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Sample records for understanding fundamental aspects

  1. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics.  The next bo...

  2. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...

  3. Fundamental aspects of solid dispersion technology for poorly soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Huang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The solid dispersion has become an established solubilization technology for poorly water soluble drugs. Since a solid dispersion is basically a drug–polymer two-component system, the drug–polymer interaction is the determining factor in its design and performance. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of solid dispersions both in the solid state and in dissolution, emphasizing the fundamental aspects of this important technology.

  4. Fundamental understanding of matter: an engineering viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, H.S.; Cort, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of matter is a continuous process that should produce physical data for use by engineers and scientists in their work. Lack of fundamental property data in any engineering endeavor cannot be mitigated by theoretical work that is not confirmed by physical experiments. An engineering viewpoint will be presented to justify the need for understanding of matter. Examples will be given in the energy engineering field to outline the importance of further understanding of material and fluid properties and behavior. Cases will be cited to show the effects of various data bases in energy, mass, and momentum transfer. The status of fundamental data sources will be discussed in terms of data centers, new areas of engineering, and the progress in measurement techniques. Conclusions and recommendations will be outlined to improve the current situation faced by engineers in carrying out their work. 4 figures

  5. [Public health genetics. Fundamental rights aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozza, C

    2009-07-01

    The fundamental right of "informational self-determination" (protection of personal data) protects the individual against collection, storage, use and disclosure of her/his personal data - including genetic data - without her/his informed consent. However, in cases of overriding public interest, limitations of this right are deemed legitimate. Public health, expressly guaranteed in some German state constitutions, may constitute such overriding public interest and justify corresponding state measures as long as they respect the principle of proportionality.

  6. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO 2 , fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO 2 , radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies

  7. Fundamental and applied aspects of astronomical seeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that despite recent advances in the use of spacecraft as observatory platforms, much astronomy is still conducted from the surface of the earth. The literature on astronomical seeing and observatory site selection is widely scattered throughout journals and conference reports concerned with various disciplines. This survey has the objective to represent the state of the subject up to 1982. A description of the history and prospects of the considered subject is presented, and the optics of seeing are examined. The meteorology of seeing is discussed, taking into account aspects of micrometeorology and small-scale turbulence near the surface, the diurnal cycle in the planetary boundary layer, the temperature structure above the planetary boundary layer, and the effects of terrain. Attention is given to the calculation of system performance from microthermal data, optical methods for the measurement of seeing, and techniques for minimizing image-degrading effects of the atmosphere. 279 references

  8. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino

    2016-01-01

    Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...

  9. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  10. Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. M.

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in irradiated Zircaloy cladding have been investigated by microstructural characterization and analytical modeling, with emphasis on application of the results to understand high-burnup fuel failure under RIA situations. Optical microscopy, SEM, and TEM were conducted on BWR and PWR fuel cladding tubes that were irradiated to fluence levels of 3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 to 5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) and tested in hot cell at 292--325 C in Ar. The morphology, distribution, and habit planes of macroscopic and microscopic hydrides in as-irradiated and posttest cladding were determined by stereo-TEM. The type and magnitude of the residual stress produced in association with oxide-layer growth and dense hydride precipitation, and several synergistic factors that strongly influence axial-splitting behavior were analyzed. The results of the microstructural characterization and stress analyses were then correlated with axial-splitting behavior of high-burnup PWR cladding reported for simulated-RIA conditions. The effects of key test procedures and their implications for the interpretation of RIA test results are discussed

  11. Developments in surface contamination and cleaning fundamentals and applied aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation. Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination. In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants. The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specific...

  12. New fundamental and environmental aspects of atmospheric corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leygraf, C.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric corrosion involves chemical, electrochemical, and physical processes in three phases (solid, liquid, and gas and two interfaces (solid/liquid and liquid/gas. Because of inherent experimental and conceptual difficulties, scientific efforts to characterize this highly complex interfacial regime came relatively late into the field. With the access and development of surface and interface sensitive analytical techniques, it has lately become possible to perform molecular in situ analyses of the interfaces involved in atmospheric corrosion. This lecture presents some highlights from our fundamental research in atmospheric corrosion, performed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. It includes results from the most recent efforts in our research group to provide a molecular understanding of the interfacial regime that governs atmospheric corrosion. Using copper or zinc as substrate and carboxylic acid as corrosion stimulator in the humidity-containing atmosphere, results have been obtained with particular emphasis on probing the metal oxide/water interface (by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS combined with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM and sum frequency generation (SFG and the water/gas interface (by SFG, respectively. While research in atmospheric corrosion traditionally has aimed at understanding how the environment influences the metal, the opposite question- how the metal influences the environment during atmospheric corrosion- may be of equally technical importance. Some examples of on-going research on new environmental aspects of atmospheric corrosion of zinc will also be presented.

    La corrosión atmosférica implica procesos químicos, electroquímicos y físicos en tres fases (sólido, liquido y gas y dos interfases (sólido/líquido y líquido/gas. A causa de dificultades experimentales y conceptuales los esfuerzos científicos para caracterizar el proceso, interfacial

  13. Some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Hidetoshi Terashima; Eiji Sato; Masaaki Naito [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2007-07-01

    It is important to develop the production and utilization technology of highly reactive coke in order to improve the efficiency of blast furnace reactions. In this study, some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke produced in a coke oven chamber were investigated. First, the effects of catalytic Fe powder addition to coal before carbonization on coke strength were investigated. The addition of Fe powder decreased the coal caking property and hence the resultant coke drum index (DI150 15). On the other hand it increased coke reactivity (JIS coke reactivity index and CRI) to a great extent. This means that the caking property of blended coals needs to be adjusted higher to produce iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity. Secondly, it was shown that the iron ore reacts with silica brick at 1200{sup o}C in a condition similar to that in a coke oven chamber. The iron ore and silica reacted to produce fayalite (2FeO{center_dot}SiO{sub 2}) and the brick was damaged. On the other hand, it was proven that the iron ore does not react with silica brick at 1100{sup o}C in the above condition. Based on this fundamental study, iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity was successfully produced in a coke oven chamber on a commercial scale by adjusting the coal blend composition and the coke oven temperature. Furthermore it was revealed that about 70% of iron in iron ore powder added to coal was reduced to metallic iron during carbonization in coke ovens.

  14. Some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Terashima, H.; Sato, E.; Naito, M. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Futtsu (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    The development of production and utilization technology of highly reactive coke is significant in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. In this report, some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke produced in a coke oven chamber were investigated. First, the effects of catalytic Fe powder addition to coal before carbonization on coke strength were investigated. The addition of Fe powder decreased coal caking property and hence resultant coke drum index (DI{sup 150}{sub 15}). On the other hand it increased coke reactivity (JIS coke reactivity index and CRI) to a great extent. This means that caking property of blended coals needs to be adjusted higher to produce the iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity. Secondly, it was shown that the iron ore reacts with silica brick at 1200{sup o}C in a condition similar to that in a coke oven chamber. The iron ore and silica reacted to produce fayalite (2FeO {center_dot}SiO{sub 2}) and the brick was damaged. On the other hand, it was proved that the iron ore does not react with silica brick at 1100{sup o}C in the above condition. Based on this fundamental study, the iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale by adjusting the coal blend composition and the coke oven temperature. Furthermore it was revealed that about 70% of iron in iron ore powder added to coal was reduced to metallic iron during carbonization in coke ovens.

  15. Astrophysics of black holes from fundamental aspects to latest developments

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the state of the art of the basic theoretical and observational topics related to black hole astrophysics. It covers all the main topics in this wide field, from the theory of accretion disks and formation mechanisms of jet and outflows, to their observed electromagnetic spectrum, and attempts to measure the spin of these objects. Black holes are one of the most fascinating predictions of general relativity and are currently a very hot topic in both physics and astrophysics. In the last five years there have been significant advances in our understanding of these systems, and in the next five years it should become possible to use them to test fundamental physics, in particular to predict the general relativity in the strong field regime. The book is both a reference work for researchers and a textbook for graduate students.

  16. Advanced materials for magnetic cooling: Fundamentals and practical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, M.; Jandl, S.; Fournier, P.; Kedous-Lebouc, A.

    2017-06-01

    Over the last two decades, the research activities on magnetocalorics have been exponentially increased, leading to the discovery of a wide category of materials including intermetallics and oxides. Even though the reported materials were found to show excellent magnetocaloric properties on a laboratory scale, only a restricted family among them could be upscaled toward industrial levels and implemented as refrigerants in magnetic cooling devices. On the other hand, in the most of the reported reviews, the magnetocaloric materials are usually discussed in terms of their adiabatic temperature and entropy changes (ΔTad and ΔS), which is not enough to get more insight about their large scale applicability. In this review, not only the fundamental properties of the recently reported magnetocaloric materials but also their thermodynamic performance in functional devices are discussed. The reviewed families particularly include Gd1-xRx alloys, LaFe13-xSix, MnFeP1-xAsx, and R1-xAxMnO3 (R = lanthanide and A = divalent alkaline earth)-based compounds. Other relevant practical aspects such as mechanical stability, synthesis, and corrosion issues are discussed. In addition, the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that play a crucial role in the control of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties are regarded. In order to reproduce the needed magnetocaloric parameters, some practical models are proposed. Finally, the concepts of the rotating magnetocaloric effect and multilayered magnetocalorics are introduced.

  17. Necessity of fundamental education on public understanding about nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Kiyoshi; Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Itami, Toshio; Yamagishi, Yoichi; Hirata, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    The general public doesn't have fundamental knowledge of radiation and nuclear energy. Therefore, it is not easy to judge nuclear power plants as safe systems. This study is a survey about junior high school, university, and women's junior college students. The results show that junior high school students aren't reluctant to understand radiation. (author)

  18. Fundamental aspects of arm repair phase in two echinoderm models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Cinzia; Ben Khadra, Yousra; Czarkwiani, Anna; Zakrzewski, Anne; Martinez, Pedro; Colombo, Graziano; Bonasoro, Francesco; Candia Carnevali, Maria Daniela; Oliveri, Paola; Sugni, Michela

    2018-01-15

    Regeneration is a post-embryonic developmental process that ensures complete morphological and functional restoration of lost body parts. The repair phase is a key step for the effectiveness of the subsequent regenerative process: in vertebrates, efficient re-epithelialisation, rapid inflammatory/immune response and post-injury tissue remodelling are fundamental aspects for the success of this phase, their impairment leading to an inhibition or total prevention of regeneration. Among deuterostomes, echinoderms display a unique combination of striking regenerative abilities and diversity of useful experimental models, although still largely unexplored. Therefore, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis and the starfish Echinaster sepositus were here used to comparatively investigate the main repair phase events after injury as well as the presence and expression of immune system and extracellular matrix (i.e. collagen) molecules using both microscopy and molecular tools. Our results showed that emergency reaction and re-epithelialisation are similar in both echinoderm models, being faster and more effective than in mammals. Moreover, in comparison to the latter, both echinoderms showed delayed and less abundant collagen deposition at the wound site (absence of fibrosis). The gene expression patterns of molecules related to the immune response, such as Ese-fib-like (starfishes) and Afi-ficolin (brittle stars), were described for the first time during echinoderm regeneration providing promising starting points to investigate the immune system role in these regeneration models. Overall, the similarities in repair events and timing within the echinoderms and the differences with what has been reported in mammals suggest that effective repair processes in echinoderms play an important role for their subsequent ability to regenerate. Targeted molecular and functional analyses will shed light on the evolution of these abilities in the deuterostomian lineage. Copyright © 2017

  19. New progress of fundamental aspects in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changpu

    2001-01-01

    The review recalls the conceptual origins of various interpretations of quantum mechanics. With the focus on quantum measurement problems, new developments of fundamental quantum theory are described in association with recent experiments such as the decoherence process in cavity quantum electrodynamics 'which-way' detection using the Bragg scattering of cold atoms, and quantum interference using the small quantum system of molecular C 60 . The fundamental problems include the quantum coherence of a macroscopic object, the von Neumann chain in quantum measurement, the Schroedinger cat paradox, et al. Many land math experiments have been accomplished with possible important applications in quantum information. The most recent research on the new quantum theory by G.'t Hooft is reviewed, as well as future prospects of quantum mechanics

  20. Microstructural evolution under high temperature irradiation: fundamental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Valentin, P.

    1984-01-01

    In view of the impossibility to propose theoretically established scaling laws for extrapolating microstructural evolutions to unknown irradiation conditions, a full modelization of microstructural evolution at the atomistic level cannot be avoided. We briefly review the main models available for describing: defect balance under irradiation, the nucleation of clusters of various types, the development of each of the components of the microstructure, synergistic effects among the latter. Attention is called on the problems which remain to be solved at each step. In particular, the swelling incubation phenomenon is just being studied from the fundamental viewpoint. A table of available relevant observations thereof is given. The existence of dose-rate thresholds accross which microstructural evolution undergoes a qualitative change is stressed. Such thresholds call for a detailed modelization of microstructural evolution in order to propose safe extrapolation techniques [fr

  1. Nucleic acid and peptide aptamers: fundamentals and bioanalytical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascini, Marco; Palchetti, Ilaria; Tombelli, Sara

    2012-02-06

    In recent years new nucleic acid and protein-based combinatorial molecules have attracted the attention of researchers working in various areas of science, ranging from medicine to analytical chemistry. These molecules, called aptamers, have been proposed as alternatives to antibodies in many different applications. The aim of this Review is to illustrate the peculiarities of these combinatorial molecules which have initially been explored for their importance in molecular medicine, but have enormous potential in other biotechnological fields historically dominated by antibodies, such as bioassays. A description of these molecules is given, and the methods for their selection and production are also summarized. Moreover, critical aspects related to these molecules are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  3. Near Infrared Spectroscopy: fundamentals, practical aspects and analytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini Celio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to review the basic theory of Near Infrared (NIR Spectroscopy and its applications in the field of Analytical Science. It is addressed to the reader who does not have a profound knowledge of vibrational spectroscopy but wants to be introduced to the analytical potentialities of this fascinating technique and, at same time, be conscious of its limitations. Essential theory background, an outline of modern instrument design, practical aspects, and applications in a number of different fields are presented. This work does not intend to supply an intensive bibliography but refers to the most recent, significant and representative material found in the technical literature. Because this paper has been produced as consequence of the First Workshop on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, whose venue was Campinas - Brazil, as a pre-conference activity of the XI National Meeting on Analytical Chemistry (ENQA, it also depicts the state of the art of NIR spectroscopy in Brazil, pointing out the current achievements and the need to take the technology to a level consistent with this country's economical activities.

  4. Some fundamental aspects of boiling in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondin, H.; Lavigne, P.; Semeria, R.

    1964-01-01

    conditions of burnout are compared with those obtained under steady conditions. The burn-out flux following uniform 'stopped' heating has been studied in a channel containing still water. The flux shows a maximum as a function of unsaturation. The influence of the geometry and the nature of the metal was investigated. 4 - Output Oscillations: Using a low pressure (8 atm) loop, the influence of various parameters on the periods of output oscillations in a boiling channel on the thresholds at which they appear, was studied. Some new aspects of this complex phenomena were observed and are reported. (authors) [fr

  5. Thin coatings in packaging: Fundamental and practical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    discussed in relation to the ability to understand the underlying mechanisms involved, to measure the required properties and in the long term predict coating performance.

  6. Tales of the quantum understanding physics' most fundamental theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hobson, Art

    2017-01-01

    Everybody has heard that we live in a world made of atoms. But far more fundamentally, we live in a universe made of quanta. Many things are not made of atoms: light, radio waves, electric current, magnetic fields, Earth's gravitational field, not to mention exotica such a neutron stars, black holes, dark energy, and dark matter. But everything, including atoms, is made of highly unified or "coherent" bundles of energy called "quanta" that (like everything else) obey certain rules. In the case of the quantum, these rules are called "quantum physics." This is a book about quanta and their unexpected, some would say peculiar, behavior--tales, if you will, of the quantum. The quantum has developed the reputation of being capricious, bewildering, even impossible to understand. The peculiar habits of quanta are certainly not what we would have expected to find at the foundation of physical reality, but these habits are not necessarily bewildering and not at all impossible or paradoxical. This book explains those h...

  7. How Fundamental Aspects of Nursing Care are defined in the Literature: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Rebecca; Kitson, Alison; Conroy, Tiffany

    2018-03-07

    To investigate how fundamental aspects of nursing care have been defined in the literature from 2010-2016. A 2010 narrative review of nursing texts identified little consensus on what constitutes the fundamental aspects of nursing care. Since then there has been a proliferation of policies, strategic frameworks and research teams dedicated to investigating such care. It is unclear whether this increased activity has led to greater conceptual clarity. Scoping review using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. A search of published and grey literature was undertaken using CINAHL, Scopus, Pubmed, and ProQuest. Documents providing a definition for fundamental aspects of nursing care were included for review. Definitions were identified and mapped. Forty-nine documents were included. Two ways of constructing the discourse around fundamental aspects of nursing care were identified: compassionate care (n=25) and fundamentals of care (n=24). The literature on compassionate care focused primarily on the moral attributes of nurses and their ability to establish meaningful connections with patients. The literature on fundamentals of care was split between describing such care as a list of nursing activities and describing it as a complex, multi-dimensional construct. There appears to be a lack of consensus around how fundamental aspects of nursing care are defined. Compassionate care and fundamentals of care have commonalities in terms of emphasising the nurse-patient relationship, however, only the literature on fundamentals of care addresses patients' physical care needs. Despite their commonalities, it seems the two bodies of work are being developed largely independent of one another. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The basics of information security understanding the fundamentals of InfoSec in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Andress, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Syngress Basics series, The Basics of Information Security provides you with fundamental knowledge of information security in both theoretical and practical aspects. Author Jason Andress gives you the basic knowledge needed to understand the key concepts of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, and then dives into practical applications of these ideas in the areas of operational, physical, network, application, and operating system security. The Basics of Information Security gives you clear-non-technical explanations of how infosec works and how to apply these princi

  9. Enhancing Cognitive Understanding to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Daniel K.; Todorovich, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of fundamental movement skills in physical education is an important contributor toward children's' lifetime interest and participation in physical activity. Physical education teachers and their curricula follow national and state standards to provide learning experiences and instruction that support the acquisition of…

  10. Catalysis in electrochemistry from fundamental aspects to strategies for fuel cell development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Catalysis in Electrochemistry: From Fundamental Aspects to Strategies for Fuel Cell Development is a modern, comprehensive reference work on catalysis in electrochemistry, including principles, methods, strategies, and applications. It points out differences between catalysis at gas/surfaces and electrochemical interfaces, along with the future possibilities and impact of electrochemical science on energy problems. This book contributes both to fundamental science; experience in the design, preparation, and characterization of electrocatalytic materials; and the industrial application o

  11. Fundamental understanding and rational design of high energy structural microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxing; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Li, Huidong; Mendoza, Sarah; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Microbatteries play a critical role in determining the lifetime of downsized sensors, wearable devices and medical applications, etc. More often, structural batteries are required from the perspective of aesthetics and space utilization, which is however rarely explored. Herein, we discuss the fundamental issues associated with the rational design of practically usable high energy microbatteries. The tubular shape of the cell further allows the flexible integration of microelectronics. A functioning acoustic micro-transmitter continuously powered by this tubular battery has been successfully demonstrated. Multiple design features adopted to accommodate large mechanical stress during the rolling process are discussed providing new insights in designing the structural microbatteries for emerging technologies.

  12. The high-temperature vaporization/decomposition of actinide materials: fundamental and technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The unique and variable chemistry exhibited across the actinide series offers a scientifically challenging group of elements. Investigations of their high-temperature materials science and thermodynamics can provide important insights into fundamental actinide science and generate critical information for technological applications. The wide variations in the physicochemical properties and the availability of the various actinide elements necessitates special experimental techniques be employed, even when investigating a single property (e.g., the enthalpy of vaporization). Experimental approaches range can from classical to novel methods to permit studies of the rarer and the more intensely radioactive members. We have developed special equipment and techniques to investigate the high-temperature, physicochemical properties of several actinides through Md, as well as the precursor elements, radium and actinium. These experimental approaches employed both alloys and solid solutions of compounds, in addition to the pure elements themselves. The vaporization/decomposition of compounds and the sublimation of the elements, together with the associated thermodynamics, are the main issues. Results for several of the actinide elements, some of the techniques employed and systematic comparisons of the thermochemical aspects of bonding are discussed to give a fuller understanding of the series as a whole. (orig.)

  13. A brief review: history to understand fundamentals of electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lindsay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decade of the 19th century witnessed the rise of a new era in which physicians used technology along with classical history taking and physical examination for the diagnosis of heart disease. The introduction of chest x-rays and the electrocardiograph (electrocardiogram provided objective information about the structure and function of the heart. In the first half of the 20th century, a number of innovative individuals set in motion a fascinating sequence of discoveries and inventions that led to the 12-lead electrocardiogram, as we know it now. Electrocardiography, nowadays, is an essential part of the initial evaluation for patients presenting with cardiac complaints. As a first line diagnostic tool, health care providers at different levels of training and expertise frequently find it imperative to interpret electrocardiograms. It is likely that an understanding of the electrical basis of electrocardiograms would reduce the likelihood of error. An understanding of the disorders behind electrocardiographic phenomena could reduce the need for memorizing what may seem to be an endless list of patterns. In this article, we will review the important steps in the evolution of electrocardiogram. As is the case in most human endeavors, an understanding of history enables one to deal effectively with the present.

  14. Comparative Framework for Understanding Jewish and Christian Violent Fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Perliger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although most scholars agree that in the last couple of decades, religious fundamentalism has become the dominant ideological feature in the landscape of modern terrorism, many prefer to ignore the fact that this is not a development which is restricted to the Islamic world, and that other religious traditions have also experienced growth in groups which prefer to use violent strategies to promote their sacred visions. The current chapter strives to fill this gap by analyzing the emergence of violent religious groups in two distinct, non-Islamic, religious traditions. At first glance, the Christian Identity and the Religious-Zionist movements have very little in common. However, both movements served as a breeding ground for the emergence of violent fundamentalist groups aspiring to facilitate an apocalyptic/redemption scenario by engaging in illegal violent campaigns. Moreover, in both cases, the role of spiritual leaders was crucial in shaping the radicalization of the groups and their target selection, and the violence had a clear symbolic narrative. In other words, for the members of these violent groups, the violence served a clear role in the mobilization of potential supporters, and the branding and dissemination of the movement's ideology. Finally, while in general, terrorism is perceived as the weapon of the weak, in these two cases it was perpetrated by individuals/groups affiliated to communities belonging to the dominant religious framework in their respective polities (i.e., the Religious-Zionist and Christian Identity movements are perceived by their members as branches of Judaism and Christianity. Hence, by utilizing a comparative framework, the article will not just analyze the violent manifestations that emerged from these two movements, but also try to identify the unique factors that characterize and facilitate the emergence of religious groups within religious communities belonging to the dominant religious tradition in their

  15. Chronic Granulomatous Disease; fundamental stages in our understanding of CGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Tracy

    2006-09-21

    It has been 50 years since chronic granulomatous disease was first reported as a disease which fatally affected the ability of children to survive infections. Various milestone discoveries from the insufficient ability of patients' leucocytes to destroy microbial particles to the underlying genetic predispositions through which the disease is inherited have had important consequences. Longterm antibiotic prophylaxis has helped to fight infections associated with chronic granulomatous disease while the steady progress in bone marrow transplantation and the prospect of gene therapy are hailed as long awaited permanent treatment options. This review unearths the important findings by scientists that have led to our current understanding of the disease.

  16. Systemic thinking fundamentals for understanding problems and messes

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Patrick T

    2014-01-01

    Whether you’re an academic or a practitioner, a sociologist, a manager, or an engineer, one can benefit from learning to think systemically.  Problems (and messes) are everywhere and they’re getting more complicated every day.  How we think about these problems determines whether or not we’ll be successful in understanding and addressing them.  This book presents a novel way to think about problems (and messes) necessary to attack these always-present concerns.  The approach draws from disciplines as diverse as mathematics, biology, and psychology to provide a holistic method for dealing with problems that can be applied to any discipline. This book develops the systemic thinking paradigm, and introduces practical guidelines for the deployment of a systemic thinking approach.

  17. Fundamental aspects affecting the return on investment from solar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintula, B.; Viglas, D.

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with fundamental parameters of solar cells-conversion efficiency of solar radiation into electricity and price of solar cells. These two aspects affect each other, so it is important to deal with both at once. In introduction are described the theoretical solutions about efficiency analysis. Furthermore the article is focused on a description of materials used in the photovoltaic cells. In addition, the article shows the price trend of photovoltaic cells for the last year. Finally, these two aspects are evaluated for return on investment in photovoltaic power plants. (Authors)

  18. Towards understanding fine-tuning in fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Grant Edward

    The standard models of particle physics and cosmology are enjoying wild success, but are beset by surprising features. Chief among these are the mysterious smallness of general relativity's cosmological constant (known as the cosmological constant "problem"), and the mysteriously tremendous strength of all other forces relative to gravity (known as the hierarchy "problem"). Both are instances of a physically relevant quantity that (due to quantum effects) is a sum of many (unknown) quantities; in both cases, these summands seem to cancel out to remarkable precision to give a much smaller sum, a phenomenon called fine-tuning. The size of the cosmological constant has proved robust against explanation on the grounds of physical principles like symmetry. Such explanations of the electroweak/gravity hierarchy abound, but recent experimental efforts have ruled many of them out, or forced them to introduce new fine-tuning. In both cases, arguments about selection effects and priors have emerged. Here, a dialectic approach is taken to understanding this apparent fine-tuning in nature: First, symmetry is employed. Supersymmetry famously resolves the hierarchy problem, but is under siege by increasing experimental constraints ruling out much of its natural parameter space. A class of supersymmetry models with supersymmetry broken at a low scale is proposed which evade experimental constraints without needing fine-tuning. The key ingredient is some anti-correlation between supersymmetry-breaking effects and electroweak-breaking effects on a field, e.g. if the symmetry-breaking fields are localized at different points along an extra dimension. Then, a careful argument employing selection effects and Bayesian reasoning is undertaken to show that the size of the cosmological constant is not surprising. Previous such arguments have suggested many different probability measures on the space of different possibilities, but a careful review of quantum mechanics shows a unique

  19. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT, IN THE CASE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Pocovnicu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient communication is one the most important instruments used for the purpose of generating change inside and outside an organization. It can contribute to adjusting attitudes and the manner of approaching the present and future challenges and to changing behavioral patterns. The mission and the objectives of organizational communication are highly interrelated with organizational change and environment characteristics, in which the organization functions. The communication performed by the public administration institution outside is an institutional communication, extra-organizational, which presents the following purposes: strengthening its image, stimulating an environment of trust and affinity from the citizens (Kotler & Lee, 2007. We are of opinion that the management of communication performed by a public administration institution features three fundamental aspects, relevant for institutional communicators when designing and managing the institutional communication: communication efficiency, communication process and the implications of the new information and communication technologies (ICT for this process.

  20. Some fundamental aspects of fluctuations and coherence in charged-particle beams in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual survey and exposition is presented of some fundamental aspects of fluctuations and coherence, as well as the interplay between the two, in coasting charged-particle beams - both continuous and bunched - in storage rings. A detailed study is given of the spectral properties of the incoherent phase-space Schottky fluctuations, their propagation as waves in the beam, and the analytic complex coherent beam electromagnetic response or transfer function. The modification or distortion of these by collective interactions is examined in terms of simple regeneration mechanisms. Collective or coherent forces in the beam-storage-ring system are described by defining suitable impedance functions or propagators, and a brief discussion of the coherent collective modes and their stability is provided, including a general and rigorous description of the Nyquist stability criterion. The nature of the critical fluctuations near an instability threshold is explored. The concept of Landau damping and its connection with phase-mixing within the beam is outlined. The important connection between the incoherent fluctuations and the beam response, namely the Fluctuation-Dissipation relation, is revealed. A brief discussion is given of the information degrees of freedom, and effective temperature of the fluctuation signals. Appendices provide a short resume of some general aspects of various interactions in a charged-particle beam-environment system in a storage ring and a general introduction to kinetic theory as applied to particle beams. (orig.)

  1. Fundamental aspects of steady-state conversion of heat to work at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Saito, Keiji; Whitney, Robert S.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the study of heat to work conversion has been re-invigorated by nanotechnology. Steady-state devices do this conversion without any macroscopic moving parts, through steady-state flows of microscopic particles such as electrons, photons, phonons, etc. This review aims to introduce some of the theories used to describe these steady-state flows in a variety of mesoscopic or nanoscale systems. These theories are introduced in the context of idealized machines which convert heat into electrical power (heat-engines) or convert electrical power into a heat flow (refrigerators). In this sense, the machines could be categorized as thermoelectrics, although this should be understood to include photovoltaics when the heat source is the sun. As quantum mechanics is important for most such machines, they fall into the field of quantum thermodynamics. In many cases, the machines we consider have few degrees of freedom, however the reservoirs of heat and work that they interact with are assumed to be macroscopic. This review discusses different theories which can take into account different aspects of mesoscopic and nanoscale physics, such as coherent quantum transport, magnetic-field induced effects (including topological ones such as the quantum Hall effect), and single electron charging effects. It discusses the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion, and the thermoelectric figure of merit. More specifically, the theories presented are (i) linear response theory with or without magnetic fields, (ii) Landauer scattering theory in the linear response regime and far from equilibrium, (iii) Green-Kubo formula for strongly interacting systems within the linear response regime, (iv) rate equation analysis for small quantum machines with or without interaction effects, (v) stochastic thermodynamic for fluctuating small systems. In all cases, we place particular emphasis on the fundamental questions about the bounds on ideal machines. Can magnetic-fields change the

  2. [Stem Cells in the Brain of Mammals and Human: Fundamental and Applied Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, M A; Marey, M V

    2015-01-01

    Brain stem cells represent an extremely intriguing phenomenon. The aim of our review is to present an integrity vision of their role in the brain of mammals and humans, and their clinical perspectives. Over last two decades, investigations of biology of the neural stem cells produced significant changes in general knowledge about the processes of development and functioning of the brain. Researches on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of NSC differentiation and behavior led to new understanding of their involvement in learning and memory. In the regenerative medicine, original therapeutic approaches to neurodegenerative brain diseases have been elaborated due to fundamental achievements in this field. They are based on specific regenerative potential of neural stem cells and progenitor cells, which possess the ability to replace dead cells and express crucially significant biologically active factors that are missing in the pathological brain. For the needs of cell substitution therapy in the neural diseases, adequate methods of maintaining stem cells in culture and their differentiation into different types of neurons and glial cells, have been developed currently. The success of modern cellular technologies has significantly expanded the range of cells used for cell therapy. The near future may bring new perspective and distinct progress in brain cell therapy due to optimizing the cells types most promising for medical needs.

  3. Fundamentals of figure control and fracture-'free' finishing for high aspect ratio laser optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The high level objectives of the this work were to: 1) scientifically understand critical phenomena affecting the surface figure during full aperture finishing; 2) utilize these fundamentals to more deterministically control the surface figure during finishing; 3) successfully polish under rogue particle-‘free’ environments during polishing by understanding/preventing key sources of rogue particles.

  4. Fundamental aspects of corrosion on zirconium base alloys in water reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the state of knowledge of zirconium alloy corrosion mechanisms. Forty-five participants from 16 countries attended the meeting, and 25 papers were presented and discussed. One additional paper was provided only in written form. The papers were presented in seven sub-sessions under the following headings: Electrochemistry, Coolant Chemistry Effects, Irradiation Effects, Characteristics of Zirconium Oxide, Effects of Alloying on Corrosion, Corrosion Modeling and Effect of Zirconium Base Metal Properties on Corrosion. There is still a need for a laboratory corrosion test that reliably predicts in-pile corrosion in BWR's and PWR's. This holds particularly if out-of-pile tests are used for developing new Zr base alloy compositions. The role of the precipitates and of the solute elements in the matrix has still to be clarified. As it appears, a combination of both influences is necessary to explain the mechanistic aspect of the corrosion of Zircaloy. It is clear that mechanistic understanding of zirconium alloy corrosion is still some way off, although a significant amount of progress has been made toward experimental determination of the micro-scale phenomena. The papers presented a status report of our knowledge of these corrosion mechanisms, but they also served to illustrate the fact that much of the work done to date has been phenomenological rather than mechanistic. The summaries of individual sessions detail the specific conclusions and recommendations made at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  6. Fundamental understanding and life prediction of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs and energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, P.L.; Ford, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an approach for design and lifetime evaluation of environmental cracking based on experimental and fundamental modeling of the underlying processes operative in crack advance. In detailed this approach and its development and quantification for energy (hot water) systems, the requirements for a life prediction methodology will be highlighted and the shortcomings of the existing design and lifetime evaluation codes reviewed. Examples are identified of its use in a variety of cracking systems, such as stainless steels, low alloy steels, nickel base alloys, and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking in boiling water reactor (BWR) water, as well as preliminary use for low alloy steel and Alloy 600 in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and turbine steels in steam turbines. Identification of the common aspects with environmental cracking in other hot water systems provides a secure basis for its extension to related energy systems. 166 refs., 49 figs

  7. Fundamental aspects of electrocatalysis of the hydrogen electrode reaction and oxygen electrode reaction on platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianer

    This dissertation work studies the fundamental aspects of the electrocatalysis of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) and oxygen electrode reaction (OER) on platinum over a wide temperature range from ambient up to 220°C. Previously, the majority of the work reported was restricted to temperatures below 70°C due to apparatus constraints, whereas the current operation temperature for proton exchange membrane fuel cells is around 100oC and is envisioned to operate at even higher temperatures. In this work, a special apparatus for controlled hydrodynamic study was constructed, which can keep the system in a single aqueous phase at elevated temperatures. The growth kinetics and mechanism of the anodic oxide film on platinum are studied under potential sweep conditions. By fitting the current equation derived based on the framework of the point defect model (PDM) on the linear polarization curves, the kinetic parameters for film growth and dissolution are extracted, which agree well with other findings. The kinetics and mechanism of the HER are investigated both at ambient temperature with a rotating ring disk electrode and at elevated temperatures with a platinized nickel electrode. Ambient results by micropolarization analysis agree well with findings in literature, and yield an exchange current density on the order of mA/cm2. An activation energy of 17.3kJ/mol is determined. This is comparable with that of a bulk platinum electrode, and is lower than sputtered platinum and single crystal platinum electrodes in alkaline solutions. Surprisingly, the apparent Tafel slope of the hydrogen evolution reaction is almost temperature independent. The most probable reason is that two parallel reactions with different activation energy and transfer coefficients are occurring at the interface. The OER on platinum is also studied by potential sweep method and potentiostatic polarization method. The sluggish nature of this reaction is postulated to be due to the existence of a

  8. Optimizing drug delivery systems using systematic "design of experiments." Part I: fundamental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Kumar, Rajiv; Ahuja, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    Design of an impeccable drug delivery product normally encompasses multiple objectives. For decades, this task has been attempted through trial and error, supplemented with the previous experience, knowledge, and wisdom of the formulator. Optimization of a pharmaceutical formulation or process using this traditional approach involves changing one variable at a time. Using this methodology, the solution of a specific problematic formulation characteristic can certainly be achieved, but attainment of the true optimal composition is never guaranteed. And for improvement in one characteristic, one has to trade off for degeneration in another. This customary approach of developing a drug product or process has been proved to be not only uneconomical in terms of time, money, and effort, but also unfavorable to fix errors, unpredictable, and at times even unsuccessful. On the other hand, the modern formulation optimization approaches, employing systematic Design of Experiments (DoE), are extensively practiced in the development of diverse kinds of drug delivery devices to improve such irregularities. Such systematic approaches are far more advantageous, because they require fewer experiments to achieve an optimum formulation, make problem tracing and rectification quite easier, reveal drug/polymer interactions, simulate the product performance, and comprehend the process to assist in better formulation development and subsequent scale-up. Optimization techniques using DoE represent effective and cost-effective analytical tools to yield the "best solution" to a particular "problem." Through quantification of drug delivery systems, these approaches provide a depth of understanding as well as an ability to explore and defend ranges for formulation factors, where experimentation is completed before optimization is attempted. The key elements of a DoE optimization methodology encompass planning the study objectives, screening of influential variables, experimental designs

  9. Towards a fundamentally new understanding of the marine atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Högström, U.; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2004-01-01

    measurements of the wave field, Donelan et al. (1997), Drennan et al. (1999), Rieder and Smith (1998) and our own studies (see below), that effects from waves are of fundamental importance for the turbulent exchange processes in the marine boundary layer and should be included in parameterizations in models....... This contribution summarizes results from measurements during an eight-year period (May, 1995 – present) at the air-sea interaction station Östergarnsholm in the Baltic Sea. It illustrates vividly that the ‘classical’ concept of the sea surface as an analogue to a solid surface with moving roughness elements...... is valid only for the much studied case of growing waves and that understanding the role of relatively long waves, which travel faster than the wind, is crucial for a correct treatment of the air-sea exchange processes....

  10. Fundamental understanding of distracted oxygen delignification efficiency by dissolved lignin during biorefinery process of eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huifang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xuejin

    2018-02-27

    In this work, a fundamental understanding of oxygen delignification distracted by dissolved lignin was investigated. In the new biorefinery model of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification process, increasing content of residual lignin in the original pulp could result in enhanced delignification efficiency, higher pulp viscosity and less carbonyl groups. However, the invalid oxygen consumption by dissolved lignin could be increased with the increase of process temperature and alkali dosage. The normalized ultraviolet absorbance (divided by absorbance at 280 nm) also showed that the content of chromophoric group in dissolved lignin decreased with oxygen delignification proceeded, both of which indicated that dissolved lignin could enhance the invalid oxygen consumption. Therefore, a conclusion that replacement of the liquor at the initial phase of oxygen delignification process would balance the enhancement of delignification efficiency and invalid oxygen consumption was achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of a Practical Understanding: Heidegger at the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to clarify some of our pre-conceived assumptions when we address issues of learning in practice. It argues that we need to develop an understanding of practice based on its own premises. For this purpose the German philosopher Martin Heidegger's (1889-1976) understanding of practice and learning is introduced. Heidegger…

  12. A review of concentrated flow erosion processes on rangelands: Fundamental understanding and knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayjro K. Nouwakpo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated flow erosion processes are distinguished from splash and sheetflow processes in their enhanced ability to mobilize and transport large amounts of soil, water and dissolved elements. On rangelands, soil, nutrients and water are scarce and only narrow margins of resource losses are tolerable before crossing the sustainability threshold. In these ecosystems, concentrated flow processes are perceived as indicators of degradation and often warrant the implementation of mitigation strategies. Nevertheless, this negative perception of concentrated flow processes may conflict with the need to improve understanding of the role of these transport vessels in redistributing water, soil and nutrients along the rangeland hillslope. Vegetation influences the development and erosion of concentrated flowpaths and has been the primary factor used to control and mitigate erosion on rangelands. At the ecohydrologic level, vegetation and concentrated flow pathways are engaged in a feedback relationship, the understanding of which might help improve rangeland management and restoration strategies. In this paper, we review published literature on experimental and conceptual research pertaining to concentrated flow processes on rangelands to: (1 present the fundamental science underpinning concentrated flow erosion modeling in these landscapes, (2 discuss the influence of vegetation on these erosion processes, (3 evaluate the contribution of concentrated flow erosion to overall sediment budget and (4 identify knowledge gaps.

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fundamental and Technological Aspects of Organo-f-Element Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fragalà, Ignazio

    1985-01-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic acceleration of activity and interest in phenomena surrounding lanthanide and actinide organo­ metallic compounds. Around the world, active research in organo-f­ element synthesis, chemistry, catalysis, crystallography, and quantum chemistry is in progress. This activity has spanned a remarkably wide range of disciplines, from synthetic/mechanistic inorganic and organic chemistry to radiochemistry, catalytic chemistry, spectroscopy (vibra­ tional, optical, magnetic resonance, photoelectron, Mossbauer), X-ray and neutron diffraction structural analysis, as well as to crystal field and molecular orbital theoretical studies at the interface of chemistry and physics. These investigations have been motivated both by fundamental and applied goals. The evidence that f-element organo­ metallic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties which cannot be duplicated by organometallic compounds of d-block elements has suggested many new areas of endeavor and application....

  14. IDENTITATEA EUROPEANĂ. FUNDAMENTE FILOSOFICE, ASPECTE NORMATIVE SI PROIECŢII POLITICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. univ. dr. Cristian BOCANCEA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new European construction makes sense when the utopiabecomes factual reality. The philosophical bases of the Europenism areuseful to the extent to which they clarify the effort of theoretical construction,without which the prime nucleus and then the extension of the United Europewould not have had the same chances of success. The normative aspectscontained in the treaties , laws and documents become substantial onlythrough this long preparation, with an aspect which is mainly intelectual, butrelevant, as the European construction is a process starting from the top ofthe pyramid and not from its basis: the citizen.

  15. Fundamental aspects of chiral electromigration techniques and application in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2011-06-25

    Capillary electromigration techniques are often considered ideal methods for the analysis of chiral compounds due to the high resolution power and flexibility of the technique. Therefore, especially capillary electrophoresis using a chiral selector in the background electrolyte, also termed electrokinetic chromatography, has found widespread acceptance in analytical enantioseparations of drug compounds in pharmaceuticals and biological media. Moreover, mechanistic studies on analyte complexation by the chiral selectors have continuously been conducted in an effort to rationalize enantioseparation phenomena. These studies combined capillary electrophoresis with spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and/or molecular modeling. The present review focuses on recent examples of mechanistic aspects of capillary electromigration enantioseparations and summarizes recent applications of chiral pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis published between January 2009 and August 2010. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fundamental aspects on ion-beam surface modification: defect production and migration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1984-09-01

    Ion-beam modification of metals is generating increasing scientific interest not only because it has exciting technological potential, but also because it has raised fundamental questions concerning radiation-induced diffusion processes. In addition to the implanted species, several defect production and migration mechanisms contribute to changes in the near-surface composition of an alloy during ion bombardment, e.g., atoms exchange positions via displacements and replacement sequences; preferential sputtering effects arise; radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation occur. The latter two defect migration mechanisms are of particular significance since they can alter the composition to depths which are much greater than the implanted ion range. By altering various parameters such as irradiation temperature, ion mass, energy, and current density, and initial alloying distributions, a rich variety of near-surface composition profiles can be created. We have utilized changes in ion mass and energy, and irradiation temperature to distinguish defect production from defect migration effects. Experimental results are presented which provide a guide to the relative efficiencies of different mechanisms under various irradiation conditions. 46 references

  17. Fundamental aspects of the structural and electrolyte properties of Li2OHCl from simulations and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason; Hood, Zachary D.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Solid-state electrolytes that are compatible with high-capacity electrodes are expected to enable the next generation of batteries. As a promising example, Li2OHCl was reported to have good ionic conductivity and to be compatible with a lithium metal anode even at temperatures above 100 ∘C . In this work, we explore the fundamental properties of Li2OHCl by comparing simulations and experiments. Using calculations based on density functional theory, including both static and dynamic contributions through the quasiharmonic approximation, we model a tetragonal ground state, which is not observed experimentally. An ordered orthorhombic low-temperature phase was also simulated, agreeing with experimental structural analysis of the pristine electrolyte at room temperature. In addition, comparison of the ordered structures with simulations of the disordered cubic phase provide insight into the mechanisms associated with the experimentally observed abrupt increase in ionic conductivity as the system changes from its ordered orthorhombic to its disordered cubic phase. A large Haven ratio for the disordered cubic phase is inferred from the computed tracer diffusion coefficient and measured ionic conductivity, suggesting highly correlated motions of the mobile Li ions in the cubic phase of Li2OHCl . We find that the OH bond orientations participate in gating the Li ion motions which might partially explain the predicted Li-Li correlations.

  18. Aspects of Skill in Understanding High-Order Semantic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-25

    adversative relation. ’p 2.2.4 Critical clause For presentation purposes, the passages were divided into clauses on the basis of two pragmatic criteria...Understanding anaphora . Rules used by readers in assigning , pronominal referents. Discourse Processes, 4, 323-347. Frederiksen J.R. and Warren, B.M

  19. Genetic Aspects of Deafness: Understanding the Counseling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughman, Joann A.; Shaver, Kathleen A.

    1982-01-01

    An understanding of the genetic concepts applicable to individual cases of deafness, as well as an appreciation of the complex nature of determinaton of recurrence risks in families, will facilitate the referral of individuals and families for genetic evaluation and counseling. (Author)

  20. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  1. Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho

    2005-04-26

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.

  2. Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.; Corradini, M.; Bank, K.Y.; Bonazza, R.; Cho, D.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications

  3. Fundamental aspects of seismic event detection, magnitude estimation and their interrelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringdal, F.

    1977-01-01

    The main common subject of the papers forming this thesis is statistical model development within the seismological disciplines of seismic event detection and event magnitude estimation. As more high quality seismic data become available as a result of recent seismic network developments, the opportunity will exist for large scale application and further refinement of these models. It is hoped that the work presented here will facilitate improved understanding of the basic issues, both within earthquake-explosion discrimination, in the framework of which most of this work originated, and in seismology in general. (Auth.)

  4. Nursing Students' understanding of the Fundamentals of Care: A cross-sectional study in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangland, Eva; Mirz, Noeman; Conroy, Tiffany; Merriman, Clair; Suzui, Emiko; Nishimura, Akiko; Ewens, Ann

    2018-03-11

    To explore the accuracy with which nursing students can identify the fundamentals of care. A challenge facing nursing is ensuring the fundamentals of care are provided with compassion and in a timely manner. How students perceive the importance of the fundamentals of care may be influenced by the content and delivery of their nursing curriculum. Since the fundamentals of care play a vital role in ensuring patient safety and quality care, it is important to examine how nursing students identify these care needs. Cross-sectional descriptive design. A total of 398 nursing students (pre- and post-registration) from universities in Sweden, England, Japan, Canada and Australia participated. The Fundamentals of Care framework guided this study. A questionnaire containing three care scenarios was developed and validated. Study participants identified the fundamentals of care for each of the scenarios. All responses were rated and analyzed using ANOVA. The data illustrates certain fundamentals of care were identified more frequently, including communication and education; comfort and elimination, whilst respecting choice, privacy and dignity were less frequently identified. The ability to identify of all the correct care needs was low overall across the pre- and post-registration nursing programs in the five universities. Significant differences in the number of correctly identified care needs between some of the groups were identified. Nursing students are not correctly identifying all a patient's fundamental care needs when presented with different care scenarios. Students more frequently identifying physical care needs and less frequently psychosocial and relational needs. The findings suggest educators may need to emphasize and integrate all three dimensions. To promote students' ability to identify the integrated nature of the fundamentals of care, practising clinicians and nurse educators need to role model and incorporate all the fundamental care needs for their

  5. Understanding the Molecular Aspects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol as Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káthia M. Honório

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An antioxidant mechanism of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD were compared with a simplified model of α-tocopherol, butylhydroxytoluene and hydroxytoluene in order to understand the antioxidant nature of THC and CBD molecules using DFT. The following electronic properties were evaluated: frontier orbitals nature, ionization potential, O-H bond dissociation energy (BDEOH, stabilization energy, and spin density distribution. An important factor that shows an influence in the antioxidant property of THC is the electron abstraction at the phenol position. Our data indicate that the decrease of the HOMO values and the highest ionization potential values are related to phenol, ether, and alkyl moieties. On the other hand, BDEOH in molecules with the cyclohexenyl group at ortho position of phenol are formed from lower energies than the molecules with an ether group at the meta position. In the light of our results, the properties calculated here predict that THC has a sightly higher antioxidant potential than CBD.

  6. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion crack

  7. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  8. Fundamental structural aspects and features in the bioengineering of the gas exchangers: comparative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, J N

    2002-01-01

    the ubiquitous method of transfer of O2 across biological tissues. Gills, evaginated gas exchangers, were the primordial respiratory organs that evolved for water breathing, whereas lungs (invaginated gas exchangers) developed for terrestrial (air) breathing. Transitional (= bimodal = amphibious) breathing has evolved in animals with specialized organs that extract O2 from both water and air. Lungs are tidally (= bidirectionally) ventilated, while gills are unidirectionally ventilated, a feature that allows the highly efficient counter-current disposition between blood and water. Since animals occupy inconstant environmental milieus and their metabolic states vary, gas exchangers are designed to operate optimally across a spectrum of conditions that range from resting to exercise and even under hypoxia. Inbuilt structural and functional flexibility provides the requisite safety factors that allow adjustments to modest pressures. The fundamental structural features that determine the respiratory function of a gas exchanger are respiratory surface area, thickness of the blood-water/gas (tissue) barrier and volume of the pulmonary capillary blood. The diffusing capacity of a gas exchanger correlates directly with the surface area and inversely with the thickness of the blood-water/gas (tissue) barrier. An extensive surface area is generated in gills by extensive stratification of the gas exchanger and in lungs by profuse internal subdivision. Compartmentalization yields small terminal gas exchange compartments that compel greater commitment of energy to ventilate. The surfactant, a phospholipid lining, reduces the forces of surface tension at the air-water interface. This attenuates the propensity of physical collapse of the minute gas exchange units and minimizes the cost of ventilation. The surfactant characterizes all the gas exchangers derived from the piscine air bladder. In the lower air-breathing vertebrates, such as the lungfishes (Dipnoi), amphibians and certain

  9. Atom-to-continuum methods for gaining a fundamental understanding of fracture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, David Lynn (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Jones, Reese E.; Moody, Neville Reid; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Belytschko, Ted. (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Zhou, Xiao Wang; Lloyd, Jeffrey T. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Oswald, Jay (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Delph, Terry J. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA); Kimmer, Christopher J. (Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN)

    2011-08-01

    This report describes an Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF) project to characterize and understand fracture processes via molecular dynamics modeling and atom-to-continuum methods. Under this aegis we developed new theory and a number of novel techniques to describe the fracture process at the atomic scale. These developments ranged from a material-frame connection between molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics to an atomic level J integral. Each of the developments build upon each other and culminated in a cohesive zone model derived from atomic information and verified at the continuum scale. This report describes an Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF) project to characterize and understand fracture processes via molecular dynamics modeling and atom-to-continuum methods. The effort is predicated on the idea that processes and information at the atomic level are missing in engineering scale simulations of fracture, and, moreover, are necessary for these simulations to be predictive. In this project we developed considerable new theory and a number of novel techniques in order to describe the fracture process at the atomic scale. Chapter 2 gives a detailed account of the material-frame connection between molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics we constructed in order to best use atomic information from solid systems. With this framework, in Chapter 3, we were able to make a direct and elegant extension of the classical J down to simulations on the scale of nanometers with a discrete atomic lattice. The technique was applied to cracks and dislocations with equal success and displayed high fidelity with expectations from continuum theory. Then, as a prelude to extension of the atomic J to finite temperatures, we explored the quasi-harmonic models as efficient and accurate surrogates of atomic lattices undergoing thermo-elastic processes (Chapter 4). With this in hand, in Chapter 5 we provide evidence that, by using the appropriate

  10. Design and fundamental understanding of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) assisted grinding using advanced nanolubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Parash

    Abrasive grinding is widely used across manufacturing industry for finishing parts and components requiring smooth superficial textures and precise dimensional tolerances and accuracy. Unlike any other machining operations, the complex thermo-mechanical processes during grinding produce excessive friction-induced energy consumption, heat, and intense contact seizures. Lubrication and cooling from grinding fluids is crucial in minimizing the deleterious effects of friction and heat to maximize the output part quality and process efficiency. The conventional flood grinding approach of an uneconomical application of large quantities of chemically active fluids has been found ineffective to provide sufficient lubrication and produces waste streams and pollutants that are hazardous to human health and environment. Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) that cuts the volumetric fluid consumption by 3-4 orders of magnitude have been extensively researched in grinding as a high-productivity and environmentally-sustainable alternative to the conventional flood method. However, the lubrication performance and productivity of MQL technique with current fluids has been critically challenged by the extreme thermo-mechanical conditions of abrasive grinding. In this research, an MQL system based on advanced nanolubricants has been proposed to address the current thermo-mechanical challenges of MQL grinding and improve its productivity. The nanolubricants were composed of inorganic Molybdenum Disulphide nanoparticles (≈ 200 nm) intercalated with organic macromolecules of EP/AW property, dispersed in straight (base) oils---mineral-based paraffin and vegetable-based soybean oil. After feasibility investigations into the grindability of cast iron using MQL with nanolubricants, this research focused on the fundamental understanding of tribological behavior and lubricating mechanisms of nanolubricants as a method to improve the productivity of MQL-assisted surface grinding

  11. Role of aspect in understanding tense: an investigation with adolescents with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Nichola J; van der Lely, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Morphosyntax has been well researched in specific language impairment (SLI) and there is general agreement that children with SLI have particular difficulties with tense-marking. Less well researched is the role that aspect plays in the difficulties found in tense-marking, especially as tense and aspect are often confounded in English. Initial investigation of the understanding of aspect in preschool children with SLI suggests that they are less sensitive to aspect and its interaction with tense than typically developing (TD) children. It is unclear, however, what is the developmental trajectory of their understanding of aspect and its interaction with tense and whether these difficulties are still found in older children and adolescents with SLI. To investigate comprehension of the grammatical aspect contrast between completed events using the simple past tense -ed/irregular (perfective grammatical aspect) and ongoing events using the past progressive (imperfective grammatical aspect). The role of lexical aspect was also investigated through the balanced use of verbs that were inherently telic (i.e. have a natural end-point) and verbs that required the addition of prepositional phrase for a telic interpretation when used in the perfective aspect condition. A sentence-picture matching task was administered to 10 participants with SLI (aged 12;10-16;8 years) and 30 language ability matched TD children who were split into three groups (mean ages: 5;10, 7;4 and 9;2). Adult-like performance was found by all groups on the perfective aspect condition, but only by the oldest group of TD children on the imperfective aspect condition. The performance of the group with SLI was consistent with their much younger language ability matched TD children in their understanding of the progressive -ing when used to describe ongoing events that have taken place in the past. The lexical aspect of the telicity of the verbs was not found to have any significant effect on performance

  12. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Fundamental aspects of Am and Cm in zirconia-based materials. Investigations using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, P.E.; Haire, R.G.; Assefa, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated incorporation of americium and curium in selected zirconia-based materials. Fundamental aspects were explored via X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. First explored was the pseudo ternary system, AmO 2 -ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 . It was found that stable, cubic solid solutions (Am x Zr 1-x Y y )O 2-2/y can be obtained for selected compositions. The cell parameters of the cubic phases were established as being linear with the AmO 2 content. For the Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system, it was determined that diphasic materials are produced, except for two compositions: 25 mol% and 50 mol% of CmO 1.5 . For these compositions a single-phase cubic fluorite type solid solution (a=5.21A±0.01) and a pyrochlore oxide Cm 2 Zr 2 O 7 (a=10.63A±0.02) are formed, respectively. The stability of pyrochlore oxides is also being investigated as a function of self-irradiation, using shorter-lived isotopes, one being the californium pyrochlore 249 Cf 2 Zr 2 O 7 . We obtained evidence that after six months of storage the pyrochlore oxide is undergoing structural change. Additional studies are in progress. (author)

  14. I'm sorry to say, but your understanding of image processing fundamentals is absolutely wrong

    OpenAIRE

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I have proposed a few ideas that are entirely new and therefore might look suspicious. All the novelties come as a natural extension of a new definition of information that is sequentially applied to various aspects of image processing. The most important innovation is positing information image processing as the prime mode of image processing (in contrast to traditionally dominant data image processing). The next novelty is the dissociation between physical and semantic inform...

  15. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from ...

  16. Fundamentals of risk management understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkin, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Now more than ever, organizations must plan, response and recognize all forms of risks that they face. "Fundamentals of Risk Management", now in its second edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject of commercial and business risk for anyone studying for a career in risk as well as a broad range of risk professionals. It examines the key components of risk management and its application with examples to demonstrate its benefit to organisations in the public and private sector. The second edition has been completely updated to take into account the greater influence of ISO 3100, the emergence of Governance Risk and Compliance (GRC) and the wide use of the bowtie method to illustrate risk management. In addition, there is now a chapter on the skills and competencies required by an effective risk manager.

  17. Fundamental challenges in mechanistic enzymology: progress toward understanding the rate enhancements of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschlag, Daniel; Natarajan, Aditya

    2013-03-26

    Enzymes are remarkable catalysts that lie at the heart of biology, accelerating chemical reactions to an astounding extent with extraordinary specificity. Enormous progress in understanding the chemical basis of enzymatic transformations and the basic mechanisms underlying rate enhancements over the past decades is apparent. Nevertheless, it has been difficult to achieve a quantitative understanding of how the underlying mechanisms account for the energetics of catalysis, because of the complexity of enzyme systems and the absence of underlying energetic additivity. We review case studies from our own work that illustrate the power of precisely defined and clearly articulated questions when dealing with such complex and multifaceted systems, and we also use this approach to evaluate our current ability to design enzymes. We close by highlighting a series of questions that help frame some of what remains to be understood, and we encourage the reader to define additional questions and directions that will deepen and broaden our understanding of enzymes and their catalysis.

  18. A fundamental problem in our understanding of low-mass galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Simone M.; Pasquali, Anna; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Finlator, Kristian; Mendel, J. Trevor; Crain, Robert A.; Macciò, Andrea V.

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies have found a dramatic difference between the observed number density evolution of low-mass galaxies and that predicted by semi-analytic models. Whilst models accurately reproduce the z = 0 number density, they require that the evolution occurs rapidly at early times, which is incompatible with the strong late evolution found in observational results. We report here the same discrepancy in two state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which is evidence that the problem is fundamental. We search for the underlying cause of this problem using two complementary methods. First, we consider a narrow range in stellar mass of log (Mstar/(h-2 M⊙)) = 9-9.5 and look for evidence of a different history of today's low-mass galaxies in models and observations. We find that the exclusion of satellite galaxies from the analysis brings the median ages and star formation rates of galaxies into reasonable agreement. However, the models yield too few young, strongly star-forming galaxies. Secondly, we construct a toy model to link the observed evolution of specific star formation rates with the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function. We infer from this model that a key problem in both semi-analytic and hydrodynamical models is the presence of a positive instead of a negative correlation between specific star formation rate and stellar mass. A similar positive correlation is found between the specific dark matter halo accretion rate and the halo mass, indicating that model galaxies are growing in a way that follows the growth of their host haloes too closely. It therefore appears necessary to find a mechanism that decouples the growth of low-mass galaxies, which occurs primarily at late times, from the growth of their host haloes, which occurs primarily at early times. We argue that the current form of star formation-driven feedback implemented in most galaxy formation models is unlikely to achieve this goal, owing to its fundamental dependence

  19. SELF-DETERMINATION THE FUNDAMENTAL CATEGORY OF PERSON IN THE UNDERSTANDING OF KAROL WOJTYŁA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TADEUSZ ROSTWOROWSKI, S.J.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-determination is the central category of personin the understanding of Karol Wojtyła. He perceived and developed it thanks to the application of a phenomenological method so that in the full description of experience gained by man one arrives at the noumenal bases of man himself.

  20. Fundamental understanding of the interaction of continuous wave laser with aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Coroado, Júlio; Meco, Sónia; Williams, Stewart; Ganguly, Supriyo; Suder, Wojciech; Quintino, Luísa; Assunção, Eurico

    2017-01-01

    In welding, the depth of penetration, weld profile and the corresponding thermal cycle are the three basic outcomes that a user wishes to control flexibly. In laser welding applications, controlled application of power and energy density is the key to achieve predictable control of these characteristics. Creation of an analytical model is an important step towards understanding the underpinning science of laser metal interaction in controlling the depth, bead geometry and thereby temperature ...

  1. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  2. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  3. The basics of cloud computing understanding the fundamentals of cloud computing in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Syngress Basics series, The Basics of Cloud Computing provides readers with an overview of the cloud and how to implement cloud computing in their organizations. Cloud computing continues to grow in popularity, and while many people hear the term and use it in conversation, many are confused by it or unaware of what it really means. This book helps readers understand what the cloud is and how to work with it, even if it isn't a part of their day-to-day responsibility. Authors Derrick Rountree and Ileana Castrillo explains the concepts of cloud computing in prac

  4. Our place in the universe understanding fundamental astronomy from ancient discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, Sun

    2017-01-01

    If you have ever wanted to understand the basic principles of astronomy and celestial movements, you should read this book. Using pictures of the sky observed from different places on Earth, as well as drawings of ancient astronomical methods and tools, Prof. Sun Kwok tells this story in an entertaining and fascinating way. Since the beginning of human civilization, people have wondered about the structure of the cosmos and our place in the Universe. More than 2,000 years ago, our ancestors knew that the seasons were unequal, the Earth was an unattached object floating in space, and stars existed that they could not see. From celestial observations, they concluded that the Earth was round. Using simple tools and mathematics, ancient astronomers accurately determined the sizes of the Earth and Moon, the distance to the Moon, and the lengths of the months and year. With a clever device called the armillary sphere, Greek astronomers could predict the times of sunrise and sunset on any day of the year, at any pla...

  5. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  6. Fundamental Understanding of Rotor Aeromechanics at High Advance Ratio Through Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Benjamin

    The purpose of this research is to further the understanding of rotor aeromechanics at advance ratios (mu) beyond the maximum of 0.5 (ratio of forward airspeed to rotor tip speed) for conventional helicopters. High advance ratio rotors have applications in high speed compound helicopters. In addition to one or more conventional main rotors, these aircraft employ either thrust compounding (propellers), lift compounding (fixed-wings), or both. An articulated 4-bladed model rotor was constructed, instrumented, and tested up to a maximum advance ratio of mu=1.6 in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel at the University of Maryland. The data set includes steady and unsteady rotor hub forces and moments, blade structural loads, blade flapping angles, swashplate control angles, and unsteady blade pressures. A collective-thrust control reversal--where increasing collective pitch results in lower rotor thrust--was observed and is a unique phenomenon to the high advance ratio flight regime. The thrust reversal is explained in a physical manner as well as through an analytical formulation. The requirements for the occurrence of the thrust reversal are enumerated. The effects of rotor geometry design on the thrust reversal onset are explored through the formulation and compared to the measured data. Reverse-flow dynamic stall was observed to extend the the lifting capability of the edgewise rotor well beyond the expected static stall behavior of the airfoil sections. Through embedded unsteady blade surface pressure transducers, the normal force, pitching moment, and shed dynamic stall vortex time histories at a blade section in strong reverse flow were analyzed. Favorable comparisons with published 2-D pitching airfoil reverse flow dynamic stall data indicate that the 3-D stall environment can likely be predicted using models developed from such 2-D experiments. Vibratory hub loads were observed to increase with advance ratio. Maximum amplitude was observed near mu=1, with a

  7. Analysis, Validation, Prediction And Fundamental Understanding Of Rotor Blade Loads In An Unsteady Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Abhishek

    This study predicts, analyzes, and isolates the mechanisms of main rotor airloads, structural loads, and swashplate servo loads in a severe unsteady maneuver. The objective is, to develop a comprehensive transient rotor analysis for predicting maneuver loads. The main rotor structural loads encountered during unsteady maneuvers are important to size different critical components of the rotor system, particularly for advanced combat helicopters. These include the blade structural loads, control/pitch-link loads, and swashplate servo loads. Accurate and consistent prediction of maneuver loads is necessary to reduce the risks and costs associated with use of prior flight test data as a basis for design. The mechanism of rotor loads in different level flight regimes is well understood -- transonic shock in high speed flight, inter-twinning of blade tip vortices below the rotor disk at low speed transonic flight, and two dynamic stall cycles on retreating blade during high altitude dynamic stall flight. All these physical phenomena can occur simultaneously during a maneuver. The goal is to understand the key mechanisms involved in maneuver and model them accurately. To achieve this, the aerodynamics and structural dynamics of UH-60A rotor in unsteady maneuvering flight is studied separately. For identification of prediction deficiencies in each, first, the measured lift, drag, pitching moment and damper force from the UH-60A Flight Test Program for UTTAS pull-up maneuver (C11029: 2.16g pull-up maneuver) are used to obtain an accurate set of deformations. A multibody finite element blade model, developed for this purpose, is used to perform measured airloads analysis. Next, the resultant blade deformations are used to predict the airloads using lifting-line and RANS CFD aerodynamic models. Both lifting-line as well as CFD analyses predict all three stall cycles with prescribed deformations. From the airloads predicted using prescribed deformations, it is established that

  8. Intermediate-Scale Experimental Study to Improve Fundamental Understanding of Attenuation Capacity for Leaking CO2 in Heterogeneous Shallow Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the risks of Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS), it is crucial to understand the fundamental physicochemical processes that may occur if and when stored CO2 leaks upward from a deep storage reservoir into the shallow subsurface. Intermediate-scale experiments allow for improved understanding of the multiphase evolution processes that control CO2 migration behavior in the subsurface, because the boundary conditions, initial conditions, and porous media parameters can be better controlled and monitored in the laboratory than in field settings. For this study, a large experimental test bed was designed to mimic a cross section of a shallow aquifer with layered geologic heterogeneity. As water with aqueous CO2 was injected into the system to mimic a CO2-charged water leakage scenario, the spatiotemporal evolution of the multiphase CO2 plume was monitored. Similar experiments were performed with two different sand combinations to assess the relative effects of different types of geologic facies transitions on the CO2 evolution processes. Significant CO2 attenuation was observed in both scenarios, but by fundamentally different mechanisms. When the porous media layers had very different permeabilities, attenuation was caused by local accumulation (structural trapping) and slow redissolution of gas phase CO2. When the permeability difference between the layers was relatively small, on the other hand, gas phase continually evolved over widespread areas near the leading edge of the aqueous plume, which also attenuated CO2 migration. This improved process understanding will aid in the development of models that could be used for effective risk assessment and monitoring programs for GCS projects.

  9. Sinterização de cerâmicas em microondas. Parte I: aspectos fundamentais Microwave sintering of ceramics. Part I: fundamental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O processamento de materiais baseado no aquecimento por meio de energia de microondas vem ganhado a cada dia mais destaque e importância em várias aplicações industriais, em virtude de uma série de vantagens em potenciais frente aos métodos convencionais de aquecimento. Na sinterização de materiais cerâmicos o uso de microondas permite redução no tempo de processamento, economia de energia e melhora na uniformidade microestrutural dos corpos cerâmicos. Como conseqüência das vantagens frente às técnicas de aquecimentos convencionais, a sinterização usando microondas vem sendo estudada por vários grupos de pesquisa em todo o mundo. Entretanto, os benefícios do uso das microondas só são obtidos quando a sinterização é realizada com o controle e entendimento científico de uma série de parâmetros e aspectos envolvidos no processo. Assim, esse trabalho tem por objetivo abordar aspectos científicos fundamentais do processo de sinterização de cerâmicas usando microondas, enfocando particularmente a interação matéria/microondas, aspectos peculiares do processo e a técnica de sinterização híbrida.Processing of materials based on heating by microwave energy has gained increasing importance in many industrial applications due to its potential advantages over conventional heating methods. In the sintering of ceramic materials, the use of microwave energy decreases the processing time, saves energy and improves the microstructural homogeneity of ceramic bodies. These advantages have motivated various research groups around the world to study microwave sintering. However, the benefits deriving from the use of microwaves depend on the control and scientific understanding of the parameters and aspects of the process. This paper offers a review of the fundamental scientific aspects of microwave sintering of ceramics, focusing on the interaction between materials and microwaves and highlighting particular points of the hybrid

  10. Cuprolinic Blue: a specific dye for single-stranded RNA in the presence of magnesium chloride. I. Fundamental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, J.; MENDELSON, D.; NOORDEN, C. J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cationic dye Cuprolinic Blue were investigated with model films of polyacrylamide gel in which RNA, DNA and other biological polyanionic compounds had been incorporated. In the presence of 1 M MgCl2, Curpolinic Blue was found to bind specifically to

  11. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are

  12. Some fundamental aspects of fault-tree and digraph-matrix relationships for a systems-interaction evaluation procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1982-02-28

    Recent events, such as Three Mile Island-2, Brown's Ferry-3, and Crystal River-3, have demonstrated that complex accidents can occur as a result of dependent (common-cause/mode) failures. These events are now being called Systems Interactions. A procedure for the identification and evaluation of Systems Interactions is being developed by the NRC. Several national laboratories and utilities have contributed preliminary procedures. As a result, there are several important views of the Systems Interaction problem. This report reviews some fundamental mathematical background of both fault-oriented and success-oriented risk analyses in order to bring out the advantages and disadvantages of each. In addition, it outlines several fault-oriented/dependency analysis approaches and several success-oriented/digraph-matrix approaches. The objective is to obtain a broad perspective of present options for solving the Systems Interaction problem.

  13. Some fundamental aspects of fault-tree and digraph-matrix relationships for a systems-interaction evaluation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    Recent events, such as Three Mile Island-2, Brown's Ferry-3, and Crystal River-3, have demonstrated that complex accidents can occur as a result of dependent (common-cause/mode) failures. These events are now being called Systems Interactions. A procedure for the identification and evaluation of Systems Interactions is being developed by the NRC. Several national laboratories and utilities have contributed preliminary procedures. As a result, there are several important views of the Systems Interaction problem. This report reviews some fundamental mathematical background of both fault-oriented and success-oriented risk analyses in order to bring out the advantages and disadvantages of each. In addition, it outlines several fault-oriented/dependency analysis approaches and several success-oriented/digraph-matrix approaches. The objective is to obtain a broad perspective of present options for solving the Systems Interaction problem

  14. Biofilm-Related Infections: Bridging the Gap between Clinical Management and Fundamental Aspects of Recalcitrance toward Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeaux, David; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Surface-associated microbial communities, called biofilms, are present in all environments. Although biofilms play an important positive role in a variety of ecosystems, they also have many negative effects, including biofilm-related infections in medical settings. The ability of pathogenic biofilms to survive in the presence of high concentrations of antibiotics is called “recalcitrance” and is a characteristic property of the biofilm lifestyle, leading to treatment failure and infection recurrence. This review presents our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biofilm recalcitrance toward antibiotics and describes how recent progress has improved our capacity to design original and efficient strategies to prevent or eradicate biofilm-related infections. PMID:25184564

  15. Understanding the PxS Aspect of Within-Person Variation: A Variance Partitioning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eLakey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews a variance partitioning approach to within-person variation based on Generalizability (G Theory and the Social Relations Model (SRM. The approach conceptualizes an important part of within-person variation as Person x Situation (PxS interactions: differences among persons in their profiles of responses across the same situations. The approach provided the first quantitative method for capturing within-person variation and demonstrated very large PxS effects for a wide range of constructs. These include anxiety, five-factor personality traits, perceived social support, leadership, and task performance. Although PxS effects are commonly very large, conceptual and analytic obstacles have thwarted consistent progress. For example, how does one develop a psychological, versus purely statistical, understanding of PxS effects? How does one forecast future behavior when the criterion is a PxS effect? How can understanding PxS effects contribute to psychological theory? This review describes potential solutions to these and other problems developed in the course of conducting research on the PxS aspect of social support. Additional problems that need resolution are identified.

  16. Metacognition and action: a new pathway to understanding social and cognitive aspects of expertise in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Tadhg E; Igou, Eric R; Campbell, Mark J; Moran, Aidan P; Matthews, James

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts' metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as "meta-attention," "meta-imagery" and "meta-memory," as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on "metacognition" and "metacognitive inference" among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action.

  17. Fundamental aspects of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    I am pleased to be able to attend this symposium in honor of D. Allan Bromley and to see the new accelerator of the Yale University Nuclear Structure Laboratory. My talk on symmetry tests seems appropriate for this occasion: so much of the progress in this field depends on detailed knowledge of nuclear structure. The nuclear ''tricks'' that are played to filter and amplify interactions are possible because the nuclear spectroscopists have cataloged nuclear levels and determined their properties. I will describe how such nuclear structure studies may help to provide a window on physics beyond the standard model. My talk is not a summary of this subfield of nuclear physics. There is simply too much happening today to make a summary talk feasible. Instead, I have chosen four topics that I hope are representative of the field as a whole: parity mixing of nuclear states, time-reversal-odd nuclear moments, the Mikheyev-Smirnov enhancement of solar neutrino oscillations, and a nuclear experiment to monitor the long-term rate of stellar collapse in the galaxy. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Fundamental Aspects of Pressuremeter Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    controlled. ’Iherefort po.,’i , stra,1 softening could not be observed . (vrlieless, the soils studld Ni ! r( of \\t r low sensitivity, arid thus...r2GAi - X)e + -1 -L nbA for 40 1 _________APvost AHoql - r- in(b+C 2a bi + i a. b, C. e (1975) (strain P, - ph + - 3 a’s(f FCgZ) lai -J1 2332~ -2 Peot...proposed relationship (l’ig. 6.1) between undrained strength and strain rate can be expressed as: qu - qa (I + NI log,o(U/a)) (6.1) where, qu strength at

  19. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Taner [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  20. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.

    1978-04-01

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  1. Fundamentals of Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Heagney, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  2. Metacognition and action: A new pathway to understanding social and cognitive aspects of expertise in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadhg Eoghan Macintyre

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as ‘meta-attention’, ‘meta-imagery’ and ‘meta-memory’, as well as social aspects of this construct provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on ‘metacognition’ and ‘metacognitive inference’ among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action.

  3. Metacognition and action: a new pathway to understanding social and cognitive aspects of expertise in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; Igou, Eric R.; Campbell, Mark J.; Moran, Aidan P.; Matthews, James

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers – people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as “meta-attention,” “meta-imagery” and “meta-memory,” as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on “metacognition” and “metacognitive inference” among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action. PMID:25360126

  4. Role of Aspect in Understanding Tense: An Investigation with Adolescents with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Nichola J.; van der Lely, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background: Morphosyntax has been well researched in specific language impairment (SLI) and there is general agreement that children with SLI have particular difficulties with tense-marking. Less well researched is the role that aspect plays in the difficulties found in tense-marking, especially as tense and aspect are often confounded in English.…

  5. Biodiversity in the City: Fundamental Questions for Understanding the Ecology of Urban Green Spaces for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lepczyk; Myla F. J. Aronson; Karl L. Evans; Mark A. Goddard; Susannah B. Lerman; J. Scott MacIvor

    2017-01-01

    As urban areas expand, understanding how ecological processes function in cities has become increasingly important for conserving biodiversity. Urban green spaces are critical habitats to support biodiversity, but we still have a limited understanding of their ecology and how they function to conserve biodiversity at local and landscape scales across multiple taxa....

  6. 2nd International Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering (REES-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavadyan, Levon, Prof; Sachkov, Viktor, Prof; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr.; Bogdan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd International Symposium «Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering» (REES2015) was jointly organized by Tomsk State University (Russia), National Academy of Science (Armenia), Shenyang Polytechnic University (China), Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering (Russia), Siberian Physical-technical Institute (Russia), and Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) in September, 7-15, 2015, Belokuriha, Russia. The Symposium provided a high quality of presentations and gathered engineers, scientists, academicians, and young researchers working in the field of rare and rare earth elements mining, modification, separation, elaboration and application, in order to facilitate aggregation and sharing interests and results for a better collaboration and activity visibility. The goal of the REES2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on rare and rare earth elements technologies. The Symposium was aimed at presenting new trends in rare and rare earth elements mining, research and separation and recent achievements in advanced materials elaboration and developments for different purposes, as well as strengthening the already existing contacts between manufactures, highly-qualified specialists and young scientists. The topics of the REES2015 were: (1) Problems of extraction and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (2) Methods and approaches to the separation and isolation of rare and rare earth elements with ultra-high purity; (3) Industrial technologies of production and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (4) Economic aspects in technology of rare and rare earth elements; and (5) Rare and rare earth based materials (application in metallurgy, catalysis, medicine, optoelectronics, etc.). We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Universities and Sponsors supporting the Symposium, and everyone who contributed to the organization of the event and to

  7. Examining Preservice Science Teacher Understanding of Nature of Science: Discriminating Variables on the Aspects of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William I.

    This study examined the understanding of nature of science among participants in their final year of a 4-year undergraduate teacher education program at a Midwest liberal arts university. The Logic Model Process was used as an integrative framework to focus the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of the data for the purpose of (1) describing participant understanding of NOS and (2) to identify participant characteristics and teacher education program features related to those understandings. The Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire form C (VNOS-C) was used to survey participant understanding of 7 target aspects of Nature of Science (NOS). A rubric was developed from a review of the literature to categorize and score participant understanding of the target aspects of NOS. Participants' high school and college transcripts, planning guides for their respective teacher education program majors, and science content and science teaching methods course syllabi were examined to identify and categorize participant characteristics and teacher education program features. The R software (R Project for Statistical Computing, 2010) was used to conduct an exploratory analysis to determine correlations of the antecedent and transaction predictor variables with participants' scores on the 7 target aspects of NOS. Fourteen participant characteristics and teacher education program features were moderately and significantly ( p Middle Childhood with a science concentration program major or in the Adolescent/Young Adult Science Education program major were more likely to have an informed understanding on each of the 7 target aspects of NOS. Analyses of the planning guides and the course syllabi in each teacher education program major revealed differences between the program majors that may account for the results.

  8. Fundamental understanding of oxygen reduction and reaction behavior and developing high performance and stable hetero-structured cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingbo [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-11-14

    New unique hetero-structured cathode has been developed in this project. La2NiO4+δ (LNO) as a surface catalyst with interstitial oxygen defects was introduced onto the state-of-the-art (La0.6Sr0.4)0.95Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode to enhance the surface-limited ORR kinetics on SOFC cathode. Furthermore, the hetero-structured cathode surface maintains high activity under electrode polarization with much less negative effects from surface cation segregation of Sr, which is known to cause degradation issues for conventional LSCF and LSC cathodes, thus improving the cathode long-term stability. The interface chemistry distribution and oxygen transport properties have been studied to prove the enhancement of power out and stability of LNO-infiltrated LSCF cathode. The further investigation demonstrates that CeO2 & La2-xNiO4+δ (x=0-0.2) co-infiltration is a simple and cost-effective method to improve both performance and stability of LSCF cathode by limiting nano-particles growth/delamination and further improve the surface stability. For the first time, a physical model is proposed to illustrate how unique interstitial species on hetero-structured cathode surface work to regulate the exchange rate of the incorporation reaction. Meanwhile, fundamental investigation of the surface oxygen exchange and bulk oxygen transport properties under over-potential conditions across cathode materials have been carried out in this project, which were discussed and compared to the Nernst equation that is generally applied to treat any oxide electrodes under equilibrium.

  9. Fundamental Causes of Colorectal Cancer Mortality in the United States: Understanding the Importance of Socioeconomic Status in Creating Inequality in Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, Sean A. P.; Rubin, Marcie S.; Colen, Cynthia G.; Link, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We used the fundamental cause hypothesis as a framework for understanding the creation of health disparities in colorectal cancer mortality in the United States from 1968 to 2005. Methods. We used negative binomial regression to analyze trends in county-level gender-, race-, and age-adjusted colorectal cancer mortality rates among individuals aged 35 years or older. Results. Prior to 1980, there was a stable gradient in colorectal cancer mortality, with people living in counties of higher socioeconomic status (SES) being at greater risk than people living in lower SES counties. Beginning in 1980, this gradient began to narrow and then reversed as people living in higher SES counties experienced greater reductions in colorectal cancer mortality than those in lower SES counties. Conclusions. Our findings support the fundamental cause hypothesis: once knowledge about prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer became available, social and economic resources became increasingly important in influencing mortality rates. PMID:23153135

  10. What do children know and understand about universal gravitation? Structural and developmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frappart, S.; Raijmakers, M.; Frède, V.

    2014-01-01

    Children's understanding of universal gravitation starts at an early age but changes until adulthood, which makes it an interesting topic for studying the development and structure of knowledge. Children's understanding of gravitation was tested for a variety of contexts and across a wide age range

  11. Understanding small biomolecule-biomaterial interactions: a review of fundamental theoretical and experimental approaches for biomolecule interactions with inorganic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dominique; Garrain, Pierre-Alain; Baaden, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between biomolecules and inorganic surfaces play an important role in natural environments and in industry, including a wide variety of conditions: marine environment, ship hulls (fouling), water treatment, heat exchange, membrane separation, soils, mineral particles at the earth's surface, hospitals (hygiene), art and buildings (degradation and biocorrosion), paper industry (fouling) and more. To better control the first steps leading to adsorption of a biomolecule on an inorganic surface, it is mandatory to understand the adsorption mechanisms of biomolecules of several sizes at the atomic scale, that is, the nature of the chemical interaction between the biomolecule and the surface and the resulting biomolecule conformations once adsorbed at the surface. This remains a challenging and unsolved problem. Here, we review the state of art in experimental and theoretical approaches. We focus on metallic biomaterial surfaces such as TiO(2) and stainless steel, mentioning some remarkable results on hydroxyapatite. Experimental techniques include atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, sum frequency generation and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Theoretical models range from detailed quantum mechanical representations to classical forcefield-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Freire's reading to understand important aspects in South African context of change

    OpenAIRE

    Darlei de Paula; EST-PPG

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate that Freire's pedagogy reading is useful way to help Brazilian theology students to understand better the South African change context. So we show common features that can be identified as in South African context as in Brazilian Freire's Pedagogy as tool to access the post-apartheid change.

  13. Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

  14. Cinemedicine: Using movies to improve students' understanding of psychosocial aspects of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Kadivar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are rising concerns about how to teach psychosocial aspects of medicine to students. The aim of the study was the use of “cinemedicine” as a tool and technique in teaching psychosocial aspects of medicine to medical students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. Methods: This was an educational study with quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Two hundred seventy medical students participated in this study. Nine sessions were held to teach psychosocial subjects in medicine using movies. Each session began with an initial explanation of the program objectives. After the show, medicine related points of the movie were discussed and analyzed by experts and students. In the end, questionnaires were distributed to assess the students' perceptions. Results: The results of our study show that most of the students (84% stated that teaching these subjects through movies was a nice event comparing to usual lectures. 56.5% of the students agreed with the application of points learned in the events in professional performance. The majority of the students (72.8% agreed that participating in those events was useful for them as a physician and they would advise other students to attend to later sessions. Content analysis of the students' notes uncovered three categories of cinemedicine: “learning by observation”, “creation of a supportive and tangible learning” and “motivation for learning”. Conclusion: Cinemedicine provides the opportunity for medical students to learn psychosocial subjects related to medicine through observing and reflecting on movies. Keywords: Films, Undergraduate, Curriculum, Medicine, Teaching

  15. Deontological aspects of the nursing profession: understanding the code of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Terezinha Nunes da; Freire, Maria Eliane Moreira; Vasconcelos, Monica Ferreira de; Silva Junior, Sergio Vital da; Silva, Wilton José de Carvalho; Araújo, Patrícia da Silva; Eloy, Allan Victor Assis

    2018-01-01

    to investigate nursing professionals' understanding concerning the Code of Ethics; to assess the relevance of the Code of Ethics of the nursing profession and its use in practice; to identify how problem-solving is performed when facing ethical dilemmas in professional practice. exploratory descriptive study, conducted with 34 (thirty-four) nursing professionals from a teaching hospital in João Pessoa, PB - Brazil. four thematic categories emerged: conception of professional ethics in nursing practice; interpretations of ethics in the practice of care; use of the Code of Ethics in the professional practice; strategies for solving ethical issues in the professional practice. some of the nursing professionals comprehend the meaning coherently; others have a limited comprehension, based on jargon. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the text contained in this code is necessary so that it can be applied into practice, aiming to provide a quality care that is, above all, ethical and legal.

  16. Using Group Drawings Activities to Facilitate the Understanding of the Systemic Aspects of Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto Arantes do Amaral

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present our findings regarding promoting group drawing activities in order to facilitate the learning of systemic aspects of projects. We discuss the approach we used to engage the students and foster learning in our classes. We used group drawing activities in two project management undergraduate courses. The courses, which involved 41 students, took place during the second semester of 2016 in a public university in Brazil. We conducted qualitative research, using qualitative observation and focus group interviews. In order to gauge the effects of the use of this educational technique, we followed the five-phased qualitative analysis method, combined with a systems analysis of the data obtained from observation. Five recurrent themes emerged: 1 Making drawings in groups helps content retention and facilitates connections between the concepts explained by the professor; 2 Making drawings in groups promotes knowledge sharing among team members; 3 Making drawings in group fosters creativity and communication between students; 4 Drawing in groups reduces the students’ boredom, makes the lecture more dynamic and interesting; 5 Drawing in groups reinforces bonds between students. Our systems analysis suggests that group drawing improves student participation in classroom activities, strengthens bonds between students, and enhances learning.

  17. Understanding the core of RNA interference: The dynamic aspects of Argonaute-mediated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe

    2016-10-05

    At the core of RNA interference, the Argonaute proteins (Ago) load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign nucleic acids in a sequence specific manner. In recent years, based on extensive structural studies of Ago and its interaction with the nucleic acids, considerable progress has been made to reveal the dynamic aspects of various Ago-mediated processes. Here we review these novel insights into the guide-strand loading, duplex unwinding, and effects of seed mismatch, with a focus on two representative Agos, the human Ago 2 (hAgo2) and the bacterial Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo). In particular, comprehensive molecular simulation studies revealed that although sharing similar overall structures, the two Agos have vastly different conformational landscapes and guide-strand loading mechanisms because of the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Given the central role of the PAZ motions in regulating the exposure of the nucleic acid binding channel, these findings exemplify the importance of protein motions in distinguishing the overlapping, yet distinct, mechanisms of Ago-mediated processes in different organisms.

  18. Understanding socioeconomic aspects of risk perception: Progress report, FY-1987: Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebow, E.B.; Fawcett-Long, J.A.; Terrill, E.S.

    1987-11-01

    This report summarizes progress to date in understanding the issue of risk perception and its implications for the suitability of the Hanford Site in eastern Washington as a location for an underground radioactive waste repository. It presents some observations about the causes, consequences and processes of risk perception gained from a review of the professional literature. It also contains an extensive working bibliography of useful reference materials, and a compilation of abstracts from selected articles that are felt to be of particular relevance to the BWIP licensing and institutional support efforts. 293 refs

  19. Deontological aspects of the nursing profession: understanding the code of ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Nunes da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate nursing professionals' understanding concerning the Code of Ethics; to assess the relevance of the Code of Ethics of the nursing profession and its use in practice; to identify how problem-solving is performed when facing ethical dilemmas in professional practice. Method: exploratory descriptive study, conducted with 34 (thirty-four nursing professionals from a teaching hospital in João Pessoa, PB - Brazil. Results: four thematic categories emerged: conception of professional ethics in nursing practice; interpretations of ethics in the practice of care; use of the Code of Ethics in the professional practice; strategies for solving ethical issues in the professional practice. Final considerations: some of the nursing professionals comprehend the meaning coherently; others have a limited comprehension, based on jargon. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the text contained in this code is necessary so that it can be applied into practice, aiming to provide a quality care that is, above all, ethical and legal.

  20. Beyond Self-Monitoring: Understanding Non-functional Aspects of Home-based Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of health parameters in non-clinical settings is one strategy to address the increasingly aging population and age-related disabilities and diseases. However, challenges exist when introducing self-monitoring activities in people’s everyday life. An active lifestyle can challenge......-technical complexities in home-based healthcare technologies through three case studies of self-monitoring: 1) pre-eclampsia (i.e. pregnancy poisoning), 2) heart conditions, and 3) preventive care. Through the analysis seven themes emerged (people, resources, places, routines, knowledge, control and motivation) that can...... facilitate the understanding of home-based healthcare activities. We present three modes of self-monitoring use and provide a set of design recommendations for future Ubicomp designs of home-based healthcare technology....

  1. The Storytelling Aspect of Interpersonal Relations: Understanding "Relating" from a Mentalization Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Mark; Tuch, Richard

    Improving a patient's ability to form and maintain satisfactory interpersonal relations is an important goal in many therapies. A mentalization-based approach to treatment is ideally suited to achieve this end to the extent it's designed to help improve a patient's ability to form more nuanced guesses about why others act as they do, based on a more accurate "read" of that individual's beliefs and desires. Interpersonal difficulties often issue when patients remain insistent on their own interpretation of another's motives that fly in the face of that individual's understanding of what is "driving" them. Helping patients explore the basis upon which they'd formed their conclusions about others goes a ways toward opening their mind to the possibility that things are a bit more complicated than first imaged. This in turn leads to greater curiosity and willingness to explore their own narratives and perceptions.

  2. Using qualitative methods to understand non-technological aspects of domestic energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Aimee Rebecca

    The overall aim of the collected published works is to investigate how different policy interventions in the field of energy efficiency (including zero carbon homes, low carbon heat networks, and domestic energy efficiency schemes) are experienced and made sense of by a range of key actors. A further aim is to understand these interventions in the context of existing theories within the field of domestic energy efficiency including socio-technical theory and Actor Network Theory. More specifically, this research advances existing knowledge in the following areas: The nature of the socio-technical challenges encountered in the introduction of more energy efficient buildings, and the importance of achieving a balance between socially acceptable and technically optimal environments. (Papers 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8). The value of qualitative research in gaining a more nuanced understanding of our relationship with the home and the implications of this for domestic energy efficiency interventions and the design of low energy buildings (all papers). The influence of tenure as determinant of access to a more energy efficient home and in particular, the stubborn and complex barriers to achieving higher standards of energy performance within the private rented sector. (Papers 1, 2, 3 and 4). The significance of identity, setting and notions of home in the context of domestic energy efficiency interventions. (Papers 1 and 4). As these themes suggest, this PhD is not just concerned with carbon reduction and energy saving as technical objects, but as a way of life. More specifically, it considers the interactions between the two and contends that technical or policy instruments, no matter how sophisticated, cannot succeed if they are not compatible with our ways of life (and ways of doing businesss) or if our ways of life cannot be reasonably adapted to acoomodate them.

  3. New approach to the understanding of keloid: psychoneuroimmune–endocrine aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochman B

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Hochman†, Felipe Contoli Isoldi, Fabianne Furtado, Lydia Masako Ferreira Plastic Surgery Division, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil †Bernardo Hochman passed away on April 21, 2014 Abstract: The skin is a dynamic and complex organ that relies on the interrelation among different cell types, macromolecules, and signaling pathways. Further, the skin has interactions with its own appendages and other organs such as the sebaceous glands and hair follicles, the kidney, and adrenal glands; systems such as the central nervous system; and axes such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. These continuous connections give the skin its versatility, and when an injury is caused, some triggers start a cascade of events designed to restore its integrity. Nowadays, it is known that this psychoneuroimmune–endocrine intercommunication modulates both the homeostatic condition and the healing process. In this sense, the skin conditions before a trauma, whether of endogenous (acne or exogenous origin (injury or surgical incision, could regulate the process of tissue repair. Most skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, among others, have in their pathophysiology a psychogenic component that triggers integrated actions in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. However, fibroproliferative disorders of wound healing, such as hypertrophic scar and keloid, are not yet included in this listing, despite showing correlation with stress, especially with the psychosocial character. This review, by understanding the "brain–skin connection", presents evidence that allows us to understand the keloid as a psychomediated disease. Keywords: keloid, stress, psychological, psychoneuroimmunology, wound healing

  4. Understanding Swedish dairy farmers’ view on breeding goals - ethical aspects of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röcklinsberg, H.; Gamborg, Christian; Gjerris, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    What values underlie farmers’ choice of breeding goals? Typical dairy breeding goals cover production traits (e.g. yield, feed conversion, and lactation curve) and functional traits (e.g. leg health, fertility and calving ability). One central and multifunctional trait correlated to all these tra......What values underlie farmers’ choice of breeding goals? Typical dairy breeding goals cover production traits (e.g. yield, feed conversion, and lactation curve) and functional traits (e.g. leg health, fertility and calving ability). One central and multifunctional trait correlated to all......, but also problems related to resources like milking system or grazing and to management practices like herd size or pasture management. Farmers’ practice varies depending on their values or attitudes, farm size and breed, but no previous study has mapped their values underlying choice of breeding goals...... or values related to longevity. A first part of the study mapped dairy farmers’ ranking of breeding traits via a web questionnaire. Here we present and discuss the second part: results from follow up qualitative focus groups interviews aimed at getting a deeper understanding of how farmers reason about...

  5. Fractionation of bamboo culms by autohydrolysis, organosolv delignification and extended delignification: understanding the fundamental chemistry of the lignin during the integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Ni; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-12-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) was successfully fractionated using a three-step integrated process: (1) autohydrolysis pretreatment facilitating xylooligosaccharide (XOS) production (2) organosolv delignification with organic acids to obtain high-purity lignin, and (3) extended delignification with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) to produce purified pulp. The integrated process was comprehensively evaluated by component analysis, SEM, XRD, and CP-MAS NMR techniques. Emphatically, the fundamental chemistry of the lignin fragments obtained from the integrated process was thoroughly investigated by gel permeation chromatography and solution-state NMR techniques (quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC, and (31)P-NMR spectroscopies). It is believed that the integrated process facilitate the production of XOS, high-purity lignin, and purified pulp. Moreover, the enhanced understanding of structural features and chemical reactivity of lignin polymers will maximize their utilizations in a future biorefinery industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Some aspects of executive functions as predictors of understanding textual mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japundža-Milisavljević Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most significant segment during the process of solving mathematical tasks is translation from mathematical to native language, in the basis o which, among others, are the following factors: resistance to distraction and forming adequate verbal strategies. The goal of this research is to evaluate the contribution of some aspects of executive functions in explaining the variance of solving illustrative mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability. The sample consists of 90 students with mild intellectual disability aged from 12 to 16 (M=14.7; SD=1.6, of both sexes (44.4% boys and 55.6% girls. The Twenty questions test and the Stroop test were used to estimate the executive functions. Verbal problem tasks were used for the purpose of understanding mathematical language The obtained results show that the estimated aspects of executive functions are significant predictors of understanding mathematical language in students with intellectual disabilities. The strongest predictor is distraction resistance (p=0.01.

  7. Exploring one aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants using the test of understanding graphs in kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maries

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is

  8. Sound understanding of environmental, health and safety, clinical, and market aspects is imperative to clinical translation of nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösslein, Matthias; Liptrott, Neill J; Owen, Andrew; Boisseau, Patrick; Wick, Peter; Herrmann, Inge K

    2017-03-01

    Nanotechnology has transformed materials engineering. However, despite much excitement in the scientific community, translation of nanotechnology-based developments has suffered from significant translational gaps, particularly in the field of biomedicine. Of the many concepts investigated, very few have entered routine clinical application. Safety concerns and associated socioeconomic uncertainties, together with the lack of incentives for technology transfer, are undoubtedly imposing significant hurdles to effective clinical translation of potentially game-changing developments. Commercialisation aspects are only rarely considered in the early stages and in many cases, the market is not identified early on in the process, hence precluding market-oriented development. However, methodologies and in-depth understanding of mechanistic processes existing in the environmental, health and safety (EHS) community could be leveraged to accelerate translation. Here, we discuss the most important stepping stones for (nano)medicine development along with a number of suggestions to facilitate future translation.

  9. Preliminary fundamental aspects on the thyroid volume and function in the population of long term heavily polluted area in East Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tajtakova, M. [Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia). First Clinic of Internal Medicine; Kocan, A. [Slovak Health Univ. - IPCM, Bratislava (SK). Research Base] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Our previous examinations of employees of chemical factory formerly producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) repeatedly showed increased thyroid volume as measured by ultrasound as well as increased frequency of thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. At the same time a considerable PCB pollution of soil, waters and food chain in large area surrounding that chemical factory was found. The aim of present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and fundamental markers of thyroid volume and function in large cohorts of population from three districts of East Slovakia.

  10. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions: Quarterly Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Shale is characterized by the predominant presence of nanometer-scale (1-100 nm) pores. The behavior of fluids in those pores directly controls shale gas storage and release in shale matrix and ultimately the wellbore production in unconventional reservoirs. Recently, it has been recognized that a fluid confined in nanopores can behave dramatically differently from the corresponding bulk phase due to nanopore confinement (Wang, 2014). CO2 and H2O, either preexisting or introduced, are two major components that coexist with shale gas (predominately CH4) during hydrofracturing and gas extraction. Note that liquid or supercritical CO2 has been suggested as an alternative fluid for subsurface fracturing such that CO2 enhanced gas recovery can also serve as a CO2 sequestration process. Limited data indicate that CO2 may preferentially adsorb in nanopores (particularly those in kerogen) and therefore displace CH4 in shale. Similarly, the presence of water moisture seems able to displace or trap CH4 in shale matrix. Therefore, fundamental understanding of CH4-CO2-H2O behavior and their interactions in shale nanopores is of great importance for gas production and the related CO2 sequestration. This project focuses on the systematic study of CH4-CO2-H2O interactions in shale nanopores under high-pressure and high temperature reservoir conditions. The proposed work will help to develop new stimulation strategies to enable efficient resource recovery from fewer and less environmentally impactful wells.

  11. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Shale is characterized by the predominant presence of nanometer-scale (1-100 nm) pores. The behavior of fluids in those pores directly controls shale gas storage and release in shale matrix and ultimately the wellbore production in unconventional reservoirs. Recently, it has been recognized that a fluid confined in nanopores can behave dramatically differently from the corresponding bulk phase due to nanopore confinement (Wang, 2014). CO2 and H2O, either preexisting or introduced, are two major components that coexist with shale gas (predominately CH4) during hydrofracturing and gas extraction. Note that liquid or supercritical CO2 has been suggested as an alternative fluid for subsurface fracturing such that CO2 enhanced gas recovery can also serve as a CO2 sequestration process. Limited data indicate that CO2 may preferentially adsorb in nanopores (particularly those in kerogen) and therefore displace CH4 in shale. Similarly, the presence of water moisture seems able to displace or trap CH4 in shale matrix. Therefore, fundamental understanding of CH4-CO2-H2O behavior and their interactions in shale nanopores is of great importance for gas production and the related CO2 sequestration. This project focuses on the systematic study of CH4-CO2-H2O interactions in shale nanopores under high-pressure and high temperature reservoir conditions. The proposed work will help to develop new stimulation strategies to enable efficient resource recovery from fewer and less environmentally impactful wells.

  12. Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do ensino fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise.PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was

  13. Aspectos temporais auditivos em adolescentes do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental Temporal aspects of hearing in adolescents from the 6th year of elementary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulamita da Silva Marcelino Terto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esclarecer a relação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-transversal com amostra de conveniência, composta por 82 estudantes, na faixa etária de 11 a 13 anos, sendo 43 do sexo feminino e 38 do sexo masculino do 6º ano de uma escola de financiamento privado na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. Cada estudante respondeu a um formulário de caracterização da amostra, realizou o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e foi submetido aos testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos: Teste Padrão de Duração, Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Gap-in-Noise. RESULTADOS: os testes que avaliam os aspectos temporais auditivos não sofreram influência relacionada às variáveis sexo, idade, realização de atividades de musicalização e preferência manual. Com exceção da variável "acompanhamento fonoaudiológico" que apresentou significância estatística no teste Gap-in-Noise. Os subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar que exerceram maior influencia no desempenho nos testes Padrão de Duração e Padrão de Frequência foram Escrita, seguida de Leitura e Aritmética. CONCLUSÃO: a análise dos dados revelou que há correlação entre desempenho escolar e aspectos temporais auditivos. Cabe ressaltar que os testes que avaliam a ordenação temporal complexa (Teste Padrão de Frequência e Teste Padrão de Duração são influenciados pelo desempenho no Teste de Desempenho Escolar. Porém o mesmo não ocorre com o teste que avalia resolução temporal (Gap-in-Noise.PURPOSE: to elucidate the relationship between school performance and temporal aspects of hearing. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional convenience sample composed of 82 students, aged 11-13 years, 43 females, and 38 males in the 6th grade at a private funding school in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Each student responded to one form of sample characterization, performed the Academic Performance Test and was

  14. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  15. Fundamental aspects of closed optical mode formation in Fabry–Perot semiconductor lasers based on AlGaAs/GaAs (905 nm) asymmetric heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slipchenko, S O; Podoskin, A A; Pikhtin, N A; Tarasov, I S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental static and dynamic electro-optical characteristics of 905 nm high power mesa-stripe semiconductor laser diodes based on an AlGaAs/GaAs asymmetric heterostructure operating under Fabry–Perot cavity mode quenching have been investigated. We have shown that Fabry–Perot cavity mode reversible turn-off is due to the fulfillment of a high-Q closed mode threshold condition. The mode is propagating along both gain and passive areas of the laser diode and characterized by nearly zero output optical losses. We have demonstrated that fundamental reasons of closed mode threshold condition fulfillment are (i) gain spectra shift in the long wavelength region due to band gap shrinkage and thermal heating effects and (ii) the band gap absorption decrease in the passive area. It has been shown that the process of closed mode turn-on consists of two stages. In the first stage, Fabry–Perot cavity modes and closed modes are lasing simultaneously under high residual band gap absorption in the passive area. In the second stage, closed mode optical losses become lower than Fabry–Perot cavity mode optical losses due to a positive feedback between the residual absorption and closed mode photon stimulated generation rate. This results in an accumulation of photogenerated carriers in the quantum well active region of the laser diode passive area. As a result, the threshold concentration in the gain area decreases providing lasing emission switching from the Fabry–Perot cavity mode to the closed mode. (paper)

  16. Aspectos fundamentais da experimentação animal - aplicações em cirurgia experimental Fundamental aspects on animal research as applied to experimental surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Blanes Damy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir à pesquisa em cirurgia experimental, este artigo apresenta uma análise dos principais parâmetros exigidos a serem observados pelos comitês internacionais e nacionais de ética e bem-estar animal, cujo cumprimento é pré-requisito para publicação em periódicos arbitrados de circulação internacional. A padronização da genética, do estado sanitário e do ambiente das espécies de animais Mus musculus (camundongos, Rattus norvegicus (ratos, Oryctolagus cuniculus (coelhos e Sus scropha domesticus (suínos, a observação de condições adequadas no transporte, aclimatação, enriquecimento do ambiente, treinamento de técnicos em experimentação animal, gestão de informação, biossegurança, dieta, anestesia, cuidados pós-operatórios, analgesia e eutanásia, aliados a projetos de pesquisa bem planejados são apresentados como etapas fundamentais para a obtenção de resultados com alto grau de acuidade, alto nível de reprodutibilidade e precisão.This study aimed to present the general principles for experiments performed on laboratory animals as required by international and national ethical committees on animal welfare. Compliance to these principles is a prerequisite for publication in international journals. Details of genetic, sanitary and environmental standards, transportation, acclimation, environmental enrichment, appropriate education and training of all those involved in handling of live animals, information management strategy, biossecurity, diet, anesthesia, analgesia, postoperative care and euthanasia for Mus musculus (mice, Rattus norvegicus (rat, Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbit and Sus scropha domesticus (pig combined with well planned biomedical research are fundamental to increase the accuracy, reproducibility and precision of the experimental results.

  17. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  18. Fundamentals of klystron testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.W. Jr.

    1978-08-01

    Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected to make a meaningful contribution to the group's effort. Thus, the introductory section acquaints the reader with basic concepts of accelerators in general, then briefly describes major physical aspects of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Only then is his attention directed to the klystron, with its auxiliary systems, and the rudiments of klystron tube performance checks. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with basic principles of electronics and scientific notation. However, to preserve the integrity of an indoctrination guide, tedious technical discussions and mathematical analysis have been studiously avoided. It is hoped that the new operator will continue to use the text for reference long after his indoctrination period is completed. Even the more experienced operator should find that particular sections will refresh his understanding of basic principles of klystron testing

  19. Methods of incorporating understanding of professional and ethical responsibility in the engineering curriculum and results from the Fundamentals of Engineering examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Brock Edward

    This study evaluated the methods of incorporating professionalism and ethics in the engineering curriculum to determine the nature of the relationship between the curriculum model used and outcomes on a nationally administered, engineering-specific standardized examination. The study's population included engineering students enrolled at one of nine southeastern public universities between October 1996 and April 2005. The institutions are partners in the Multiple-Institution Database for Investigating Engineering Longitudinal Development (MIDFIELD) project. A mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative) research program was designed and implemented. The qualitative aspects of the study focused on research questions related to the impetus and considerations given to curriculum changes made by the 23 engineering programs that participated in the study. The qualitative research questions were investigated using semi-structured interviews conducted with program representatives and evaluation of 49 ABET Self-Study accreditation documents. The curriculum model used by each of the participating programs were identified and defined for the period of the study and quantitatively compared to performance on the ethics section of the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Examination. The FE Examination is prepared and administered by the National Council for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) and is the only nationally administered, engineering-specific, standardized assessment that measures performance on ABET-related criteria. A student-level dataset of subject scores was obtained for the FE Examination for all of the MIDFIELD programs. This study represents the first published attempt to utilize NCEES data for the purpose of rigorous educational research. Statistical techniques were used to evaluate the relationship between curriculum methods and examination performance. The findings indicate a statistical relationship, but a lack of structure between the amount of required

  20. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  1. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  2. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  3. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  4. Free electron laser and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Nguyen, Federico

    2018-03-01

    This review paper is devoted to the understanding of free-electron lasers (FEL) as devices for fundamental physics (FP) studies. After clarifying what FP stands for, we select some aspects of the FEL physics which can be viewed as fundamental. Furthermore, we discuss the perspective uses of the FEL in FP experiments. Regarding the FP aspects of the FEL, we analyze the quantum electrodynamics (QED) nature of the underlying laser mechanism. We look for the truly quantum signature in a process whose phenomenology is dominated by classical effects. As to the use of FEL as a tool for FP experiments we discuss the realization of a device dedicated to the study of non-linear effects in QED such as photon-photon scattering and shining-through-the-wall experiments planned to search for dark matter candidates like axions.

  5. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  6. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  7. Fundamental concepts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The fundamental concepts on energy and the different forms in which it is manifested are presented. Since it is possible to transform energy in a way to other, the laws that govern these transformations are discussed. The energy transformation processes are an essential compound in the capacity humanizes to survive and be developed. The energy use brings important economic aspects, technical and political. Because this, any decision to administer energy system will be key for our future life

  8. Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Wenshan

    2010-01-01

    Metamaterials—artificially structured materials with engineered electromagnetic properties—have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves and producing new functionalities. In just a few years, the field of optical metamaterials has emerged as one of the most exciting topics in the science of light, with stunning and unexpected outcomes that have fascinated scientists and the general public alike. This volume details recent advances in the study of optical metamaterials, ranging from fundamental aspects to up-to-date implementations, in one unified treatment. Important recent developments and applications such as superlenses and cloaking devices are also treated in detail and made understandable. Optical Metamaterials will serve as a very timely book for both newcomers and advanced researchers in this rapidly evolving field. Early praise for Optical Metamaterials: "...this book is timely bringing to students and other new entrants to the field the most up to date concepts. Th...

  9. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  10. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  11. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  12. Fundamental Aspects of Water Coolant Radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Hilbert [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The current state of knowledge of radiolysis in Light Water Reactors (LWR) is presented in this report. High-temperature data for rate constants and primary radiolysis yields have been collected and are shown in tables. Data from different sources have been compared and based on this recommended values have been selected. There is generally a good agreement between g-values for gamma-radiation at ambient temperature from different sources. There are larger discrepancies between results for primary yields from fast neutrons and also for g-values at reactor temperatures. Complete reaction mechanisms, including rate constants at reactor temperatures, from different sources are discussed and shown in tables. Experimentally determined activation energies are also shown, including the temperature range within which they have been determined. In normal cases rate constants at high temperature have been calculated from the rate constant at ambient temperature and the activation energy. Exceptions from this rule are shown and uncertainties have been discussed. The results of a number of radiolysis calculations, carried out for reactor temperatures, are also shown. The results of some sensitivity analyses are discussed. It has been shown that results from radiolysis calculations are rather sensitive to the rate constant ratio k(OH + H{sub 2})/(k(OH + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The first reaction leads to recombination, whereas the last reaction leads to decomposition. In some cases reactions which are unimportant at ambient temperature may play a role at reactor temperatures. This may be the case for reactions with a low rate constant at ambient temperature in combination with a high activation energy.

  13. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  14. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  16. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  17. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Magnetism is a truly unique reference text, that explores the study of magnetism and magnetic behavior with a depth that no other book can provide. It covers the most detailed descriptions of the fundamentals of magnetism providing an emphasis on statistical mechanics which is absolutely critical for understanding magnetic behavior. The books covers the classical areas of basic magnetism, including Landau Theory and magnetic interactions, but features a more concise and easy-to-read style. Perfect for upper-level graduate students and industry researchers, The Fu

  18. Infosec management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  19. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  20. Optically Stimulated Luminescence Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    McKeever, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The book discusses advanced modern applications of optically stimulated luminescence including the appropriate fundamentals of the process. It features major chapters on the use of OSL in space radiation dosimetry, medical physics, personnel dosimetry, security, solid-state physics and other related applications. In each case, the underlying theory is discussed on an as-needed basis for a complete understanding of the phenomena, but with an emphasis of the practical applications of the technique. After an introductory chapter, Chapters 2 to 6 cover basic theory and practical aspects, personal

  1. Systematic in vitro nanotoxicity study on anodic alumina nanotubes with engineered aspect ratio: understanding nanotoxicity by a nanomaterial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Kaur, Gagandeep; Zysk, Aneta; Liapis, Vasilios; Hay, Shelley; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report a detailed and systematic approach for studying the in vitro nanotoxicity study of high aspect ratio (HAR) nanomaterials using anodic alumina nanotubes (AANTs) as a nanomaterial model. AANTs with bio-inert properties and tailored aspect ratios ranging from 7.8 to 63.3 were synthesized by an electrochemical pulse anodization process. Cytotoxicity studies were conducted with RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells and MDA-MB 231-TXSA human breast cancer cells through several toxicity parameters, including cell viability and morphology, pro-inflammatory response, mitochondrial depolarization, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), induction of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The resulting toxicity patterns were cell-type dependent and strongly related with AANTs dose, length of time, and importantly the AR of AANTs. Long AANTs triggered enhanced cell death, morphological changes, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) release, LMP and ER stress than short AANTs. The toxic AR window of AANTs was determined to be 7.8, which is shorter than that of other previously reported HAR nanomaterials. This toxic AR window provides a promising opportunity to control the nanotoxicity of HAR nanomaterials for their advanced drug delivery application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Frontiers of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The 14th annual international symposium “Frontiers of Fundamental Physics” (FFP14) was organized by the OCEVU Labex. It was held in Marseille, on the Saint-Charles Campus of Aix Marseille University (AMU) and had over 280 participants coming from all over the world. FFP Symposium began in India in 1997 and it became itinerant in 2004, through Europe, Canada and Australia. It covers topics in fundamental physics with the objective to enable scholars working in related areas to meet on a single platform and exchange ideas. In addition to highlighting the progress in these areas, the symposium invites the top researchers to reflect on the educational aspects of our discipline. Moreover, the scientific concepts are also discussed through philosophical and epistemological viewpoints. Several eminent scientists, such as the laureates of prestigious awards (Nobel Prize, Fields Medal,…), have already participated in these meetings. The FFP14 Symposium developed around seven main themes, namely: Astroparticle Ph...

  3. Fundamentals of queueing theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre

  4. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  5. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... as a visiting professor at BYG.DTU financed by the Larsen and Nielsen Foundation, and is entered to the research database by Kristian Hertz responsible for the visiting professorship....

  6. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is an international journal reporting significant new results in all aspects of fundamental and applied sciences research. We welcome experimental, computational (including simulation and modelling) and theoretical studies of fundamental and applied sciences. The work must ...

  7. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Getzlaff, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade a tremendous progress has taken place in understanding the basis of magnetism, especially in reduced dimensions. In the first part, the fundamentals of magnetism are conveyed for atoms and bulk-like solid-state systems providing a basis for the understanding of new phenomena which exclusively occur in low-dimensional systems as the giant magneto resistance. This wide field is discussed in the second part and illustrated by copious examples. This textbook is particularly suitable for graduate students in physical and materials sciences. It includes numerous examples, exercises, and references.

  8. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  9. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R

    1996-01-01

    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  10. Spectroscopic instrumentation fundamentals and guidelines for astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Eversberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze the light of cosmic objects, particularly at extremely great distances, spectroscopy is the workhorse of astronomy. In the era of very large telescopes, long-term investigations are mainly performed with small professional instruments. Today they can be done using self-designed spectrographs and highly efficient CCD cameras, without the need for large financial investments.   This book explains the basic principles of spectroscopy, including the fundamental optical constraints and all mathematical aspects needed to understand the working principles in detail. It covers the complete theoretical and practical design of standard and Echelle spectrographs. Readers are guided through all necessary calculations, enabling them to engage in spectrograph design. The book also examines data acquisition with CCD cameras and fiber optics, as well as the constraints of specific data reduction and possible sources of error. In closing it briefly highlights some main aspects of the research on massive s...

  11. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Randal L. [DuPont

    2013-10-31

    The Project focused on mitigation of degradation processes on membrane electrode assemblies. The approach was to develop a model to improve understanding of the mechanisms, and to use it to focus mitigation strategies. The detailed effects of various accelerated stress tests (ASTs) were evaluated to determine the best subset to use in model development. A combination of ASTs developed by the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan and the Fuel Cell Tech Team were selected for use. The ASTs were compared by measuring effects on performance, running in-situ diagnostics, and performing microscopic analyses of the membrane electrode assemblies after the stress tests were complete. Nissan ran FCCJ AST protocols and performed in situ and ex-situ electrochemical testing. DuPont ran FCTT and USFCC AST protocols, performed scanning and transmission electron microscopy and ran in-situ electrochemical tests. Other ex-situ testing was performed by IIT, along with much of the data analysis and model development. These tests were then modified to generate time-dependent data of the degradation mechanisms. Three different catalyst types and four membrane variants were then used to generate data for a theoretically-based degradation model. An important part of the approach was to use commercially available materials in the electrodes and membranes made in scalable semiworks processes rather than lab-based materials. This constraint ensured all materials would be practicable for full-scale testing. The initial model for the electrode layer was tested for internal consistency and agreement with the data. A Java-based computer application was developed to analyze the time-dependent AST data using polarization curves with four different cathode gas feeds and generate model parameters. Data showed very good reproducibility and good consistency as cathode catalyst loadings were varied. At the point of termination of the project, a basic electrode model was in hand with several

  12. Skeleton sled velocity profiles: a novel approach to understand critical aspects of the elite athletes' start phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colyer, Steffi L; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Salo, Aki I T

    2018-06-01

    The development of velocity across the skeleton start is critical to performance, yet poorly understood. We aimed to understand which components of the sled velocity profile determine performance and how physical abilities influence these components. Thirteen well-trained skeleton athletes (>85% of athletes in the country) performed dry-land push-starts alongside countermovement jump and sprint tests at multiple time-points. A magnet encoder attached to the sled wheel provided velocity profiles, which were characterised using novel performance descriptors. Stepwise regression revealed four variables (pre-load velocity, pre-load distance, load effectiveness, velocity drop) to explain 99% variance in performance (β weights: 1.70, -0.81, 0.25, -0.07, respectively). Sprint times and jump ability were associated (r ± 90% CI) with pre-load velocity (-0.70 ± 0.27 and 0.88 ± 0.14, respectively) and distance (-0.48 ± 0.39 and 0.67 ± 0.29, respectively), however, unclear relationships between both physical measures and load effectiveness (0.33 ± 0.44 and -0.35 ± 0.48, respectively) were observed. Athletes should develop accelerative ability to attain higher velocity earlier on the track. Additionally, the loading phase should not be overlooked and may be more influenced by technique than physical factors. Future studies should utilise this novel approach when evaluating skeleton starts or interventions to enhance performance.

  13. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  14. Organic semiconductors. Fundamental aspects of metal contacts, highly ordered films and the application in field effect transistors; Organische Halbleiter. Fundamentale Aspekte von Metallkontakten, hochgeordneten Schichten und deren Anwendung in Feldeffekttransistoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Soenke

    2010-05-31

    In this thesis, fundamental aspects of organic semiconductor devices are investigated and incorporated into the construction and optimization of an organic semiconductor field effect transistor (OFET). In order to approach the ''high end'' of OFETs, elaborate steps to optimize the devices are taken, despite the fact that they might not be feasible in a direct application. Well-characterized model systems are selected to study fundamental properties of devices, in particular the electronic structure at molecule/metal contacts and in the organic semiconductor bulk, as well as the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on single crystalline insulator substrates. The realization of a high performance OFET is pursued by a comprehensive approach in order to optimize particularly the interfaces of the device. Considerable progress is made towards a working OFET with best possible properties. A primary focus of this work, the investigation of the electronic structure at molecule/metal contacts and in the molecular bulk of the model system PTCDA/Ag(111) is performed using two photon photoelectron spectroscopy (2PPE). Of special interest is the excitation of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) that shows different energetic relaxation mechanisms, depending on the origin of excitation. In addition to the importance of the molecule/metal contacts, the performance of OFETs is determined to a large extend by the quality of the organic semiconductor/gate insulator interface where the charge carrier channel is established. The morphology and structure of a molecular layer are investigated for diindenoperylene (DIP) molecules, adsorbed on a single crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate, by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. Dependent on the substrate temperature during growth, the morphology shows grains with lateral dimensions of about 200 nm at 350 K which increase up to 700 nm at 450 K. This change in morphology is accompanied by

  15. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  16. Understanding the fundamental constituents of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichichi, A.

    1978-01-01

    Individual abstracts were prepared for 21 of the lectures in this volume for entry into the TIC data base; five of these are cited in ERA. Two additional papers have already been entered into the data base; these can be found by reference to the entry CONF-760874-- in the Report Number Index

  17. Page | 137 UNDERSTANDING THE LEGAL FUNDAMENTALS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    general assets or the credit of the Sponsor of the facility, and rely on the assets of the facility, including any revenue-producing contracts and other cash flow generated by the facility, as collateral for the debt3. Finnerty defined it as: The raising of funds to finance an economically separable capital investment project in which ...

  18. Lasers Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, K

    2010-01-01

    Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications, serves as a vital textbook to accompany undergraduate and graduate courses on lasers and their applications. Ever since their invention in 1960, lasers have assumed tremendous importance in the fields of science, engineering and technology because of their diverse uses in basic research and countless technological applications. This book provides a coherent presentation of the basic physics behind the way lasers work, and presents some of their most important applications in vivid detail. After reading this book, students will understand how to apply the concepts found within to practical, tangible situations. This textbook includes worked-out examples and exercises to enhance understanding, and the preface shows lecturers how to most beneficially match the textbook with their course curricula. The book includes several recent Nobel Lectures, which will further expose students to the emerging applications and excitement of working with lasers. Students who study lasers, ...

  19. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  20. Composing Europe's Fundamental Rights Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    The article offers a perspective on how the objective of a strong and coherent European protection standard pursued by the fundamental rights amendments of the Lisbon Treaty can be achieved, as it proposes a discursive pluralistic framework to understand and guide the relationship between the EU....... The article ends by addressing three of the most pertinent challenges to European fundamental rights protection through the prism of the proposed framework....

  1. Fundamentals of boiling water reactor (BWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzola, S.

    1982-01-01

    These lectures on fundamentals of BWR reactor physics are a synthesis of known and established concepts. These lectures are intended to be a comprehensive (even though descriptive in nature) presentation, which would give the basis for a fair understanding of power operation, fuel cycle and safety aspects of the boiling water reactor. The fundamentals of BWR reactor physics are oriented to design and operation. In the first lecture general description of BWR is presented, with emphasis on the reactor physics aspects. A survey of methods applied in fuel and core design and operation is presented in the second lecture in order to indicate the main features of the calculational tools. The third and fourth lectures are devoted to review of BWR design bases, reactivity requirements, reactivity and power control, fuel loading patterns. Moreover, operating limits are reviewed, as the actual limits during power operation and constraints for reactor physics analyses (design and operation). The basic elements of core management are also presented. The constraints on control rod movements during the achieving of criticality and low power operation are illustrated in the fifth lecture. Some considerations on plant transient analyses are also presented in the fifth lecture, in order to show the impact between core and fuel performance and plant/system performance. The last (sixth) lecture is devoted to the open vessel testing during the startup of a commercial BWR. A control rod calibration is also illustrated. (author)

  2. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  3. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  4. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some...... fundamental concepts related to this task, which are relevant to understand for academia and practitioners working with the subject. This is done through a description of variant specification tasks and typical aspects of system solutions. To support the description of variant specification tasks and systems...... examples. In general the paper discusses an important focus area within mass customization and build-to-order production: the nature of industrial variant specification systems....

  5. Theory of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  6. Superconductivity fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    This is the second English edition of what has become one of the definitive works on superconductivity in German -- currently in its sixth edition. Comprehensive and easy to understand, this introductory text is written especially with the non-specialist in mind. The authors, both long-term experts in this field, present the fundamental considerations without the need for extensive mathematics, describing the various phenomena connected with the superconducting state, with liberal insertion of experimental facts and examples for modern applications. While all fields of superconducting phenomena are dealt with in detail, this new edition pays particular attention to the groundbreaking discovery of magnesium diboride and the current developments in this field. In addition, a new chapter provides an overview of the elements, alloys and compounds where superconductivity has been observed in experiments, together with their major characteristics. The chapter on technical applications has been considerably expanded...

  7. Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality;

  8. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  9. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  10. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Astakhov, A.I.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Zubovich, V.K.; Knat'ko, V.A.; Lobanok, L.M.; Matsko, V.P.; Mrochek, A.G.

    1998-05-01

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  11. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  12. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  13. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  14. The psychological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2010-08-01

    Literature on the psychological aspects of rhinoplasty is sparse compared with publications on methods and instrumentation. Understanding the psychological aspects of rhinoplasty and, more importantly, recognizing the patient who may have an unfavorable postoperative course regardless of the objective outcome is of fundamental importance to the surgeon. Several profiles of patients with a high risk of postoperative dissatisfaction have been described and the important role of body dysmorphic disorder and its treatment has been stressed. Still, these criteria can be insufficient when facing the individual patient, as reliable screening instruments for clinical practice have not been developed and the question when not to operate is subject to controversy. The role of computer imaging as a safeguard in preoperative counseling has been highlighted. The surgeon must rely on instinct and experience to avoid overlooking any signs of psychological imbalance in the patient that may herald adversity. Archetypes described in the literature should be recognized and computer imaging should be used during the preoperative consultation.

  15. Fundamentals of nanomechanical resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, Silvan; Roukes, Michael Lee

    2016-01-01

    This authoritative book introduces and summarizes the latest models and skills required to design and optimize nanomechanical resonators, taking a top-down approach that uses macroscopic formulas to model the devices. The authors cover the electrical and mechanical aspects of nano electromechanical system (NEMS) devices. The introduced mechanical models are also key to the understanding and optimization of nanomechanical resonators used e.g. in optomechanics. Five comprehensive chapters address: The eigenmodes derived for the most common continuum mechanical structures used as nanomechanical resonators; The main sources of energy loss in nanomechanical resonators; The responsiveness of micro and nanomechanical resonators to mass, forces, and temperature; The most common underlying physical transduction mechanisms; The measurement basics, including amplitude and frequency noise. The applied approach found in this book is appropriate for engineering students and researchers working with micro and nanomechanical...

  16. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of biofilms development and dispersal: BIAM (Biofilm Intensity and Architecture Measurement), a new tool for studying biofilms as a function of their architecture and fluorescence intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Marine; Cinquin, Bertrand; Sclavi, Bianca; Pareau, Dominique; Lopes, Filipa

    2017-09-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is one of the most relevant technologies for studying biofilms in situ. Several tools have been developed to investigate and quantify the architecture of biofilms. However, an approach to quantify correctly the evolution of intensity of a fluorescent signal as a function of the structural parameters of a biofilm is still lacking. Here we present a tool developed in the ImageJ open source software that can be used to extract both structural and fluorescence intensity from CLSM data: BIAM (Biofilm Intensity and Architecture Measurement). This is of utmost significance when studying the fundamental mechanisms of biofilm growth, differentiation and development or when aiming to understand the effect of external molecules on biofilm phenotypes. In order to provide an example of the potential of such a tool in this study we focused on biofilm dispersion. cis-2-Decenoic acid (CDA) is a molecule known to induce biofilm dispersion of multiple bacterial species. The mechanisms by which CDA induces dispersion are still poorly understood. To investigate the effects of CDA on biofilms, we used a reporter strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) that expresses the GFPmut2 protein under control of the rrnBP1 promoter. Experiments were done in flow cells and image acquisition was made with CLSM. Analysis carried out using the new tool, BIAM, indicates that CDA affects the fluorescence intensity of the biofilm structures as well as biofilm architectures. Indeed, our results demonstrate that CDA removes more than 35% of biofilm biovolume and suggest that it results in an increase of the biofilm's mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) by more than 26% compared to the control biofilm in the absence of CDA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A Sense of Proportion: Aspect Ratio and the Framing of Television Space

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, Sarah E. F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspect ratio’ is frequently overlooked or naively characterised. Yet it plays a fundamental, determining role in forming and framing television’s spaces. A balanced reappraisal of television’s varied aspect ratios and their unique dramatic and aesthetic possibilities can enhance our close analyses and our understanding of television’s ‘art history’. This paper challenges myths, misunderstandings and preconceptions about TV’s aspect ratios and their spatial properties. Countering prevailing p...

  18. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  19. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  20. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  1. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  2. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the two modules: structure of metals (bonding, common lattic types, grain structure/boundary, polymorphis, alloys, imperfections in metals) and properties of metals (stress, strain, Young modulus, stress-strain relation, physical properties, working of metals, corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, tritium/material compatibility)

  3. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  4. Fundamental neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more

  5. Dependence and Fundamentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Zylstra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I argue that dependence is neither necessary nor sufficient for relative fundamentality. I then introduce the notion of 'likeness in nature' and provide an account of relative fundamentality in terms of it and the notion of dependence. Finally, I discuss some puzzles that arise in Aristotle's Categories, to which the theory developed is applied.

  6. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    mechanism for pointcuts, so that pointcuts can uniformly specify join points based on both static and dynamic information about the program. Our implementation strategy performs fundamental static analysis at load-time, so as to retain runtime overheads minimal. We implemented a compiler for Aspect......Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend...... on future behavior of running processes. One of the key language features is the predicates and functions that extract results of static program analysis, which are useful for defining security aspects that have to know about future behavior of a program. AspectKE* also provides a novel variable binding...

  7. Towards an Understanding of the Social Aspects of Sustainability in Product Design: Teaching HE Students in the UK and Ireland through Reflection and Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a doctoral study, which investigated effective methods for teaching social sustainability within product design courses in British and Irish universities. This paper explores approaches for encouraging students to explore the social aspects of sustainable product design through workshops specifically designed to…

  8. Fundamental statistical theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demopoulos, W.

    1976-01-01

    Einstein argued that since quantum mechanics is not a fundamental theory it cannot be regarded as in any sense final. The pure statistical states of the quantum theory are not dispersion-free. In this sense, the theory is significantly statistical. The problem investigated in this paper is to determine under what conditions is a significalty statistical theory correctly regarded as fundamental. The solution developed in this paper is that a statistical theory is fundamental only if it is complete; moreover the quantum theory is complete. (B.R.H.)

  9. Fundamentals of crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Crystallography is a basic tool for scientists in many diverse disciplines. This text offers a clear description of fundamentals and of modern applications. It supports curricula in crystallography at undergraduate level.

  10. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  11. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  12. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  13. Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

  14. Fundamentals of quantum optics 3. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlotzky, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present Seminar offered the opportunity to discuss at leisure problems of mutual interest to theoreticians and experimentalists who are working on various aspects of the field of quantum optics. The intention was to bring together people who are doing research on atomic interferometry, physics of cooled and trapped particles, cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum statistics of light and other fundamentals. (orig.)

  15. Fundamental problems in provable security and cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Alexander W

    2006-12-15

    This paper examines methods for formally proving the security of cryptographic schemes. We show that, despite many years of active research and dozens of significant results, there are fundamental problems which have yet to be solved. We also present a new approach to one of the more controversial aspects of provable security, the random oracle model.

  16. Arguing against fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.

  17. A density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) based approach to understand the effect of symmetry of fullerenes on the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of carbon NanoBuds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmah, Amrit; Roy, Ram Kinkar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the interaction between fullerene (C 32 ) and SWCNT using CDASE scheme. • Role of symmetry of fullerenes as well as the site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT in the structural stability of the NanoBud structure. • Increase in the fullerene symmetry improves the relative stability of hybrid NanoBud structure. - Abstract: In the present study, we have rationalized the effect of variation in the symmetry of relatively smaller fullerene (C 32 ) on the mode of its interaction with semi-conducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the process of formation of stable hybrid carbon NanoBuds. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, along with the charge transfer values associated with the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs, have been evaluated using an un-conventional and computationally cost–effective method based on density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). In addition to this, conventional DFT based studies are also performed to substantiate the growth of NanoBud structures formed by the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs. The findings of the present study suggest that the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of hybrid carbon NanoBuds are significantly influenced by both the symmetry of C 32 fullerene and its site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT.

  18. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  19. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the following modules: thermal shock (thermal stress, pressurized thermal shock), brittle fracture (mechanism, minimum pressurization-temperature curves, heatup/cooldown rate limits), and plant materials (properties considered when selecting materials, fuel materials, cladding and reflectors, control materials, nuclear reactor core problems, plant material problems, atomic displacement due to irradiation, thermal and displacement spikes due to irradiation, neutron capture effect, radiation effects in organic compounds, reactor use of aluminum)

  20. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kunzman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.

  1. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  2. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  3. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  4. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  5. Formulando uma Psicopatologia Fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mario Eduardo Costa

    1998-01-01

    O presente trabalho busca situar a Psicopatologia Fundamental em relação ao contexto atual da psicopatologia e delimitar seu âmbito científico naquilo que ela traz de original na discussão psicopatológica. Inicialmente, o campo da psicopatologia é estudado em relação à formalização proposta por Karl Jaspers em termos de uma psicopatologia geral. Em seguida, discute-se a incidência específica da psicanálise nesse debate. Propõe-se que a tarefa da psicopatologia fundamental tem três frentes pri...

  6. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    To shed light on the relation between fundamentals and adopted institutions we examine institutional choice across the ``Big Four'' US sports leagues. Despite having very similar business models and facing the same economic and legal environment, these leagues exhibit large differences in their use...... of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  7. Was Fundamental Education Another Form Of Colonialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A description of the work of Pedro Tamesis Orata provides an opportunity to investigate the conflicts that can occur when educators seek to reduce poverty while trying to respect indigenous cultures. A native of the Philippines, Orata completed his doctoral studies at the Ohio State University in 1927. During US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, he accepted the position of school principal for the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. After World War II, he directed the spread of fundamental education through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In his final years, he returned to the Philippines where he began a movement to spread what were called self-help high schools. In these activities, Orata taught people to follow John Dewey's five steps of thinking while working to improve their standards of living. In the 1970s, educators, such as Paulo Freire, complained that problem-solving methods, similar to those Orata favored, reinforced the oppressive aspects of formerly colonial societies. While Freire may have been overly critical, conflicts among cultural orientations appear to be unavoidable. The hope behind this investigation is that the difficulties can be reduced when people understand the different forces that persist.

  8. Fundamental requirements for petrochemical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, G. B.

    1999-01-01

    The development of NOVA Chemicals over the past 20 years is described as an illustration of how the petrochemical industry provides markets for natural gas, natural gas liquids and the products of crude oil distillation, and functions as a conduit for upgrading products which would otherwise be sold into the fuel market. Some fundamental characteristics of the business which are foundations for competitiveness are reviewed in the process. These fundamentals help to understand why the industry locates in certain geographic regions of the world, which are often remote from end-use markets. Chief among these fundamentals is access to an adequate supply of appropriately priced feedstock; this is the single most important reason why chemical companies continue to emphasize developments in areas of the world where feedstock are advantageously priced. The cost of operations is equally significant. Cost depends not so much on location but on the scale of operations, hence the tendency towards large scale plants. Plant and product rationalization, technology and product development synergies and leverage with suppliers are all opportunities for cost reduction throughout the product supply chain. The combination of lower natural gas cost in Alberta, the lower fixed cost of extraction and the economies of scale achieved by large scale operation (five billion pounds per year of polyethylene production capacity) are the crucial factors that will enable NOVA Chemicals to maintain its competitive position and to weather the highs and lows in industry price fluctuations

  9. Shattering Man’s Fundamental Assumptions in Don DeLillo’s Falling Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazim Adnan Hashim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses effects of traumatic events such as the September 11 attacks on victims’ fundamental assumptions. These beliefs or assumptions provide individuals with expectations about the world and their sense of self-worth. Thus, they ground people’s sense of security, stability, and orientation. The September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S.A. were very tragic for Americans because this fundamentally changed their understandings about many aspects in life. The attacks led many individuals to build new kind of beliefs and assumptions about themselves and the world. Many writers have written about the human ordeals that followed this incident. Don DeLillo’s Falling Man reflects the traumatic repercussions of this disaster on Americans’ fundamental assumptions. The objective of this study is to examine the novel from the traumatic perspective that has afflicted the victims’ fundamental understandings of the world and the self. Individuals’ fundamental understandings could be changed or modified due to exposure to certain types of events like war, terrorism, political violence or even the sense of alienation. The Assumptive World theory of Ronnie Janoff-Bulman will be used as a framework to study the traumatic experience of the characters in Falling Man. The significance of the study lies in providing a new perception to the field of trauma that can help trauma victims to adopt alternative assumptions or reshape their previous ones to heal from traumatic effects.

  10. Queueing networks a fundamental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    This handbook aims to highlight fundamental, methodological and computational aspects of networks of queues to provide insights and to unify results that can be applied in a more general manner.  The handbook is organized into five parts: Part 1 considers exact analytical results such as of product form type. Topics include characterization of product forms by physical balance concepts and simple traffic flow equations, classes of service and queue disciplines that allow a product form, a unified description of product forms for discrete time queueing networks, insights for insensitivity, and aggregation and decomposition results that allow subnetworks to be aggregated into single nodes to reduce computational burden. Part 2 looks at monotonicity and comparison results such as for computational simplification by either of two approaches: stochastic monotonicity and ordering results based on the ordering of the proces generators, and comparison results and explicit error bounds based on an underlying Markov r...

  11. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  12. The Sound of Social Cognition: Toddlers' Understanding of How Sound Influences Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children's construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children's understanding of others' auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers' recognition that producing different sounds can affect others…

  13. Safety analysis fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations

  14. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  15. Introduction and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations

  16. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  17. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  18. Fundamentals of astrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are

  19. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  20. Fundamental research data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A fundamental research data base containing ground truth, image, and Badhwar profile feature data for 17 North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota agricultural sites is described. Image data was provided for a minimum of four acquisition dates for each site and all four images were registered to one another.

  1. Fast fundamental frequency estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda...

  2. Fundamental Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOOK I REVIEW. Fundamental Fluid. Mechanics. Good Text Book Material. V H Arakeri. Fluid Mechanics for Engineers. P N Chatterjee. MacMillan India Limited. Vol. 1, pp. 367. RS.143. Vo1.2, pp.306. RS.130. Fluid Mechanics for Engineers in two vol- umes by P N Chatterjee contains standard material for a first level ...

  3. Frontiers of Fundamental Physics 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 14th annual international symposium "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics" (FFP14) was organized by the OCEVU Labex. It was held in Marseille, on the Saint-Charles Campus of Aix Marseille University (AMU) and had over 280 participants coming from all over the world. FFP Symposium began in India in 1997 and it became itinerant in 2004, through Europe, Canada and Australia. It covers topics in fundamental physics with the objective to enable scholars working in related areas to meet on a single platform and exchange ideas. In addition to highlighting the progress in these areas, the symposium invites the top researchers to reflect on the educational aspects of our discipline. Moreover, the scientific concepts are also discussed through philosophical and epistemological viewpoints. Several eminent scientists, such as the laureates of prestigious awards (Nobel Prize, Fields Medal,…), have already participated in these meetings. The FFP14 Symposium developed around seven main themes, namely: Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology, High Energy Physics, Quantum Gravity, Mathematical Physics, Physics Education, Epistemology and Philosophy. The morning was devoted to the plenary session, with talks for a broad audience of physicists in its first half (9:00-10:30), and more specialized in its second half (11:00-12:30); this part was held in three amphitheaters. The parallel session of the Symposium took place during the afternoon (14:30-18:30) with seven thematic conferences and an additional conference on open topics named "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics". These eight conferences were organized around the contributions of participants, in addition to the ones of invited speakers. Altogether, there were some 250 contributions to the symposium (talks and posters). The plenary talks were webcasted live and recorded. The slides of the talks and the videos of the plenary talks are available from the Symposium web site: http://ffp14.cpt.univ-mrs.fr/

  4. Fundamental Aspects of Single Molecule and Zeptomole Electroanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    the Hg UME, fNP is the frequency of NP impacts at a given NP concentration (CNP), NA is Avogadro’s number, DNP is the NP diffusion coefficient, and...strength, which correlates to the same general trend of NP concentration as monitored by NTA. For a stable dispersed colloid, fNP should increase

  5. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals in the modern society are considering running their own business as the best option that they have regarding their employment. The progress of small and medium enterprises sector provides huge potential on the absorption capacity of the young labour force.Frequent and rapid changes in the structure of the work program eliminate the idea that an individual has only one job during the entire life. Therefore, people endowed with entrepreneurial skills they have to successfully cope with a new socio-economic context

  6. Three aspects of critical phenomenons: fundamental, hydrodynamic, conceptual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beysens, D.

    1993-01-01

    After a recall of the leading results relative to the universality class of fluids, examples of how well known universal prevision are held in check by fluids specificities, especially hydrodynamics. Applications of critical phenomenons tool to damping, hydrodynamic instabilities, turbulence are described. (A.B.). 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Thin coatings in packaging: Fundamental and practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    A beverage or food can is very much a functionalized product, the overall performance characteristics being achieved by the use of several materials each of which provides a specific property. Schematically, the metal substrate provides the mechanical and barrier properties, whereby the chemical resistance is provided by specific surface treatments to the metal surface and the application of a thin organic coating. Between about 4 endash 15 μm in thickness, this organic coating has a double protective role, as it must protect the substrate from the foodstuff (corrosion) and the foodstuff from the substrate (taste..) over the required shelflife of the product. To give an idea of the industrial importance of this application, over 100 billion beverage cans per year are produced worldwide, each being individually sprayed with a protective organic layer. To perform correctly these coatings need to possess the following characteristics: emdash ability to be applied in thin, homogeneous layers without macroscopic or microscopic defects, emdash sufficient adhesion with the substrate and possess considerable interface stability emdash mechanical properties sufficient to withstand the can forming operations emdash intrinsic diffusion barrier properties necessary to prevent significant interaction with the substrate emdash sufficient chemical resistance to withstand any significant modification of the coating structure and hence intrinsic properties induced by the foodstuff Whereas a considerable amount of scientific attention has been applied to ''bulk'' systems, such as the mechanical properties of epoxies used for composite materials, diffusion in polymer packaging..., little published work is available concerning the specific properties of these thin coatings. The task is not helped by the commercial nature of the resin formulations used, the need to adapt these formulations to the multitude of industrial operations and the physical size of the coatings

  8. Fundamental and practical aspects concerning the characterization of smart textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broasca Gianina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims towards a novel methodology of ZnO impregnation onto polyamide supports, in order to attain a special inorganic-organic hybrid polymer material, with increased UV-barrier attributes and high hydrophobicity. The experimental approach employed ZnO micro particles powder. Solutions with different concentrations of ZnO powder dispersed in methanol are prepared as anti-UV finishing agent and applied onto polyamide fabric. The responsive behaviour of this complex polymer network to UV irradiation, the photo protective performance and its time stability, also the hydrophobic character are assessed by different characterization techniques. The proposed method has advantages, like: easy standardization, at lower production cost, resulting a high homogeneity and dispersion of ZnO micro particles into the textile polymeric network. The covered polymeric supports show better photo protective response, higher hydrophobicity and control on the surface charge induced by irradiation. This method granted enhanced quality, comfort and long term stability of the intelligent/smart garments.

  9. Fundamental aspects of alluminothermic reduction of vanadium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, M.B.; Capocchi, J.D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The aluminothermic process for the reduction of vanadium pentoxide is considered. Its thermochemistry features are presented, as well as the heat transfer and the rate phenomena concerning such a reaction system. It is pointed out also the effect of the process parameters on the recovery of metallic vanadium. (Author) [pt

  10. Fundamental and application aspects of adsorption cooling and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Saha, Bidyut Baran

    2015-10-23

    Adsorption (AD) cycle is recently pioneered for cooling and desalination applications. For water treatment, the cycle can be used to treat highly concentrated feed water, ranging from seawater, ground water and chemically-laden waste water. This paper presents a review of the recent development of AD cycle and its hybridization with known conventional cycles such as the MED and MSF. We begin by looking at the basic sorption theory for different adsorbent-adsorbate pairs, namely (i) silica gel-water, (ii) the zeolite-water, (iii) parent Maxsorb III/ethanol, (iv) KOH-H2 surface treated Maxsorb III/ethanol, and (v) a metal organic framework (MOF) material namely, MIL-101Cr/ethanol. We also present the basic AD cycle for seawater desalination as well as its hybridization with known conventional thermally-driven cycles for efficiency improvement. We demonstrate the water production improvement by 2-3 folds by hybridization in a pilot comprising a 3-stage MED and AD plant and the top-brine temperature 50oC.

  11. Fundamental aspects of brittle damage processes -- discrete systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcinovic, D.; Lubarda, V.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of cooperative brittle processes are performed on simple discrete models admitting closed form solutions. A connection between the damage and fracture mechanics is derived and utilized to illustrate the relation between two theories. The performed analyses suggest that the stress concentrations (direct interaction between defects) represent a second order effect during the hardening part of the response in the case of disordered solids

  12. In vitro production of horse embryos: fundamental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Tremoleda, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproduction have provided valuable tools for sub-fertility treatment and for selective breeding in animals. In horses, techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are used successfully to aid genetic progress but the commercial application of other

  13. Spatiotemporal aspects of G protein signaling : Where GPCRs and Rho GTPases meet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, J.

    2017-01-01

    The experimental work conducted for this thesis is aimed towards a better understanding of the fundamental aspects of G protein signaling at the plasma membrane and beyond. The use of advanced microscopy techniques in living cells allows the collection of quantitative information on reaction

  14. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. An integration of Integrated Information Theory with fundamental physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Barrett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesise that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.

  16. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.

  17. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabholkar, A.; Murthy, S.

    2007-06-01

    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d ( d = 3, . . . , 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings. (author)

  18. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limiting...... cases of composite Goldstone Higgs and Technicolor-like ones. This is possible due to the existence of a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian levels, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs boson itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak...... space at the effective Lagrangian level. We show that a wide class of models of fundamental composite electroweak dynamics are still compatible with the present constraints. The results are relevant for the ongoing and future searches at the Large Hadron Collider....

  19. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  20. Fundamental physics constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, E.R.; Taylor, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    Present technological applications require the values used for the fundamental physical and chemical constants to be more and more precise and at the same time coherent. Great importance is then attached to the task of coordinating and comparing the most recent experimental data, extracting from them as a whole, by means of a least square fit, a set of values for the fundamental constants as precise and coherent as possible. The set of values which is at present in usage, derives from a fit performed in 1986, but new experimental results already promise a large reduction in the uncertainties of various constants. A new global fit that will implement such reductions is scheduled for completion in 1995 or 1996

  1. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  2. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  3. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  4. Applying Aspects of the Expert Performance Approach to Better Understand the Structure of Skill and Mechanisms of Skill Acquisition in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Sumner, Anna; Towne, Tyler J; Rodriguez, Paola; Anders Ericsson, K

    2017-04-01

    Video games are ideal platforms for the study of skill acquisition for a variety of reasons. However, our understanding of the development of skill and the cognitive representations that support skilled performance can be limited by a focus on game scores. We present an alternative approach to the study of skill acquisition in video games based on the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. Our investigation was motivated by a detailed analysis of the behaviors responsible for the superior performance of one of the highest scoring players of the video game Space Fortress (Towne, Boot, & Ericsson, ). This analysis revealed how certain behaviors contributed to his exceptional performance. In this study, we recruited a participant for a similar training regimen, but we collected concurrent and retrospective verbal protocol data throughout training. Protocol analysis revealed insights into strategies, errors, mental representations, and shifting game priorities. We argue that these insights into the developing representations that guided skilled performance could only easily have been derived from the tools of the Expert Performance Approach. We propose that the described approach could be applied to understand performance and skill acquisition in many different video games (and other short- to medium-term skill acquisition paradigms) and help reveal mechanisms of transfer from gameplay to other measures of laboratory and real-world performance. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  6. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  7. Towards a better understanding of the geometrical and orientational aspects of the electronic structure of halogens (F–I) adsorption on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Hantarto; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Yin, Chun-Yang; Goh, Bee-Min; Mondinos, Nicholas; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Examines the orientation (zigzag, armchair) effects of F/Cl/Br/I-adsorbed graphene. • F cases are site-dependent, while Cl/Br/I cases have minimal orientation dependence. • F is adsorbed to graphene at about three times stronger than Cl/Br/I. • To prompt re-examination of elemental-graphene systems to account for orientation. - Abstract: Adding impurities or doping through adsorption is an effective way to modify the properties of graphene-based materials. The capability of making predictions pertinent to the trends of elemental adsorption on graphene is very instrumental towards a better understanding of the more complex adsorption cases. It also affords useful guidelines for fabricating 2-D graphene materials with novel properties. The electronic structure of elemental adsorption on graphene is affected by side of adsorption (single- or double-sided), site of adsorption (i.e. bridge, hollow or top), and the relative orientation of the adsorbed sites (i.e. zigzag or armchair). In this contribution, we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the electronic structures of halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) adsorbed on graphene at lower concentrations spanning 1:6, 1:8 and 1:18 atomic ratios, in order to elucidate effects of adsorption trends. We demonstrate that adsorption of F is merely site-dependent (top). On the contrary, adsorptions of Cl, Br and I display a minimal dependence towards orientation (i.e. the effects of the deployed supercells). Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the elemental adsorption on graphene in terms of geometry which may aid in reexamining previous studies and producing better predictions for future studies, in which the inclusion of orientation is indispensable.

  8. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  9. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  10. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive transformers; and electrical test components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  11. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  12. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations

  13. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations.

  14. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations

  15. Fundamentals of microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Urick, V J; McKinney , Jason D

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive resource to designing andconstructing analog photonic links capable of high RFperformanceFundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides acomprehensive description of analog optical links from basicprinciples to applications.  The book is organized into fourparts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwavephotonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links anddelineating analog vs. digital links. The second section coversbasic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RFand optical domains.  The third focuses on analog modulationformats-starti

  16. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  17. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  18. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  19. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  20. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  1. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  2. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  3. El grupo fundamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Robles Corbalá

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda un problema clásico para poder detectar si dos espacios topológicos son homeomorfos o no. Para lo cual a cada espacio topológico se le asocia un grupo algebraico, de tal suerte que si los espacios son homeomorfos, entonces los grupos asociados serán isomorfos. Se presenta una construcción del grupo fundamental de un espacio topológico y se enfoca en demostrar que efectivamente es un grupo.

  4. Fundamentals of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2007-01-01

    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  5. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floro, Jerrold Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foiles, Stephen Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hearne, Sean Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoyt, Jeffrey John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seel, Steven Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Webb III, Edmund Blackburn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morales, Alfredo Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-10-01

    To effectively integrate nanotechnology into functional devices, fundamental aspects of material behavior at the nanometer scale must be understood. Stresses generated during thin film growth strongly influence component lifetime and performance; stress has also been proposed as a mechanism for stabilizing supported nanoscale structures. Yet the intrinsic connections between the evolving morphology of supported nanostructures and stress generation are still a matter of debate. This report presents results from a combined experiment and modeling approach to study stress evolution during thin film growth. Fully atomistic simulations are presented predicting stress generation mechanisms and magnitudes during all growth stages, from island nucleation to coalescence and film thickening. Simulations are validated by electrodeposition growth experiments, which establish the dependence of microstructure and growth stresses on process conditions and deposition geometry. Sandia is one of the few facilities with the resources to combine experiments and modeling/theory in this close a fashion. Experiments predicted an ongoing coalescence process that generates signficant tensile stress. Data from deposition experiments also supports the existence of a kinetically limited compressive stress generation mechanism. Atomistic simulations explored island coalescence and deposition onto surfaces intersected by grain boundary structures to permit investigation of stress evolution during later growth stages, e.g. continual island coalescence and adatom incorporation into grain boundaries. The predictive capabilities of simulation permit direct determination of fundamental processes active in stress generation at the nanometer scale while connecting those processes, via new theory, to continuum models for much larger island and film structures. Our combined experiment and simulation results reveal the necessary materials science to tailor stress, and therefore performance, in

  6. Fundamentals of nanoscaled field effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors gives comprehensive coverage of the fundamental physical principles and theory behind nanoscale transistors. The specific issues that arise for nanoscale MOSFETs, such as quantum mechanical tunneling and inversion layer quantization, are fully explored. The solutions to these issues, such as high-κ technology, strained-Si technology, alternate devices structures and graphene technology are also given. Some case studies regarding the above issues and solution are also given in the book. In summary, this book: Covers the fundamental principles behind nanoelectronics/microelectronics Includes chapters devoted to solutions tackling the quantum mechanical effects occurring at nanoscale Provides some case studies to understand the issue mathematically Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors is an ideal book for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in the field of microelectronics, nanoelectronics, and electronics.

  7. Quivers, words and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of holomorphic gauge invariant operators in general N=1 quiver gauge theories, with unitary gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, was recently presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)094. For large ranks a simple counting formula in terms of an infinite product was given. We extend this study to quiver gauge theories with fundamental matter fields, deriving an infinite product form for the refined counting in these cases. The infinite products are found to be obtained from substitutions in a simple building block expressed in terms of the weighted adjacency matrix of the quiver. In the case without fundamentals, it is a determinant which itself is found to have a counting interpretation in terms of words formed from partially commuting letters associated with simple closed loops in the quiver. This is a new relation between counting problems in gauge theory and the Cartier-Foata monoid. For finite ranks of the unitary gauge groups, the refined counting is given in terms of expressions involving Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.

  8. Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Postema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

  9. 3D microelectronic packaging from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive reference for graduate students and professionals in both academia and industry on the fundamentals, processing details, and applications of 3D microelectronic packaging, an industry trend for future microelectronic packages. Chapters written by experts cover the most recent research results and industry progress in the following areas: TSV, die processing, micro bumps, direct bonding, thermal compression bonding, advanced materials, heat dissipation, thermal management, thermal mechanical modeling, quality, reliability, fault isolation, and failure analysis of 3D microelectronic packages. Numerous images, tables, and didactic schematics are included throughout. This essential volume equips readers with an in-depth understanding of all aspects of 3D packaging, including packaging architecture, processing, thermal mechanical and moisture related reliability concerns, common failures, developing areas, and future challenges, providing insights into key areas for future resea...

  10. Lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials from fundamentals to bioapplications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xueyuan; Tu, Datao

    2014-01-01

    Lanthanide-Doped Luminescent Nanomaterials reviews the latest advances in the development of lanthanide-doped luminescent inorganic nanoparticles for potential bioapplications. This book covers the chemical and physical fundamentals of these nanoparticles, such as the controlled synthesis methodology, surface modification chemistry, optical physics, and their promising applications in diverse bioassays, with an emphasis on heterogeneous and homogeneous in-vitro biodetection of tumor biomarkers. This book is intended for those readers who are interested in systematically understanding the materials design strategy, optical behavior of lanthanide ions, and practical bioapplications of lanthanide nanoparticles. It primarily focuses on the interdisciplinary frontiers in chemistry, physics and biological aspects of luminescent nanomaterials. All chapters were written by scientists active in this field and for a broad audience, providing both beginners and advanced researchers with comprehensive information on the ...

  11. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, R. E.; Catto, P. J.; Dippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D. A.

    1992-05-01

    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the specialty workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder of the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding.

  12. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  13. Fundamentals of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition is a clear and detailed introduction to quantum mechanics and its applications in chemistry and physics. All required math is clearly explained, including intermediate steps in derivations, and concise review of the math is included in the text at appropriate points. Most of the elementary quantum mechanical models-including particles in boxes, rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, hydrogen atom-are clearly and completely presented. Applications of these models to selected “real world” topics are also included. This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.

  14. Fundamentals of optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Katsunari

    2006-01-01

    Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides is an essential resource for any researcher, professional or student involved in optics and communications engineering. Any reader interested in designing or actively working with optical devices must have a firm grasp of the principles of lightwave propagation. Katsunari Okamoto has presented this difficult technology clearly and concisely with several illustrations and equations. Optical theory encompassed in this reference includes coupled mode theory, nonlinear optical effects, finite element method, beam propagation method, staircase concatenation method, along with several central theorems and formulas. Since the publication of the well-received first edition of this book, planar lightwave circuits and photonic crystal fibers have fully matured. With this second edition the advances of these fibers along with other improvements on existing optical technologies are completely detailed. This comprehensive volume enables readers to fully analyze, design and simulate opti...

  15. Fundamental partial compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannino, Francesco [CP-Origins and Danish IAS, University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55 (Denmark); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN,Pisa (Italy); Theory Division, CERN,Geneva (Switzerland); Tesi, Andrea [Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vigiani, Elena [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN,Pisa (Italy)

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2){sub R}-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  16. Fundamentals of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...

  17. Psychology fundaments: considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Cambaúva, Lenita Gama

    2000-01-01

    O presente texto é uma reflexão acerca de alguns fundamentos da Psicologia. Por ser um conceito fundamental para o conhecimento humano da relação sujeito e objeto, aborda-se, a partir de uma concepção histórico-social do homem, a constituição do conceito de subjetividade na história do pensamento. Expõe-se, de forma preliminar, como se deu o advento das Ciências Modernas e, com elas, a ênfase nas Ciências Naturais. Da mesma forma, focaliza-se também a crítica das Ciências Humanas às Ciências ...

  18. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  19. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  20. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  1. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  2. Fundamental Principles of Proper Space Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Sean

    It is desirable to understand the movement of both matter and energy in the universe based upon fundamental principles of space and time. Time dilation and length contraction are features of Special Relativity derived from the observed constancy of the speed of light. Quantum Mechanics asserts that motion in the universe is probabilistic and not deterministic. While the practicality of these dissimilar theories is well established through widespread application inconsistencies in their marriage persist, marring their utility, and preventing their full expression. After identifying an error in perspective the current theories are tested by modifying logical assumptions to eliminate paradoxical contradictions. Analysis of simultaneous frames of reference leads to a new formulation of space and time that predicts the motion of both kinds of particles. Proper Space is a real, three-dimensional space clocked by proper time that is undergoing a densification at the rate of c. Coordinate transformations to a familiar object space and a mathematical stationary space clarify the counterintuitive aspects of Special Relativity. These symmetries demonstrate that within the local universe stationary observers are a forbidden frame of reference; all is in motion. In lieu of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty the use of the imaginary number i is restricted for application to the labeling of mass as either material or immaterial. This material phase difference accounts for both the perceived constant velocity of light and its apparent statistical nature. The application of Proper Space Kinematics will advance more accurate representations of microscopic, oscopic, and cosmological processes and serve as a foundation for further study and reflection thereafter leading to greater insight.

  3. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ERTAŞ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  5. Updates on tetanus toxin: a fundamental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ahaduzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium tetani is an anaerobic bacterium that produces second most poisonous protein toxins than any other bacteria. Tetanus in animals is sporadic in nature but difficult to combat even by using antibiotics and antiserum. It is crucial to understand the fundamental mechanisms and signals that control toxin production for advance research and medicinal uses. This review was intended for better understanding the basic patho-physiology of tetanus and neurotoxins (TeNT among the audience of related field.

  6. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information on diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  7. Nanostructured metals. Fundamentals to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Mishin, O.V.; Nielsen, S.F.; Pantleon, W.; Toftegaard, H.; Winther, G.; Yu, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the today's world, materials science and engineering must as other technical fields focus on sustainability. Raw materials and energy have to be conserved and metals with improved or new structural and functional properties must be invented, developed and brought to application. In this endeavour a very promising route is to reduce the structural scale of metallic materials, thereby bridging industrial metals of today with emerging nanometals of tomorrow, i.e. structural scales ranging from a few micrometres to the nanometre regime. While taking a focus on metals with structures in this scale regime the symposium spans from fundamental aspects towards applications, uniting materials scientists and technologists. A holistic approach characterizes the themes of the symposium encompassing synthesis, characterization, modelling and performance where in each area significant progress has been made in recent years. Synthesis now covers top-down processes, e.g. plastic deformation, and bottom-up processes, e.g. chemical and physical synthesis. In the area of structural and mechanical characterization advanced techniques are now widely applied and in-situ techniques for structural characterization under mechanical or thermal loading are under rapid development in both 2D and 3D. Progress in characterization techniques has led to a precise description of different boundaries (grain, dislocation, twin, phase), and of how they form and evolve, also including theoretical modelling and simulations of structures, properties and performance. (au)

  8. Fundamentals of cancer metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Tumors reprogram pathways of nutrient acquisition and metabolism to meet the bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and redox demands of malignant cells. These reprogrammed activities are now recognized as hallmarks of cancer, and recent work has uncovered remarkable flexibility in the specific pathways activated by tumor cells to support these key functions. In this perspective, we provide a conceptual framework to understand how and why metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumor cells, and the mechanisms linking altered metabolism to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Understanding these concepts will progressively support the development of new strategies to treat human cancer. PMID:27386546

  9. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  10. Fundamental Scaling Laws in Nanophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Sun, Shuai; Majumdar, Arka; Sorger, Volker J.

    2016-11-01

    The success of information technology has clearly demonstrated that miniaturization often leads to unprecedented performance, and unanticipated applications. This hypothesis of “smaller-is-better” has motivated optical engineers to build various nanophotonic devices, although an understanding leading to fundamental scaling behavior for this new class of devices is missing. Here we analyze scaling laws for optoelectronic devices operating at micro and nanometer length-scale. We show that optoelectronic device performance scales non-monotonically with device length due to the various device tradeoffs, and analyze how both optical and electrical constrains influence device power consumption and operating speed. Specifically, we investigate the direct influence of scaling on the performance of four classes of photonic devices, namely laser sources, electro-optic modulators, photodetectors, and all-optical switches based on three types of optical resonators; microring, Fabry-Perot cavity, and plasmonic metal nanoparticle. Results show that while microrings and Fabry-Perot cavities can outperform plasmonic cavities at larger length-scales, they stop working when the device length drops below 100 nanometers, due to insufficient functionality such as feedback (laser), index-modulation (modulator), absorption (detector) or field density (optical switch). Our results provide a detailed understanding of the limits of nanophotonics, towards establishing an opto-electronics roadmap, akin to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  11. Fundamentals of structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2016-01-01

    This book-presents new methods and tools for the integration and simulation of smart devices. The design approach described in this book explicitly accounts for integration of Smart Systems components and subsystems as a specific constraint. It includes methodologies and EDA tools to enable multi-disciplinary and multi-scale modeling and design, simulation of multi-domain systems, subsystems and components at all levels of abstraction, system integration and exploration for optimization of functional and non-functional metrics. By covering theoretical and practical aspects of smart device design, this book targets people who are working and studying on hardware/software modelling, component integration and simulation under different positions (system integrators, designers, developers, researchers, teachers, students etc.). In particular, it is a good introduction to people who have interest in managing heterogeneous components in an efficient and effective way on different domains and different abstraction l...

  12. Fundamentals of functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Farenick, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique path for graduate or advanced undergraduate students to begin studying the rich subject of functional analysis with fewer prerequisites than is normally required. The text begins with a self-contained and highly efficient introduction to topology and measure theory, which focuses on the essential notions required for the study of functional analysis, and which are often buried within full-length overviews of the subjects. This is particularly useful for those in applied mathematics, engineering, or physics who need to have a firm grasp of functional analysis, but not necessarily some of the more abstruse aspects of topology and measure theory normally encountered. The reader is assumed to only have knowledge of basic real analysis, complex analysis, and algebra. The latter part of the text provides an outstanding treatment of Banach space theory and operator theory, covering topics not usually found together in other books on functional analysis. Written in a clear, concise manner,...

  13. Fundamentals in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diserbo, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author proposes an overview of the main notions related to nuclear physics. He first addresses the atom and the nucleus: brief history, their constituents, energetic aspects for electrons and nucleus. The second part deals with radioactivity: definitions, time law and conservation law, natural and artificial radio-elements, α, β and γ radiations. Nuclear reactions (fission and fusion) are then presented as well as their application to nuclear reactor operation. The next part concerns interactions between radiations and matter, more precisely between charged particles and matter, neutrons and matter, X rays or γ rays and matter. The last chapter presents the various quantities used to characterise a source, the radiation field and the physical action, and quantities and units used in radiobiology and in radiation protection

  14. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  15. Making physics more fundamental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm

  16. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors

  17. Fundamentals of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, James

    2009-01-01

    The book is aimed at astrophysics students and professional physicists who wish to understand the basics of cosmology and general relativity as well as the observational foundations of the LambdaCDM model of the Universe. The book provides a self-contained introduction to general relativity that is based on the homogeneity and isotropy of the local universe. The simplicity of this space allows general relativity to be presented in a very elementary manner while laying the foundation for the treatment of more complicated problems. The new edition presents the most recent observations, including those of CMB anisotropies by WMAP and of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations by SDSS. Future observational and theoretical challenges for the understanding of dark energy and dark matter are discussed. From 1st edition reviews: "The book provides a comprehensive and thorough explication of current cosmology at a level appropriate for a beginning graduate student or an advanced and motivated undergraduate. ... This is an extrem...

  18. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  19. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...

  20. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...

  1. Anorectal nomenclature: fundamental terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell-Smith, C P

    2000-10-01

    There is lack of agreement on the definitions of the anal canal and its parts. To facilitate mutual understanding and communication between workers, it is highly desirable that a set of agreed-upon definitions be developed. The development of the different definitions and their purposes is followed and they are analyzed. As a basis for discussion, a possible revised entry for the next edition of Terminologia Anatomica is presented. Draft definitions of the terms in the entry are provided. Practitioners are invited to become involved in the process of developing agreement on definitions by providing comments and criticism.

  2. Aspectos fundamentais da expansão por umidade: revisão parte II: cinética de expansão e sua determinação Fundamental aspects of the moisture expansion: review part II: kinetic of expansion and its determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A expansão por umidade (EPU vem sendo estudada desde o século passado, no entanto, grande parte do conhecimento gerado encontra-se muito disperso na literatura mundial. Assim, esse trabalho objetiva dá continuidade ao estudo de revisão dos aspectos fundamentais da expansão por umidade, com a exposição dos resultados mais relevantes a cerca da cinética do fenômeno e das particularidades de sua determinação. O texto aborda características do processo de expansão, com o detalhamento da evolução das modelagens mais utilizadas para descrever a cinética do fenômeno de EPU, bem como, apresenta uma sistemática para determinação da energia de ativação da EPU. Além disso, faz-se a descrição das metodologias de determinação da EPU dos materiais cerâmicos, evidenciando suas características, peculiaridades e pontos controversos.Moisture expansion (ME of ceramic materials has been studied since the last century. However, a large part of the acquired knowledge is very dispersed in the world literature. This work has as aim to continue the review about the fundamental aspects of the moisture expansion, exposing the most relevant results on the kinetics of the phenomenon and particularities of its determination. The review comprises the description of the expansion process characteristics, and the detailed evolution of the mathematical models used to describe the kinetics of the ME. Moreover, it presents a systematic approach for the determination of the ME activation energy. The review also includes the methodologies used in the determination of the ME of ceramic materials, pointing out its characteristics, peculiarities, and the controversial issues about it.

  3. Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

  4. Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Pryds, Nini; Thorborg, Jesper

    Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes comprises a thorough presentation of the basic phenomena that need to be addressed in numerical simulation of casting processes. The main philosophy of the book is to present the topics in view of their physical meaning, whenever possible......, rather than relying strictly on mathematical formalism. The book, aimed both at the researcher and the practicing engineer, as well as the student, is naturally divided into four parts. Part I (Chapters 1-3) introduces the fundamentals of modelling in a 1-dimensional framework. Part II (Chapter 4......) presents the most important aspects of solidification theory related to modelling. Part III (Chapter 5) describes the fluid flow phenomena and in part IV (Chapter 6) the stress-strain analysis is addressed. For all parts, both numerical formulations as well as some important analytical solutions...

  5. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  6. Historical aspects of the nuclear right development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the historical aspects of the nuclear right development. It makes the evolution of the fundamental principles of nuclear right, in special, the civil responsibility for nuclear damages. (author)

  7. Physics fundamentals for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    The design of an experimental thermonuclear reactor requires both cutting-edge technology and physics predictions precise enough to carry forward the design. The past few years of worldwide physics studies have seen great progress in understanding, innovation and integration. We will discuss this progress and the remaining issues in several key physics areas. (1) Transport and plasma confinement. A worldwide database has led to an 'empirical scaling law' for tokamaks which predicts adequate confinement for the ITER fusion mission, albeit with considerable but acceptable uncertainty. The ongoing revolution in computer capabilities has given rise to new gyrofluid and gyrokinetic simulations of microphysics which may be expected in the near future to attain predictive accuracy. Important databases on H-mode characteristics and helium retention have also been assembled. (2) Divertors, heat removal and fuelling. A novel concept for heat removal - the radiative, baffled, partially detached divertor - has been designed for ITER. Extensive two-dimensional (2D) calculations have been performed and agree qualitatively with recent experiments. Preliminary studies of the interaction of this configuration with core confinement are encouraging and the success of inside pellet launch provides an attractive alternative fuelling method. (3) Macrostability. The ITER mission can be accomplished well within ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability limits, except for internal kink modes. Comparisons with JET, as well as a theoretical model including kinetic effects, predict such sawteeth will be benign in ITER. Alternative scenarios involving delayed current penetration or off-axis current drive may be employed if required. The recent discovery of neoclassical beta limits well below ideal MHD limits poses a threat to performance. Extrapolation to reactor scale is as yet unclear. In theory such modes are controllable by current drive profile control or feedback and experiments should

  8. Fundamental understanding of aging processes Review of the workshop results

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    A short summary of major observations reported at the workshop is given, together with a critical discussion of points still obscure or controversial, with suggestions on possible lines of research towards finding solutions to the problem of aging detectors. (37 refs).

  9. Distributed Low Temperature Combustion: Fundamental Understanding of Combustion Regime Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    turbulent premixed flows . Hence, Tau_c is here varied via the mixture stoichiometry (Phi) with variations in Tau_f pursued in a parallel study...transitions in turbulent premixed flows . Hence, τc is here varied via the mixture stoichiometry (Φ) with variations in τf pursued in a parallel study...combustion products that alter or govern the mixing fluid flow dynamics lead to a gradual alignment of Umix/Ub with the HCP fluid flow direction. This

  10. Recent advances in the fundamental understanding of railway vehicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non-linear dy......The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non...

  11. Understanding the legal fundamentals of project finance contracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is an international transaction involving long-term, nonrecourse loans for the financing of heavy, cost intensive projects. Because of this peculiar nature, the risk involvement is higher than what is obtainable in other international transactions. Even more risk-laden is project finance in developing countries. Therefore ...

  12. Assessing fundamental 2-dimensional understanding of basic soft tissue techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Noel; Dobratz, Eric J; Dresner, Harley S; Hilger, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    To develop a written practical examination and scoring system for assessing trainee skills in basic soft-tissue techniques. A brief written practical examination was developed to assess the ability of trainees to sketch preoperative plans and postoperative results for common soft-tissue techniques: simple-excision, M-plasty, geometric broken line closure, Z-plasty, V-to-Y flap, and rhombic flap. A scoring system was developed to assign 0 to 5 points to each of 10 items on the examination for a total score of 0-50. The 15-minute examination was administered as a pretest, posttest, and 3-month posttest assessment as part of a soft-tissue course at our institution. University of Minnesota, Otolaryngology Department. Three raters reviewed all examination answer sheets independently. The pretest scores of examinees correlated strongly with their level of training; the average pretest for junior residents (PGY 1-2) compared with senior residents (PGY 4-5) was 17.3 (of 50) versus 26.0 (p skills of trainees accurately in basic soft tissue techniques and to expose areas of deficiency that can be addressed in future training sessions. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Closed power cycles thermodynamic fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Invernizzi, Costante Mario

    2013-01-01

    With the growing attention to the exploitation of renewable energies and heat recovery from industrial processes, the traditional steam and gas cycles are showing themselves often inadequate. The inadequacy is due to the great assortment of the required sizes power and of the large kind of heat sources. Closed Power Cycles: Thermodynamic Fundamentals and Applications offers an organized discussion about the strong interaction between working fluids, the thermodynamic behavior of the cycle using them and the technological design aspects of the machines. A precise treatment of thermal engines op

  14. Comprehensive brachytherapy physical and clinical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Baltas, Dimos; Meigooni, Ali S; Hoskin, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Modern brachytherapy is one of the most important oncological treatment modalities requiring an integrated approach that utilizes new technologies, advanced clinical imaging facilities, and a thorough understanding of the radiobiological effects on different tissues, the principles of physics, dosimetry techniques and protocols, and clinical expertise. A complete overview of the field, Comprehensive Brachytherapy: Physical and Clinical Aspects is a landmark publication, presenting a detailed account of the underlying physics, design, and implementation of the techniques, along with practical guidance for practitioners. Bridging the gap between research and application, this single source brings together the technological basis, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance, and fundamentals of brachytherapy. In addition, it presents discussion of the most recent clinical practice in brachytherapy including prostate, gynecology, breast, and other clinical treatment sites. Along with exploring new clinical protocols, ...

  15. Rethinking fundamentals of enzyme action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop, D B

    1999-01-01

    Despite certain limitations, investigators continue to gainfully employ concepts rooted in steady-state kinetics in efforts to draw mechanistically relevant inferences about enzyme catalysis. By reconsidering steady-state enzyme kinetic behavior, this review develops ideas that allow one to arrive at the following new definitions: (a) V/K, the ratio of the maximal initial velocity divided by the Michaelis-Menten constant, is the apparent rate constant for the capture of substrate into enzyme complexes that are destined to yield product(s) at some later point in time; (b) the maximal velocity V is the apparent rate constant for the release of substrate from captured complexes in the form of free product(s); and (c) the Michaelis-Menten constant K is the ratio of the apparent rate constants for release and capture. The physiologic significance of V/K is also explored to illuminate aspects of antibiotic resistance, the concept of "perfection" in enzyme catalysis, and catalytic proficiency. The conceptual basis of congruent thermodynamic cycles is also considered in an attempt to achieve an unambiguous way for comparing an enzyme-catalyzed reaction with its uncatalyzed reference reaction. Such efforts promise a deeper understanding of the origins of catalytic power, as it relates to stabilization of the reactant ground state, stabilization of the transition state, and reciprocal stabilizations of ground and transition states.

  16. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Instrumentation and Control, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of instrumentation and control systems. The handbook includes information on temperature, pressure, flow, and level detection systems; position indication systems; process control systems; and radiation detection principles. This information will provide personnel with an understanding of the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility instrumentation and control systems

  17. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Instrumentation and Control, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals Handbook personnel, and the technical staff facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of instrumentation and control systems. The handbook includes information on temperature, pressure, flow, and level detection systems; position indication systems; process control systems; and radiation detection principles. This information will provide personnel with an understanding of the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility instrumentation and control systems

  18. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Instrumentation and Control, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of instrumentation and control systems. The handbook includes information on temperature, pressure, flow, and level detection systems; position indication systems; process control systems; and radiation detection principles. This information will provide personnel with an understanding of the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility instrumentation and control systems.

  19. BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.

    2004-02-01

    mechanics, which is assumed, but to examine whether it gives a consistent account of measurement. The conclusion is that after a measurement, interference terms are ‘effectively’ absent; the set of ‘one-to-one correlations between states of the apparatus and the object’ has the same form as that of everyday statistics and is thus a probability distribution. This probability distribution refers to potentialities, only one of which is actually realized in any one trial. Opinions may differ on whether their treatment is any less vulnerable to criticisms such as those of Bell. To sum up, Gottfried and Yan’s book contains a vast amount of knowledge and understanding. As well as explaining the way in which quantum theory works, it attempts to illuminate fundamental aspects of the theory. A typical example is the ‘fable’ elaborated in Gottfried’s article in Nature cited above, that if Newton were shown Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law, he could deduce the meaning of E and B, but if Maxwell were shown Schrödinger’s equation, he could not deduce the meaning of Psi. For use with a well-constructed course (and, of course, this is the avowed purpose of the book; a useful range of problems is provided for each chapter), or for the relative expert getting to grips with particular aspects of the subject or aiming for a deeper understanding, the book is certainly ideal. It might be suggested, though, that, even compared to the first edition, the isolated learner might find the wide range of topics, and the very large number of mathematical and conceptual techniques, introduced in necessarily limited space, somewhat overwhelming. The second book under consideration, that of Schwabl, contains ‘Advanced’ elements of quantum theory; it is designed for a course following on from one for which Gottfried and Yan, or Schwabl’s own `Quantum Mechanics' might be recommended. It is the second edition in English, and is a translation of the third German edition

  20. Heterogeneous fuzzy logic networks: fundamentals and development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2004-11-01

    The recent trend in the development of neurofuzzy systems has profoundly emphasized the importance of synergy between the fundamentals of fuzzy sets and neural networks. The resulting frameworks of the neurofuzzy systems took advantage of an array of learning mechanisms primarily originating within the theory of neurocomputing and the use of fuzzy models (predominantly rule-based systems) being well established in the realm of fuzzy sets. Ideally, one can anticipate that neurofuzzy systems should fully exploit the linkages between these two technologies while strongly preserving their evident identities (plasticity or learning abilities to be shared by the transparency and full interpretability of the resulting neurofuzzy constructs). Interestingly, this synergy still becomes a target yet to be satisfied. This study is an attempt to address the fundamental interpretability challenge of neurofuzzy systems. Our underlying conjecture is that the transparency of any neurofuzzy system links directly with the logic fabric of the system so the logic fundamentals of the underlying architecture become of primordial relevance. Having this in mind the development of neurofuzzy models hinges on a collection of logic driven processing units named here fuzzy (logic) neurons. These are conceptually simple logic-oriented elements that come with a well-defined semantics and plasticity. Owing to their diversity, such neurons form essential building blocks of the networks. The study revisits the existing categories of logic neurons, provides with their taxonomy, helps understand their functional features and sheds light on their behavior when being treated as computational components of any neurofuzzy architecture. The two main categories of aggregative and reference neurons are deeply rooted in the fundamental operations encountered in the technology of fuzzy sets (including logic operations, linguistic modifiers, and logic reference operations). The developed heterogeneous networks

  1. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  2. Fundamental number theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mollin, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition           Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope           New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory           Expa

  3. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  4. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  5. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to the principles of unsteady aerodynamics covers all the core concepts, provides readers with a review of the fundamental physics, terminology and basic equations, and covers hot new topics such as the use of flapping wings for propulsion.

  6. Quantum mechanics I the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals provides a graduate-level account of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and sub-nuclear levels. It covers basic concepts, mathematical formalism, and applications to physically important systems.

  7. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  8. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  9. Fundamentals and advanced techniques in derivatives hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the theory of derivatives pricing and hedging as well as techniques used in mathematical finance. The authors use a top-down approach, starting with fundamentals before moving to applications, and present theoretical developments alongside various exercises, providing many examples of practical interest. A large spectrum of concepts and mathematical tools that are usually found in separate monographs are presented here. In addition to the no-arbitrage theory in full generality, this book also explores models and practical hedging and pricing issues. Fundamentals and Advanced Techniques in Derivatives Hedging further introduces advanced methods in probability and analysis, including Malliavin calculus and the theory of viscosity solutions, as well as the recent theory of stochastic targets and its use in risk management, making it the first textbook covering this topic. Graduate students in applied mathematics with an understanding of probability theory and stochastic calculus will find this b...

  10. Basic aspects of ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averback, R.S.

    1985-07-01

    Irradiation of solids with energetic particles results in the reorganization of constituent target atoms, i.e., ion beam mixing (IM). At low temperatures, IM is characterized by prompt (10 -10 s) diffusion processes which are localized in the vicinity of the displacement cascade. Mixing at low temperatures can cause the system to depart far from the equilibrium state. At elevated temperatures, the diffusion of radiation-induced defects extends the mixing to longer times and greater distances. These delayed IM processes tend to return the system toward equilibrium. Recent experimental progress has led to a qualitative understanding of the fundamental aspects of IM in both temperature regimes. This has been achieved through systematic measurements of the influences of temperature, dose, dose-rate, cascade energy density, and chemical interactions on IM. The results of these experiments will be reviewed and compared to IM models based on collisional, thermal spike, and radiation-enhanced diffusion processes. The relation of IM to other fundamental radiation damage effects will also be discussed. 75 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Electrochemical Impedance Spectra of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fundamentals and Spreadsheet Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Sarker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS is one of the most important tools to elucidate the charge transfer and transport processes in various electrochemical systems including dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Even though there are many books and reports on EIS, it is often very difficult to explain the EIS spectra of DSSCs. Understanding EIS through calculating EIS spectra on spreadsheet can be a powerful approach as the user, without having any programming knowledge, can go through each step of calculation on a spreadsheet and get instant feedback by visualizing the calculated results or plot on the same spreadsheet. Here, a brief account of the EIS of DSSCs is given with fundamental aspects and their spreadsheet calculation. The review should help one to develop a basic understanding about EIS of DSSCs through interacting with spreadsheet.

  12. Fundamental Composite (Goldstone) Higgs Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cacciapaglia, G.; Sannino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the conden......We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation...... transforming according to the fundamental representation of the gauge group. This minimal choice enables us to use recent first principle lattice results to make the first predictions for the massive spectrum for models of composite (Goldstone) Higgs dynamics. These results are of the upmost relevance to guide...

  13. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  14. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  15. Fundamental science of nanometer-size clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Newcomer, P.P.; Samara, G.A.; Venturini, E.L.; Williamson, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This research has produced a variety of monodisperse, nanometer-size clusters (nanoclusters for short), characterized their size and crystal structure and developed a scientific understanding of the size dependence of their physical properties. Of specific interest were the influence of quantum electronic confinement on the optical properties, magnetic properties, and dielectric properties. These properties were chosen both for their potential practical impact on various applications identified in the National Critical Technologies list (e.g., catalysis, information storage, sensors, environmental remediation, ...) as well as for their importance to the fundamental science of clusters. An Executive Summary provides a description of the major highlights.

  16. Fundamental Structure of Matter and Strong Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    More than 99% of the visible matter in the universe are the protons and neutrons. Their internal structure is mostly governed by the strong interaction. Understanding their internal structure in terms of fundamental degrees-of-freedom is one of the most important subjects in modern physics. Worldwide efforts in the last few decades have lead to numerous surprises and discoveries, but major challenges still remain. An overview of the progress will be presented with a focus on the recent studies of the proton and neutron's electromagnetic and spin structure. Future perspectives will be discussed.

  17. Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The course will provide an introduction to some of the basic theoretical techniques used to describe the fundamental particles and their interactions. Of central importance to our understanding of these forces are the underlying symmetries of nature and I will review the nature of these symmetries and how they are used to build a predictive theory. I discuss how the combination of quantum mechanics and relativity leads to the quantum field theory (QFT) description of the states of matter and their interactions. The Feynman rules used to determine the QFT predictions for experimentally measurable processes are derived and applied to the calculation of decay widths and cross sections.

  18. Fundamentals of Physical Design and Query Compilation

    CERN Document Server

    Toman, David

    2011-01-01

    Query compilation is the problem of translating user requests formulated over purely conceptual and domain specific ways of understanding data, commonly called logical designs, to efficient executable programs called query plans. Such plans access various concrete data sources through their low-level often iterator-based interfaces. An appreciation of the concrete data sources, their interfaces and how such capabilities relate to logical design is commonly called a physical design. This book is an introduction to the fundamental methods underlying database technology that solves the problem of

  19. Fundamentals of electromagnetics 2 quasistatics and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Voltmer, David

    2007-01-01

    This book is the second of two volumes which have been created to provide an understanding of the basic principles and applications of electromagnetic fields for electrical engineering students. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics Vol 2: Quasistatics and Waves examines how the low-frequency models of lumped elements are modified to include parasitic elements. For even higher frequencies, wave behavior in space and on transmission lines is explained. Finally, the textbook concludes with details of transmission line properties and applications. Upon completion of this book and its companion Fundame

  20. Image restoration fundamentals and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Gunturk, Bahadir Kursat

    2012-01-01

    Image Restoration: Fundamentals and Advances responds to the need to update most existing references on the subject, many of which were published decades ago. Providing a broad overview of image restoration, this book explores breakthroughs in related algorithm development and their role in supporting real-world applications associated with various scientific and engineering fields. These include astronomical imaging, photo editing, and medical imaging, to name just a few. The book examines how such advances can also lead to novel insights into the fundamental properties of image sources. Addr

  1. The fundamentals of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fikhtengol'ts, G M

    1965-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis, Volume 1 is a textbook that provides a systematic and rigorous treatment of the fundamentals of mathematical analysis. Emphasis is placed on the concept of limit which plays a principal role in mathematical analysis. Examples of the application of mathematical analysis to geometry, mechanics, physics, and engineering are given. This volume is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a discussion on real numbers, their properties and applications, and arithmetical operations over real numbers. The reader is then introduced to the concept of function, i

  2. RFID design fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an increasingly pervasive tool that is now used in a wide range of fields. It is employed to substantiate adherence to food preservation and safety standards, combat the circulation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and verify authenticity and history of critical parts used in aircraft and other machinery-and these are just a few of its uses. Goes beyond deployment, focusing on exactly how RFID actually worksRFID Design Fundamentals and Applications systematically explores the fundamental principles involved in the design and characterization of RFID technologies. The RFID market is expl

  3. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  4. Solar cosmic rays fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty

    2015-01-01

    The book summarizes the results of solar cosmic ray (SCR) investigations since 1942. The present monograph, unlike the reviews published earlier, treats the problem in self-contained form, in all its associations—from fundamental astrophysical aspects to geophysical, aeronautical and cosmonautical applications. It includes a large amount of new data, accumulated during the last several decades of space research. As a result of the "information burst" in space physics, there are a lot of new interesting theoretical concepts, models and ideas that deserve attention. The author gives an extensive bibliography, which covers non-partially the main achievements and failures in this field. The book will be helpful for a wide audience of space physicists and it will be relevant to graduate and postgraduate courses. The book will serve as a reference work for researchers and students in solar physics and astrophysical plasma physics, as well as in cosmic rays physics, astroparticle physics, space science, solar-terr...

  5. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  6. Ecological fundamentals of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, W.

    1993-01-01

    The book reviews the state of the art of ecological knowledge. The emphasis is on ecosystem theory and in the interpretation of our environment with its irreversible anthropogenic changes. It is an important contribution to deeper knowledge about the ecological fundamentals of environmental protection and the factors that constitute nature's potential. (orig./BBR) [de

  7. Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozalvez, Javier; Haerri, Jerome; Hartenstein, Hannes; Heijenk, Geert; Kargl, Frank; Petit, Jonathan; Scheuermann, Björn; Tieler, Tessa; Altintas, O.; Dressler, F.; Hartenstein, H.; Tonguz, O.K.

    The working group on “Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science‿ discussed the lasting value of achieved research results as well as potential future directions in the field of inter- vehicular communication. Two major themes ‘with variations’ were the dependence on a specific technology (particularly

  8. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  9. Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, S.; Rensink, Arend; Unknown, [Unknown

    This volume contains the proceedings of FASE 2014, the 17th International Conferences on Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, which was held in Grenoble, Italy, in April 2014 as part of the annual European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS).

  10. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  11. Fundamentals of EU VAT law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesum, A.; van Kesteren, H.W.M.; van Norden, G.J.

    Fundamentals of EU VAT Law aims at providing a deep insight into the systematics, the functioning and the principles of the European Value Added Tax (VAT) system. VAT is responsible for generating approximately EUR 903 billion per year in tax revenues across the European Union – revenues that play a

  12. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  13. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Biyao Huang; Xiaomin Bai; Zhenyu Zhou; Quansheng Cui; Daohua Zhu; Ruwei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  14. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Mahfouz

    promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis of the regenerated organs. The choice of the scaffold and the type of cells is a crucial and fundamental step in regenerative medicine. In this review article, we demonstrated these three crucial factors of bladder tissue engineering, with the pros and cons of each scaffold type and.

  15. From self-assembly fundamental knowledge to nanomedicine developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monduzzi, Maura; Lampis, Sandrina; Murgia, Sergio; Salis, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    This review highlights the key role of NMR techniques in demonstrating the molecular aspects of the self-assembly of surfactant molecules that nowadays constitute the basic knowledge which modern nanoscience relies on. The aim is to provide a tutorial overview. The story of a rigorous scientific approach to understand self-assembly in surfactant systems and biological membranes starts in the early seventies when the progresses of SAXRD and NMR technological facilities allowed to demonstrate the existence of ordered soft matter, and the validity of Tanford approach concerning self-assembly at a molecular level. Particularly, NMR quadrupolar splittings, NMR chemical shift anisotropy, and NMR relaxation of dipolar and quadrupolar nuclei in micellar solutions, microemulsions, and liquid crystals proved the existence of an ordered polar-apolar interface, on the NMR time scale. NMR data, rationalized in terms of the two-step model of relaxation, allowed to quantify the dynamic aspects of the supramolecular aggregates in different soft matter systems. In addition, NMR techniques allowed to obtain important information on counterion binding as well as on size of the aggregate through molecular self-diffusion. Indeed NMR self-diffusion proved without any doubt the existence of bicontinuous microemulsions and bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals, suggested by pioneering and brilliant interpretation of SAXRD investigations. Moreover, NMR self-diffusion played a fundamental role in the understanding of microemulsion and emulsion nanostructures, phase transitions in phase diagrams, and particularly percolation phenomena in microemulsions. Since the nineties, globalization of the knowledge along with many other technical facilities such as electron microscopy, particularly cryo-EM, produced huge progresses in surfactant and colloid science. Actually we refer to nanoscience: bottom up/top down strategies allow to build nanodevices with applications spanning from ICT to food

  16. Ultrathin magnetic structures III fundamentals of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bland, JAC

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. This volume describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. Volume IV deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is designed to be ...

  17. Microelectronics from fundamentals to applied design

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a practical guide for practicing engineers who need to design analog circuits for microelectronics.  Readers will develop a comprehensive understanding of the basic techniques of analog modern electronic circuit design, discrete and integrated, application as sensors and control and data acquisition systems,and techniques of PCB design.  ·         Describes fundamentals of microelectronics design in an accessible manner; ·         Takes a problem-solving approach to the topic, offering a hands-on guide for practicing engineers; ·         Provides realistic examples to inspire a thorough understanding of system-level issues, before going into the detail of components and devices; ·         Uses a new approach and provides several skills that help engineers and designers retain key and advanced concepts.

  18. Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Wu, David T

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of gas hydrate formation and decomposition processes is critical in many energy and environmental areas and has special importance in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry. These areas represent the core of gas hydrate applications, which, albeit widely studied, are still developing as growing fields of research. Discovering the molecular pathways and chemical and physical concepts underlying gas hydrate formation potentially can lead us beyond flowline blockage prevention strategies toward advancing new technological solutions for fuel storage and transportation, safely producing a new energy resource from natural deposits of gas hydrates in oceanic and arctic sediments, and potentially facilitating effective desalination of seawater. The state of the art in gas hydrate research is leading us to new understanding of formation and dissociation phenomena that focuses on measurement and modeling of time-dependent properties of gas hydrates on the basis of their well-established thermodynamic properties.

  19. Fundamental Study on Laser Interaction with Metal Matrix Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to significantly advance the fundamental understanding of laser interaction with metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) and to overcome the fundamental limits of current laser processing techniques by tuning heat transfer and fluid flow using nanoparticles.Ultrasonic assisted electrocodeposition was used to prepare MMNCs samples (e.g., Ni/Al2O3) for laser melting experiments. Microstructural study showed that uniform distribution and dispersion of nanoparticles wer...

  20. The finite element method its basis and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, Olek C; Zhu, JZ

    2013-01-01

    The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals offers a complete introduction to the basis of the finite element method, covering fundamental theory and worked examples in the detail required for readers to apply the knowledge to their own engineering problems and understand more advanced applications. This edition sees a significant rearrangement of the book's content to enable clearer development of the finite element method, with major new chapters and sections added to cover: Weak forms Variational forms Multi-dimensional field prob

  1. Fundamental research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravesik, M.J.

    1964-01-01

    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  2. Modern measurements fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and finishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad fields. The editors cover System Identification (Chapter 8...

  3. Fundamentals of electronic systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Lienig, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This textbook covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: the design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles. Enables readers to face various challenges of designing electronic systems, including coverage from various engineering disciplines; Written to be accessible to readers of varying backgrounds; Uses illustrations extensively to reinforce fundamental concepts; Organized to follow essential design process, although chapters are self-contained and can be read in any order.

  4. Protection of fundamental rights today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Abich, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Technical developments can both change the methods of dealing with existing conflicts, and cause new conflicts. Meyer-Abich analyzes five conflicts caused by the technological development in the solution of which the constitutional, liberal, and democratic protection of fundamental rights is not at all guaranteed. Meyer-Abich thinks that these new conflicts can be solved in the framework of the liberal constitutional state, if legal and political consequences are taken in order to guarantee the uncharged protection of fundamental rights under changing conditions. The necessary reforms can, however, only be realized if the way how state and science see themselves changes. Both have to give up their one-sidedness into which have been pushed by conflict which havbe been caused by the scientific and technical development. Only then it will be possible to solve the jemerging conflicts without eopardizing the integritiy of the society. (orig.) [de

  5. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  6. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  7. Gauge unification of fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1980-02-01

    After having reviewed briefly the last twenty years' progress in the theory of unification, with the twin aspects of development of a gauge theory of basic interactions linked with internal symmetry and the spontaneous breaking of these symmetries, the Nobel prize winners have summarized the present situation and the immediate problems. At the end, an extrapolation of the future is also given

  8. Geothermal engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.

  9. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Mahfouz

    appealing alternative through development of biological substitutes, which could restore structural and functional aspects of damaged .... Composite scaffolds consisting of both natural and synthetic mate- rials have been developed and ... Adult bone marrow contains a heterogeneous group of cells, including hematopoietic ...

  10. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  11. Wearable sensors fundamentals, implementation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Written by industry experts, this book aims to provide you with an understanding of how to design and work with wearable sensors. Together these insights provide the first single source of information on wearable sensors that would be a valuable addition to the library of any engineer interested in this field. Wearable Sensors covers a wide variety of topics associated with the development and application of various wearable sensors. It also provides an overview and coherent summary of many aspects of current wearable sensor technology. Both industry professionals and academic researcher

  12. Physical fundamentals of the application of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueche, G.

    1977-01-01

    In the chapter 'Medical Applications' A 'Radiotherapy' of the study, the following subjects are treated in detail by various authors: Physical fundamentals of the application of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy-radiation-biological fundamentals; clinical aspects of radiotherapy with protons and negative pions; patients and clinical dosimetry. (MG) [de

  13. RF and microwave engineering fundamentals of wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Gustrau, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a fundamental and practical introduction to radio frequency and microwave engineering and physical aspects of wireless communication In this book, the author addresses a wide range of radio-frequency and microwave topics with emphasis on physical aspects including EM and voltage waves, transmission lines, passive circuits, antennas, radio wave propagation. Up-to-date RF design tools like RF circuit simulation, EM simulation and computerized smith charts, are used in various examples to demonstrate how these methods can be applied effectively in RF engineering

  14. Fundamentals of ion-solid interaction. A compact introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Wolfhard [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research

    2017-09-01

    Since Rutherford's famous paper which first described the scattering of α-particles in matter, the field of ion-solid interaction has matured by now during one entire century. First theoretical concepts addressing particle penetration of solids were given by Thomson and Bohr. Quantum theory entered the field in treatments of ion stopping by Born and Bethe. Still on classical grounds, transport theory was first introduced in a paper on multiple scattering by Bothe. The discovery of nuclear fission launched theoretical studies by Bohr on the scattering and stopping of fission products. A further milestone in the understanding of particle penetration phenomena is the 1948 paper by Bohr. On this basis, the theoretical understanding was enhanced in the early 1960's in particular by a series of papers by Lindhard. Simultaneously, an increasing amount of experimental studies on ion stopping and scattering were launched in connection with the development of ion acceleration devices and corresponding equipment for particle detection. During this period, also first computer simulation studies came up which later proved to be an utmost efficient tool for the description of collisional phenomena in ion-solid interaction. The relevance for numerous applications became evident, such as for the compositional and structural analysis of thin films and near-surface layers, for semiconductor technology, and nuclear fission and fusion technology. This caused increasing interest not only in the penetration and the scattering of the impinging ions, but also in the modification of the irradiated material due to ion implantation, radiation damage and surface erosion by sputtering. Consequently, ion-solid interaction established around 1970 internationally as a quickly expanding field at the intersection of solid-state physics and nuclear physics. Numerous reviews and textbooks are available which cover the fundamentals of ion-solid interaction. Torrens reviewed the knowledge

  15. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selesi, Dora, E-mail: dora@dmi.uns.ac.rs [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. > Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. > Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. > Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. > Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P({omega}, D) Lozenge u(x, {omega}) = A(x, {omega}) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P({omega}, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A Lozenge I{sup Lozenge (-1)}, where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  16. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selesi, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  17. Photovoltaics fundamentals, technology and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics' history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconducto

  18. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications description of the adhesion, friction, abrasion, and wear behavior of solid film lubricants and related tribological materials, including diamond and diamond-like solid films. The book details the properties of solid surfaces, clean surfaces, and contaminated surfaces as well as discussing the structures and mechanical properties of natural and synthetic diamonds; chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film; surface design and engineering toward wear-resistant, self-lubricating diamond films and coatings. The author provides selection and design criteria as well as applications for synthetic and natural coatings in the commercial, industrial and aerospace industries..

  19. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2014-01-01

    A classic now in its 14th edition, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best resource for students and professionals looking to brush up on how these technologies have developed, grown, and converged, as well as what's in store for the future. It begins by developing the communication technology framework-the history, ecosystem, and structure-then delves into each type of technology, including everything from mass media, to computers and consumer electronics, to networking technologies. Each chapter is written by faculty and industry experts who p

  20. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  1. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  2. Computing fundamentals digital literacy edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Computing Fundamentals has been tailor made to help you get up to speed on your Computing Basics and help you get proficient in entry level computing skills. Covering all the key topics, it starts at the beginning and takes you through basic set-up so that you'll be competent on a computer in no time.You'll cover: Computer Basics & HardwareSoftwareIntroduction to Windows 7Microsoft OfficeWord processing with Microsoft Word 2010Creating Spreadsheets with Microsoft ExcelCreating Presentation Graphics with PowerPointConnectivity and CommunicationWeb BasicsNetwork and Internet Privacy and Securit

  3. Quantum Uncertainty and Fundamental Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosto S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simplified theoretical approach to infer some essential concepts on the fundamental interactions between charged particles and their relative strengths at comparable energies by exploiting the quantum uncertainty only. The worth of the present approach relies on the way of obtaining the results, rather than on the results themselves: concepts today acknowledged as fingerprints of the electroweak and strong interactions appear indeed rooted in the same theoretical frame including also the basic principles of special and general relativity along with the gravity force.

  4. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  5. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C

    2002-01-01

    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  6. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  7. Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2013-10-15

    General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future.

  8. Fundamental Physics with Space Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, S.

    I review a category of experiments in fundamental physics that need space as a laboratory. All these experiments have in common the need of a very low gravity environment to achieve as an ideal free fall as possible: LISA, the gravitational wave observatory, and its technology demonstrator SMART-2. The satellite tests of the equivalence principle Microscope, and the ultimate sensitivity one STEP, with its close heritage from GP-B, the experiment to measure the gravito-magnetic field of the Earth. Finally the entirely new field of cold atoms in space with its promise to produce the next generation of inertial gravitational and inertial sensors for general relativity experiments.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE FUNDAMENTAL AND TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petrusheva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world of investing and trading, in order to have a definite advantage and constantly create profit, you need to have a strategic approach. Generally speaking, the two main schools of thought and strategies in financial markets are fundamental and technical analysis. Fundamental and technical analysis differ in several aspects, such as the way of functioning and execution, the time horizon used, the tools used and their objective. These differences lead to certain advantages and disadvantages of each of the analyses. Fundamental and technical analysis are also a subject of critical reviews by the academic and scientific community and many of these reviews concern the methods of their application, i.e. the possibility of combining the two analyses and using them complementarily to fully utilize their strengths and advantages.

  10. Fundamentals of friction and wear on the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Gnecco, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an updated review on the development of scanning probe microscopy and related techniques, and the availability of computational techniques not even imaginable a few decades ago. The 36 chapters cover instrumental aspects, theoretical models and selected experimental results, thus offering a broad panoramic view on fundamental issues in nanotribology which are currently being investigated. Compared to the first edition, several topics have been added, including triboluminescence, graphene mechanics, friction and wear in liquid environments, capillary condensation, and multisc

  11. Computability, complexity, and languages fundamentals of theoretical computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Martin D; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1983-01-01

    Computability, Complexity, and Languages: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science provides an introduction to the various aspects of theoretical computer science. Theoretical computer science is the mathematical study of models of computation. This text is composed of five parts encompassing 17 chapters, and begins with an introduction to the use of proofs in mathematics and the development of computability theory in the context of an extremely simple abstract programming language. The succeeding parts demonstrate the performance of abstract programming language using a macro expa

  12. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, R.V.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  13. HVEM-ion accelerator facility with its application to fundamental studies on nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Chiken; Nakai, Kiyomichi; Kutsuwada, Masanori

    1992-01-01

    High voltage electron microscopy combined with an ion accelerator, analytical electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy have been used for in-situ observation of radiation-induced phenomena in alloys and ceramics. Systematic experiments and their analyses have led to an understanding of the fundamental aspects of radiation effects in metallic, ionic and covalent crystals. The present paper reviews the progress of our studies on induced phenomena in alloys and ceramics under irradiation with electrons and/or ions. Particular emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of radiation-induced phenomena, such as defect aggregation, chemical disordering, precipitation, spinodal decomposition and amorphization. This paper also shows a trend of our studies on the synergistic effect of dual-beam irradiation with ions and electrons which is extremely important for designing nuclear materials. (author)

  14. Fundamental care and knowledge interests: Implications for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Mateo-Aguilar, Ester; Aranda-Torres, Cayetano; Román-López, Pablo; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel

    2017-11-09

    To characterise the intratheoretical interests of knowledge in nursing science as an epistemological framework for fundamental care. For Jürgen Habermas, theory does not separate knowledge interests from life. All knowledge, understanding and human research is always interested. Habermas formulated the knowledge interests in empirical-analytical, historical-hermeneutic and critical social sciences; but said nothing about health sciences and nursing science. Discursive paper. The article is organised into five sections that develop our argument about the implications of the Habermasian intratheoretical interests in nursing science and fundamental care: the persistence of a technical interest, the predominance of a practical interest, the importance of an emancipatory interest, "being there" to understand individuals' experience and an "existential crisis" that uncovers the individual's subjectivity. The nursing discipline can take on practical and emancipatory interests (together with a technical interest) as its fundamental knowledge interests. Nurses' privileged position in the delivery of fundamental care gives them the opportunity to gain a deep understanding of the patient's experience and illness process through physical contact and empathic communication. In clinical, academic and research environments, nurses should highlight the importance of fundamental care, showcasing the value of practical and emancipatory knowledge. This process could help to improve nursing science's leadership, social visibility and idiosyncrasy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Fundamental studies on cavitation melt processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakis, I.; Hodnett, M.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Eskin, D. G.; Pericleous, K.

    2016-05-01

    The application of ultrasound to industrial casting processes has attracted research interest during the last 50 years. However, the transfer and scale-up of this advanced and promising technology to industry has been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal due to the lack of understanding of certain fundamentals. In the current study experimental results on ultrasonic processing in deionised water and in liquid aluminium (Al) are reported. Cavitation activity was determined in both liquid environments and acoustic pressures were successfully measured using an advanced high-temperature cavitometer sensor. Results showed that highest cavitation intensity in the liquid bulk is achieved at lower amplitudes of the sonotrode tip than the maximum available, suggesting nonlinearity in energy transfer to the liquid, while the location of the sonotrode is seen to substantially affect cavitation activity within the liquid. Estimation of real-time acoustic pressures distributed inside a crucible with liquid Al was performed for the first time.

  16. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...

  17. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    1996-01-01

    Fundamentals of Semiconductors attempts to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic Theories are presented to explain experimental results This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors The explanations are based on physical insights Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures and problems Many of these problems 'lead the student by the hand' to arrive at the results

  18. Public Politics of Health and Aspects of its Judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fernando dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was elaborated in order to analyze issues relating to the judicialization of cases involving health, understanding health as a public policy aimed at to guarantee the fundamental right to it linked, that is, the concept of health that the authos intended to work is not far from that contained in the combined reading of Articles 6 and 196 of the Constitution, consecrators to be the health, universal right and duty of the state, guaranteed through social and economic policies aimed at to reduce the risk of disease and other becomes, ensuring also the universal and equal access to actions and services for its promotion, protection and recovery. With this approach it is intended to analyze the feasibility and consequences of judicial control of social and economic policies of promotion, protection and recovery, access, anyway, the effective flow to the fundamental right. Relating to the methodological aspects employed in the analysis of the issue concerning to the health, it was searched in the interpretation of constitutional provisions that secure the subjective right the starting point of the analysis as well as the unwavering appreciation of inseparability of judicial control in the context of public policy, assessing possible limits of the judicial branch, and then to realize a brief analysis of previous trial in the Supreme Court and extract from this jurisprudencial context the minimum goals for aspects of health judicialization.

  19. Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K

    2006-04-01

    Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet

  20. Futurism in nursing: Technology, robotics and the fundamentals of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Mandy M; Barnard, Alan

    2017-09-21

    To explore the concept of futurism and the emergence of robotics in relation to the fundamentals of care, highlighting how nurses need a more anticipatory and contemporary position towards technology to maintain relevance in the future. The future of nursing in Western countries will soon be linked with the emergence of robotics for efficient and cost-effective provision of fundamental care. Their emergence and roles with care of the body and more broadly assisting people with their daily living activities has enormous implications for the profession and health care. Despite this importance, how nursing understands and will respond to technological trends and developments is insufficiently reflected in the professions discourse. A discursive article. Literature from nursing fundamentals of care/fundamental care, information science, technology, humanities and philosophy informed the arguments in this article. This article examines the intersection of futurism and the fundamentals of care, and how adopting an anticipatory and posthuman perspective towards technological-care integration is necessary amidst a robot revolution in the techno-era. Nurses are currently challenged to understand, prioritise and deliver fundamental care. Health systems are challenged by a lack of care predicated by shortfalls in skilled staff and deficiencies in staff mobilisation. Both challenges can be compounded or alleviated by further integration of technology, but to maximise benefit requires forethought and understanding. This article can help open needed dialogue around planning for the future and is a call to action for the nursing profession to conceptualise its position on exponential technological growth and fundamental care provision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The philosophical aspect of learning inverse problems of mathematical physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes specific questions student learning inverse problems of mathematical physics. When teaching inverse problems of mathematical physics to the understanding of the students brought the information that the inverse problems of mathematical physics with a philosophical point of view are the problems of determining the unknown causes of known consequences, and the search for their solutions have great scientific and educational potential. The reasons are specified in the form of unknown coefficients, right side, initial conditions of the mathematical model of inverse problems, and as a consequence are functionals of the solution of this mathematical model. In the process of learning the inverse problems of mathematical physics focuses on the philosophical aspects of the phenomenon of information and identify cause-effect relations. It is emphasized that in the process of logical analysis applied and humanitarian character, students realize that information is always related to the fundamental philosophical questions that the analysis applied and the humanitarian aspects of the obtained results the inverse problem of mathematical physics allows students to make appropriate inferences about the studied process and to, ultimately, new information, to study its properties and understand its value. Philosophical understanding of the notion of information opens up to students a new methodological opportunities to comprehend the world and helps us to reinterpret existing science and philosophy of the theory related to the disclosure of the interrelationship of all phenomena of reality.

  2. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  3. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references.   The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.

  4. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...

  5. Neuroethics as a Fundamental Ethic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Corcó

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In her book Braintrust, the neurophilosopher Patricia Churchland puts forward her ideas about what neuroscience has contributed so far in the study of the neural bases of ethical behaviour in human beings. The main thesis of Churchland’s book is that morality has its origins in the neurobiology of attachment and bonding; she stresses the importance of oxytocin in the cooperative behaviour of human beings, and proposes that neuroethics might eventually come to be regarded as a fundamental ethic. In my opinion, however, Churchland’s proposal raises some pertinent questions, such as, Why should we behave ethically? or, What are moral values? In this paper we assess Churchland’s main ideas in an attempt to show whether neuroscience can be of help in answering these questions.

  6. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  7. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  8. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.

  9. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  10. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... of normal video and high speed video (100 Hz) can not reveal any instability in the process when humping occurs. Contrary to this, photo diode signals (sampled at 3 kHz) clearly indicate a characteristic signal when humps occur.When the seam area and seam width have manually been measured on high speed...

  11. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  12. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2007-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.

  13. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  14. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Parubochaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  15. Fundamentals of positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is a modern radionuclide method of measuring physiological quantities or metabolic parameters in vivo. The methods is based on: (1) Radioactive labelling with positron emitters; (2) the coincidence technique for the measurement of the annihilation radiation following positron decay; (3) analysis of the data measured using biological models. The basic aspects and problems of the method are discussed. The main fields of future research are the synthesis of new labelled compounds and the development of mathematical models of the biological processes to be investigated. (orig.) [de

  16. Fundamentals of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, L.

    1982-01-01

    In many countries, the pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the most widely used, even though it requires enrichment of the uranium to about 3% in U-235 and the moderator-coolant must be maintained at a high pressure, about 2200 pounds per square inch. Our objective in this series of seven lectures is to describe the design and operating characteristics of the PWR system, discuss the reactor physics methods used to evaluate performance, examine the way fuel is consumed and produced, study the instrumentation system, review the physics measurements made during initial startup of the reactor, and outline the administrative aspects of starting up a reactor and operating it safely and effectively

  17. Revisiting the fundamentals of single point incremental forming by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Beatriz; Skjødt, Martin; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the physics behind the fracture of material at the transition between the inclined wall and the corner radius of the sheet is of great importance for understanding the fundamentals of single point incremental forming (SPIF). How the material fractures, what is the state of strain and...

  18. Fundamentals for a terahertz-driven electron gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Olsen, Filip D.; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    dipoles placed with a small gap in between. We conclude that it is possible to make ultra-bright electron bunches shorter than 1 ps and accelerate them to the low keV range over 15 mu m using only a single THz transient. Our results are fundamental to understand and build a THz-driven electron gun....

  19. Mathematical aspects of field quantization. Quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongaarts, P.J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental mathematical aspects of quantum field theory are discussed. A brief review of various approaches to mathematical problems of quantum electrodynamics is given, preceded by a more extensive account of the development of ideas on the mathematical nature of quantum fields in general, providing an appropriate historical context. (author)

  20. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, H.; Carlsen, L.

    1993-01-01

    Some fundamentals of the ion chemistry of flames are summarized. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames have been studied using a VG PlasmaQuad, the ICP-system being substituted by a simple quartz burner. Simple hydrocarbon flames as well as sulfur-containing flames have been investigated...

  1. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. (comp.)

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  2. Gasoline Combustion Fundamentals DOE FY17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Advanced automotive gasoline engines that leverage a combination of reduced heat transfer, throttling, and mechanical losses; shorter combustion durations; and higher compression and mixture specific heat ratios are needed to meet aggressive DOE VTP fuel economy and pollutant emission targets. Central challenges include poor combustion stability at low-power conditions when large amounts of charge dilution are introduced and high sensitivity of conventional inductive coil ignition systems to elevated charge motion and density for boosted high-load operation. For conventional spark ignited operation, novel low-temperature plasma (LTP) or pre-chamber based ignition systems can improve dilution tolerances while maintaining good performance characteristics at elevated charge densities. Moreover, these igniters can improve the control of advanced compression ignition (ACI) strategies for gasoline at low to moderate loads. The overarching research objective of the Gasoline Combustion Fundamentals project is to investigate phenomenological aspects related to enhanced ignition. The objective is accomplished through targeted experiments performed in a single-cylinder optically accessible research engine or an in-house developed optically accessible spark calorimeter (OASC). In situ optical diagnostics and ex situ gas sampling measurements are performed to elucidate important details of ignition and combustion processes. Measurements are further used to develop and validate complementary high-fidelity ignition simulations. The primary project audience is automotive manufacturers, Tier 1 suppliers, and technology startups—close cooperation has resulted in the development and execution of project objectives that address crucial mid- to long-range research challenges.

  3. Scientific aspects of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is given of the basic radiation physics background knowledge required to aid the understanding of the scientific aspects of radiation protection. The different types of electromagnetic and particulate radiation are described together with general information on ray energy, radioactivity units and radionuclide half-life. (U.K.)

  4. Differential formalism aspects of the gauge classical theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedile, E.

    1982-01-01

    The classical aspects of the gauge theories are shown using differential geometry as fundamental tool. Somme comments are done about Maxwell Electro-dynamics, classical Yang-Mills and gravitation theories. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Fundamental fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended to enable postgraduate research students to enhance their understanding and expertise in Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), subjects no longer treated in isolation. The exercises throughout the book often serve to provide additional and quite significant knowledge or to develop selected mathematical skills, and may also fill in certain details or enhance readers’ understanding of essential concepts. A previous background or some preliminary reading in either of the two core subjects would be advantageous, and prior knowledge of multivariate calculus and differential equations is expected.

  6. Fundamental concepts in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Norskov, Jens K; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course and suitable as a primer for any newcomer to the field, this book is a detailed introduction to the experimental and computational methods that are used to study how solid surfaces act as catalysts.   Features include:First comprehensive description of modern theory of heterogeneous catalysisBasis for understanding and designing experiments in the field   Allows reader to understand catalyst design principlesIntroduction to important elements of energy transformation technologyTest driven at Stanford University over several semesters

  7. The Objective Dimension of Fundamental Rights and the Role of Independent Regulatory Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira de Campos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective dimension of fundamental rights is related to the goals of the society, collectivity, which binds to the Public Power. Since the State reform, the independent regulatory agencies play an important role on the national scene acting in the regulation of public services, monopolies and essential economic activities. The potential of Brazilian regulatory agencies for the promotion and protection of fundamental rights aimed at the goals of the collectivity are vast. Their actions may have higher or lower reflections, both in positive and negative aspects concerning to fundamental rights. The challenge for the agencies is to exercise their regulator functions bearing in mind the objective effects of fundamental rights.

  8. The Fundamental Ontology of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyson E.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to disrupt the hegemonic dominance of learning theory, in this article Tyson Lewis explores the unique educational logic of studying. Drawing on the work of Giorgio Agamben, we can understand the operation of study as one of suspension through three modes: preferring not; no longer, not yet; and as not. But the relationship between…

  9. Fundamentals of nonlinear optical materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear optics; nonlinear polarization; optical fiber communication; optical switch- ing. PACS Nos 42.65Tg; ... The importance of nonlinear optics is to understand the nonlinear behavior in the induced polarization and to ..... but much work in material development and characterization remains to be done. 16. Conclusion.

  10. Teaching the Politics of Islamic Fundamentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Masoud

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the rise of Islamic fundamentalism since the Iranian Revolution has generated a number of issues of analytical significance for political science. Describes three main models in teaching and research on Islamic fundamentalism: Islamic exceptionalism, comparative fundamentalisms, and class analysis. Discusses the construction of a…

  11. Bevel gear fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book to offer a complete presentation of bevel gears. An expert team of authors highlights the areas of application for these machine elements and presents the geometrical features of bevel gears as well as the various gear cutting processes based on gear cutting theory. The aspect of three-dimensional gearing is assessed in detail in terms of flank design, load capacity and noise behavior. A representation of production processes with the required technologies provides a knowledge base on which sound decisions can be based. The authors offer a thorough introduction to the complex world of bevel gears and present the rapid advances of these machine elements in a detailed, comprehensible manner.  This book addresses design engineers in mechanical engineering and vehicle manufacturing, as well as producers of bevel gears and students in mechanical engineering.

  12. Fundamental investigations of catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Christian Fink

    different topics, each related to different aspects of nanoparticle dynamics and catalysis. The first topic is the reduction of a homogeneous solid state precursor to form the catalytically active phase which is metal nanoparticles on an inert support. Here, we have reduced Cu phyllosilicate to Cu on silica......Heterogeneous catalysis, the conversion of chemicals by the use of a suitable solid state catalyst, is a very important technology in modern society and it is involved in the production of up to 90% of all chemicals. Catalysis has in this way played a significant role in the technological...... and economic development in the 20th century. There is however a downside to this development and we are seeing significant pollution and pressure on resources. Catalysis therefore has an increasingly important role in limiting pollution and optimizing the use of resources. This development will depend on our...

  13. The water, fundamental ecological base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, Luis Humberto

    1994-01-01

    To speak of ecology and the man's interaction with the environment takes, in fact implicit many elements that, actuating harmoniously generates a conducive entropy to a better to be, however it is necessary to hierarchy the importance of these elements, finding that the water, not alone to constitute sixty five percent of the total volume of the planet, or sixty percent of the human body, but to be the well called molecule of the life, it is constituted in the main element to consider in the study of the ecology. The water circulates continually through the endless hydrological cycle of condensation, precipitation, filtration, retention, evaporation, precipitation and so forth; however, due to the quick growth of the cities, its expansion of the green areas or its border lands, result of a demographic behavior and of inadequate social establishment; or of the advance industrial excessive, they produce irreparable alterations in the continuous processes of the water production, for this reason it is fundamental to know some inherent problems to the sources of water. The water, the most important in the renewable natural resources, essential for the life and for the achievement of good part of the man's goals in their productive function, it is direct or indirectly the natural resource more threatened by the human action

  14. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  15. Understanding fields using strings: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding fields using strings: A review. SUNIL MUKHI. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. In addition to being a prime candidate for a fundamental unified theory of all interactions in nature, string theory provides a natural setting to understand gauge field ...

  16. OCA Oracle Database 11g SQL Fundamentals I

    CERN Document Server

    Ries, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This book is packed with real word examples. Each major certification topic is covered in a separate chapter, which helps to make understanding of concepts easier. At the end of each chapter, you will find a variety of practice questions to strengthen and test your learning. You will get a feel for the actual SQL Fundamentals I exam by solving practice papers modeled on it. This book is for anyone who needs the essential skills to pass the Oracle Database SQL Fundamentals I exam and use those skills in daily life as an SQL developer or database administrator.

  17. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  18. Isotopes and analogs of hydrogen--from fundamental investigations to practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Roderick M

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen has a central role in the story of the universe itself and also in the story of our efforts to understand it. This paper retells the story of the part played by hydrogen and its stable isotope deuterium in the primordial synthesis of the elements, then goes on to describe how the spectrum of atomic hydrogen led to insights into the laws governing matter at the most fundamental level, from the quantum mechanics of Schrödinger and Heisenberg, through quantum electrodynamics, to the most recent work investigating the underlying structure of the proton itself. Atomic hydrogen is unique among the elements in that the concept of isotopy--atoms having the same nuclear charge but different masses--is stretched to its limit in the isotopes of hydrogen, ranging from the well-known isotopes deuterium and tritium to exotic species such as muonium, muonic helium, and positronium. These atoms, or atom-like objects, have much to tell us about fundamental aspects of the universe. In recent years the idea of utilizing hydrogen either as an energy source (through nuclear fusion) or as an energy storage medium (bound in hydrides or other materials) has attracted much attention as a possible avenue to a post-oil energy future. Some of the more interesting recent developments are described here. Dedicated to the memory of Brian C. Webster (1939-2008).

  19. CONFIDENCE MASTERY AS THE FUNDAMENTAL TASK IN LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOTEKOVÁ, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of language learning is not only to achieve an academic success carried out by a fluent speaking; mastering the grammar and vocabulary but it should also focus on the psychological comfort and the intrinsic readiness of the students to participate in their education - to receive and perform. The learners’ self-esteem plays the fundamental role in any language classroom but gaining it is the task on its own and can be quite a challenge for the teachers. How students feel is closely related to their ability to learn. Teachers’ task is thus not only to provide knowledge and information but first of all they should immerse themselves into the student’s mind and discover the best way to awake learner’s will to communicate. This paper focuses on two kinds of aspects participating on the emotional state of the learner, academic and psychological. The students of two different levels of English have answered the questionnaire, assessing their attitude, anxiety and motivation towards learning English. Each opinion has been evaluated and put into relationship with the ability to relax, understand, learn and enjoy at the same time. Their analyses have become the base of several teaching techniques that would build and encourage the students’ confidence as the main condition to start any cognitive process. If confidence is the cause or the outcome of mastering a foreign language was the question asked and answered in this work. Confidence mastery has thus played the fundamental role in the present survey.

  20. Laser measurement technology fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donges, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Laser measurement technology has evolved in the last years in a versatile and reflationary way. Today, its methods are indispensable for research and development activities as well as for production technology. Every physicist and engineer should therefore gain a working knowledge of laser measurement technology. This book closes the gap of existing textbooks. It introduces in a comprehensible presentation laser measurement technology in all its aspects. Numerous figures, graphs and tables allow for a fast access into the matter. In the first part of the book the important physical and optical basics are described being necessary to understand laser measurement technology. In the second part technically significant measuring methods are explained and application examples are presented. Target groups of this textbook are students of natural and engineering sciences as well as working physicists and engineers, who are interested to make themselves familiar with laser measurement technology and its fascinating p...

  1. Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headrick, Randall L.

    2009-01-01

    Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55 o to 35 o . A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35 o away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4 o misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

  2. Bridging Cognitive And Neural Aspects Of Classroom Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.

    2009-11-01

    A major achievement of the first twenty years of neuroimaging is to reveal the brain networks that underlie fundamental aspects of attention, memory and expertise. We examine some principles underlying the activation of these networks. These networks represent key constraints for the design of teaching. Individual differences in these networks reflect a combination of genes and experiences. While acquiring expertise is easier for some than others the importance of effort in its acquisition is a basic principle. Networks are strengthened through exercise, but maintaining interest that produces sustained attention is key to making exercises successful. The state of the brain prior to learning may also represent an important constraint on successful learning and some interventions designed to investigate the role of attention state in learning are discussed. Teaching remains a creative act between instructor and student, but an understanding of brain mechanisms might improve opportunity for success for both participants.

  3. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect......-oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using Aspect......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  4. Neutrino properties and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There are two components to this work. The first is a development of a new detection scheme for neutrinos. The observed deficit of neutrinos from the Sun may be due to either a lack of understanding of physical processes in the Sun or may be due to neutrinos oscillating from one type to another during their transit from the Sun to the Earth. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to use a water Cerenkov detector employing one thousand tonnes of heavy water to resolve this question. The ability to distinguish muon and tau neutrinos from electron neutrinos is crucial in order to carry out a model-independent test of neutrino oscillations. We describe a developmental exploration of a novel technique to do this using 3 He proportional counters. Such a method offers considerable advantages over the initially proposed method of using Cerenkov light from capture on NaCl in the SNO. The second component of this work is an exploration of optimal detector geometry for a time-reversal invariance experiment. The question of why time moves only in the forward direction is one of the most puzzling problems in modern physics. We know from particle physics measurements of the decay of kaons that there is a charge-parity symmetry that is violated in nature, implying time-reversal invariance violation. Yet, we do not understand the origin of the violation of this symmetry. To promote such an understanding, we are developing concepts and prototype apparatus for a new, highly sensitive technique to search for time-reversal-invariance violation in the beta decay of the free neutron. The optimized detector geometry is seven times more sensitive than that in previous experiments. 15 refs

  5. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  6. Network Coding Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Medard, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Network coding is a field of information and coding theory and is a method of attaining maximum information flow in a network. This book is an ideal introduction for the communications and network engineer, working in research and development, who needs an intuitive introduction to network coding and to the increased performance and reliability it offers in many applications. This book is an ideal introduction for the research and development communications and network engineer who needs an intuitive introduction to the theory and wishes to understand the increased performance and reliabil

  7. Computing fundamentals IC3 edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Kick start your journey into computing and prepare for your IC3 certification With this essential course book you'll be sending e-mails, surfing the web and understanding the basics of computing in no time. Written by Faithe Wempen, a Microsoft Office Master Instructor and author of more than 120 books, this complete guide to the basics has been tailored to provide comprehensive instruction on the full range of entry-level computing skills. It is a must for students looking to move into almost any profession, as entry-level computing courses have become a compulsory requirement in the modern w

  8. Astronomia Motivadora no Ensino Fundamental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho é procurar desenvolver o interesse dos alunos pelas ciências através da Astronomia. Uma pesquisa com perguntas sobre Astronomia foi realizada junto a 161 alunos do Ensino Fundamental, com o intuito de descobrir conhecimentos prévios dos alunos sobre o assunto. Constatou-se, por exemplo, que 29,3% da 6ª série responderam corretamente o que é eclipse, 30,0% da 8ª série acertaram o que a Astronomia estuda, enquanto 42,3% dos alunos da 5ª série souberam definir o Sol. Pretende-se ampliar as turmas participantes e trabalhar, principalmente de forma prática com: dimensões e escalas no Sistema Solar, construção de luneta, questões como dia e noite, estações do ano e eclipses. Busca-se abordar, também, outros conteúdos de Física tais como a óptica na construção da luneta, e a mecânica no trabalho com escalas e medidas, e ao utilizar uma luminária para representar o Sol na questão do eclipse, e de outras disciplinas como a Matemática na transformação de unidades, regras de três; Artes na modelagem ou desenho dos planetas; a própria História com relação à busca pela origem do universo, e a Informática que possibilita a busca mais rápida por informações, além de permitir simulações e visualizações de imagens importantes. Acredita-se que a Astronomia é importante no processo ensino aprendizagem, pois permite a discussão de temas curiosos como, por exemplo, a origem do universo, viagens espaciais a existência ou não de vida em outros planetas, além de temas atuais como as novas tecnologias.

  9. Chronometric Geodesy and Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, P.; Puchades, N.; Lodewyck, J.

    2016-12-01

    Atomic clocks are today essential for several daily life applications, such as the building of the International Atomic Time (TAI) or Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). With the new generation of optical clocks, they reach such accuracy and stability that they are now considered in practical applications for the measurement of gravitational potential differences, thanks to the Einstein effect, or gravitational redshift. Several projects explored the possibilities of using clocks in geodesy or geophysical applications and research. This context offers a fantastic opportunity to use atomic clocks to test fundamental physics. In this talk I will present two such studies for testing the gravitational redshift and Lorentz invariance.The first project is the "Galileo gravitational Redshift test with Eccentric sATellites" (GREAT), funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). Here we use the on-board atomic clocks of the Galileo satellites 5 and 6 to look for violations of general relativity theory. These two satellites were launched on August, 30th 2014 and, because of a technical problem, the launcher brought them on an elliptic orbit. An elliptic orbit induces a periodic modulation of the gravitational redshift while the good stability of recent GNSS clocks allows to test this periodic modulation to a very good level of accuracy. The Galileo 5 and 6 satellites, with their large eccentricity and on-board H-maser clocks, are hence perfect candidates to perform this test.In the second study we propose a test of special relativity theory using a network of distant optical lattice clocks located in France, Germany and Great-Britain. By exploiting the difference between the velocities of each clock in the inertial geocentric frame, due to their different positions on the surface of the Earth, we can test the time dilation effect. The connection between these clocks, achieved with phase-compensated optical fibers, allows for an unprecedented level of statistical

  10. Fundamentals of applied multidimensional scaling for educational and psychological research

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Cody S

    2018-01-01

    This book explores the fundamentals of multidimensional scaling (MDS) and how this analytic method can be used in applied setting for educational and psychological research. The book tries to make MDS more accessible to a wider audience in terms of the language and examples that are more relevant to educational and psychological research and less technical so that the readers are not overwhelmed by equations. The goal is for readers to learn the methods described in this book and immediately start using MDS via available software programs. The book also examines new applications that have previously not been discussed in MDS literature. It should be an ideal book for graduate students and researchers to better understand MDS. Fundamentals of Applied Multidimensional Scaling for Educational and Psychological Research is divided into three parts. Part I covers the basic and fundamental features of MDS models pertaining to applied research applications. Chapters in this section cover the essential features of da...

  11. Compreensão sobre sexualidade e sexo nas escolas segundo professores do ensino fundamental Comprensión del sexo y la sexualidad en las escuelas, de acuerdo a la visión de profesores de enseñanza primaria Understanding sexuality and sex in schools according to primary education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Seixas Moizés

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificarmos a forma pela qual professores de Ensino Fundamental compreendem a sexualidade/sexo na escola, procuramos levantar dados relativos a estas questões no cotidiano escolar, verificando a posição da escola e como lidam com isto. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, humanista, por meio de pesquisa-ação. A coleta dos dados foi realizada por meio da observação participante e entrevista individual, usando um questionário com questões norteadoras. Os dados levantados foram organizados em categorias. A análise possibilitou apreender que a maioria dos professores valoriza o diálogo como meio de orientação aos alunos. Destacam a necessidade de obterem apoio de profissionais qualificados sobre a temática, e dão relevância à participação da família no processo de orientação. Neste processo, a Escola pode ser o recurso para ajudar familiares, professores e escolares a compreenderem melhor os pressupostos da educação sexual e profissionais da saúde são grandes aliados, no sentido de conscientizá-los e orientá-los. Baseando-se nos achados, desenvolveram-se ações/intervenções educativas junto aos professores, visando prepará-los para atuarem como agentes multiplicadores no cotidiano escolar. Os professores sugerem a busca de parcerias e a elaboração de estratégias de orientação sexual.Con el objetivo de identificar el modo por el cual los profesores de Educación Primaria comprenden la sexualidad y el sexo en la escuela, buscamos recolectar datos relativos a estas cuestiones en el devenir escolar cotidiano., verificando la posición de la escuela y la manera en que se trabaja la temática. Esta investigación se trata de una encuesta cualitativa y humanista, en la que se utilizó el método de pesquisa-acción. La recolección de datos fue realizada a través de la observación con participación y la entrevista individual, utilizándose un cuestionario con preguntas orientadoras. Los datos

  12. The everyday lives of video game developers: Experimentally understanding underlying systems/structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey O'Donnell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how tensions between work and play for video game developers shape the worlds they create. The worlds of game developers, whose daily activity is linked to larger systems of experimentation and technoscientific practice, provide insights that transcend video game development work. The essay draws on ethnographic material from over 3 years of fieldwork with video game developers in the United States and India. It develops the notion of creative collaborative practice based on work in the fields of science and technology studies, game studies, and media studies. The importance of, the desire for, or the drive to understand underlying systems and structures has become fundamental to creative collaborative practice. I argue that the daily activity of game development embodies skills fundamental to creative collaborative practice and that these capabilities represent fundamental aspects of critical thought. Simultaneously, numerous interests have begun to intervene in ways that endanger these foundations of creative collaborative practice.

  13. Fundamentals of Digital Manufacturing Science

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zude; Chen, Dejun

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing industry will reap significant benefits from encouraging the development of digital manufacturing science and technology. Digital Manufacturing Science uses theorems, illustrations and tables to introduce the definition, theory architecture, main content, and key technologies of digital manufacturing science. Readers will be able to develop an in-depth understanding of the emergence and the development, the theoretical background, and the techniques and methods of digital manufacturing science. Furthermore, they will also be able to use the basic theories and key technologies described in Digital Manufacturing Science to solve practical engineering problems in modern manufacturing processes. Digital Manufacturing Science is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers and researchers in the manufacturing industry. It allows readers to integrate the theories and technologies described with their own research works, and to propose new ideas and new methods to...

  14. Fundamentals of flexoelectricity in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, P V; Tagantsev, A K

    2013-01-01

    The flexoelectric effect is the response of electric polarization to a mechanical strain gradient. It can be viewed as a higher-order effect with respect to piezoelectricity, which is the response of polarization to strain itself. However, at the nanoscale, where large strain gradients are expected, the flexoelectric effect becomes appreciable. Besides, in contrast to the piezoelectric effect, flexoelectricity is allowed by symmetry in any material. Due to these qualities flexoelectricity has attracted growing interest during the past decade. Presently, its role in the physics of dielectrics and semiconductors is widely recognized and the effect is viewed as promising for practical applications. On the other hand, the available theoretical and experimental results are rather contradictory, attesting to a limited understanding in the field. This review paper presents a critical analysis of the current knowledge on the flexoelectricity in common solids, excluding organic materials and liquid crystals. (topical review)

  15. Fundamentals of flexoelectricity in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, P V; Tagantsev, A K

    2013-11-01

    The flexoelectric effect is the response of electric polarization to a mechanical strain gradient. It can be viewed as a higher-order effect with respect to piezoelectricity, which is the response of polarization to strain itself. However, at the nanoscale, where large strain gradients are expected, the flexoelectric effect becomes appreciable. Besides, in contrast to the piezoelectric effect, flexoelectricity is allowed by symmetry in any material. Due to these qualities flexoelectricity has attracted growing interest during the past decade. Presently, its role in the physics of dielectrics and semiconductors is widely recognized and the effect is viewed as promising for practical applications. On the other hand, the available theoretical and experimental results are rather contradictory, attesting to a limited understanding in the field. This review paper presents a critical analysis of the current knowledge on the flexoelectricity in common solids, excluding organic materials and liquid crystals.

  16. Fundamentals of flexoelectricity in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, P. V.; Tagantsev, A. K.

    2013-11-01

    The flexoelectric effect is the response of electric polarization to a mechanical strain gradient. It can be viewed as a higher-order effect with respect to piezoelectricity, which is the response of polarization to strain itself. However, at the nanoscale, where large strain gradients are expected, the flexoelectric effect becomes appreciable. Besides, in contrast to the piezoelectric effect, flexoelectricity is allowed by symmetry in any material. Due to these qualities flexoelectricity has attracted growing interest during the past decade. Presently, its role in the physics of dielectrics and semiconductors is widely recognized and the effect is viewed as promising for practical applications. On the other hand, the available theoretical and experimental results are rather contradictory, attesting to a limited understanding in the field. This review paper presents a critical analysis of the current knowledge on the flexoelectricity in common solids, excluding organic materials and liquid crystals.

  17. Fundamentals of semiconductor processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    El-Kareh, Badih

    1995-01-01

    The drive toward new semiconductor technologies is intricately related to market demands for cheaper, smaller, faster, and more reliable circuits with lower power consumption. The development of new processing tools and technologies is aimed at optimizing one or more of these requirements. This goal can, however, only be achieved by a concerted effort between scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators in research, development, and manufac­ turing. It is therefore important that experts in specific disciplines, such as device and circuit design, understand the principle, capabil­ ities, and limitations of tools and processing technologies. It is also important that those working on specific unit processes, such as lithography or hot processes, be familiar with other unit processes used to manufacture the product. Several excellent books have been published on the subject of process technologies. These texts, however, cover subjects in too much detail, or do not cover topics important to modem tech­ n...

  18. Fundamentals and applications of organic electrochemistry synthesis, materials, devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchigami, Toshio; Inagi, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    This textbook is an accessible overview of the broad field of organic electrochemistry, covering the fundamentals and applications of contemporary organic electrochemistry.  The book begins with an introduction to the fundamental aspects of electrode electron transfer and methods for the electrochemical measurement of organic molecules. It then goes on to discuss organic electrosynthesis of molecules and macromolecules, including detailed experimental information for the electrochemical synthesis of organic compounds and conducting polymers. Later chapters highlight new methodology for organic electrochemical synthesis, for example electrolysis in ionic liquids, the application to organic electronic devices such as solar cells and LEDs, and examples of commercialized organic electrode processes. Appendices present useful supplementary information including experimental examples of organic electrosynthesis, and tables of physical data (redox potentials of various organic solvents and organic compounds and phy...

  19. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  20. Behavioral aspects in collaborative enterprise networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2011-01-01

    The collaborative networks paradigm can empower enterprises with the needed agility and survival capability to face market turbulence. However, the success and sustainability of collaboration requires proper understanding and modeling of the involved behavioral aspects, a basis for sound development

  1. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sz Makó, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation.

  2. Fundamental Work Cost of Quantum Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Faist

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Information-theoretic approaches provide a promising avenue for extending the laws of thermodynamics to the nanoscale. Here, we provide a general fundamental lower limit, valid for systems with an arbitrary Hamiltonian and in contact with any thermodynamic bath, on the work cost for the implementation of any logical process. This limit is given by a new information measure—the coherent relative entropy—which accounts for the Gibbs weight of each microstate. The coherent relative entropy enjoys a collection of natural properties justifying its interpretation as a measure of information and can be understood as a generalization of a quantum relative entropy difference. As an application, we show that the standard first and second laws of thermodynamics emerge from our microscopic picture in the macroscopic limit. Finally, our results have an impact on understanding the role of the observer in thermodynamics: Our approach may be applied at any level of knowledge—for instance, at the microscopic, mesoscopic, or macroscopic scales—thus providing a formulation of thermodynamics that is inherently relative to the observer. We obtain a precise criterion for when the laws of thermodynamics can be applied, thus making a step forward in determining the exact extent of the universality of thermodynamics and enabling a systematic treatment of Maxwell-demon-like situations.

  3. Fundamentals and history of implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamal Kanti Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of implant dentistry was not there a few decades ago It has its long historical retrospectives. The quest for rehabilitation of edentulous ridge has intrigued mankind since ancient times. The period from the time of Egyptian and Mayan civilizations to 1930s was unique when clinicians attempted to replace a missing tooth utilizing various materials. The spark of inquiry began from mid-1930s with the advent of an alloy named “vitallium;” attempts have been made to utilize this new material as an implant. Thereafter, in early 1950s, a good deal of fundamental and clinical research started taking place. These research data had given a boost to the tremendous growth of the practice of using dental implants made of vitallium that practically exploded to reach every general practitioner's clinic across the globe. Critical understanding of bone physiology, drilling protocol, implant design and surface texture, initial implant stability, single-stage implant surgery, and immediate loading of implants are the few factors based on which modern implant practice has become a predictable treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth.

  4. Explaining crude oil prices using fundamental measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Les

    2012-01-01

    Oil is the world's most important commodity, and improving the understanding of drivers of its price is a longstanding research objective. This article analyses real oil prices during 1984–2007 using a monthly dataset of fundamental and market parameters that cover financial markets, global economic growth, demand and supply of oil, and geopolitical measures. The innovation is to incorporate proxies for speculative and terrorist activity and dummies for major industry events, and quantify price impacts of each. New findings are positive links between oil prices and speculative activity, bond yields, an interaction term incorporating OPEC market share and OECD import dependence, and the number of US troops and frequency of terrorist attacks in the Middle East. Shocks also prove significant with a $6–18 per barrel impact on price for several months. - Highlights: ► Article introduces new variables to the study of oil prices. ► New variables are terrorist incidents and military activity, and oil futures market size. ► Shocks prove important affecting prices by $6–18 per barrel for several months. ► OPEC market influence rises with OECD import dependence.

  5. The impact of fundamental Physics on Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Lecture in English, with simultaneous interpreting into French It is clear to anybody who visits a hospital that Physics applications are everywhere. Medical doctors use Physics when they measure blood pressure, when they perform an ultrasound scan to determine the sex of an unborn child, when they take a radiography or a CT scan. Fundamental physics, which aims at understanding how particles and forces act in the subatomic world and are organized to form everything we observe around us, has numerous medical applications. Everything started in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen, who was using the best particle accelerator of the time. In the lecture the theme of the title will be presented by following the 120 years long story of particle accelerators used to cure tumours. The time is well chosen because the year 2014 marks the 60th anniversary of CERN, the largest particle Physics laboratory in the world, and of the first cancer treatment with protons done at Berkeley. ------ Conférence en...

  6. Fundamental phenomenological categories of garden and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zgarbová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current scientific methods describing gardens and landscapes all over the world are not always sufficient for the purpose of deep understanding of specific and close relations between landscape/garden and its inhabitants/visitors. A new dimension of qualitative investigation of these phenomena and relations between humans and the environment, as distinguished from the common mechanistic methods, has to be acquired. While a systematic anti-mechanistic research on the interaction of humans and living space is carried out especially in the United Kingdom and the United States, Continental Europe persist mechanistic in its core.In Continental Europe phenomenology as well as hermeneutics are regarded mostly as the particular areas of abstract philosophical studies that do not refer enough to practical sciences such as, for example, garden and landscape architecture. However, there are some especially transatlantic centres of applied phenomenological research. This article examines the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach as it might be used to explore the specific field of garden and landscape issues. In the first step, the nature of hermeneutics and phenomenology as compared to the common mechanistic scientific methods is discussed and the parallels between hermeneutics and phenomenology are outlined. Then, using the phenomenological method helps we give evidence on the fundamental categories of garden and landscape. These categories, in contrast to mechanistic constructions, represent garden and landscape as they are intimately experienced by humans. The focus of this research is both methodological (it is an effort to articulate a method alternative to the objectivity and abstraction of strict science, to be used in the field of garden and landscape architecture and related areas and hermeneutical (it is an effort to achieve a deeper and profound understanding of garden and landscape as the irreplaceable base for every responsible

  7. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-09-06

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision.

  8. Fundamental care guided by the Careful Nursing Philosophy and Professional Practice Model©.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Therese Connell; Timmins, Fiona; Burke, Jacqueline

    2018-02-05

    To propose the Careful Nursing Philosophy and Professional Practice Model© as a conceptual and practice solution to current fundamental nursing care erosion and deficits. There is growing awareness of the crucial importance of fundamental care. Efforts are underway to heighten nurses' awareness of values that motivate fundamental care and thereby increase their attention to effective provision of fundamental care. However, there remains a need for nursing frameworks which motivate nurses to bring fundamental care values to life in their practice and strengthen their commitment to provide fundamental care. This descriptive position paper builds on the Careful Nursing Philosophy and Professional Practice Model© (Careful Nursing). Careful Nursing elaborates explicit nursing values and addresses both relational and pragmatic aspects of nursing practice, offering an ideal guide to provision of fundamental nursing care. A comparative alignment approach is used to review the capacity of Careful Nursing to address fundamentals of nursing care. Careful Nursing provides a value-based comprehensive and practical framework which can strengthen clinical nurses' ability to articulate and control their practice and, thereby, more effectively fulfil their responsibility to provide fundamental care and measure its effectiveness. This explicitly values-based nursing philosophy and professional practice model offers nurses a comprehensive, pragmatic and engaging framework designed to strengthen their control over their practice and ability to provide high quality fundamental nursing care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Arithmetic fundamental groups and moduli of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makoto Matsumoto

    2000-01-01

    This is a short note on the algebraic (or sometimes called arithmetic) fundamental groups of an algebraic variety, which connects classical fundamental groups with Galois groups of fields. A large part of this note describes the algebraic fundamental groups in a concrete manner. This note gives only a sketch of the fundamental groups of the algebraic stack of moduli of curves. Some application to a purely topological statement, i.e., an obstruction to the subjectivity of Johnson homomorphisms in the mapping class groups, which comes from Galois group of Q, is explained. (author)

  10. Damage analysis and fundamental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    As a planning activity, the objectives of the workshop were to list, prioritize and milestone the activities necessary to understand, interpret and control the mechanical behavior of candidate fusion reactor alloys. Emphasis was placed on flow and fracture processes which are unique to the fusion environment since the national fusion materials program must evaluate these effects without assistance from other reactor programs. The working group on flow processes and properties was concerned with the time-dependent and independent flow. This included radiation hardening and steady state and cyclic creep. The working group on the effect of flow on fracture was concerned with the relationships between the unique flow properties of irradiated materials, such as dislocation channeling, and the fracture properties of these materials. The working group on time-dependent fracture was concerned with high-temperature, time-dependent fracture, such as stress-rupture and fatigue fracture, while also being concerned with time-dependent environmental effects on fracture. The working group on radiation-induced or enhanced embrittlement was concerned primarily with time-independent fracture of materials for near-term fusion device applications

  11. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Work on ICRF interaction with the edge plasma is reported. ICRF generated convective cells have been established as an important mechanism for influencing edge transport and interaction with the H-mode, and for controlling profiles in the tokamak scrape-off-layer. Power dissipation by rf sheaths has been shown to be significant for some misaligned ICRF and IIBW antenna systems. Near-field antenna sheath work has been extended to the far-field case, important for experiments with low single pass absorption. Impurity modeling and Faraday screen design support has been provided for the ICRF community. In the area of core-ICRF physics, the kinetic theory of heating by applied ICRF waves has been extended to retain important geometrical effects relevant to modeling minority heated tokamak plasmas, thereby improving on the physics base that is standard in presently employed codes. Both the quasilinear theory of ion heating, and the plasma response function important in wave codes have been addressed. In separate studies, it has been shown that highly anisotropic minority heated plasmas can give rise to unstable field fluctuations in some situations. A completely separate series of studies have contributed to the understanding of tokamak confinement physics. Additionally, a diffraction formalism has been produced which will be used to access the focusability of lower hybrid, ECH, and gyrotron scattering antennas in dynamic plasma configurations

  12. Magnetoelectric polymer-based composites fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The first book on this topic provides a comprehensive and well-structured overview of the fundamentals, synthesis and emerging applications of magnetoelectric polymer materials. Following an introduction to the basic aspects of polymer based magnetoelectric materials and recent developments, subsequent chapters discuss the various types as well as their synthesis and characterization. There then follows a review of the latest applications, such as memories, sensors and actuators. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances. An essential reference for entrants to the field as well as for experienced researchers.

  13. Real-time digital signal processing fundamentals, implementations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Sen M; Tian, Wenshun

    2013-01-01

    Combines both the DSP principles and real-time implementations and applications, and now updated with the new eZdsp USB Stick, which is very low cost, portable and widely employed at many DSP labs. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing introduces fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) principles and will be updated to include the latest DSP applications, introduce new software development tools and adjust the software design process to reflect the latest advances in the field. In the 3rd edition of the book, the key aspect of hands-on experiments will be enhanced to make the DSP principle

  14. Fundamentals of reliability engineering applications in multistage interconnection networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawan, Indra

    2014-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals of reliability engineering with its applications in evaluating reliability of multistage interconnection networks. In the first part of the book, it introduces the concept of reliability engineering, elements of probability theory, probability distributions, availability and data analysis.  The second part of the book provides an overview of parallel/distributed computing, network design considerations, and more.  The book covers a comprehensive reliability engineering methods and its practical aspects in the interconnection network systems. Students, engineers, researchers, managers will find this book as a valuable reference source.

  15. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  16. Fundamental radiation effects studies in the fusion materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fundamental radiation effects studies in the US Fusion Materials Program generally fall under the aegis of the Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Program. In a narrow sense, the problem addressed by the DAFS program is the prediction of radiation effects in fusion devices using data obtained in non-representative environments. From the onset, the program has had near-term and long-term components. The premise for the latter is that there will be large economic penalties for uncertainties in predictive capability. Fusion devices are expected to be large and complex and unanticipated maintenance will be costly. It is important that predictions are based on a maximum of understanding and a minimum of empiricism. Gaining this understanding is the thrust of the long-term component. (orig.)

  17. Discovering Early Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baniassad, E.; Clements, P.; Araujo, J.; Moreira, A; Rashid, A.; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) has focused on the software life cycle's implementation phase: aspects are identified and captured mainly in code. But aspects are evident earlier in the life cycle, such as during requirements gathering and architecture development.

  18. Looking For The Fundamentals Of Post-Crisis Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Komorowski

    2014-01-01

    The current global crisis leads to new theoretical concepts that will go beyond neoclassical economics. The behavioral approach helps to understand business choices, autonomy, subjectivity, efficiency, etc., and finally, it goes to define such categories as business personality, goals, values, rationality, ethics, and relations in environment. The inevitable conclusion is to replace "profit maximization" with the business development paradigm. This article explains fundamentals of this new po...

  19. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E.; Wobber, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. DEVELOPING YOUNG LEARNERS‘ PERCEPTION OF FUNDAMENTAL GRAMMAR THROUGH TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE

    OpenAIRE

    Betari Irma Ghasani

    2017-01-01

    Reconsidering the role of grammar as a fundamental aspect in second language learner have become important nowadays. It is argued that acquiring grammar can build their basic skill as second language learner. In addition, developing their correct perception of fundamental grammar is also needed in order to expand learners‘ ability in using grammar precisely in foreign language teaching and learning process. These beliefs have led to an increased interest in teaching grammar, es...