood from a philosophical or a psychological perspective. This is done by investigating the distinction between philosophy and psychology that comes up as a result of Immanuel Kant's investigation of the pure reason. Ontology is found as a demarcation criterion between the two fields in the sense that it is of crucial importance in philosophy, but not of certain interest from a psychological point of view. An investigation of three assumptions in the perspective of affective loading follows this up, which confirms the efficiency of borders in psychological meaning production.

  11. Restaging Descartes. From the Philosophical Reception to the national Pantheon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In his book, Esquisse des Progrès de l’humanité published in 1793, the French philosopher Condorcet underlined the strength of the cartesian Revolution as one of a basement of the mondernity. By this analysis, Condorcet closed the black box of one century and a half of science wars in the Republic of Letters in Europe. In fact, if the learned circles displayed deeply contrasting attitudes concerning the Cartesian question from the Descartes’death in 1650, beginning in the 1740s references to ...

  12. The theme revenge in the cinema: a literary philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio José de Queiroz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the focus is revenge, taking as a starting point two cinematographic works –Once upon a time in this article is revenge, taking as a starting point two cinematographic works­ once upon a time in West, by Sergio Leone, and also colors: White by Krzysztof Kieslowsk. Without the direct influence of a purely artistic appreciation of both movies, this is about a study of literary­ philosophical lineage by relying on classical seeks to provide an theoretical analyze of the theme, avoiding falling into an empiricist interpretation, trivial and shallow of the object.

  13. Philosophical and methodological aspects of the Schroedinger paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juha, L.; Krajca, R.; Smatera, M.

    1989-01-01

    Methodological aspects of the foundations of quantum theory are dealt with in relation to the quantum description of macroscopic systems, biological in particular. Attention is paid to the philosophical content of the problems of 1) the logical status of the reduction postulate in quantum mechanics, and 2) the paradox of Schroedinger's cat, whose physical solution has not yet been attained. The problem of the quantum description of complex macroscopic systems is also treated, as is Herbert Froehlich's important concept of the excitation of dominant modes in biological systems. (author). 61 refs

  14. German and Korean Mothers’ Sensitivity and Related Parenting Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette eZiehm

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers’ maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children’s needs or reactive sensitivity (responding to children’s direct cues in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive versus proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children’s development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts.

  15. The meaning of illness in nursing practice: a philosophical model of communication and concept possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    2016-04-01

    It is fundamental assumption in nursing theory that it is important for nurses to understand how patients experience states of ill health. This assumption is often related to aims of empathic understanding, but normative principles of social interpretation can have an important action-guiding role whenever nurses seek to understand patients' subjective horizons on the basis of active or passive expressions of meaning. The aim of this article is to present a philosophical theory of concept possession and to argue that it can shed light on how nurses should seek to understand patients' subjective perspectives on the meaning of illness. The two basic ideas in the theory are that patients' beliefs and thoughts about their experiences involve concepts and that concepts can be communicated on the basis of shared implicit conceptions of what they mean. These conditions of understanding have a striking application: nurse-patient communication is limited by many contextual factors, but it is often possible for nurses to detect shared implicit conceptions of the meaning of concepts of disease and illness. Furthermore, by acting as sympathetic linguistic experts and creating an atmosphere for dialogue, nurses can make patients feel comfortable about deferring to medical explanations of meaning that can constitute a communicative platform. The last part of the article uses a number of cases studies to show how these implications can be implemented as conceptual tools for securing meaningful communication about illness experiences in patient dialogue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The role of mathematics in physical sciences interdisciplinary and philosophical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Boniolo, Giovanni; Trobok, Majda

    2005-01-01

    Even though mathematics and physics have been related for centuries and this relation appears to be unproblematic, there are many questions still open: Is mathematics really necessary for physics, or could physics exist without mathematics? Should we think physically and then add the mathematics apt to formalise our physical intuition, or should we think mathematically and then interpret physically the obtained results? Do we get mathematical objects by abstraction from real objects, or vice versa? Why is mathematics effective into physics? These are all relevant questions, whose answers are necessary to fully understand the status of physics, particularly of contemporary physics. The aim of this book is to offer plausible answers to such questions through both historical analyses of relevant cases, and philosophical analyses of the relations between mathematics and physics.

  17. Adelard of Bath and Roger Bacon: early English natural philosophers and scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Jeremiah M

    2002-06-01

    The image of Roger Bacon as a 'modern' experimental scientist was propagated as historical truth in 19th century scientific historiography. Twentieth century criticisms attacked this tradition, arguing that Bacon was primarily a medieval philosopher with 'medieval' scientific interests. However, recent scholarship has provided a more careful and critical account of Bacon's science, and identifies his greatest achievement in terms of his successful attempt to assimilate the worlds of Greek and Islamic optics. It can be justly claimed that Roger Bacon was the first Western thinker in the middle ages to have mastered most of the Greek sources and the central Islamic source in optics. He made this scientific domain understandable for a Western Latin-reading audience. Yet, Bacon himself acknowledged Adelard of Bath, whose translations and commentary of Euclid's Elements set the foundations for a science of optics, as the true pioneer.

  18. [The Philosophical Relevance of the Study of Schizophrenia. Methodological and Conceptual Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Silva, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The study of mental illness involves profound methodological and philosophical debates. This article explores the disciplinary complementarity, particularly, between philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology in the context of the understanding of schizophrenia. After clarifying the possible role of these disciplines, it is explored the way in which a certain symptom of schizophrenia (thought insertion) challenges the current phenomenological approach to the relationship between consciousness and self-awareness. Finally, it is concluded that philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology should, necessarily, regulate their progress jointly in order to reach plausible conclusions about what we call 'schizophrenia'. Crown Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. The Philosophical Background and Scientific Legacy of E. B. Titchener's Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beenfeldt, Christian

    This volume offers a new understanding of Titchener’s influential system of psychology popularly known as introspectionism, structuralism and as classical introspective psychology. Adopting a new perspective on introspectionism and seeking to assess the reasons behind its famous implosion......, this book reopens and rewrites the chapter in the history of early scientific psychology pertaining to the nature of E. B. Titchener’s psychological system. Arguing against the view that Titchener’s system was undone by an overreliance on introspection, the author explains how this idea was first introduced...... in defiance of introspection, not because of introspection. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I, British associationism is examined thoroughly. The author here discusses the psychology of influential empiricist philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, David Hartley, James Mill...

  20. Theories About Blood Coagulation in the Writings of Ancient Greek Medico-philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Anaxagoras and Empedocles both established during the Presocratic era a pioneering theory for the creation of everything in the universe. Macrocosmos' impact through the "Four Elements Theory" explained the conglomeration of the blood inside the vessels. Hippocrates, who instituted the "Four Humours theory", clearly understood blood's coagulation and introduced the term "thrombus". Plato, Aristotle and Galen, all engaged with the clotting phenomenon trying to interpret it. After eons of inquiry, it was the innovative thinking of the ancient Greek medico philosophers that set the scientific bases towards the understanding of a process that had been analyzing until our era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Awakening – Transformation, agency and virtue from three contemporary philosophical inspirations: Bhaskar, Segal and Slote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Schreiber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For some, ‘transformation’ is the new non-reductive and non-normative ‘development’, attracting attention from interdisciplinary array, but of particular theoretical and practical interest to Spirituality scholars. In philosophical context, transformation theory has suffered greatly from ’agency-structure’ dualism and suspension of ontology in body-mind dualism and rationalist virtue controversy. Drawing on the work of Bhaskar, Segal and Slote, a renegotiated and more meaningful sense of transformation emerges from their cumulative analytical and conceptual enrichment. In the complexity of possible relations between self, self-concept and society, lies the traditionally neglected transformative middle of sui-generis human depth. In redress, arguably, Bhaskar’s meta-philosophy accommodates Segal’s experiential depth analysis and Slote’s understanding of empathy and receptivity as valuable insights for ’awakening’ to transformative process.

  2. John Dewey's conception of application of law in its philosophical and social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available John Dewey, one of the most important thinkers of pragmatism, elaborated a specific conception of law partially and gradually in the long course of his intellectual career. This part of his broader philosophical outlook is analyzed here through one of its most important segments - application of law - and interpreted in its historical, social and cultural background. The first part of the article concentrates on the 'objective' (cultural, social and historical reasons for giving emphasis to the application of law in his legal philosophy. This domination of the application of law in his legal thought is derived from the needs of a rapidly changing structure of the American society in the first half of the XX century, and theoretically has its place in an all around phenomenon in American intellectual history in general that Morton White terms antiformalism. The second part of the article analyses his legal conceptions and their connection with the general philosophical position of this pragmatist. Dewey formed his conception of application of law as an integral part of his broader philosophical standpoint, and especially on the basis of his radical reinterpretation of logic and truth. Since his understanding of the legal process has roots in his experimentalist conception of logic that encompasses the apprehension of the process of experimentation as the only warrant for the validity of propositions (that the 'truth' of a proposition is built in the process of its verification, he regards application as conditio sine qua non of the legality of norms in general. This leads us to the last part of the article that scathes possible lines of critical approach to Dewey's work in this field. The view that the legality of norms is derived from their application is in legal theory often regarded as sociologism, inasmuch as it disregards the normative aspects of the legal process and emphasizes the social ones to the point of making it void of the

  3. Nationalism and religion from the point of view of the philosophical heritage of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halilović Seid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Division of people according to their different national and geographic features is not at all unnatural. However, in such divisions no group whatsoever can be especially prominent in the sense that it must necessarily be granted political power. The community which has sovereignty and political power in the Islamic cognitive tradition is called al-milla. Of course, al-milla here does not mean a nation, but a common path chosen by members of society in the light of intuitive and rational knowledge, which leads to the essences of ontological reality. Conversely, in the modern West, a nation draws on sensitive and emotional knowledge of folk bias and as such becomes a measure of political sovereignty. In fact, the nation is nowadays man's new social me, which in no way manifests sublime ontological realities, but creates reality itself. Therefore, in this paper we insist that nationalism is quite a new ideology of the modernistic era, which has never before in the history of human thought been credible. To show how a nation can be a measure and source of truth, values and rights, in this paper we use analyses of modern rationalist philosophers and German romantics. We will also explain that in the cognitive stage of Islam such an ideology must be clearly disproved. In religious traditions, kinship, financial and other material privileges are considered possible causes of the collapse of society. True privileges are only the nobility and purity of soul. The source of bliss, peace and harmony should be seen exactly in them and not in the national states that are the cause of conflicting identities, interests, territorial aspirations and suffering. Yet, many non-Western societies, including ours, are still in the race over who will be a more extreme supporter of the ideology of nationalism.

  4. Philosophical and Pedagogical Principles of Transnational Higher Education Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshchenko Maria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical and pedagogical principles of transnational higher education development in the second half of the XX - at the beginning of the XXI century are revealed based on the authentic scientific research sources and reflections of prominent scientists. Review of scientific works, devoted to the problems of education transnationalization, allowed concluding that in the late XX century the traditional relationship of pedagogy and philosophy changed under the influence of globalization and internationalization of education. On the basis of determinant analysis it has been found that postmodernism (J. Derrida, M. Foucault, J. Lyotard, R. Panvit and postnonclassical science (H. Haken, I. Prihozhyn, V. Stepin serve philosophical grounds for transnational higher education formation. The article proves that the “philosophy of global problems” as a set of ideas based on the objectivity of the total global relations, serves as the basis for building a modern educational paradigm that is reflected in the concept of global education. The fundamental idea of global education is to develop a holistic vision and human perception of the world, awareness of its place in the interconnected and rapidly changing environment, by filling content of educational process with human values. Practical implementation of these ideas is made by the introduction of multicultural education approach, critical pedagogy, global education and formation of intercultural educational content, which reflects the cultural and historical specificity of population.

  5. The oblique perspective: philosophical diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2017-12-01

    This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a "diagnostics of the present" (envisioned by continental thinkers, from Hegel up to Foucault). First, I describe (as a "practicing" philosopher) various options for an oblique (or symptomatic) reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic "philosophemes" of science (i.e. the guiding ideas, the basic conceptions of nature, life and technology at work in contemporary life sciences research practices). Subsequently, I outline a number of radical transformations occurring both at the object-pole and at the subject-pole of the current knowledge relationship, namely the technification of the object and the anonymisation or collectivisation of the subject, under the sway of automation, ICT and big machines. Finally, I further elaborate the specificity of the oblique perspective with the help of Lacan's theorem of the four discourses. Philosophical reflections on contemporary life sciences concur neither with a Master's discourse (which aims to strengthen the legitimacy and credibility of canonical sources), nor with university discourse (which aims to establish professional expertise), nor with what Lacan refers to as hysterical discourse (which aims to challenge representatives of the power establishment), but rather with the discourse of the analyst, listening with evenly-poised attention to the scientific files in order to bring to the fore the cupido sciendi (i.e. the will to know, but also to optimise and to control) which both inspires and disrupts contemporary life sciences discourse.

  6. The cosmology of the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    The views of the ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosophers from Ionia opened new paths for the study of nature using human logic. Starting from the worship of the Earth as a goddess, they proceeded to examine its position in the Cosmos (Universe), proposing a spherical shape for our planet. They pioneered the unifying approach for the physical world, assuming one element as the basis for everything in the Universe (this was water for Thales, air for Anaximenes, infinity for Anaximander, fire for Heraclitus). The genesis and the decay of worlds succeed one another eternally. Anaximenes believed, like Anaximander, that our world was not the only one that existed. Heraclitus believed that, of the vast richness of the natural creation with its unpredictable changes, nothing remains stable and motionless. There is not constancy, but only an eternal flow, a perpetual motion. This is exactly what we accept today in quantum physics; the apparent stability and immobility is an illusion of our limited senses. According to Heraclitus, matter is constantly transformed. All the natural philosophers of Ionia distanced God the Creator from nature and history, keeping always a respect for the beliefs of their fellow people; most probably they, too, kept a form of God in an area of their minds, in his spiritual and moral dimension.

  7. Philosophical Creationism: Thomas Aquinas’ Metaphysics of Creatio ex Nihilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All philosophers, beginning with the pre-Socratics, through Plato and Aristotle, and up to Thomas Aquinas, accepted as a certain that the world as a whole existed eternally. The foundation for the eternity of the world was the indestructible and eternal primal building material of the world, a material that existed in the form of primordial material elements (the Ionians, in the form of ideas (Plato, or in the form of matter, eternal motion, and the first heavens (Aristotle. The article outlines the main structure of the philosophical theory of creation ex nihilo developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and indebted to his metaphysical thought. It shows the wisdom-based and ratiocinative foundation of the rational cognition of reality—reality that comes from the personal creative act of God. It concludes that the perception that the beings called to existence by the personal act of God the Creator are intelligible is the ultimate rational justification for the fact that our human cognition, love, and spiritual creativity are rational.

  8. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stachel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein’s formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann’s critique, as well as Hilbert’s reformulation and Darmois’ formulation of the general-relativistic Cauchy problem. The 1970s saw a revival of interest in the hole argument, growing out of attempts to answer the question: Why did three years elapse between Einstein’s adoption of the metric tensor to represent the gravitational field and his adoption of the Einstein field equations? The main part presents some modern mathematical versions of the hole argument, including both coordinate-dependent and coordinate-independent definitions of covariance and general covariance; and the fiber bundle formulation of both natural and gauge natural theories. By abstraction from continuity and differentiability, these formulations can be extended from differentiable manifolds to any set; and the concepts of permutability and general permutability applied to theories based on relations between the elements of a set, such as elementary particle theories. We are closing with an overview of current discussions of philosophical and physical implications of the hole argument.

  9. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, John

    2014-01-01

    This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein's formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann's critique, as well as Hilbert's reformulation and Darmois' formulation of the general-relativistic Cauchy problem. The 1970s saw a revival of interest in the hole argument, growing out of attempts to answer the question: Why did three years elapse between Einstein's adoption of the metric tensor to represent the gravitational field and his adoption of the Einstein field equations? The main part presents some modern mathematical versions of the hole argument, including both coordinate-dependent and coordinate-independent definitions of covariance and general covariance; and the fiber bundle formulation of both natural and gauge natural theories. By abstraction from continuity and differentiability, these formulations can be extended from differentiable manifolds to any set; and the concepts of permutability and general permutability applied to theories based on relations between the elements of a set, such as elementary particle theories. We are closing with an overview of current discussions of philosophical and physical implications of the hole argument.

  10. Understanding the Philosophical Foundations of Disabilities to Maximize the Potential of Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In the United States and elsewhere in the world, disabilities are being studied by two different schools of thought: special education and disability studies. In the field of special education, analyses are often pragmatic and instrumental. In contrast, analyses in the field of disability studies are often historical and cultural, explaining…

  11. Understanding Conflict Resolution Philosophically in a School Setting: Three Different Kinds of Violence and Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    According to Galtung, violence can be divided into two kinds: (i) direct violence, which is always physical in a wider sense (e.g. bodily harm or verbal abuse) or (ii) indirect violence that is either structural (i.e. the institution is structurally violent because it is organised so to privilege a group over others; e.g. a strict pyramidal…

  12. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  13. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  14. The German genius Europe's third renaissance, the second scientific revolution, and the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Peter Watson's virtuoso sweep through modern German thought and culture, from 1750 to the present day, will challenge and confound both the stereotypes the world has of Germany and those that Germany has of itself. From the end of the Baroque era and the death of Bach to the rise of Hitler in 1933, Germany was transformed from a poor relation among Western nations into a dominant intellectual and cultural force—more creative and influential than France, Britain, Italy, Holland, and the United States. In the early decades of the twentieth century, German artists, writers, scholars, philosophers, scientists, and engineers were leading their freshly unified country to new and unimagined heights. By 1933, Germans had won more Nobel Prizes than any other nationals, and more than the British and Americans combined. Yet this remarkable genius was cut down in its prime by Adolf Hitler and his disastrous Third Reich—a brutal legacy that has overshadowed the nation's achievements ever since. How did the Germans t...

  15. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  16. Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.

    2004-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target

  17. German urologists under national socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischel, Matthis

    2014-08-01

    The first full-time professorship for urology at a German university was established in 1937 and in 1942, a rare teaching qualification (Habilitation) for urology was granted, both at the prestigious Berlin University. At the same time, nearly a third of all physicians who worked in the field of urology were classified as "non-Aryan" according to Nazi race laws and were forced out of their profession and their homeland. Many of them committed suicide or, if they refused to flee, were murdered in concentration camps. German urologists also contributed to compulsory sterilization of men according to the "law for the prevention of hereditarily diseased offspring" between 1934 and 1945. Historical sources on the history of urology in Nazi Germany were reviewed and analyzed. These include textbooks and medical journals from the 1930s and 1940s, as well as files from different state and university archives. For urologists, the changing political environment in Germany after 1933 offered possibilities to assert their personal and professional interests. Unfortunately, in many cases, moral principles were thrown overboard, and physicians advanced their own careers and the specialty of urology at the expense of their patients and their Jewish colleagues. Under national socialism, German urologists backed Nazi health and race policies and in exchange gained further professionalization for their specialty, including university positions and increased independence from surgery. Only in recent years has this chapter of German urology's past become a topic of debate among members of the professional society.

  18. Anglo-german – a colloquial language?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2011-01-01

    In the last years more and more words from English entered in German language, which ledto the formation of a colloquial language called "Denglisch" from "Deutsch - German" and"Englisch - English". Denglisch differs from the Anglicisms through the fact that here are observedsyntactic and morphological rules of the German language, which proves the power of Germangrammar.In the article below we follow the areas where the colloquial language is used morefrequently and how it is used by German s...

  19. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    direct result of the successful German submarine operations in the North Atlantic during 1939–1942. The first German .... The presence of Japanese and German warships in the Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans was ..... sailed at great speed from the equator in order to arrive off Cape Town for the commencement of the.

  20. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  1. The relation of religion and reason in the transcendent wisdom: A look at the necessity of philosophical investigation in the view of Mulla Sadra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Agha Shiraz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation of reason and religion is a very important topic indeed. It has always preoccupied the minds of thinkers from times immemorial. Not only have human beings delved into this subject, but God Himself has spoken at great length in religious texts concerning this issue. This topic can be examined from a number of different points of view. What concerns us specifically is the necessity of pure rational/philosophical investigation in the eternal/religious felicity of man. What is more, we will be more specifically concerned with the view of one school of thought, rather, the view of the founder of that school of thought, in this regard. Philosophical investigation has always met with mixed reactions amongst Muslim thinkers. A very novel view regarding the necessity of philosophical investigation is that of the famous sage, Mulla Sadra. He was of the opinion that, not only is philosophical endeavor a necessity to understand religion and that it is by means of reason (as well as mystical intuition that human beings can prove the tenants of religion, but what is more, the eternal and religious felicity of human beings depends solely on the degree of acquaintance with philosophy. This paper will examine the view of this sage as can be found in the introduction of his philosophical encyclopedia, the Asfar. As will be seen Mulla Sadra presented an elaborate rational demonstration to substantiate his claim. However, no matter how precise it was this proof was internally flawed in that one of its premises rest upon an interpretation of a religious tradition using philosophical jargon that would only come into existence hundreds of years after this tradition was initially stated.

  2. Euthanasia in South Africa: Philosophical and theological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojalefa L.J. Koenane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates on euthanasia (or �mercy killing� have been a concern in moral, philosophical, legal, theological, cultural and sociological discourse for centuries. The topic of euthanasia inspires a variety of strong views of which the �slippery slope� argument is one. The latter warns that the principle(s underlying any ethical issue (including euthanasia may be distorted. Scholars� views on euthanasia are influenced mainly by cultural, personal, political and religious convictions. In South Africa, the issue of euthanasia has arisen from time to time, but the question of whether it should be legalised was not seriously considered until it recently attracted attention because of a particular case, that of Cape Town advocate Robin StranshamFord. Although euthanasia is still illegal (this is because the Stransham-Ford ruling is confined to this particular case only, as stated in the ratio decidendi by Judge Hans Fabricius of the High Court in Pretoria, the Court granted leave to appeal its April 2015 judgement regarding euthanasia in the application lodged by Stransham-Ford. In considering the contentious nature of the issue of euthanasia, this article adopts a multidisciplinary approach which includes historical, legal, theological, philosophical, theoretical and analytic frameworks, discussing euthanasia from philosophical and theological perspectives, in particular. We conclude by recommending that the subject of applied ethics, which helps to educate citizens about contemporary moral problems such as euthanasia, be introduced at school level. Exposing young people to the debates around thorny issues such as this would familiarise them with the discourse, encourage them to engage with it and empower them as mature citizens to make informed, reasonable decisions, obviating confusion and conflict which might otherwise arise. The problems surrounding the issue of euthanasia are multidimensional and have the capacity to polarise the nation and

  3. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Interpersonal relations in nursing: a philosophical-ethical analysis of the work of Hildegard E. Peplau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, C

    1998-12-01

    Nursing typically has been viewed as a moral practice, for instance by new developments in the ethics of care. Nevertheless, many philosophical-ethical presuppositions of nursing theories remain to be clarified. This paper presents a philosophical-ethical analysis of the work of Hildegard E. Peplau. Analysis of the philosophical-ethical background of Peplau's works illuminates a view on nursing practice that is relevant today. Three main components are analysed more deeply, i.e. the professionalization of nursing, the philosophical underpinnings of Peplau's view on nursing science, and the nurse-patient relationship as the central event in nursing.

  5. Jung as psychologist of religion and Jung as philosopher of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Robert A

    2010-06-01

    Is it possible to be both a psychologist and a philosopher? Is it possible for a psychologist, or more generally a social scientist, to use social scientific findings to make philosophical claims? Specifically, is it possible for a social scientist to use social scientific findings to determine the existence of God? Did Jung profess to be only a psychologist or also a philosopher? If he professed to be both, did he enlist his psychological findings to make philosophical claims? Specifically, did he enlist his psychological findings to determine the existence of God?

  6. The Use of Philosophical Practice in Lifelong and Self-Directed Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2001-01-01

    In this article I invite the reader to reconsider philosophical counselling and practice first of all as a pedagogical practice. Recent research in adult education and especially in the area of "self-directed learning" reveals a growing interest in the existential and philosophical dimensions...... of learning and guidance in the adult education setting. I suggest that we use philosophical counselling to strengthen the adult´s capacity for lifelong and self-directed learning and that philosophical practice in general could be connected to a new kind of "existential adult pedagogy"....

  7. "We call it Springbok-German!": language contact in the German communities in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...

  8. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  9. How Readers Shape the Content of an Encyclopedia: A Case Study Comparing the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890 with Wikipedia (2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Spree

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How knowledge is negotiated between the makers of encyclopedias and their audiences remains an ongoing question in research on encyclopedias. A comparative content analysis of the published answers of letters to the editor of the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (Korrespondenzblatt from 1885 and the discussion pages of the article potato of the German Wikipedia (2013 reveals continuities as well as changes in the communication between encyclopedia producers and their audiences. The main reasons why readers and editors communicate are the need for updated factual information, an exchange on editorial principles and the intellectual exchange of ideas on ideological and philosophical questions in relation to the encyclopedic content. Editors and readers attach a lot of importance to the process of verifying information through bibliographical references. Whereas, for the editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon the leading role of experts remains undisputed, Wikipedians work in a contradictory situation. They are on the one hand exposing knowledge production to a permanent process of negotiation, thereby challenging the role of experts, on the other hand relying strongly on bibliographical authorities. Whilst the reasons for the communication between readers and editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon and among Wikipedia contributors coincide, the understanding of the roles of readers and editors differ. The editors of the Korrespondenzblatt keep up a lecturing attitude. As opposed to this, administrators in Wikipedia want to encourage participation and strive to develop expertise among the participating contributors. Albeit power relations between administrators, regular authors, occasional authors and readers continue to exist they are comparatively flat and transient. Regardless of these differences, the comparison between Meyers Konversationslexikon and Wikipedia indicates that the sine qua non for activating an upwards spiral of quality

  10. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  11. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois......, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, English.Here we will only consider the languages that are currently spoken in geographical Europe. Thus Afrikaans, which is spoken in South Africa, and the extinct languages Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian, and Runic will not be taken into account (but see e.g. König & van der...

  12. Teaching of social and philosophical background to atomic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühl, Jutta

    1992-06-01

    The history of atomic theory is outlined from earliest times up to the orbital model, and a corresponding teaching method described. The first, historical part of the paper emphasizes social and philosophical aspects in the development of atomic theory. The following milestones are dealt with: the development of the concept of matter from Greek mythology up to the atom; the spreading of Arab philosophy to the Occident during the Middle Ages; the conflict between the church and its opponents in the Middle Ages about the nature of the individual and society; and the status of atomic theory at the time of Newton, and its final acceptance after Dalton. The second part of the paper describes a method for teaching this material at secondary level, in which students are encouraged to make their own conclusions from the range of material offered.

  13. Boscovich's philosophical meditations in the history of contemporary thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, P.

    The content of Boscovich's Theoria philosophiae naturalis was well-known to his contemporaries, but both scientists and philosophers chiefly discussed it during the 19th century. The observations that Boscovich presented in this text, and that he himself defined as ``philosophicas metitationes", soon showed their being a good programme for the forthcoming atomic physics, and contributed to get rid of the mechanistic paradigm in science. In this paper I will go back to some meaningful moments of the history of Boscovich's reception in the era of contemporary philosophy, by referring to what authors such as Popper, Cassirer, Nietzsche and Fechner wrote about him. These thinkers, indeed, particularly stressed the importance of the Theoria in the history of Western thought, and showed that it can easily be evaluated beyond the plane of a pure scientific investigation.

  14. MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE OF RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowita Guja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a synthetic overview of main problems of the philosophical critique of religion. In the beginning I identify and characterize three general threads of the critique: the enlightenment, the alienational and the thread which focuses on the problem of theodicy. The greater part of my article is devoted to the alienational critique of religion n its two types: atheistic (Feuerbach, Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, Sartre and theistic (Barth. The subjects of my analysis are the sources and foundations of the alienational critique of religion and the most important problems implied by it: the essence of religion, the ideal of the irreligious man, the prospect to remove religion. The analysis presents troubles and confusions connected to these subjects: they emerge in atheistic type of alienational critique of religion.

  15. Developing nursing knowledge: practice issues raised from four philosophical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C L

    1995-01-01

    Analysis and comparison of emerging perspectives in nursing on some of the key issues of practice theory can create an enhanced vision of the discipline. Four philosophy-of-science perspectives--realism, relativism, interpretivism, and humanism--are catalysts for fruitful insights about practice. However, together they generate more questions than they answer, both from each perspective and from the intersection of the assumptions of the four philosophies about the nature of knowledge. The nature of knowledge for practice emerges from examining how the philosophical basis and the derived practice theories address such issues as the phenomena of the discipline, environment, teleology, and nursing theoretical frameworks. This is the time for good debate and collaborative knowledge-building among scholars of various persuasions within a milieu of ethos, pathos, and logic.

  16. Philosophical analysis of models of engineering education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeeva V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article defines the principles of the philosophical approach to the problems of engineering education. Ontological, epistemological and axiological components of the proposed approach are distinguished. Assessment criteria of engineering education models are specified. Basing on the presented principles and criteria, the analysis of Russian engineering education models is performed. The authors distinguish the following models: classical (tsarism, soviet transitional, soviet industrial, physicotechnical model, soviet mass (reproductive and Russian transitional models. In addition among developing models it is possible to recognize the following ones: methodological (creative and outrunning (advanced models. On the basis of the performed analysis, positive and negative aspects of the distinguished models are determined, and, it is possible to make a conclusion that every accomplished model emergence was reasoned by particular issues raised in the state at the particular period of time. The talking point of the necessity to design a proactive model of engineering education is formulated.

  17. A social-philosophical perspective on Danish prisoners’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    In my ongoing research project, I am looking into whether – and if so then how – education of inmates and former inmates of Danish prisons may contribute in a positive manner to the self-perception of the persons in question. By “positive” I am alluding especially to a self-perception, which...... consists so far of ten qualitative interviews with prisoners and former prisoners who have responded to questions pertaining to the personal, rights-related and social dimensions of their respective educations. The social-philosophical perspective of Axel Honneth theoretically inspires this division...... behaviour behind. This hope is in itself only one example of the fact that the learning involved cannot be considered separately of an array of fundamental – and fatal – conditions. At the conference, I intend to focus on the interviewee’s hard struggle for an identity as “students”. Prison culture...

  18. Philosophers assess randomized clinical trials: the need for dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miké, V

    1989-09-01

    In recent years a growing number of professional philosophers have joined in the controversy over ethical aspects of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Morally questionable in their utilitarian approach, RCTs are claimed by some to be in direct violation of the second form of Kant's Categorical Imperative. But the arguments used in these critiques at times derive from a lack of insight into basic statistical procedures and the realities of the biomedical research process. Presented to physicians and other nonspecialists, including the lay public, such distortions can be harmful. Given the great complexity of statistical methodology and the anomalous nature of concepts of evidence, more sustained input into the interdisciplinary dialogue is needed from the statistical profession.

  19. Philosophical analysis and its value to the nurse teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, W; Chadwick, R

    1989-06-01

    Philosophy is often regarded as a subject which is only of interest to those engaged in academic pursuits. This paper suggests that it can be of practical value to nurse teachers. Indeed never more so than today, with the current emphasis on change and decision making, be it in relation to curriculum development or the future of professional education. Change is occurring at such speed, that we have little time to ponder and, therefore, cannot afford 'faulty logic'. The article commences with a description of the processes involved in philosophical analysis, including linguistic and conceptual analysis, asking different types of questions and determining the validity of arguments. It goes on to consider why nurse teachers should adopt this approach and finally the necessity of its inclusion in curricula for basic nurse education.

  20. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  1. A social-philosophical perspective on Danish prisoners’ education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita

    is not associated with crime. By virtue of exactly the linking together of self-perception and education, the focus of my study relates closely to the concept of “transformative learning” in which changes within the learner’s identity constitute a central focus. The empirical methods of this research project......In my ongoing research project, I am looking into whether – and if so then how – education of inmates and former inmates of Danish prisons may contribute in a positive manner to the self-perception of the persons in question. By “positive” I am alluding especially to a self-perception, which...... consists so far of ten qualitative interviews with prisoners and former prisoners who have responded to questions pertaining to the personal, rights-related and social dimensions of their respective educations. The social-philosophical perspective of Axel Honneth theoretically inspires this division...

  2. The Philosophical Magazine and the Periodic Table of Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The history of the Periodic Table of Elements covers almost 300 years: from the discovery of phosphorus in 1669 to that of Lawrencium in 1961. Before that period, only elements such as copper, silver, gold, mercury, lead and of course carbon were known, which already had accompanied the history of mankind for millennia. The first "wave" of discoveries of new metals occurred at the close of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries and was almost entirely based on "wet chemistry". Because this period, in which no physics-related techniques of identification were available, seems to be now so remote, it is worthwhile to recall these discoveries in the context and style of their time by making use of the Philosophical Magazine archives.

  3. Sameness and the Self: Philosophical and Psychological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan eKlein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the concept of cross-temporal personal identity (diachronicity. This particular form of identity has vexed theorists for centuries – e.g., how can a person maintain a belief in the sameness of self over time in the face of continual psychological and physical change? I first discuss various forms of the sameness relation and the criteria that justify their application. I then examine philosophical and psychological treatments of personal diachronicity (for example, Locke’s psychological connectedness theory; the role of episodic memory and find each lacking on logical grounds, empirical grounds or both. I conclude that to achieve a successful resolution of the issue of the self as a temporal continuant we need to draw a sharp distinction between the feeling of the sameness of one’s self and the evidence marshaled in support of that feeling.

  4. Understanding phenomenology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Anne

    2012-01-31

    Phenomenology is a philosophic attitude and research approach. Its primary position is that the most basic human truths are accessible only through inner subjectivity, and that the person is integral to the environment. This paper discusses the theoretical perspectives related to phenomenology, and includes a discussion of the methods adopted in phenomenological research.

  5. The Problem of God in History in the Works of Wolfhart Pannenberg (Its Philosophical, Dogmatic, and Ecumenical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Lavrentyev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the problem of the working of God in history, a subject which was constitutive of the German Protestant theologian’s Wolfhart Pannenberg (*1928 theology of history. This article examines the philosophical, dogmatic, and ecumenical aspects of the problem. Philosophical aspects include the idea of God as both transcendent and imminent in the world, the eternal history of God in Himself, and the dependence of God on the history of the world. The contributions of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and the theologian Karl Barth are taken into account. The dogmatic aspect involves the doctrines concerning divine revelation and the Trinity. Pannenberg’s theory of the union between the historical revelation of the triune God and the inner (imminent divine life of the Trinity is discussed. His idea of the historical-soteriological activity of the persons of the Blessed Trinity and the way in which the divine persons inter-relate in the unity of the Trinity is analyzed, especially in the way this is revealed in the action of the divine economy or history of salvation, the central events of which are the cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The author does not forget to mention the way Pannenberg explains the perichoresic rapport existing between the divine persons of the Trinity. The author continues with a survey of the later works of Pannenberg, in which the German theologian develops his ideas concerning the eschatological perspectives of the divine economy as related to the revelation of the world to come already anticipated in the Kingdom of God and in the being of the Trinity. The ecumenical aspects of Pannenberg’s theology include the way he sets forth the problem of the relationship between the imminent and economic doctrine of the Trinity, a question which has become a subject of inter-Christian dialogue. The author fi nally reflects on the arguments of western theologians who have identified the working of the imminent and

  6. An Examination of Teacher's Pedagogical Philosophical Beliefs of Secondary Science Teachers in Sofia Public Schools, Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boiadjieva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought understand of the pedagogical philosophies of Bulgarian secondary science teachers in public schools in Sofia, Bulgaria, using the instrument that derived information for this study was an interview protocol consisting of six open-ended questions, with a numerical scoring analysis: the Teachers Pedagogical Philosophy Interview (TPPI. A review of literature shows there is no research on the pedagogical philosophical basis of teacher’s beliefs on teaching or on the effect of integrating constructivist teaching methodology in Bulgarian secondary science classrooms.

  7. THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF GERMAN-BRAZILIAN COMMUNITIES (PICADAS: THE COMMONS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Relly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of German immigration to Brazil knows just a little about the structures that animated social life in Germany before the process of immigration. Therefore, the americanização of the German-Brazilian settlers is considered solely from the perspective of the host society, creating a gap that needs to be filled in order to understand another dimension of German immigration, the European side and influence over it. In this sense, it is possible to perceive that generally the social origins of German-Brazilian settlers is linked to a village context experience, especially those who came from Western and Southwestern Germany. Historically these villages were social organizations able to control natural and economic resources under their jurisdictions with a great political and economic autonomy. The so called commons were a feature of the German agrarian history, and its institutions of participatory, mutual, protectionist, communal management had the effect to generate social capital, one social attribute that supported the formation of the German-Brazilian communities in Southern Brazil. Thus, the German-Brazilian communities were forged under a solid institutional tradition and under a substrate of social capital, facilitating the emergence of autonomous and cooperative behaviors that resulted on the communitarian structures and on the associativism phenomenon. The method was the analytical descriptive based on research in primary sources in Brazilian and German Archives.

  8. Diego Velázquez's Kings, Buffoons and Philosophers in the Context of His Religious Paintings: the View from Russia (Philosophical-Anthropological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Silantieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of philosophic anthropology of the great Spanish artist of the 17th century Diego Velazquez. This anthropology is considered through the prism of the problems that set the life of contemporary Russia and its "reflections" in the present-day Russian artists' works. At that Velazquez's philosophical anthropology is reconstructed on the basis of his works. As a consequence, significant part of attention is paid to the method that allows performing such reconstruction. The author proceeds from the belief according to which not only written texts can be considered philosophically. The visual "texts" connected with certain world outlook component of art creative work undoubtedly possess definite semantics. Expressed by the language of art, such image lines contain intelligible sense component reconstruction of which can be subjected to strict scientific and philosophical analysis and corrected with its help. At that one should not think that the images are "translated" into "the text of words" - on the contrary, philosophical reconstruction implies not as "verbalization" of visual line as coherent to it logical mastering of the picture's sense (in this case against the background of historical and historical-philosophical "scenery". The urgency of turning to this problem is brought about by the fact that a number of questions that found vivid and coherent (as philosophical-anthropological research shows embodiment in Velazquez's creative work are extremely interesting for contemporary thinkers speaking the language of contemporary fine arts. "The topic of mirror" is among such questions and it deals with correlation of intellectual and rational in a person's consciousness, and, finally, there is the issue of the man as a bearer of moral principles. Comparison of attitudes shown by contemporary painting with Velazquez's ideas enables to trace the development of philosophical anthropology and in the area of its

  9. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  10. German industrial policy: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Vitols, Sigurt

    1996-01-01

    Despite intense study as an attractive model for adjustment to slower worldwide growth and increasing competition from low-wage producers, the sources of German institutional comparative advantage remain controversial, particularly with regard to the role of the national state. This paper argues that the national state plays a key -- though mainly indirect -- role in supporting the modernization of industry. On the one hand, the national regulation of labor markets has discouraged price compe...

  11. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  12. How Technology Teachers Understand Technological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Per

    2014-01-01

    Swedish technology teachers' views of technological knowledge are examined through a written survey and a series of interviews. The study indicates that technology teachers' understandings of what constitutes technological knowledge and how it is justified vary considerably. The philosophical discussions on the topic are unknown to them. This lack…

  13. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  14. Discipline: Student Teachers' Preferred Philosophical "Face" and Classroom Discipline Problems Encountered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdusamy, Atputhasamy; Divaharan, Shanti; Huan, Vivien; Wong, Philip Siew Koon

    2001-01-01

    Examined the philosophical model that fit a group of students enrolled in the postgraduate diploma in education program at Singapore's National Institute of Education, noting the most common discipline problems encountered during the practicum. Overall, most student teachers leaned toward the rules and consequences philosophical model.…

  15. Critics to Metaphysics by Modern Philosophers: A Discourse on Human Beings in Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederikus Fios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. This paradigm survives very long in the stage history of philosophy as maintained by many philosophers who hold fast to the philosophical-epistemic claim that philosophy should be (das sollen metaphysical. Classical Greek philosopher, Aristotle was a philosopher who claims metaphysics as the initial philosophy. Then, Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Marx even Habermas offer appropriate shades of metaphysical philosophy versus spirit of the age. Modern philosophers offer a new paradigm in the way of doing philosophy. The new spirit of modern philosophers declared as if giving criticism on traditional western metaphysics (since Aristotle that are considered irrelevant. This paper intends to show the argument between traditional metaphysical and modern philosophers who criticize metaphysics. The author will make a philosophical synthesis to obtain enlightenment to the position of human beings in the space of time. Using the method of Hegelian dialectic (thesis-antiteses-synthesis, this topic will be developed and assessed in accordance with the interests of this paper. 

  16. Aktywnośc filozoficzna kobiet w Grecji okresu klasycznego (WOMEN'S PHILOSOPHICAL ACTIVITY IN CLASSICAL GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Ramian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss in this paper the matter of philosophical activity of women in classical Greece. Hardly ever can characters of women philosophers be found in textbooks concerning history of ancient philosophy. This is relevant to the social situation in Greece of that time, where women existed on the margins of public life. To show this, they refer to Aristotle's work, as much as to non-philosophical sources. In spite of the fact that women's activity was reduced to the private sphere, a number of woman philosophers appear in the history of Greek thought. Circumstances which enabled them to take up activity on this ground were varied. Some of the women were members of philosophical schools, in case of others it seems that a particular personal situation played a key role, as they were either daughters or wives of philosophers. Regardless of the reasons, taking up philosophical activity must have required great courage and determination. Without any doubt, women philosophers must have been uncommon characters and their development on this ground can be seen as overcoming the social role imposed on them.

  17. Measuring Music Education: A Philosophical Investigation of the Model Cornerstone Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial attention to measurement and assessment in contemporary education and music education policy and practice, the process of measurement has gone largely undiscussed in music education philosophy. Using the work of physicist and philosopher Karen Barad, in this philosophical inquiry, I investigated the nature of measurement in…

  18. Applying Syundz's Philosophical Concepts to Teaching Leadership in Higher Education and Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hsin Chi

    2016-01-01

    Syundz (c. 314-237 BC), born in China during the Warring States Period, was a realist philosopher who contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought, a period of cultural and philosophical development that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC. Syundz commented on many ideas, particularly those of Confucius and Mencius, and a collection of…

  19. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  20. Toward a New Philosophical Anthropology of Education: Fuller Considerations of Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Stephen; Garrison, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Philosophical anthropology is philosophical inquiry into human nature that seeks to answer the fundamental question of what generally characterizes human beings and differentiates them from other creatures and things. Political theories considerably influence educational theories. We call attention to the fact that the three main political…

  1. Do Historians (of Education) Need Philosophy? The Enlightening Potential of a Philosophical Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschelein, Jan; Simons, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Do historians (of education) need philosophy? The paper suggests that historians do not need philosophical doctrine or (meta-)theory, or philosophical method, but that in so far as historians (as Koselleck states) are "writing their own time anew" and are "rewriting the past" (and so enlighten their present), they might find some help in a…

  2. Current Status of Research in Teaching and Learning Evolution: I. Philosophical/Epistemological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship that addresses teaching and learning about evolution has rapidly increased in recent years. This review of that scholarship first addresses the philosophical/epistemological issues that impinge on teaching and learning about evolution, including the proper philosophical goals of evolution instruction; the correlational and possibly…

  3. Pedagogical tools to explore Cartesian mind-body dualism in the classroom: philosophical arguments and neuroscience illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott; Hamilton, Trevor J.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes’s “radical” or “mind-body” dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli. Since this doubting mind is a thinking thing that is distinct from bodily stimuli, truth and certainty are reached through the doubting mind as cogito ergo sum, or the certainty of itself as it thinks: hence Descartes’s famous maxim, I think, therefore I am. However, in the last century of Western philosophy, with nervous system investigation, and with recent advances in neuroscience, the potential avenues to explore student’s understanding of the epistemology and effects of Cartesian mind-body dualism has expanded. This article further explores this expansion, highlighting pedagogical practices and tools instructors can use to enhance a psychology student’s understanding of Cartesian dualistic epistemology, in order to think more critically about its implicit assumptions and effects on learning. It does so in two ways: first, by offering instructors an alternative philosophical perspective to dualistic thinking: a mind-body holism that is antithetical to the assumed binaries of dualistic epistemology. Second, it supplements this philosophical argument with a practical component: simple mind-body illusions that instructors may use to demonstrate contrary epistemologies to students. Combining these short philosophical and neuroscience arguments thereby acts as a pedagogical tool to open new conceptual spaces within which learning may occur. PMID:26321981

  4. Pedagogical tools to explore Cartesian mind-body dualism in the classroom: philosophical arguments and neuroscience illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott; Hamilton, Trevor J

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes's "radical" or "mind-body" dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli. Since this doubting mind is a thinking thing that is distinct from bodily stimuli, truth and certainty are reached through the doubting mind as cogito ergo sum, or the certainty of itself as it thinks: hence Descartes's famous maxim, I think, therefore I am. However, in the last century of Western philosophy, with nervous system investigation, and with recent advances in neuroscience, the potential avenues to explore student's understanding of the epistemology and effects of Cartesian mind-body dualism has expanded. This article further explores this expansion, highlighting pedagogical practices and tools instructors can use to enhance a psychology student's understanding of Cartesian dualistic epistemology, in order to think more critically about its implicit assumptions and effects on learning. It does so in two ways: first, by offering instructors an alternative philosophical perspective to dualistic thinking: a mind-body holism that is antithetical to the assumed binaries of dualistic epistemology. Second, it supplements this philosophical argument with a practical component: simple mind-body illusions that instructors may use to demonstrate contrary epistemologies to students. Combining these short philosophical and neuroscience arguments thereby acts as a pedagogical tool to open new conceptual spaces within which learning may occur.

  5. Historical-Philosophical Components of Policy and Mo-Rality Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro V. Usov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim. To analyze comprehensively the policy as a way of human being, as well as the important today’s criteria of legitimacy of the government and the nature of political morality through a consistent reconstruction of the relations between morality and politics in the contemporary and classic historical and philosophical discourses. Methodology. The methods of historical reconstruction, hermeneutic, social and transcendental ones, which allowed to involve actively into understanding the important problems of modern life, conceptual apparatus of political and moral philosophy and to explore the relationships between politics and morality through the idea of social agreement, justice and freedom are used for coherent and consistent understanding of the measurements and definitions of relations policy and morality. Scientific novelty. The used in the article methodological principles made it possible to create actual for today (especially for controversial burdened by totalitarian past and uncertain future of a controversial, local realities version of political ethics. It is proved that the development of moral and ethical principles, their consistent adherence by not only politicians, but by all the citizens are able to hinder the pragmatic interests of statesmen, who, under cover of the idea of the common good, protect primarily not the public but narrow corporate interests. A true freedom and justice based on the relationship of rights and duties, respect for them, which is more significant than conventional or compulsory recognition of them. Not only classic but also modern philosophical arguments for the combination of morality, ethics and politics were reconstructed. The thoughts of E. Tuhendhat about the nature of morality as a special regulatory system, and the basic principles of justification of moral standards in a modern philosophy were analyzed. It is shown that the landscape of contemporary crisis of social being, moral

  6. HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPONENTS OF POLICY AND MO-RALITY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro V. Usov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim. To analyze comprehensively the policy as a way of human being, as well as the important today’s criteria of legitimacy of the government and the nature of political morality through a consistent reconstruction of the relations between morality and politics in the contemporary and classic historical and philosophical discourses. Methodology. The methods of historical reconstruction, hermeneutic, social and transcendental ones, which allowed to involve actively into understanding the important problems of modern life, conceptual apparatus of political and moral philosophy and to explore the relationships between politics and morality through the idea of social agreement, justice and freedom are used for coherent and consistent understanding of the measurements and definitions of relations policy and morality. Scientific novelty. The used in the article methodological principles made it possible to create actual for today (especially for controversial burdened by totalitarian past and uncertain future of a controversial, local realities version of political ethics. It is proved that the development of moral and ethical principles, their consistent adherence by not only politicians, but by all the citizens are able to hinder the pragmatic interests of statesmen, who, under cover of the idea of the common good, protect primarily not the public but narrow corporate interests. A true freedom and justice based on the relationship of rights and duties, respect for them, which is more significant than conventional or compulsory recognition of them. Not only classic but also modern philosophical arguments for the combination of morality, ethics and politics were reconstructed. The thoughts of E. Tuhendhat about the nature of morality as a special regulatory system, and the basic principles of justification of moral standards in a modern philosophy were analyzed. It is shown that the landscape of contemporary crisis of social being, moral

  7. [Romanticism in German medicine in the light of home historiography of 1802-1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka-Syroka, B

    1998-01-01

    The German non-materialist medicine of the first half of the 19th century is presently a subject of advanced historical studies, carried out in Europe and USA. Until the mid-20th century, however, it was only the German authors who produced literature dedicated to the above-mentioned medicine. The purpose of this study is to present to the Polish reader the main trends in the German medical historiography that have been taking up the subject for 150 years. The historians of German medicine distinguished trends in the post-war period as the studies of the history of their native medical historiography developed. A Polish historian taking up the task of characterizing of the main methodological trends in German medical historiography is faced with the necessity to take position on the findings of German authors who took up the above-mentioned subject earlier. In my studies I worked mainly on the findings of the following authors: Nelly Tsouyopoulos, Urban Wiesing and Hans-Uwe Lammel. They served me as a guide to the old historical-medical literature that I managed to reach in the libraries of Dresden and Leipzig. Some of the German studies (H. Haeser, J. Petersen) were translated to Polish language and in those cases I leaned on the Polish translators. In this study I discuss the following methodological trends in historiography of German medicine of the 1st half of the 19th century: eclectic trends, philosophical trends, positivistic trends, neo-romantic trends, and social-cultural trends. I also present the analysis of theories of the most important representatives of the trends. Thanks to this I could reconstruct the process of shaping of the discussed epoch image in the light of various concepts of its description. As a result different characteristics of the epoch were grasped although the factography level they referred to was common. This study outlines also further developoment of the historiography of the discussed subject in the second half of the 20th

  8. SPIRITUALITY AS PHILOSOPHICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DE-VELOPMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Gromov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to regard the essence and phenomenon of spirituality in connection with ontological foundation of human being existence. The author suggests the concept of new cosmo-theocentric paradigm of human world outlook, as a ground of perspective transformation of social life activity on the contrary to anthropocentric view, which dominates in present society consciousness. The author gives the characteristics of the ideal sage and underlines the importance of spiritual teachers in cultural development of society. Methodology. The method of philosophizing is connected with the unity of mind, sensuality, belief, will in integral body and mental organization of a man. Such point of view takes into consideration not only aspects of objective determination, but includes senses of existence and world outlook ideas in culture on particular and universal levels of social experience. The author considers a special ontological disposition of the human being in the world as a “transcendent project” with “metaphysic responsibility”. Scientific novelty. In the history of social culture the problem of its spiritual attitude towards reality is a basic problem, but now it becomes especially up-to-date and important. Now the survival of the civilization depends on the development of spirituality. From metaphysical point of view it means how spiritual the human being may be. The author connects the consideration of spirituality with particular human being ontological status in the world and provides his reflection with speculative character. Conclusions. The transition of modern civilized society to the cosmo-theocentric paradigm is prepared by contradictions of its technological and cultural development. In historical circumstances when the conscious influence of society on itself is growing, the realization of this process depends on spiritual trend of human beings cultural activity and mental quality of social leaders

  9. Meaningful Human Control over Autonomous Systems: A Philosophical Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Santoni de Sio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Debates on lethal autonomous weapon systems have proliferated in the past 5 years. Ethical concerns have been voiced about a possible raise in the number of wrongs and crimes in military operations and about the creation of a “responsibility gap” for harms caused by these systems. To address these concerns, the principle of “meaningful human control” has been introduced in the legal–political debate; according to this principle, humans not computers and their algorithms should ultimately remain in control of, and thus morally responsible for, relevant decisions about (lethal military operations. However, policy-makers and technical designers lack a detailed theory of what “meaningful human control” exactly means. In this paper, we lay the foundation of a philosophical account of meaningful human control, based on the concept of “guidance control” as elaborated in the philosophical debate on free will and moral responsibility. Following the ideals of “Responsible Innovation” and “Value-sensitive Design,” our account of meaningful human control is cast in the form of design requirements. We identify two general necessary conditions to be satisfied for an autonomous system to remain under meaningful human control: first, a “tracking” condition, according to which the system should be able to respond to both the relevant moral reasons of the humans designing and deploying the system and the relevant facts in the environment in which the system operates; second, a “tracing” condition, according to which the system should be designed in such a way as to grant the possibility to always trace back the outcome of its operations to at least one human along the chain of design and operation. As we think that meaningful human control can be one of the central notions in ethics of robotics and AI, in the last part of the paper, we start exploring the implications of our account for the design and use of non

  10. Nursing opinion leadership: a preliminary model derived from philosophic theories of rational belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christine A; Whall, Ann L

    2013-10-01

    Opinion leaders are informal leaders who have the ability to influence others' decisions about adopting new products, practices or ideas. In the healthcare setting, the importance of translating new research evidence into practice has led to interest in understanding how opinion leaders could be used to speed this process. Despite continued interest, gaps in understanding opinion leadership remain. Agent-based models are computer models that have proven to be useful for representing dynamic and contextual phenomena such as opinion leadership. The purpose of this paper is to describe the work conducted in preparation for the development of an agent-based model of nursing opinion leadership. The aim of this phase of the model development project was to clarify basic assumptions about opinions, the individual attributes of opinion leaders and characteristics of the context in which they are effective. The process used to clarify these assumptions was the construction of a preliminary nursing opinion leader model, derived from philosophical theories about belief formation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ["Chemistry of Concepts”and “Historical Sense”. On Philosophical Concept Formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blättler, Christine

    2015-06-01

    "Chemistry of Concepts" and "Historical Sense". On Philosophical Concept Formation. The question concerning concepts and their relations to objects and words has had a long and controversial history. Recently, it is challenged by an anew turn towards objects and an emphasized object-oriented ontology. The article argues that one reason for this is the reduction of concepts towards pure rational constructions and offers arguments for alternative understandings. In this context, the article proposes a re-reading of Nietzsche's particular approach and shows that Nietzsche's thought is decisively shaped by the sciences of his time, especially physiology and chemistry. Before the background of the recent increase in research interest on Nietzsche and the sciences the article examines place and function of the sciences related to the genealogy and justification of concepts. Opposing a strong naturalist reading it makes a plea for understanding Nietzsche's epistemological critique concerning concepts systematically as a triple one: philological, physiological, and historical. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. La raison et la foi. Des philosophes Polonais rapprochent les deux domaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Zuziak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three attempts of grasping the relations between faith and reason made by M. Heller, J. Tischner and K. Tarnowski. Reason and faith are two foundations for human desire to understand the world. Without them, no attempts to understand can take place. As Heller points out, both of them, due to cooperation, support development and help to eliminate dangerous simplifications. Faith, or more precisely – religious thinking – is, as J. Tischner famously argued, a condition for dialogue, for being open to others and community. Faith gives strength and courage, supports the search for existing (although very often unconscious ties that bonds people. Faith allows us to discover the meaning and purpose of our lives. K. Tarnowski goes even further and claims, that faith reveals “the surplus” of meaning, which invites us to investigate what is impossible to express – the Mystery. Only in the face of Mystery, by a communion with the Other, can we feel that the presence of the Other is important for our existence. The three philosophers from Krakow emphasized in their works, that the relations between faith and reason, although connected and supplementing themselves, require much attention from both scientists, who create rational models of reality, and theologians, who aim to create a coherent vision linking these two aspects of human world.

  13. Ensino de filosofia para não-filósofos. Filosofia de ofício ou ofício de professor: os limites do filosofar Philosophy teaching for non philosophers. Philosophy of occupation or teacher's occupation: the limits of philosophizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pelloso Gelamo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é o resultado de um pensamento filosófico acerca do ensino de filosofia. O principal objetivo de nossa pesquisa foi entender o que faz o filósofo quando seu ofício é ser professor de filosofia. Para tal, utilizamos como referencial teórico-metodológico o pensamento de Foucault para pensar o filósofo-professor de filosofia em seu lócus - ensino de filosofia - enquanto uma ontologia do presente, e o pensamento de Deleuze e Guattari para indicar uma possível maneira de entender esse ofício de professor que acreditamos se dar em um fazer artístico, filosófico e científico.This paper is the result of a philosophical thinking about philosophy teaching. The main goal of our research was to understand what philosophers do when their occupation is to teach philosophy. To do so, we used Foucault's thoughts as a theoretic-methodological framework to think the philosophers-teachers of philosophy in their locus - philosophy teaching - as an ontology of the present, and Deleuze and Guattari's thoughts to point out a possible way to understand this teacher's occupation, which, we believe, happens in an artistic, philosophical and scientific manner.

  14. Geogenic heavy metal concentrations in German soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindel, R.; Fleige, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the area of the German Federal Republic, 6,300 soil samples of 526 soil profiles were examined for the concentrations of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, mercury, antimony, arsenic and lithium. The soil profiles were selected so that the prevailing loose and solid rock floors of the German Federal Republic were represented. The analysis data of these samples formed the basis for the calculation of average geogenic heavy metal concentrations in the soils of the German Federal Republic. (orig.) [de

  15. Street food on the move: a socio-philosophical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloni, Marina

    2013-11-01

    In the last decade social and hard scientists have increasingly analysed the issue of street food, which is now become a question of common concern in international public discourse. However, considering present literature and investigations, a socio-philosophical approach to the issue under examination has been until now not properly developed. For this reason, this paper is not aimed at improving an empirical research on street food. Rather, it is interested in developing an innovative methodological approach, which assumes transcultural, intersectional, diachronic and interdisciplinary viewpoints in the analysis of the phenomenon. Taking as a background the very rich theoretical and empirical literature on food (which is difficult to be summarised in a few pages), the paper intends to strengthen a conceptual analysis of street food as a social construction and historical symbol, opening up new theoretical, comparative, sociological and pragmatic perspectives. The normative and critical content of street food refers thus ex negativo to the right to the quality of food and to have a decent and peaceful existence in both post-colonial and post-industrial societies in an interconnected global age. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Head Transplants and Personal Identity: A Philosophical and Literary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    The criterion of personal identity is clearly called into question by the project to perform a human head transplant. Is identity provided by psychological continuity alone, or does it depend on bodily continuity as well? And how do these different perspectives interface with our notion of mind and mind-body relationship? The reader will be provided with a discussion concerning these problems, together with a philosophical and literary survey about the conception of body-mind relationship from the Greek thought to contemporary philosophy. The analysis will conclude with a discussion concerning the possibility to consider the issue of personal identity from a statistic point of view, which privileges the general perception of identity, so as it has been shaped by the cultural trends of the last four centuries. It could hence be argued that personal identity is not something which can be defined once and for all. On the contrary, the general perception of identity is subject to significant alterations resulting from one's cultural environment. However, the cultural environment itself can be changed by particularly notable events, such as, hypothetically, the successful outcome of a human head transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Strategy of Media Education: Philosophical and Pedagogical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Mikhailovna Nikolaeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern requirements for educational activities have a binary nature. Thus, on the one hand, educational practice established in the form of a social institution is one of the most conservative areas of social space. On the other hand, comfortable adaptation of a person to the processes occurring in the modern world is impossible without taking into account the phenomena of digital nature. The article provides a philosophical and pedagogical strategy aimed at the development of critical and creative thinking skills and competent reasoning, which can act as a basis for media education. The paper shows that the community of researchers is an interactive form of lesson organization, which makes it possible to develop rationality and ethical-and-democratic behaviour and, thus, to promote information and media literacy among students. The article also presents theoretical justification of the strategy, as well as techniques and materials for its empirical assessment. These can help arrange a lesson according to the principle of research community, which will contribute to the development of both cognitive and ethical-and-social skills in students.

  18. Crisis discussions in psychology--New historical and philosophical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas; Mülberger, Annette

    2012-06-01

    In this introductory article, we provide a historical and philosophical framework for studying crisis discussions in psychology. We first trace the various meanings of crisis talk outside and inside of the sciences. We then turn to Kuhn's concept of crisis, which is mainly an analyst's category referring to severe clashes between theory and data. His view has also dominated many discussions on the status of psychology: Can it be considered a "mature" science, or are we dealing here with a pre- or multi-paradigmatic discipline? Against these Kuhnian perspectives, we point out that especially, but not only in psychology distinctive crisis declarations and debates have taken place since at least the late 19th century. In these, quite different usages of crisis talk have emerged, which can be determined by looking at (a) the content and (b) the dimensions of the declarations, as well as (c) the functions these declarations had for their authors. Thus, in psychology at least, 'crisis' has been a vigorous actor's category, occasionally having actual effects on the future course of research. While such crisis declarations need not be taken at face value, they nevertheless help to break the spell of Kuhnian analyses of psychology's history. They should inform ways in which the history and philosophy of psychology is studied further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Bowers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI. MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS′s status as a historical standard of care.

  20. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics: Confessions of a philosopher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Weideman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available When we undertake academic, disciplinary work, we rely on philosophical starting points. Several straightforward illustrations of this can be found in the history of applied linguistics. It is evident from the history of our field that various historically influential approaches to our discipline base themselves upon different academic confessions. This paper examines the effects of basing our applied linguistic work on the idea that applied linguistics is a discipline concerned with design. Such a characterisation does justice to both modernist and postmodernist emphases in applied linguistics. Conceptualisations of applied linguistics that came with the proposals for communicative language teaching (CLT some thirty to forty years ago propelled the discipline squarely into postmodern times. To account for this, we need to develop a theory of applied linguistics which shows what constitutive and regulative conditions exist for doing applied linguistic designs. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics today has as its first responsibility to free the users of its designs from toil and drudgery, as well as from becoming victims of fashion, ideology or theory. Secondly, it should design solutions to language problems in such a way that the technical imagination of the designer is not restricted but supported by theory and empirical investigation, and that the productive pedagogical fantasy of the implementers of such plans is set free. Thirdly, it must seek to become accountable by designing theoretically and socially defensible solutions to language problems, solutions that relieve some of the suffering, pain, poverty and injustice in our world.

  1. German philosophy, Freud, and the riddle of the woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makari, G J

    1991-01-01

    After Kant's critique of empiricism, subjectivist epistemologies cropped up in 19th-century German philosophy. Schopenhauer argued that the true essence of every object was an irrational and sexual will. This underlying will distorted a subject's knowledge of the world. Schopenhauer's notion of this true essence was analogous to his portrayal of women; they too were natural, irrational, and instinctual. Nietzsche postulated a will-to-power that structured and hence distorted a chaotic world. That structureless "real" world Nietzsche symbolized as the essential "truth of a woman," a truth which for Nietzsche was unknowable to the desirous male philosopher. Freud, while maintaining belief in empirical truth, developed a psychology of mis-knowledge which had much in common with Schopenhauer's epistemology. His theory of transference grew from a need to explain how female patients libidinally distorted the reality of their male analysts. Conversely, Freud's later writings on women are hampered by the author's realization of his own precarious and subjective position as man trying to know woman. These counter-transferential concerns ultimately made the woman's psychological essence an unknowable riddle for Freud.

  2. Gyama Bugibugi (German gunpowder) : a history of German presence in Nawuriland, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntewusu, SA

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses general political and economic issues in Nawuriland during and after German colonialism. The paper argues that the legacies of German colonialism are still largely seen and felt in Nawuriland especially in plantation projects, land and chieftaincy.

  3. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  4. 63rd German radiological congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The book of abstracts contains abstracts of 171 papers read at the German Radiological Congress in Berlin as well as abstracts of two papers not read for lack of time. Further, there are 31 brief descriptions of the scientific exhibition. Subjects: Diagnosis of gall bladder diseases and inflammatory diseases of the large intestine; hyperthermia and irradiation in tumour therapy; nuclear methods in the diagnosis of growing and displacing processes, skeletal diseases, thromboses, embolisms, gastrointestinal and liver affections; new techniques and methods, diagnostics of the spinal tract; radiooncology; carcinoma of the ovaries; diagnostics and therapy of tumours of the lungs; computerized tomography; angiography; ultrasonic diagnosis. (MG) [de

  5. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law......Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...

  6. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    . Simulation makes those reforms comparable over time and across countries. Results show that the profile of the German scheme is changing from "general family" towards "dual-earner" support. Furthermore, the recent reforms make the German scheme converge towards the Swedish leave scheme. The recent reforms....... Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies....

  7. Retrieval and the development of German federalism in the postwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mayor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The path to understanding the nature of the German federal state is the analysis of its historical development. The process of establishing the federal structure of the German territory is long and quite complex , due to complex factors of social , legal and political nature. Federal relations on German soil in a given historical period is a reflection of political realities and lessons of the previous state . This paper considers the problem of revival of federal structures in the context of the new German state. Author determined arguments in favor of the federal structure of the state at the time. Established a task that had set the parents creators of the Weimar constitution. It is noted that much attention has been given implementation mechanisms controlling the balance of power and authority , not the vertical distribution of competencies. The features of the functioning of West German federalism. This paper analyzes the main structural problems and dysfunctions in the system of German federalism, which found its expression in the post­war period ; considered federal principles in Eastern Germany, who were in the tension field of centralist ideological trends in the postwar period. The author points out that the revival of German federalism influenced by factors such as domestic and foreign policy issues and concludes on the need for transformation of the federal system.

  8. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  9. Saksa kirjandus Noor-Eesti ajal. Young Estonia and German Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lukas

    2012-04-01

    to be disseminated through serialization in Estonian newspapers, thus continuing to mold the taste of the Estonian petite bourgeoisie, Young Estonia’s authors, critics, and publications introduced the Estonian public to new directions and names in German letters. At first the choice of translations did not coincide with Young Estonia’s program of ”art for art’s sake”. Young Estonia’s ideal, symbolist literature was connected in Germany primarily with names such as Rilke, Hofmannsthal, and George. During the Young Estonia era, these writers do not figure significantly in the Estonian literary field, though George emerges as a great model for newer Baltic-German poetry. Translations of these poets do not appear until the 1920s. However, the preparatory work done by Young Estonia should not be underestimated. Due to the circulation of literary influences throughout Europe, it is difficult to ascertain specific influences of German modernism on the authors connected to Young Estonia. The reliance on German sources in the literary criticism of the first decades of the 20th century, Young Estonia included, is striking. A. H. Tammsaare’s reading notes locate the sources of his philosophical foundation and sensibility primarily in German modernism. More generally speaking, Nietzsche’s shaping role is crucial, as was true more generally, both in European and Russian literature; Otto Weininger also had considerable influence on Estonian literature. The elective affinity of Jaan Oks with German expressionism is striking as well –an affinity so early and so spontaneous that this is probably not a case of direct influence. The German expressionist avant-garde, which began to define itself through declarations, theses, programs and groupings around 1910, become an important source of impulses in the Estonian literary field in the 1920s, especially through the mediation of Marie Under.

  10. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field – Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs) like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6]), first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of ‘Common Morality’, ‘Specific Morality’, ‘Specification’, ‘Balancing’ and ‘Double Effects’. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts. PMID:28031624

  11. Tolerance as dialogical universals: philosophical aspects of cultural area enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Troitska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Non­violence world forming requires the polycultural world dialogueness which becomes the necessary tool of interaction subjects’ relationship harmonization. On the basis of research result analysis the author reveals the significant possibilities of tolerance in modern intercultural interaction and emphasizes its potential for dialogue. By analysis logics it is proposed to transfer tolerance into the area of dialogical universals which consist of general definitions, ideas in the philosophical meaning and also have life­oriented sense for a man. In the article dialogue and tolerance are considered as natural features of a man and tolerance meaning is explicated in cultural universals, and praxeological area of spiritual­practical perception and re­construction of the world. The article aim realization with the help of the phenomenological approach, the theoretical re­construction and the analytics concerning tolerance make possible the search of useful constructs of its more efficient implementation in scientific­educational and social­cultural area as in the modern philosophy universals are often considered as universals of culture. As the basis of the world comprehension, as the conceptual foundation of its remaking by a human or its adaption to him they are formed implicitly in the personality’s cultural­educational area and they become, on the one hand, an orientation basis in choosing the life strategies and a certain tool of reality phenomena perception and, on the other hand, an intellectual combination of images into the integral picture of the universe.

  12. Treatment of uncertainties in the IPCC: a philosophical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebeile, J.; Drouet, I.

    2014-12-01

    The IPCC produces scientific reports out of findings on climate and climate change. Because the findings are uncertain in many respects, the production of reports requires aggregating assessments of uncertainties of different kinds. This difficult task is currently regulated by the Guidance note for lead authors of the IPCC fifth assessment report on consistent treatment of uncertainties. The note recommends that two metrics—i.e. confidence and likelihood— be used for communicating the degree of certainty in findings. Confidence is expressed qualitatively "based on the type, amount, quality, and consistency of evidence […] and the degree of agreement", while likelihood is expressed probabilistically "based on statistical analysis of observations or model results, or expert judgment". Therefore, depending on the evidence evaluated, authors have the choice to present either an assigned level of confidence or a quantified measure of likelihood. But aggregating assessments of uncertainties of these two different kinds express distinct and conflicting methodologies. So the question arises whether the treatment of uncertainties in the IPCC is rationally justified. In order to answer the question, it is worth comparing the IPCC procedures with the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality which have been developed by philosophers. These theories—which include contributions to the philosophy of probability and to bayesian probabilistic confirmation theory—are relevant for our purpose because they are commonly used to assess the rationality of common collective jugement formation based on uncertain knowledge. In this paper we make the comparison and pursue the following objectives: i/we determine whether the IPCC confidence and likelihood can be compared with the notions of uncertainty targeted by or underlying the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality; ii/we investigate whether the formal normative theories of epistemic rationality justify

  13. Social-philosophical analysis of legitimacy conditions of state power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Antonov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Social­philosophical analysis had displayed the next conditions of state power legitimacy: 1 realistic progressiveness – definition of social unacceptable innovations; 2 absorption in national consciousness – policy, which conforms to local cultural­historical peculiarities of such predisposition; 3 moderate liberal views – balance between insufficient and excessive harshness; 4 observance of contractual discipline – social­contractual essence of relationships between direction of a country and its population; 5 pretended accountability, which shows oneself in dual nature of state power, that must look clear for retention of legitimacy, on the one hand, and has to make a secret of ones immoral practices, on the other hand; 6 democratic policy, which conquers recognition of majority by means of execution of their will; 7 scientific integration – countercollision, system making factor for state power and, through state power, for whole society; 8 openness, which provides intrasystem synthesis of  all other factors thanks to incessant renewal of state power stuff by the best cadres; 9 absolute meritocracy – stuffing of state elite by figures, who have professional characteristics, which conform to people’s txpectations; 10 observance of natural rights – is based on knowing of this permanent principle of social­state  relations and on empathy of its temporal modifications; 11 actualization of natural low idea in concrete acts of transindividual interplay; 12 dosated non­interference into privacy – preventive satisfaction of human individualism; 13 organization of power instinct sublimation – policy, which fund oneself  on knowing of the fact, that this aspiration is an all people’s way, and which consists in peacemaking management of aspiration realization.

  14. Arrow physicians: are economics and medicine philosophically incompatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sandro

    2015-06-01

    Economics is en route to its further expansion in medicine, but many in the medical community remain unconvinced that its impact will be positive. Thus, a philosophical enquiry into the compatibility of economics and medicine is necessary to resolve the disagreements. The fundamental mission of medicine obliges physicians to practise science and compassion to serve the patient's best interests. Conventional (neoclassical) economics assumes that individuals are self-interested and that competitive markets will emerge optimal states. Economics is seemingly incompatible with the emphasis of putting patients' interests first. This idea is refuted by Professor Kenneth Arrow's health economics seminal paper. Arrow emphasizes that medical practice involves agency, knowledge, trust and professionalism, and physician-patient relation critically affects care quality. The term Arrow Physician is used to mean a humanistic carer who has a concern for the patient and acts on the best available evidence with health equity in mind. To make this practice sustainable, implementing appropriate motivations, constitutions and institutions to enable altruistic agency is critical. There is substantial evidence that polycentric governance can encourage building trust and reciprocity, so as to avoid depletion of communal resources. This paper proposes building trusting institutions through granting altruistic physicians adequate autonomy to direct resources based on patients' technical needs. It also summarizes the philosophy bases of medicine and economics. It, therefore, contributes to developing a shared language to facilitate intellectual dialogues, and will encourage trans-disciplinary research into medical practice. This should lead to medicine being reoriented to care for whole persons again. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A philosophical approach to the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomilova Nonka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the philosophical aspects of the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis. The main directions of the study are as follows: 1. Both on the individual and social plan, the orientation of the transcending universalizing power of religion could vary depending on the macro-social movements a community /or an individual/ is involved in. For the individual as for the community, religion could be a cultural position transcending ego and ethno-centrism, mono-cultural tendencies; in situations of internal differentiation and disintegration of these entities, the universalizing binding role of religion is partialized and determined by various social groups, who are often in opposition to each other due to their economic political, ethnic, psychological features; 2. This process is usually related to the invalidation of universally uniting religious-moral bonds and values and intensification of differences: power, property, doctrinal differences to a shift of the weight center from internal spiritual movements /particularly typical of mysticism, asceticism, priesthood/ on to practical social action - reformist heresies, the various practical theologies of revolution, liberation, the religious-motivated wars; 3. When reduced to an ethnic, political, or state emblem, religious affiliation to Judaism, Islam Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism has become and still remain a tool for the sacralization of military and political conflicts. In religion-motivated conflict situations, opposing parties de-sacralize their Sacred Books as their acts contradict the books' moral content; 4. The power of historical mythologies is in reverse proportion to the capacity of a nation to periodically renew its social life world - its psychological attitudes labour relations, political stereotypes; 5. In this type of situation religion is usually reduced to 'belonging', as G. Davie put it, at the expense of 'believing' and a corresponding moral behavior. The

  16. The Strategic Challenge of Capacity for German Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomauske, Bruno; Moloney, Barry; Charlier, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experience of decommissioning across the world has allowed the nuclear industry to develop and enhance most of the technologies required for safe and efficient dismantling of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). One strategic challenge confronting the industry now is how to scale up implementation to address the burgeoning demand for dismantling of full size NPPs during the period 2016-2040. The German decommissioning programme will provide early evidence of whether the European industry can rise to this strategic challenge. It is widely reported in the media that German utilities will spend some Euro 30-40 Bn decommissioning NPPs during the next 25 years. In total, 22 NPPs will progress through the typical three stage programme encompassing post operations, dismantling and site clearance, with a peak occurring in the 2020's. Politically, immediate dismantling is strongly preferred as the strategy for the NPPs, so there will be a surge in decommissioning expenditure starting as soon as 2017. A critical issue is whether the German nuclear industry has sufficient capacity to deliver the programme, and where utilities may seek participation by other European companies. Innovation may be required, perhaps at a non-technical level. The circumstances of the German market require a thorough understanding. While the market is apparently open and receptive to international participation, three factors make it hard for foreign companies to penetrate. The political and regulatory environment is tough and for many foreign companies difficult to understand quickly. Utilities are mostly pursuing self-perform decommissioning strategies to preserve employment for their skilled workforce, limiting scope for some contractors. Finally, an innovative and highly experienced German nuclear industry can present formidable competition. Yet, this industry does not possess all the capacity needed for the utilities' programmes. Risks for new entrants can

  17. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  18. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  19. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  20. DIMA – Annotation guidelines for German intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kügler, Frank; Smolibocki, Bernadett; Arnold, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents newly developed guidelines for prosodic annotation of German as a consensus system agreed upon by German intonologists. The DIMA system is rooted in the framework of autosegmental-metrical phonology. One important goal of the consensus is to make exchanging data between groups...

  1. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  2. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  3. The Teaching of German Literature in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippley, LaVern J.

    The present-day status of language instruction at St. Olaf College is viewed in the perspective of past requirements at the college. Reasons for student interest in German, the most popular modern language, focus on the influence of family ties with speakers of Norwegian. A discussion of methods of teaching German literature in translation is…

  4. The Role of German in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  5. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published

  6. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published earnings as

  7. Teaching a Course in the German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Klaus

    1978-01-01

    Describes a course in German film offered by the Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures at the University of Illinois. A sample syllabus is given, which includes a list of the films and textbooks used, as well as a selective listing of films available in the United States. (CFM)

  8. When do German Firms Change their Dividends?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Da Silva, L.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the dividend policy of German firms is more flexible than the one of their Anglo-American counterparts.This paper analyses the decision to change the dividend for a panel of 221 German firms from 1984 to 1994.The choice of the period of study is motivated by the fact

  9. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents some methodological considerations around the topic of the AFinLA 2012 Autumn Symposium: Multimodal discourses of participation. The aim is to shed theoretical and analytical light on embodied participation in material settings. The research is placed in a relational perspective...... in which entities (for example, the world, culture, society, organization and identities) emerge through entangled, layered practices in concrete circumstances. Understanding is not treated as a philosophical puzzle or as a purely linguistic phenomenon. Rather, it is conceptualized as an embodied......, multimodal process in which language together with bodily senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste) and a sense of place contribute to a phenomenon being recognized (as shared). Participation can result in inclusion or exclusion, a claim which is discussed with the help of a pilot study from...

  10. Swiss Themes in Three "Pluricentric" German Language Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Examines three current textbooks for German as a foreign language with regard to their coverage of Switzerland as a German-speaking nation. Concludes by suggesting that pluricentric German language textbooks for beginners are rare. (Author/VWL)

  11. Philosopher, pediatrician, pathologist? John Locke's thoughts on Rhicketts and a missed case of Ebstein's anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N; Wilson, N; Sunderland, R

    2009-02-01

    John Locke (1632-1704) is primarily remembered for his highly influential philosophical works regarded as the engine of the Enlightenment. It is less well known that Locke also was a highly regarded and influential physician. In 1666, Locke performed a postmortem examination of an 18-month-old child who had physical signs of rickets. Locke, a medical student at this time, attributed rickets as the cause of death. However, Locke described and recognized severe cardiac abnormality and speculated that right-to-left interatrial shunting was part of rickets. Locke's clearly described clinical history and postmortem findings are more consistent with a congenital cardiac malformation, an Ebstein's anomaly, in addition to the rickets. Locke did not consider this case as other than rickets. His opinion was not challenged when the case report was re-presented in the past half century. This article forces a reevaluation of the 17th-century understanding of infant cardiovascular physiology and pathology: Locke clearly gives one of the earliest descriptions of right-to-left shunting through the patent foramen ovale. It is unfortunate that Locke apparently did not discuss his postmortem findings with his contemporary Richard Lower (1631-1691), whose celebrated masterpiece on the heart, Tractatus de Corde, was published in 1669.

  12. Mixed Methods for the Interpretation of Longitudinal Gerontologic Data: Insights From Philosophical Hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ness, Peter H; Fried, Terri R; Gill, Thomas M

    2011-10-01

    This article's main objective is to demonstrate that data analysis, including quantitative data analysis, is a process of interpretation involving basic hermeneutic principles that philosophers have identified in the interpretive process as applied to other, mainly literary, creations. Such principles include a version of the hermeneutic circle, an insistence on interpretive presuppositions, and a resistance to reducing the discovery of truth to the application of inductive methods. The importance of interpretation becomes especially evident when qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single clinical research project and when the data being analyzed are longitudinal. Study objectives will be accomplished by showing that three major hermeneutic principles make practical methodological contributions to an insightful, illustrative mixed methods analysis of a qualitative study of changes in functional disability over time embedded in the Precipitating Events Project-a major longitudinal, quantitative study of functional disability among older persons. Mixed methods, especially as shaped by hermeneutic insights such as the importance of empathetic understanding, are potentially valuable resources for scientific investigations of the experience of aging: a practical aim of this article is to articulate and demonstrate this contention.

  13. The Philosophical and Mathematical Context of Two Gerbert's Musical Letters to Constantine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otisk, Marek

    -, č. 8 (2015), s. 19-38. ISBN 2038-3657 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Gerbert of Aurillac * mathematical basis of music * philosophical context of music Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

  15. Why more is different philosophical issues in condensed matter physics and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The physics of condensed matter, in contrast to quantum physics or cosmology, is not traditionally associated with deep philosophical questions. However, as science - largely thanks to more powerful computers - becomes capable of analysing and modelling ever more complex many-body systems, basic questions of philosophical relevance arise. Questions about the emergence of structure, the nature of cooperative behaviour, the implications of the second law,  the quantum-classical transition and many other issues. This book is a collection of essays by leading physicists and philosophers. Each investigates one or more of these issues, making use of examples from modern condensed matter research.  Physicists and philosophers alike will find surprising and stimulating ideas in these pages.

  16. Freud's philosophical inheritance: Schopenhauer and Nietzsche in Beyond the Pleasure Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwade, Robert

    2012-06-01

    This essay explores the possible significance of Freud's references to Schopenhauer and Nietzsche in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. It attempts to reveal two sides of Freud's philosophical inheritance and explores the structure of Freud's ambivalence toward his intellectual predecessors.

  17. Agents of the Father's law in a society of brothers: A philosophic and psychoanalytic perspective on legitimate use of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri

    This paper explores subjective processes of "Agents of Law" - individuals who the state grants the authority to use violence - and the dissonance stemming from the contradictory demands posed on them as legitimate users of violence despite the societal taboo against violence. A conceptual model will be offered based on two theoretical legs, Lacanian psychoanalysis and political theories of legitimacy. Specifically, psychoanalytic ideas would serve to examine unconscious processes, subject position and various identifications related to the question of "self-legitimacy" of Agents of Law. A central link between psychoanalysis and political thought is found in the image of the father and in the triad ruler-God-Father, which calls for an oedipal analysis. A psychoanalytic reading of two philosophical schools that elaborated on the question of legitimacy will be presented, and yield two analytic poles of a model for the understanding of possible subject positions of agents of Law: identification with a "Living Father" vs. identification with a "Dead Father". The psychoanalytic reading will shed light on the limitations of the philosophical perspectives in reflecting on the various (im)possible psychological positions of agents of Law. Finally, then, it will be shown how psychoanalysis helps finding words to characterize different nuances in the coping of agents of Law with the contradictory demands posed on them in an age in which God is dead, the father was murdered and the king was beheaded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reading a Feminist Response on “The Book of Knowledge” based on Gadamer’s Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqihuddin Abdul Kodir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The position of woman and knowledge in Islamic perspective has been an interesting issue in Islamic studies. One of the female Muslim scholars who focus her studies on feminism is Sa’diyya Shaikh. By exploring Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics, this paper is aimed at explaining the basic concepts of the philosophical hermeneutics of Sa’diyya Shaikh’s “Knowledge, Women, and Gender in the Hadith: a Feminist Interpretation” published in 2014. The work is focused on the interpretation responding to the selected texts of the Hadith in “The Book of Knowledge”, the collection of the prophetic traditions by Sahih al-Bukhari. It was found out that prejudice influences Shaikh’s motivation in interpreting the text. However, as there are neither merely subjective nor objective aspects in the interpretation, Shaikh positions herself in the structures of self-understanding which reveal “the truth” for her within a horizon. Indeed, Shaikh’s interpretation is dynamic. Thus, it can still be fixed and changed to invite new perspectives

  19. Situating the Embodied Mind in a Landscape of Standing Affordances for Living Without Chairs: Materializing a Philosophical Worldview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Erik

    2016-07-01

    Sitting too much is unhealthy, but a widespread habit in many societies. Realizing behavioral change in this area is hard. Our societies promote being seated via the way its places are structured: they are filled with chairs for example. How can we make healthier environments that invite people to move around more? This article shows how philosophical research in the area of embodied/enactive cognitive science let to a built vision for the office of the future, of 2025. Multidisciplinary studio RAAAF [Rietveld Architecture-Art-Affordances] and visual artist Barbara Visser built this world without chairs, titled The End of Sitting. This large rock-like landscape integrates many affordances for standing. Affordances are the possibilities for action provided by the environment. This landscape of standing affordances allows people to work standing while being supported by the material structure of the environment. This unorthodox working landscape is both an enactive art installation and the materialization of a philosophical worldview that understands people as embodied minds situated in a landscape of affordances. It stimulates reflection on the way built environments can naturally invite more active and healthy behavior.

  20. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.