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Sample records for understanding function michael

  1. A Symposium on the Relevance of Michael Polanyi's Insights to a Reformulated Understanding of Science, Technology, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Walter B.

    2011-01-01

    This is intended as an introductory statement to the explorations undertaken in the essays that follow. The authors of these essays attempt to introduce the reader to some of the insights of Michael Polanyi and their implications for the reader who wishes to come to a greater understanding of modern technological society, which--for better or…

  2. Jack Michael's Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...

  3. Michael Jackson, Bin Laden and I: functions of positive and negative, public and private flashbulb memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived psychosocial functions of flashbulb memories: It compared positive and negative public flashbulb memories (positive: Bin Laden's death, negative: Michael Jackson's death) with private ones (positive: pregnancy, negative: death of a loved one). A sample of n = 389 young and n = 176 middle-aged adults answered canonical category questions used to identify flashbulb memories and rated the personal significance, the psychological temporal distance, and the functions of each memory (i.e., self-continuity, social-boding, directive functions). Hierarchical regressions showed that, in general, private memories were rated more functional than public memories. Positive and negative private memories were comparable in self-continuity and directionality, but the positive private memory more strongly served social functions. In line with the positivity bias in autobiographical memory, positive flashbulb memories felt psychologically closer than negative ones. Finally, middle-aged adults rated their memories as less functional regarding self-continuity and social-bonding than young adults. Results are discussed regarding the tripartite model of autobiographical memory functions.

  4. Michael Thonet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Saksa päritolu austria mööblidisaineri ja mööblitöösturi Michael Thonet' (1796-1871) disainiloomingust. 1859. a. Michael Thonet' loodud tool nr. 14 on endiselt tootmises ja on tuntud ka Viini toolina. 2 ill

  5. Highly Functionalized Cyclopentane Derivatives by Tandem Michael Addition/Radical Cyclization/Oxygenation Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, I.; Klepetářová, Blanka; Jones, P. G.; Jahn, Ullrich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 27 (2015), s. 9877-9888 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-40188S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclization * domino reactions * electron transfer * Michael addition * radical reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  6. Tandem Michael addition/radical cyclizations for the construction of highly functionalized cyclopentanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císarová, I.; Jahn, Ullrich

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, - (2012), s1298-s1298 ISSN 0009-2770. [EuCheMS Chemistry Congress /4./. 26.08.2012-30.08.2012, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cyclization * diastereoselectivity * Michael addiction * radical reactions * domino reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Michael Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Hussein

    2015-04-01

    While Michael has contributed significantly to the field of classics and ancient history by publishing extensively, he has also enjoyed great success in engaging wider audiences with the ancient world. He regularly talks in schools around the country, writes books intended for the popular market as well as articles for national and international newspapers and magazines. Michael's experience in writing and presenting a range of programmes intended for TV and radio audiences has made him a household name. He has written and presented programmes for the National Geographic, History Channel, Nova, and the BBC including Delphi: bellybutton of the ancient world (BBC4; Guilty Pleasures: luxury in the ancient and medieval words (BBC4; Jesus: rise to power (Natural Geographic; Ancient Discoveries (History Channel; Who were the Greeks? (BBC2; The Mystery of the X Tombs (BBC2/Nova; The Greatest Show on Earth (BBC4, in conjunction with the Open University. He has also presented a radio series for BBC Radio 4, Spin the Globe. Michael's most recent programme, Roman Britain from the Air, was aired on ITV in December 2014. In this interview, I talk to him about his engagement with other disciplines within the humanities, his forthcoming book project, and his experiences writing and presenting TV and radio documentaries.

  8. Michael Levitt and Computational Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Michael Levitt and Computational Biology Resources with Michael Levitt, PhD, professor of structural biology at the Stanford University School of Medicine, has function. ... Levitt's early work pioneered computational structural biology, which helped to predict

  9. One-pot cascade michael.cyclization reactions of ο-hydroxycinnamaldehydes: Synthesis of functionalized 2,3-dihydrobenzofuranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwon, Sung Hyuk; Kim, Sunggon

    2012-01-01

    We described the cascade Michael.cyclization reaction of o-hydroxycinnamaldehydes with diethyl α-bromomalonate promoted by potassium carbonate. The reactions provided functionalized 2,3-dihydrobenzofurans in good yields for a variety of o-hydroxyaromatic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Current work focuses on expanding the scope of this reaction to other substrates such as sulfur yields, and on developing an efficient catalytic asymmetric variant. 2,3-Dihydrobenzofurans are found in numerous biologically active natural products and synthetic compounds. These are an attractive type of oxygenated compound because their basic core skeleton is present in neolignans, pterocarpans, and synthetic drugs used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease, and central nervous system trauma and ischemia. Owing to the importance of their structures, numerous synthetic methods for 2,3-dihydrobenzofurans have been developed, primarily: radical cyclizations, Lewis acid promoted reactions, anionic cyclizations, and transition-metal catalyzed processes. However, these methods cannot be generalized as much as is desirable, and they yielded poor chemo- and/or stereoselectivities. Hence, the development of an efficient enantioselective synthetic method for obtaining 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran scaffolds attracted our attention

  10. One-pot cascade michael.cyclization reactions of ο-hydroxycinnamaldehydes: Synthesis of functionalized 2,3-dihydrobenzofuranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Sung Hyuk; Kim, Sunggon [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    We described the cascade Michael.cyclization reaction of o-hydroxycinnamaldehydes with diethyl α-bromomalonate promoted by potassium carbonate. The reactions provided functionalized 2,3-dihydrobenzofurans in good yields for a variety of o-hydroxyaromatic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Current work focuses on expanding the scope of this reaction to other substrates such as sulfur yields, and on developing an efficient catalytic asymmetric variant. 2,3-Dihydrobenzofurans are found in numerous biologically active natural products and synthetic compounds. These are an attractive type of oxygenated compound because their basic core skeleton is present in neolignans, pterocarpans, and synthetic drugs used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease, and central nervous system trauma and ischemia. Owing to the importance of their structures, numerous synthetic methods for 2,3-dihydrobenzofurans have been developed, primarily: radical cyclizations, Lewis acid promoted reactions, anionic cyclizations, and transition-metal catalyzed processes. However, these methods cannot be generalized as much as is desirable, and they yielded poor chemo- and/or stereoselectivities. Hence, the development of an efficient enantioselective synthetic method for obtaining 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran scaffolds attracted our attention.

  11. Michael Frayn visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Award-winning playwright and novelist Michael Frayn gave a guest lecture in the main auditorium at CERN on Friday 15 March about his new book The Human Touch: Our Part in the Creation of the Universe. The lecture focused on cosmology and philosophy and the limitations that language places on our ability to understand the creation of a universe in which we seem to play such a small part. In addition to his novels and plays, which include Copenhagen, a play about the 1941 meeting between German physicist Werner Heisenberg and Danish physicist Niels Bohr, Frayn has translated several works from Russian, including plays by Chekhov and Tolstoy.

  12. Organocatalytic aza-Michael/retro-aza-Michael reaction: pronounced chirality amplification in aza-Michael reaction and racemization via retro-aza-Michael reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong-Feng; Li, Li; Luo, Meng-Xian; Yang, Ke-Fang; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Jiang, Jian-Xiong; Xu, Li-Wen

    2011-05-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of an aza-Michael reaction of aniline and chalcone is presented. A series of Cinchona alkaloid-derived organocatalysts with different functional groups were prepared and used in the aza-Michael and retro-aza-Michael reaction. There was an interesting finding that a complete reversal of stereoselectivity when a benzoyl group was introduced to the cinchonine and cinchonidine. The chirality amplification vs. time proceeds in the quinine-derived organocatalyst containing silicon-based bulky group, QN-TBS, -catalyzed aza-Michael reaction under solvent-free conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated for the first time that racemization was occurred in suitable solvents under mild conditions due to retro-aza-Michael reaction of the Michael adduct of aniline with chalcone. These indicate the equilibrium of retro-aza-Michael reaction and aza-Michael reaction produce the happening of chirality amplification in aza-Michael reaction and racemization via retro-aza-Michael reaction under different conditions, which would be beneficial to the development of novel chiral catalysts for the aza-Michael reactions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Michael Griffin | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin Photo of Michael Griffin Michael Griffin Researcher III-Chemical Engineering production of high-value products Physical and chemical material characterization under reaction conditions Physical and chemical characterization of catalytic materials Surface science Design and operation of ultra

  14. Michael E. Himmel | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Himmel Photo of Michael E. Himmel Michael Himmel Senior Research Fellow I-Molecular Biology biochemistry, recombinant technology, enzyme engineering, new micro-organism discovery, and physicochemistry of

  15. Michael Beitz: Objects of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefferle, Mary

    2014-01-01

    For this Instructional Resource, the author interviewed contemporary sculptor Michael Beitz, who uses art to explore the role of designed objects in human communication and emotional experience. This column was written in response to calls for using Enduring Understandings/Big Ideas (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013; Stewart &…

  16. Prospective Teachers' Understandings: Function and Composite Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The current education reform efforts place greater emphasis on conceptual understanding and focus attention on teacher preparation, especially on the adequacy of teachers' mathematical knowledge of the material they will be teaching. This paper discusses the responses of 20 prospective elementary and special education mathematics specialists to…

  17. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  18. Michael Faraday's Bicentenary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. Pearce; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss the work of Michael Faraday, a chemist whose work revolutionized physics and led directly to both classical field and relativity theory. The scientist as a young man, the electromagnetic experiments of Faraday, his search for the gravelectric effect, his work on optical glass, his laboratory notebooks, and his creative use of…

  19. Following Michael Faraday's Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Last fall I had the good fortune of receiving financial support to shoot a documentary about Michael Faraday. I took the opportunity to learn more about this great experimentalist and to visit the highlights of places in his life. In this paper, I would like to share a list and description of some of the most remarkable places in London suitable…

  20. Culture, executive function, and social understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting that the relationships among social interaction, executive function, and social understanding are different in these cultures, implying that social and executive skills are underpinned by key cultural processes.

  1. Students' Understanding of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    Exponential, and logarithmic functions are pivotal mathematical concepts that play central roles in advanced mathematics. Unfortunately, these are also concepts that give students serious difficulty. This report describe a theory of how students acquire an understanding of these functions by prescribing a set of mental constructions that a student…

  2. Michael Faraday, media man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2006-03-01

    Michael Faraday was an enthusiastic portrait collector, and he welcomed the invention of photography not only as a possible means of recording observations accurately, but also as a method for advertising science and its practitioners. This article (which is part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows that like many eminent scientists, Faraday took advantage of the burgeoning Victorian media industry by posing in various roles.

  3. Michael Tomasello: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Michael Tomasello, who received this award for "outstanding empirical and theoretical contributions to understanding what makes the human mind unique. Michael Tomasello's pioneering research on the origins of social cognition has led to revolutionary insights in both developmental psychology and primate cognition." Tomasello's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  5. Professor Michael Levitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma-Louise Davies

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Professor Michael Levitt (Stanford University, USA won the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems—computational tools which can calculate the course of chemical reactions. Professor Levitt was born in Pretoria, South Africa; he came to the UK on a summer vacation aged 16, where he decided to stay and study for his A‑levels. His interest in the physics of living systems drove him to study biophysics at King’s College London, before securing a PhD position at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge. In the interim year between his degree and beginning his PhD, Professor Levitt worked at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, where he met his future wife. They married later that year and moved to Cambridge, where their three children were born. After completing his PhD, he spent time working in Israel, Cambridge, the Salk Institute and Stanford (both California. Since 1986, he has split his time between Israel and California. Outside of science, he is a keen hiker and he is well-known to have attended the eclectic ‘Burning Man’ Festival in California.[1] Professor Levitt visited the University of Warwick to speak at the Computational Molecular Science Annual Conference in March 2015. In this interview, Dr Gemma-Louise Davies, an Institute of Advanced Study Global Research Fellow, spoke to Professor Levitt about the importance of Interdisciplinarity in his field, role models in Academia, and his plans for the future. Image: Professor Michael Levitt (left with Dr Scott Habershon (right, organiser of the 2015 Computational Molecular Science Annual Conference during his visit to the University of Warwick in March 2015. [1] ‘Burning Man’ is a unique annual festival dedicated to community, art, music, self-expression and self-reliance. Tens of thousands of people flock to this temporary metropolis built in the Californian desert.

  6. Michael F. Crowley | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, and at The Scripps Research Institute with David Case and Charles Brooks NIH-funded collaboration with Professor Charles L. Brooks III at the University of Michigan Areas of to determine source of twisting in hydrogen bonding patterns. This modeling will help to understand

  7. Understanding Linear Functions and Their Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Linear functions are an important part of the middle school mathematics curriculum. Students in the middle grades gain fluency by working with linear functions in a variety of representations (NCTM 2001). Presented in this article is an activity that was used with five eighth-grade classes at three different schools. The activity contains 15 cards…

  8. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  9. En bog om Michael Strunge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Anne-Marie

    Antologi med bidrag om Michael Strunges forfatterskab. Bidrag af Anne-Marie Mai, Jørgen Aabenhus, Marianne Stidsen, Moritz Schramm, Tue Andersen Nexø, Lars Bukdahl, Jon Helt Haarder, Rune Kühl er optaget efter fagfællesbedømmelse. Antologien er redigeret af Anne-Marie Mai og Jørgen Aabenhus....

  10. Radiation curable Michael addition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.W.; Friedlander, C.B.; McDonald, W.H.; Dowbenko, R.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable acrylyloxy-containing reaction products are provided from Michael addition reaction of an amide containing at least two acrylate groups with a primary or secondary amine. The resulting amine adducts of the amide, which contain at least one acrylate group per molecule, possesses high cure rates in air and are useful in compositions for forming coatings. (author)

  11. Understanding gene functions and disease mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Helmut; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Amarie, Oana V.

    2018-01-01

    Since decades, model organisms have provided an important approach for understanding the mechanistic basis of human diseases. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) was the first phenotyping facility that established a collaboration-based platform for phenotype characterization of mouse lines. In order...... to address individual projects by a tailor-made phenotyping strategy, the GMC advanced in developing a series of pipelines with tests for the analysis of specific disease areas. For a general broad analysis, there is a screening pipeline that covers the key parameters for the most relevant disease areas...

  12. [Michael Servetus: symphony in ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia Guillén, Diego

    2004-01-01

    On October 27th 1553, the physician and religious reformer Miguel Servet was burnt at stake. The 450th anniversary of his death took place, therefore, a few months ago. This is a fact which deserves being taken into account, not only because of the importance of the individual, but also, and mainly, because during the last years some important historiographical advances have changed the traditional approach, giving place to a new and more accurate analysis to his life and work. The topic image of Servet spread by the Spanish historiography of the 19th and most of the 20th Centuries has been that of a scientific genius, discoverer of the pulmonary circulation of blood, but also that of a crazy theologian with absurd ideas about some basic Christian dogmas, specially the Holy Trinity. This image is now considered absolutely misleading. The historiography of the complex religious movements of the 16th Century has shown that Servet, far from being a crazy theologian absolutely disconnected of the religious movements of the Century, was instead one of the leaders of an important Christian movement which G. H. Williams called He consecrated all his life to this goal, which also was the reason of his death, always showing an absolute and admirable intellectual and human coherence. To these goals he subdued any other objective, as well as the study and the exercise of medicine. This gives the basis to correctly understand the fact, never explained convincingly until now, why his great scientific discovery, the pulmonary circulation of blood, appeared as a minimal part in the heart of a theological book.

  13. Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Michael J. Fox and his wife, actress Tracy Pollan, founded the ...

  14. Understanding D-Ribose and Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E. Mahoney

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are important organelles referred to as cellular powerhouses for their unique properties of cellular energy production.  With many pathologic conditions and aging, mitochondrial function declines, and there is a reduction in the production of adenosine triphosphate. The energy carrying molecule generated by cellular respiration and by pentose phosphate pathway, an alternative pathway of glucose metabolism. D-ribose is a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in the cells and particularly in the mitochondria is essential in energy production. Without sufficient energy, cells cannot maintain integrity and function. Supplemental D-ribose has been shown to improve cellular processes when there is mitochondrial dysfunction. When individuals take supplemental D-ribose, it can bypass part of the pentose pathway to produce D-ribose-5-phosphate for the production of energy. In this article, we review how energy is produced by cellular respiration, the pentose pathway, and the use of supplemental D-ribose.

  15. Michael Faraday vs. the Spiritualists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld, Alan

    2006-12-01

    In the 1850s, renowned physicist Michael Faraday launched a public campaign against pseudoscience and spiritualism, which were rampant in England at the time. Faraday objected especially to claims that electrical or magnetic forces were responsible for paranormal phenomena, such as table-spinning and communication with the dead. Using scientific methods, Faraday unmasked the deceptions of spiritualists, clairvoyants and mediums and also laid bare the credulity of a public ill-educated in science. Despite his efforts, Victorian society's fascination with the paranormal swelled. Faraday's debacle anticipates current controversies about public science education and the interface between science and religion. This episode is one of many described in the new biography, The Electric Life of Michael Faraday (Walker & Co.), which chronicles Faraday's discoveries and his unlikely rise from poverty to the pinnacle of the English science establishment.

  16. Michael Niegl (1985-2009)

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Our friend and colleague Michael Niegl died in a tragic accident in the first hours of the new year. Michael was a Master’s student in Microsystems Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt. He was responsible for the development of the ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM) ROD FPGA firmware, which acquires the data from the BCM detector modules and provides online monitoring of the LHC beams within the ATLAS experiment. He spent several months at CERN to carry out beam tests on the BCM detectors and received his Bachelor of Science with first class honours for his thesis: Concept and Implementation of an FPGA-based Data Recorder and Processor for the ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor. Michael spent six months at CERN last year to finish the development and commissioning of the ROD firmware for the first beam. He worked the entire night of 10 September to fine tune the system for the first beam. It was a joy to ...

  17. Michael De Sousa (1989 - 2012)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    We are deeply saddened to announce the death of Mr Michael De Sousa on 13 May 2012. Mr De Sousa, who was born on 02.09.1989, was working as an apprentice in the TE Department and had been at CERN since 24.08.2009. The Director-General has sent a message of condolence to his family on behalf of the CERN personnel. Social Affairs Human Resources Department     It is with great emotion and deep sadness that we learn of the tragic loss of our colleague and friend Michael De Sousa. Michael was a hard working colleague, cordial and considerate. Within a few months, he marked his presence by the implementation of the instrumentation benches for gas permeation measurement in polymers, and the calibration of high technology gas analyzers, necessary for vacuum technology. His last contribution will enable us to measure pressures in the extreme high vacuum range for the ELENA project.  With the continuation of this activity, his memory will remain. His accomplishments will remain...

  18. Michael Jackson antes del caos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Luciano Nieves

    2015-01-01

    Michael Jackson es un buen ejemplo de cómo utilizar las relaciones públicas para realizar o manipular la imagen de un producto a través de los medios de comunicación. Este ensayo pretende analizar los eventos que tuvieron lugar antes de que el cantante fuera acusado de abuso sexual contra un menor. Dichos eventos formaron parte de un plan muy bien delineado para disminuir los efectos de la inminente crisis que se acercaba. Este trabajo combina la crítica retórica de temas de fantasía con teor...

  19. Video interview with Michael Dell

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Michael Dell, founder and presently Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Office of the DELL computer company visited CERN on Tuesday 26th January 2010. The Bulletin and the Video productions team had the opportunity to meet him. The video interview is transcribed for your convenience.   Michael S. Dell with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. What motivated you to come and visit CERN? I obviously heard about the great science and research has going on here, and DELL is very pleased to be a partner and providing a lot of the computers to analyse the data and I really wanted to see for myself in person, some of the great science that is going on here. What is your view on fundamental research in IT, and in general? I think if you look at the field of science in the last hundred years, we have been able to solve a lot of problems, but there are still lots of unsolved problems and unsolved mysteries. And it is only through basic fundamental research that we will address these probl...

  20. Undergraduate Mathematics Students' Understanding of the Concept of Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardini, Caroline; Pierce, Robyn; Vincent, Jill; King, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that many commencing undergraduate mathematics students have mastered skills without conceptual understanding. A pilot study carried out at a leading Australian university indicates that a significant number of students, with high tertiary entrance ranks, have very limited understanding of the concept of function,…

  1. Michael Jackson antes del caos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luciano Nieves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Jackson es un buen ejemplo de cómo utilizar las relaciones públicas para realizar o manipular la imagen de un producto a través de los medios de comunicación. Este ensayo pretende analizar los eventos que tuvieron lugar antes de que el cantante fuera acusado de abuso sexual contra un menor. Dichos eventos formaron parte de un plan muy bien delineado para disminuir los efectos de la inminente crisis que se acercaba. Este trabajo combina la crítica retórica de temas de fantasía con teoría de comunicación.

  2. Jack Michael's Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on…

  3. Understanding squeezing of quantum states with the Wigner function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Antoine

    1994-01-01

    The Wigner function is argued to be the only natural phase space function evolving classically under quadratic Hamiltonians with time-dependent bilinear part. This is used to understand graphically how certain quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians induce squeezing of quantum states. The Wigner representation is also used to generalize Ehrenfest's theorem to the quantum uncertainties. This makes it possible to deduce features of the quantum evolution, such as squeezing, from the classical evolution, whatever the Hamiltonian.

  4. Political Cinema and Culture industry: the work of Michael Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Toledo Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to reflect upon the production of the American filmmaker Michael Moore, proposing as a central question the relationship established between art and politics in a historical moment which, on one side, points to the crisis of capitalism and, on the other side, to the political fragmentation of the working class. Focusing on the analysis of the documentaries Roger & Me (1989) and Capitalism: a love story (2009), this article is an attempt to understand the method developed by ...

  5. Understanding Informal Urban Land Market Functioning in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding Informal Urban Land Market Functioning in Peri-urban Areas of Secondary Towns of Rwanda: Case Study of Tumba Sector, Butare Town. ... Land price is negotiable and varies greatly based on the land size and its specific location and is higher than the reference land price. Land right transfer is evidenced ...

  6. Tribute to Professor Anthony J. McMichael

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Swaminathan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emeritus Professor A. J. “Tony” McMichael (1942–2014 was an internationally renowned and pioneering Australian academic and advocate in epidemiology, who was passionate about understanding the influences of the environment on human health. In an illustrious career spanning more than four decades, he made significant contributions to the scientific community and policy discourse—including ground-breaking research related to the health of children. McMichael was a prolific academic writer with over 300 peer-reviewed papers; 160 book chapters and two sole-authored books. However, his outstanding talent was for integrating complex and seemingly unrelated strands from the environmental and health sciences into a cohesive narrative—and highlighting its relevance to lay persons, scientists and governments alike. He was instrumental in validating this nascent field of research and inspiring many others to follow his lead.

  7. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Mark L.; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S.; Raven, John A.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Helliwell, Katherine E.; Smith, Alison G.; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H.

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, ...

  8. Obituary: Michael John Klein, 1940-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel

    2006-12-01

    Michael John Klein died on 14 May 2005 at home in South Pasadena, California. The cause of death was tongue cancer that metastasized to the lungs. He was a non-smoker. Mike was a passionate radio astronomer, a trusted astronomical observer, an educator and a family man. Mike was born on 19 January 1940 in Ames, Iowa, the son of Florence Marie (Graf) and Fred Michael Klein. His mother was a homemaker, and his father was a banker. Mike had two older sisters, Lois Jean (Klein) Flauher and Marilyn June (Klein) Griffin. In 1962, Mike married his high school sweetheart Barbara Dahlberg, who survives him along with their three children, Kristin Marie (Klein) Shields, Michael John Klein Jr., Timothy Joel Klein, and six grandchildren. Mike developed a love for astronomy early in his life, and credited an early morning, newspaper-delivery route that he had at age twelve, which took him outside well before sunrise. He told family members that as he walked along his route, he stared into the sky and wondered what everything was. He studied sky charts, located stars, and began to understand how the planets shifted their positions relative to the stars each day. Another big influence in Mike's life was his brother in-law, Jim Griffin. Jim helped Mike understand that his passion for science did not have to remain a hobby, but could and should become a career. Jim's encouragement led Mike to attend Iowa State University in Ames, where he earned a BS in electrical engineering in 1962. Mike then started graduate school in electrical engineering at Michigan State, but after one semester transferred to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he earned an MS (1966) and PhD (1968) in astronomy. His doctoral dissertation, under the direction of Professor Fred Haddock, was based on extensive observations of the planets and examined the physical and thermal properties of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Mike was awarded a Resident Research Associate position at JPL by the National

  9. Recent molecular approaches to understanding astrocyte function in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eDavila

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are a predominant glial cell type in the nervous systems, and are becoming recognized as important mediators of normal brain function as well as neurodevelopmental, neurological, and neurodegenerative brain diseases. Although numerous potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the role of astrocytes in the normal and diseased brain, research into the physiological relevance of these mechanisms in vivo is just beginning. In this review, we will summarize recent developments in innovative and powerful molecular approaches, including knockout mouse models, transgenic mouse models, and astrocyte-targeted gene transfer/expression, which have led to advances in understanding astrocyte biology in vivo that were heretofore inaccessible to experimentation. We will examine the recently improved understanding of the roles of astrocytes - with an emphasis on astrocyte signaling - in the context of both the healthy and diseased brain, discuss areas where the role of astrocytes remains debated, and suggest new research directions.

  10. Understanding emergent functions in self-assembled fibrous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, Robert; Keten, Sinan

    2015-09-01

    Understanding self-assembly processes of nanoscale building blocks and characterizing their properties are both imperative for designing new hierarchical, network materials for a wide range of structural, optoelectrical, and transport applications. Although the characterization and choices of these material building blocks have been well studied, our understanding of how to precisely program a specific morphology through self-assembly still must be significantly advanced. In the recent study by Xie et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 205602), the self-assembly of end-functionalized nanofibres is investigated using a coarse-grained molecular model and offers fundamental insight into how to control the structural morphology of nanofibrous networks. Varying nanoscale networks are observed when the molecular interaction strength is changed and the findings suggest that self-assembly through the tuning of molecular interactions is a key strategy for designing nanostructured networks with specific topologies.

  11. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark L; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S; Raven, John A; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H

    2017-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value. The second issue is quantifying which fractions of algal foods are bioavailable to humans, and which factors influence how food constituents are released, ranging from food preparation through genetic differentiation in the gut microbiome. Third is understanding how algal nutritional and functional constituents interact in human metabolism. Superimposed considerations are the effects of harvesting, storage, and food processing techniques that can dramatically influence the potential nutritive value of algal-derived foods. We highlight this rapidly advancing area of algal science with a particular focus on the key research required to assess better the health benefits of an alga or algal product. There are rich opportunities for phycologists in this emerging field, requiring exciting new experimental and collaborative approaches.

  12. Michael Wood’s Yangzhou Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan; Dan

    2014-01-01

    <正>Mr.Michael Wood is a wellknown British historian and documentary maker who has produced more than a hundred documentaries on various national histories and cultures exemplified by The Story of India.They enjoy wide popularity in more than 150 countries.I met him in February when he took his fi lm crew to Yangzhou to shoot The Story of China documentary for the British Broadcasting Corporation(BBC).It was a snowy day,cold and wet,but Michael said happily that the

  13. Michael Heyrovsky, in memoriam (1932-2017)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barek, J.; Černý, Slavoj; Herman, Zdeněk; Jindra, Jiří; Paleček, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 8 (2017), s. 2001-2002 ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Michael Heyrovský Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 2.851, year: 2016

  14. Reframing Michael Scott: Exploring Inappropriate Workplace Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Zachary A.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who work in professional settings interact with others who may exhibit a variety of cultural beliefs and decision-making approaches. Page (2007) argues that cognitive diversity (i.e., how people approach and attempt to solve problems) is a vital asset in effective organizations. Michael Scott, who portrays the inept main character on…

  15. Michael Hauskeller: Sex and the Posthuman Condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Lantz Eugene

    2016-01-01

    This new book from Michael Hauskeller explores the currently marketed or projected sex/love products that exhibit some trait of so-called “posthumanistic” theory or design. These products are so designated because of their intention to fuse high technologies, including robotics and computing, with

  16. Aza-Michael reaction: achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rulev, Alexander Yu

    2011-01-01

    Data published in the last 10 years on the use of the aza-Michael reaction in organic synthesis are described systematically. The attention is focused on environmentally friendly processes following green chemistry principles and on methods for the synthesis of compounds that are difficult to access by other routes.

  17. Towards new understanding of the heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio F; Komeda, Masashi; Carreras-Costa, Francesc; Flotats, A; Cosin-Aguillar, Juan; Wen, Han

    2005-02-01

    Structure and function in any organ are inseparable categories, both in health and disease. Whether we are ready to accept, or not, many questions in cardiovascular medicine are still pending, due to our insufficient insight in the basic science. Even so, any new concept encounters difficulties, mainly arising from our inert attitude, which may result either in unjustified acceptance or denial. The ventricular myocardial band concept, developed over the last 50 years, has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium. After more than five centuries long debate on macroscopic structure of the ventricular myocardium, this concept has provided a promising ground for its final understanding. Recent validations of the ventricular myocardial band, reviewed here, as well as future research directions that are pointed out, should initiate much wider scientific interest, which would, in turn, lead to reconciliation of some exceeded concepts about developmental, electrical, mechanical and energetical events in human heart. The benefit of this, of course, would be the most evident in the clinical arena.

  18. Voltage imaging to understand connections and functions of neuronal circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antic, Srdjan D.; Empson, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying brain functions such as cognition and emotions requires monitoring of membrane voltage at the cellular, circuit, and system levels. Seminal voltage-sensitive dye and calcium-sensitive dye imaging studies have demonstrated parallel detection of electrical activity across populations of interconnected neurons in a variety of preparations. A game-changing advance made in recent years has been the conceptualization and development of optogenetic tools, including genetically encoded indicators of voltage (GEVIs) or calcium (GECIs) and genetically encoded light-gated ion channels (actuators, e.g., channelrhodopsin2). Compared with low-molecular-weight calcium and voltage indicators (dyes), the optogenetic imaging approaches are 1) cell type specific, 2) less invasive, 3) able to relate activity and anatomy, and 4) facilitate long-term recordings of individual cells' activities over weeks, thereby allowing direct monitoring of the emergence of learned behaviors and underlying circuit mechanisms. We highlight the potential of novel approaches based on GEVIs and compare those to calcium imaging approaches. We also discuss how novel approaches based on GEVIs (and GECIs) coupled with genetically encoded actuators will promote progress in our knowledge of brain circuits and systems. PMID:27075539

  19. Principles of Chemistry (by Michael Munowitz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Reviewed By Jeffrey

    2000-05-01

    At a time when almost all general chemistry textbooks seem to have become commodities designed by marketing departments to offend no one, it is refreshing to find a book with a unique perspective. Michael Munowitz has written what I can only describe as a delightful chemistry book, full of conceptual insight, that uses a novel and interesting pedagogic strategy. This is a book that has much to recommend it. This is the best-written general chemistry book I have ever read. An editor with whom I have worked recently remarked that he felt his job was to help authors make their writing sing. Well, the writing in Principles of Chemistry sings with the full, rich harmonies and creative inventiveness of the King's Singers or Chanticleer. Here is the first sentence of the introduction: "Central to any understanding of the physical world is one discovery of paramount importance, a truth disarmingly simple yet profound in its implications: matter is not continuous." This is prose to be savored and celebrated. Principles of Chemistry has a distinct perspective on chemistry: the perspective of the physical chemist. The focus is on simplicity, what is common about molecules and reactions; begin with the microscopic and build bridges to the macroscopic. The author's perspective is clear from the organization of the book. After three rather broad introductory chapters, there are four chapters that develop the quantum mechanical theory of atoms and molecules, including a strong treatment of molecular orbital theory. Unlike many books, Principles of Chemistry presents the molecular orbital approach first and introduces valence bond theory later only as an approximation for dealing with more complicated molecules. The usual chapters on descriptive inorganic chemistry are absent (though there is an excellent chapter on organic and biological molecules and reactions as well as one on transition metal complexes). Instead, descriptive chemistry is integrated into the development of

  20. Supporting Teachers' Understandings of Function through Online Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This article explores one segment of an extended research and development project that was conducted to better understand the ways online teacher professional development can support teachers' development of deep and connected mathematical understandings. In particular, this article discusses teachers' understandings of the concept of…

  1. A Functional Conceptualization of Understanding Science in the News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Megan M.

    The idea that the public should have the capacity for understanding science in the news has been embraced by scientists, educators, and policymakers alike. An oft-cited goal of contemporary science education, in fact, is to enhance students' understanding of science in the news. But what exactly does it mean to understand science in the news? Surprisingly few have asked this question, or considered the significance of its answer. This dissertation steps away from issues of science teaching and learning to examine the nature of understanding science in the news itself. My work consolidates past scholarship from the multiple fields concerned with the relationship between science and society to produce a theoretical model of understanding science in the news as a complex, multidimensional process that involves an understanding of science as well as journalism. This thesis begins by exploring the relationship between the understanding implicit in understanding science in the news and understanding science. Many assume these two ways of knowing are one in the same. To rebut this assumption, I examine the types of knowledge necessary for understanding science and understanding science in the news. I then use the literature devoted to scientific literacy to show how past research has imagined the knowledge necessary to understand science in the news. Next, I argue that one of the principle difficulties with these conceptualizations is that they define science in the news in essentially the same terms as science. They also, I suggest, oversimplify how and why public interacts with science in the news. This dissertation concludes with a proposal for one way we might think about understanding science in the news on its own terms rather than those of understanding science. This dissertation attempts to connect two fields of research that rarely intersect, despite their multiple common interests: science education and mass communication. It considers the notion of

  2. Michael Haneke film Euroopa parim / M. T.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    M. T.

    2005-01-01

    IX PÖFFil linastuv Michael Haneke film "Varjatud" ("Cache") võitis laupäeval mitu Euroopa Filmiakadeemia auhinda, selhulgas parima filmi, parima lavastaja, parima meesnäitleja (Daniel Auteuil) ja FIPRESCI auhinna. Parim naisnäitleja - Julia Jentsch ("Sophie Scholli viimased päevad"), operaator - Franz Lustig ("Don't Come Knocking"), stsenaarium - Hany Abu-Assad, Bero Beyer ("Kohe paradiisi")

  3. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  4. Obituary: Michael James Ledlow, 1964-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.

    2004-12-01

    Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a

  5. Guest Foreword from Michael Thomas CMG QC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Thomas

    2012-04-01

    precedents and thought in a unique legal market in which ideas drawn from Islamic law, civil law and common law can intermingle and blend. It is not surprising therefore to see that this new publication will be dedicated to the subject of international law, both public and private. Its laudable aim is to promote legal discourse around the world, and to promote a wider international understanding of contemporary legal issues for the common benefit. As an open access, bilingual journal, addressing topics concerning any jurisdiction, I hope it will reach a wide audience, and fulfil its aim of promoting understanding between different cultures. I am sure that the journal will not only benefit Qatar’s legal community by advancing academic and practice-based legal discussion. I am also confident that it will stimulate thought in the global legal community at large. May I wish it every success and a long life. Michael Thomas CMG QC

  6. Michael Roitmann : Kalandus ei ole Eestile ilmselt prioriteetne valdkond / Michael Roitmann ; interv. Marko Saaret

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roitmann, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 3. dets. lk. 9. Euroopa Komisjoni kalandusdirektoraadi koordinaator Euroopa Liidu laienemise küsimuses Michael Roitmann juhib tähelepanu Eesti kalanduse suurematele probleemidele ning prognoosib EL-iga liitumise mõju Eesti kalandussektori arengule

  7. Aza-Michael Mono-addition Using Acidic Alumina under Solventless Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Bosica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs.

  8. Understanding the Importance of the Teres Minor for Shoulder Function: Functional Anatomy and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew D; Edwards, Thomas Bradley; Walch, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    Although the teres minor is often overlooked in a normal shoulder, it becomes a key component in maintaining shoulder function when other rotator cuff tendons fail. The teres minor maintains a balanced glenohumeral joint and changes from an insignificant to the most significant external rotator in the presence of major rotator cuff pathology. The presence or absence of the teres minor provides prognostic information on the outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty and tendon transfers. Clinical tests include the Patte test, the Neer dropping sign, the external rotation lag sign, and the Hertel drop sign. Advanced imaging of the teres minor can be used for classification using the Walch system. Understanding the function and pathology surrounding the teres minor is paramount in comprehensive management of the patient with shoulder pathology. Appropriate clinical examination and imaging of the teres minor are important for preoperative stratification and postoperative expectations.

  9. Associations among False Belief Understanding, Counterfactual Reasoning, and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Parker, Jessica; Turley-Ames, Kandi

    2009-01-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to clarify previous work on the association between counterfactual thinking and false belief performance to determine (1) whether these two variables are related and (2) if so, whether executive function skills mediate the relationship. A total of 92 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed false belief,…

  10. Asymmetric organocatalytic Michael addition of Meldrum's acid to nitroalkenes: probing the mechanism of bifunctional thiourea organocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kataja, Antti O.; Koskinen, Ari M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric Michael addition of Meldrum’s acid to nitroalkenes was studied using a novel type of Cinchona alkaloid-based bifunctional thiourea organocatalyst. The functionality of the thiourea catalysts was also probed by preparing and testing thiourea-N-methylated analogues of the well-known bis-(3,5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl-substituted catalyst. Peer reviewed

  11. Functional health literacy and healthy eating: Understanding the brazilian food guide recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auristela Magalhães Coelho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between the functional health literacy of Unified Heath System users and the understanding of food servings in the pocket version of the Brazilian Food Guide. Methods: Functional health literacy was assessed by the Brief Test of functional health literacy. Two dialogue rounds were conducted with patients with adequate functional health literacy (Group 1 and inadequate functional health literacy (Group 2. The dialogues were recorded and analyzed according to the discourse of the collective subject. Results: Most (58.0% users had inadequate functional health literacy. Five core areas were identified: understands serving sizes; does not understand serving sizes; serving sizes are confusing; unfamiliar/uncommon foods; small letters. Group 2 had more trouble understanding. Conclusion: Difficulty understanding hinders health promotion. Individuals need to have access to educational materials that are easier to understand and developed taking their functional health literacy into account.

  12. Nitrogen cycling in corals: the key to understanding holobiont functioning?

    KAUST Repository

    Rädecker, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Corals are animals that form close mutualistic associations with endosymbiotic photosynthetic algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Together they provide the calcium carbonate framework of coral reef ecosystems. The importance of the microbiome (i.e., bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses) to holobiont functioning has only recently been recognized. Given that growth and density of Symbiodinium within the coral host is highly dependent on nitrogen availability, nitrogen-cycling microbes may be of fundamental importance to the stability of the coral–algae symbiosis and holobiont functioning, in particular under nutrient-enriched and -depleted scenarios. We summarize what is known about nitrogen cycling in corals and conclude that disturbance of microbial nitrogen cycling may be tightly linked to coral bleaching and disease.

  13. A genetic approach to understanding asthma and lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    that are most robustly associated with persistent and severe childhood onset asthma. However, it is unknown how the 17q21 common variants are associated with the persistence of symptoms into adulthood. In paper II,we investigated the effect of the 17q21 locus on current adult asthma and related traits......Asthma is a common heritable disease of the airways with recurrent episodes of symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction that has increased dramatically in prevalence. The disease is highly heterogeneous with varying age at onset and clinical presentation and most likely represents several...... responsiveness, but were associated with lung function growth. This suggests that these loci do not exert their effects prenatally and indicate a potential window of opportunity in early childhood for preventing lung function decline and maintaining respiratory health. The 17q21 locus harbors common variants...

  14. Nitrogen cycling in corals: the key to understanding holobiont functioning?

    KAUST Repository

    Rä decker, Nils; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Jö rg; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Corals are animals that form close mutualistic associations with endosymbiotic photosynthetic algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Together they provide the calcium carbonate framework of coral reef ecosystems. The importance of the microbiome (i.e., bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses) to holobiont functioning has only recently been recognized. Given that growth and density of Symbiodinium within the coral host is highly dependent on nitrogen availability, nitrogen-cycling microbes may be of fundamental importance to the stability of the coral–algae symbiosis and holobiont functioning, in particular under nutrient-enriched and -depleted scenarios. We summarize what is known about nitrogen cycling in corals and conclude that disturbance of microbial nitrogen cycling may be tightly linked to coral bleaching and disease.

  15. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  16. Towards understanding the biological function of hopanoids (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, D. M.; Hunter, R.; Summons, R. E.; Newman, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 expresses bacterial hopanoid lipids that are structurally similar and evolutionarily related to eukaryotic sterols. The genome of R. palustris TIE-1 contains two copies of the hpnN gene (hpnN1 and hpnN2) that are orthologs of genes encoding eukaryotic sterol and lipid transporters. Hopanoid localization to the outer membrane was found to be dependent upon hpnN1. Since the cell cycle of R. palustris TIE-1 is obligately bimodal with each cell division resulting in the generation of one mother and one swarmer cell, evidence was obtained that hopanoids where specifically localized to the outer membrane of mother cells. The sequestration of hopanoids to the mother cells was also disrupted by the deletion of the hpnN1 gene. Mutants lacking the hopanoid transporters were able to grow normally at 30 °C but showed decreased growth at 38 °C. The hopanoid transporter mutant formed cellular filaments when grown at elevated temperature. Because sedimentary steranes and hopanes comprise some of the earliest evidence for the emergence of distinct bacteria and eukaryotic phyla, a better appreciation of the function of hopanoids will improve our ability to interpret the evolution of life on Earth.

  17. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  18. Book Review: Invitation to Topological Robotics by Michael Farber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Book Review: Invitaton to Topological Robotics by Michael Farber. Zurich Lectures in Advanced Mathematics, European Mathematical Society (2008), ISBN 978-3-03719-054-8......Book Review: Invitaton to Topological Robotics by Michael Farber. Zurich Lectures in Advanced Mathematics, European Mathematical Society (2008), ISBN 978-3-03719-054-8...

  19. The Interplay between Students' Understandings of Proportional and Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Strachota, Susanne; Knuth, Eric; Blanton, Maria; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This research explores the interplay between students' understandings of proportional and functional relationships. Approximately 90 students participated in an early algebra intervention in Grades 3- 5. Before the intervention and after each year of the intervention, we evaluated their understandings of proportional and functional relationships.…

  20. Working with Functions without Understanding: An Assessment of the Perceptions of Basotho College Mathematics Specialists on the Idea of Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaki, Mokaeane Victor

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that the idea of function plays a unifying role in the development of mathematical concepts. Yet research has shown that many students do not understand it adequately even though they have experienced a great deal of success in performing a plethora of operations on function, and on using functions to solve various types of…

  1. Race, punishment, and the Michael Vick experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Gertz, Marc; Baker, Thomas; Batton, Jason; Barnes, J C

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The relationship between race and crime has been contentious, focusing primarily on offending and incarceration patterns among minorities. There has been some limited work on public perceptions of criminal punishment, and findings show that while minorities believe in the role and rule of law, they simultaneously perceive the justice system as acting in a biased and/or unfair manner. Two limitations have stalled this literature. First, research has focused mainly on criminal punishments to the neglect of noncriminal punishments. Second, most studies have not examined whether race remains salient after considering other demographic variables or discrimination and legitimacy attitudes.Methods. Using data from 400 adults, we examine how race affects perceptions of criminal punishment and subsequent reinstatement into the National Football League in the case of Michael Vick, a star professional quarterback who pled guilty to charges of operating an illegal dog-fighting ring.Results. Findings show that whites are more likely to view Vick's punishment as too soft and that he should not be reinstated, while nonwhites had the opposite views. Race remained significant after controlling for other variables believed to be related to punishment perceptions.Conclusion. Attitudes toward both criminal punishment and NFL reinstatement vary across race such that there exists important divides in how individuals perceive the system meting out punishment and subsequently reintegrating offenders back into society. These results underscore that white and nonwhites perceive the law and its administration differently.

  2. Developing Essential Understanding of Functions for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gwendolyn; Beckmann, Sybilla; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Cooney, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Are sequences functions? What can't the popular "vertical line test" be applied in some cases to determine if a relation is a function? How does the idea of rate of change connect with simpler ideas about proportionality as well as more advanced topics in calculus? Helping high school students develop a robust understanding of functions requires…

  3. Michael Polanyi: Patriarch of Chemical Dynamics and Tacit Knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Dudley R

    2017-03-20

    Connecting Science and the Humanities was the title of the symposium on Michael Polanyi that took place at the Technische Universität Berlin (Technical University of Berlin) in October 2016. This essay, which appraises the scientific and philosophical contributions of Michael Polanyi, is based on the presentation given by Dr. Herschbach on this occasion. In the photograph: Polanyi in 1931. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Towards understanding the evolution and functional diversification of DNA-containing plant organelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leister, Dario Michael

    2016-01-01

    direct way to reconstruct the evolutionary history of plastids and mitochondria is to sequence and analyze their relatively small genomes. However, understanding the functional diversification of these organelles requires the identification of their complete protein repertoires - which is the ultimate...

  5. Understanding Linear Function: A Comparison of Selected Textbooks from England and Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqian; Barmby, Patrick; Bolden, David

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a comparison of how worked examples in selected textbooks from England and Shanghai presented possible learning trajectories towards understanding linear function. Six selected English textbooks and one Shanghai compulsory textbook were analysed with regards to the understanding required for pure mathematics knowledge in…

  6. Understanding Early Elementary Children's Conceptual Knowledge of Plant Structure and Function through Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice L.; Ellis, Jane P.; Jones, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined children's drawings to explain children's conceptual understanding of plant structure and function. The study explored whether the children's drawings accurately reflect their conceptual understanding about plants in a manner that can be interpreted by others. Drawing, survey, interview, and observational data were collected…

  7. Organocatalytic asymmetric michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Efraim; Vicario, Jose L; Badía, Dolores; Carrillo, Luisa

    2006-12-21

    [Structure: see text] The organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal has been studied in detail. The reaction took place with excellent yields and high stereoselectivities when a chiral beta-amino alcohol such as L-prolinol was employed as the catalyst, leaving a formation of highly functionalized enantioenriched compounds containing two differentiated formyl groups together with a nitro moiety.

  8. Developing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Function Using a Vending Machine Metaphor Applet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Allison; Lovett, Jennifer; Edgington, Cyndi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of a Vending Machine applet as a cognitive root for the development of preservice teachers understanding of function. The applet was designed to purposefully problematize common misconceptions associated with the algebraic nature of typical function machines. Findings indicated affordances and…

  9. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  10. Aza‐Michael addition reaction: Post‐polymerization modification and preparation of PEI/PEG‐based polyester hydrogels from enzymatically synthesized reactive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Stuparu, Mihaiela C.; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    The utility of aza‐Michael addition chemistry for post‐polymerization functionalization of enzymatically prepared polyesters is established. For this, itaconate ester and oligoethylene glycol are selected as monomers. A Candida Antarctica lipase B catalyzed polycondensation reaction between the two...... monomers provides the polyesters, which carry an activated carbon‐carbon double bond in the polymer backbone. These electron deficient alkenes represent suitable aza‐Michael acceptors and can be engaged in a nucleophilic addition reaction with small molecular mono‐amines (aza‐Michael donors) to yield...... functionalized linear polyesters. Employing a poly‐amine as the aza‐Michael donor, on the other hand, results in the formation of hydrophilic polymer networks....

  11. The conceptualization of love in religious thought of George Florovsky and Michael Pomazansky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is concerned with the question of conceptualization of love in works of Fr. George Florovsky and Fr. Michael Pomazansky, Russian religious thinkers and theologists. We are studying the meaning and appropriacy of two words, ‘love’ (English and ‘любовь’ (Russian, that are the best to represent the agapelogical positive evaluation in Russian religious thought. Data for study was taken from ten different articles and extracts from books written by Fr. George Florovsky and Fr. Michael Pomazansky. On the basis of this analysis we develop semantic explications of words ‘love’ and ‘любовь’ as Christian spiritual concepts within the framework of theoretical approach of Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM. In summary we state that this article discusses, describes and determines some similarities and differences in understanding of concept ‘love’ in the affore-referenced works by Fr. George Florovsky and Fr. Michael Pomazansky.

  12. The Effects of an Undergraduate Algebra Course on Prospective Middle School Teachers' Understanding of Functions, Especially Quadratic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jonathan T.

    2010-01-01

    Although current reform movements have stressed the importance of developing prospective middle school mathematics teachers' subject matter knowledge and understandings, there is a dearth of research studies with regard to prospective middle school teachers' confidence and knowledge with respect to quadratic functions. This study was intended to…

  13. Challenges in microbial ecology: Building predictive understanding of community function and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widder, Stefanie; Allen, Rosalind J.; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The importance of microbial communities (MCs) cannot be overstated. MCs underpin the biogeochemical cycles of the earth's soil, oceans and the atmosphere, and perform ecosystem functions that impact plants, animals and humans. Yet our ability to predict and manage the function of these highly...... complex, dynamically changing communities is limited. Building predictive models that link MC composition to function is a key emerging challenge in microbial ecology. Here, we argue that addressing this challenge requires close coordination of experimental data collection and method development...... is needed to achieve significant progress in our understanding of MC dynamics and function, and we make specific practical suggestions as to how this could be achieved....

  14. Obituary: Michael John Seaton, 1923-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil; Nahar, Sultana

    2007-12-01

    Professor Michael John Seaton, hailed as the "Father of Atomic Astrophysics," passed away on May 29, 2007. He was one of the few Honorary Fellows of both the American Astronomical Society and the American Physical Society, so honored for his monumental contributions to both physics and astronomy. Mike Seaton was born on January 16, 1923 in Bristol, England. He attended Wallington County High School. But his leftist political activities, even at that stage, led to his expulsion, though he was eventually allowed to matriculate. He enlisted in the Royal Air Force as a navigator during the Second World War, and flew many dangerous missions. His legendary concentration and precision are reflected in the following anecdote. Once after a bombing mission his aircraft was lost in fog over the Alps. Seaton calculated the position and coordinates in flight to guide the aircraft. When the fog lifted, the crew found themselves flying perilously close to the mountains, but made it safely back. His associates often said, "A Seaton calculation is carried out as if his life depended on it." After the War he was admitted to University College London (UCL) as an undergraduate. Thereafter, he spent all of his professional career at UCL. Seaton received his Batchelor's degree in 1948, and his Ph.D. in 1951. His tenure at UCL coincided with the golden age of atomic astrophysics, for he was largely responsible for it. Seaton was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1967, and as President of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) in 1978. He was the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate from the Observatoire de Paris, an Honorary D.Sc. from the Queen's University of Belfast, the Gold Medal for Astronomy by the RAS, the Guthrie Medal by the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society Hughes award for lifetime work by the RAS, and several other prestigious awards. Nevertheless, as Alex Dalgarno recently remarked, Seaton was not part of the establishment because he chose not to be. Though rooted in

  15. The construction of an amino acid network for understanding protein structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Zhou, Jianhong; Sun, Maomin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

    2014-06-01

    Amino acid networks (AANs) are undirected networks consisting of amino acid residues and their interactions in three-dimensional protein structures. The analysis of AANs provides novel insight into protein science, and several common amino acid network properties have revealed diverse classes of proteins. In this review, we first summarize methods for the construction and characterization of AANs. We then compare software tools for the construction and analysis of AANs. Finally, we review the application of AANs for understanding protein structure and function, including the identification of functional residues, the prediction of protein folding, analyzing protein stability and protein-protein interactions, and for understanding communication within and between proteins.

  16. Understanding the function of bacterial and eukaryotic thiolases II by integrating evolutionary and functional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ana Romina; Soto, Gabriela; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Garcia, Araceli Nora; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Salerno, Juan Carlos; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (EC 2.3.1.9), commonly named thiolase II, condenses two molecules of acetyl-CoA to give acetoacetyl-CoA and CoA. This enzyme acts in anabolic processes as the first step in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and polyhydroxybutyrate in eukaryotes and bacteria, respectively. We have recently reported the evolutionary and functional equivalence of these enzymes, suggesting that thiolase II could be the rate limiting enzyme in these pathways and presented evidence indicating that this enzyme modulates the availability of reducing equivalents during abiotic stress adaptation in bacteria and plants. However, these results are not sufficient to clarify why thiolase II was evolutionary selected as a critical enzyme in the production of antioxidant compounds. Regarding this intriguing topic, we propose that thiolase II could sense changes in the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio induced by the inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle under abiotic stress. Thus, the high level of evolutionary and functional constraint of thiolase II may be due to the connection of this enzyme with an ancient and conserved metabolic route. © 2013.

  17. Integrating Model-Based Learning and Animations for Enhancing Students' Understanding of Proteins Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri; Hussein-Farraj, Rania

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the context of chemistry education reforms in Israel. The study examined a new biochemistry learning unit that was developed to promote in-depth understanding of 3D structures and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Our goal was to examine whether, and to what extent teaching and learning via…

  18. Urban ecological stewardship: understanding the structure, function and network of community-based urban land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika s. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based...

  19. Dynamic Graphics in Excel for Teaching Statistics: Understanding the Probability Density Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll-Serrano, Vicente; Blasco-Blasco, Olga; Alvarez-Jareno, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we show a dynamic graphic in Excel that is used to introduce an important concept in our subject, Statistics I: the probability density function. This interactive graphic seeks to facilitate conceptual understanding of the main aspects analysed by the learners.

  20. An Epistemological Inquiry into Organic Chemistry Education: Exploration of Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…

  1. Enantioselective aminocatalysis: Michael addition of unactivated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KHIANGTE VANLALDINPUIA

    2017-09-25

    Sep 25, 2017 ... the case of acetone) were stirred at room temperature for. 30 min. Nitroolefin (1 ..... Kaprzak A and Gawronski J 2001 Review on the use of cinchona ... 2006 Functionalized chiral ionic liquids as highly effi- cient asymmetric ...

  2. The challenges of understanding glycolipid functions: An open outlook based on molecular simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manna, M.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2014-01-01

    and molecular simulations can be used to shed light on the role of glycolipids in membrane structure and dynamics, receptor function, and other phenomena related to emergence of diseases such as Parkinson's. The cases we discuss highlight the challenge to understand how glycolipids function in cell membranes......, and the significant added value that one would gain by bridging molecular simulations with experiments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Glycolipids are the most complex lipid type in cell membranes, characterized by a great diversity of different structures and functions. The underlying atomistic/molecular interactions and mechanisms associated with these functions are not well understood. Here we discuss how atomistic...

  3. Tweeting Prayers and Communicating Grief over Michael Jackson Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Jimmy; Cheong, Pauline Hope

    2010-01-01

    Death and bereavement are human experiences that new media helps facilitate alongside creating new social grief practices that occur online. This study investigated how people's postings and tweets facilitated the communication of grief after pop music icon Michael Jackson died. Drawing on past grief research, religion, and new media studies, a…

  4. Professor Porter ja tema viis konkurentsitegurit / Michael E Porter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Porter, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Maailmas tuntud juhtimisguru Michael Porter viie konkurentsijõu teooriast ja selle rakendatavusest erinevates valdkondades. Lisad: Erinevused valdkondade kasumlikkuses; 5 määravat konkurentsijõudu; Investeeritud kapitali keskmine tasuvus; Mõnede USA tegevusvaldkondade kasumlikkus; Valdkonnaanalüüs praktikas; Valdkonna määratlemine; Valdkonnaanalüüsi sammud

  5. A Good Time: A Conversation with C. Michael Nelson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Robert; Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, Jim

    2015-01-01

    C. Michael Nelson began his special education career as a teacher of adolescents with learning and behavior disorders. He has worked as a child psychologist and as a professor with the Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Counseling at the University of Kentucky. He coordinated the graduate Personnel Preparation Program for Teachers…

  6. Eesti luksushotellide ristiisa / Michael Stenner ; interv. Malle Koido

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stenner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Eesti tipphotelle 1997. aastast juhtinud sakslane, praegu hotellide Kolm Õde ja Telegraaf juht räägib Eesti ja Saksamaa erinevustest, Eesti hotelliärist, teeninduskultuurist ja personalist. Lisa: Kes on Michael Stenner ning kuidas ta Eestisse sattus? Ilmunud ka: Linnaleht : Pärnu, 23. veebr. 2007, lk. 5-6

  7. Michael Polanyi on the Education and Knowledge of Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Struan

    2000-01-01

    Explains why teachers addressing the nature of science should know the work of Michael Polanyi. Outlines Polanyi's intellectual career and examines his ideas on the education of scientists, research, and knowledge. Polanyi presaged Kuhn, Feyerabend, and the constructivists, yet insisted that science produces true knowledge about reality. (Contains…

  8. Michael Moore kaevati kohtusse pettuse eest / Mari Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari

    2006-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "9/11 Fahrenheiti" ("Fahrenheit 9/11") : režissöör Michael Moore : USA 2004. Iraagi sõja invaliidistunud veteran andis režissööri kohtusse teda kujutavate flmikaadrite loata ja tenentsliku kasutamise pärast

  9. SuchThatCast Episode 6: Michael Boylan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soraker, Johnny

    2012-01-01

    Michael Boylan is the John J. McDonnell jr chair in Ethics, and professor and chair of the philosophy department at Marymount University in Arlington, Virginia. In addition to being a poet and novelist, he has written more than 100 published articles and 25 books primarily in ethics, social and

  10. Berliinis võidutses Michael Haneke / Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    IX PÖFFil linastuv Michael Haneke film "Varjatud" ("Cache") võitis laupäeval mitu Euroopa Filmiakadeemia auhinda, sealhulgas parima filmi, parima lavastaja ja parima meesnäitleja (Daniel Auteuil) auhinna. Parima naisnäitleja tiitli pälvis Julia Jentsch ("Sophie Scholli viimased päevad"). Elutööpreemia sai sir Sean Connery

  11. Aza-Michael Reaction for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Manisha; Rush, Brittney; Patel, Jay; Castillo, Raul; Dhar, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    A green, aza-Michael reaction is described that can be used to teach undergraduate students conjugate addition of nitrogen nucleophile to an a,ß-unsaturated ester. Students analyze spectral data of the product obtained from the assigned reaction to determine product structure and propose the mechanism of its formation. The experiment requires…

  12. Educational Implications of Michael Fishbane's "Sacred Attunement: A Jewish Theology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article posits Michael Fishbane's Judaic scholarship as a prime resource for Jewish education. The link between the two fields can be made through a translation of the theological underpinnings of Fishbane's insights into Judaism to educational purposes and practices. Initial work with Jewish educators on establishing this link encouraged…

  13. Correspondence of Michael Faraday, v.5 1855-1860

    CERN Document Server

    Faraday, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This volume includes 70% of previously unpublished letters of Michael Farday spanning half of the 1850s and most of 1860. Topics include Faraday's work on regelation, the transmission of light through gold and his appointment by Emperor Napoleon III to be a Commander of the Legion of Honour.

  14. Biases in the experimental annotations of protein function and their effect on our understanding of protein function space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Schnoes

    Full Text Available The ongoing functional annotation of proteins relies upon the work of curators to capture experimental findings from scientific literature and apply them to protein sequence and structure data. However, with the increasing use of high-throughput experimental assays, a small number of experimental studies dominate the functional protein annotations collected in databases. Here, we investigate just how prevalent is the "few articles - many proteins" phenomenon. We examine the experimentally validated annotation of proteins provided by several groups in the GO Consortium, and show that the distribution of proteins per published study is exponential, with 0.14% of articles providing the source of annotations for 25% of the proteins in the UniProt-GOA compilation. Since each of the dominant articles describes the use of an assay that can find only one function or a small group of functions, this leads to substantial biases in what we know about the function of many proteins. Mass-spectrometry, microscopy and RNAi experiments dominate high throughput experiments. Consequently, the functional information derived from these experiments is mostly of the subcellular location of proteins, and of the participation of proteins in embryonic developmental pathways. For some organisms, the information provided by different studies overlap by a large amount. We also show that the information provided by high throughput experiments is less specific than those provided by low throughput experiments. Given the experimental techniques available, certain biases in protein function annotation due to high-throughput experiments are unavoidable. Knowing that these biases exist and understanding their characteristics and extent is important for database curators, developers of function annotation programs, and anyone who uses protein function annotation data to plan experiments.

  15. Biases in the Experimental Annotations of Protein Function and Their Effect on Our Understanding of Protein Function Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoes, Alexandra M.; Ream, David C.; Thorman, Alexander W.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing functional annotation of proteins relies upon the work of curators to capture experimental findings from scientific literature and apply them to protein sequence and structure data. However, with the increasing use of high-throughput experimental assays, a small number of experimental studies dominate the functional protein annotations collected in databases. Here, we investigate just how prevalent is the “few articles - many proteins” phenomenon. We examine the experimentally validated annotation of proteins provided by several groups in the GO Consortium, and show that the distribution of proteins per published study is exponential, with 0.14% of articles providing the source of annotations for 25% of the proteins in the UniProt-GOA compilation. Since each of the dominant articles describes the use of an assay that can find only one function or a small group of functions, this leads to substantial biases in what we know about the function of many proteins. Mass-spectrometry, microscopy and RNAi experiments dominate high throughput experiments. Consequently, the functional information derived from these experiments is mostly of the subcellular location of proteins, and of the participation of proteins in embryonic developmental pathways. For some organisms, the information provided by different studies overlap by a large amount. We also show that the information provided by high throughput experiments is less specific than those provided by low throughput experiments. Given the experimental techniques available, certain biases in protein function annotation due to high-throughput experiments are unavoidable. Knowing that these biases exist and understanding their characteristics and extent is important for database curators, developers of function annotation programs, and anyone who uses protein function annotation data to plan experiments. PMID:23737737

  16. Michael Pärt ئ suure muusika taustajõud / Michael Pärt ; interv. Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Arvo Pärdi pojast Michael Pärdist. Tema tööst "music editor"-ina - helimonteerijana, tööst muusika produktsiooni, salvestamise ja muusika kirjutamise abijõuna. Koostööst maailmas tuntud muusikutega

  17. Understanding of the correlation between work function and surface morphology of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Mingshan; Wang, Wenfeng; Wang, Fajun; Ou, Junfei; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The inherent correlation between the work function and surface morphology was focused on. •The change of the work function of metals and alloys as a function of surface roughness was investigated by scanning Kelvin probe. •The lightning rod effect was used to describe the electron transport at a rough surface. -- Abstract: The relationships between material behaviors and its structures are extremely complicated, and the understanding of these relationships is of much significance for revealing the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of various materials. In this study, the change of the work function (WF) of metals and alloys as a function of surface roughness was investigated by scanning Kelvin probe, with the aim of understanding the inherent correlation between the WF and surface morphology using a simple and intuitive way. It was demonstrated that at the rough surface of Cu and Ag, the sharp micro/nanostructures induced a lower WF, just as the lightning rod effect providing a direct and fast path for electron transport. While for Al and Mg alloys, the rough surface resulted in an increase of the WF owing to the effect of surface oxide layers, just as the anti-lightning rod effect providing a protected layer to confine the electron transport

  18. Understanding how prevocational training on care farms can lead to functioning, motivation and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen-Dalskau, Lina H; Berget, Bente; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Tellnes, Gunnar; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2016-12-01

    Prevocational training aims to improve basic vocational and social skills, supporting return to work for people who have been out of work for a long time. Care farms provide prevocational training; the aim of the study was to use the self-determination theory to gain an understanding of how these programmes can lead to healthy functioning and motivation for clients. A total of 194 participants in prevocational training on care farms answered questions about demographic information, their perception of being a colleague, the social community on the farm, experiencing nature and animals and need satisfaction. A cross-sectional design resulting in a structural equation model was used to understand how elements of the care farm context influence satisfaction of three psychological needs. The results showed that a feeling of being a useful colleague led to competence, experiencing a sense of group belonging led to relatedness and autonomy, while receiving social support from the farmer led to satisfaction of all three needs for the participants. The results explain how prevocational training can stimulate participants' functionality, motivation and well-being. This understanding enables initiators and managers of prevocational training to understand and further strengthen the need-supportive elements of such programmes. Implications for Rehabilitation Prevocational training on care farms can facilitate motivation, functioning and well-being for clients. Making clients feel like useful colleagues that belong to a client group will strengthen the positive qualities of these programmes. Support, understanding and acknowledgement from the farmer are the most important elements for a positive development for the clients.

  19. Annexin C4 in A. fumigatus: a proteomics approach to understand the function.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaj , Vahid; Azarian , Bahareh; Enayati , Somayeh; Vaziri , Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Annexin C4 has been identified as a new member of fungal annexin family. In search of function, we have generated an annexin C4 disruptant strain of human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus. Detailed phenotypic analysis confirmed a non essential role of annexin C4 in the growth and sporulation of this pathogen. We applied a comparative proteomics strategy to understand the possible role of this protein in the fungus. The modification of respiratory chain proteins and stre...

  20. From Process Understanding Via Soil Functions to Sustainable Soil Management - A Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschlaeger, U.; Bartke, S.; Bartkowski, B.; Daedlow, K.; Helming, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lang, B.; Rabot, E.; Russell, D.; Stößel, B.; Weller, U.; Wiesmeier, M.; Rabot, E.; Vogel, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fertile soils are central resources for the production of biomass and the provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for both, food and bio-energy, which requires preserving and improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained: filter for clean water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these soil functions result from the interaction of a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes that are not yet sufficiently understood. In addition, we lack understanding about the interplay between the socio-economic system and the soil system and how soil functions benefit human wellbeing. Hence, a solid and integrated assessment of soil quality requires the consideration of the ensemble of soil functions and its relation to soil management to finally be able to develop site-specific options for sustainable soil management. We present an integrated modeling approach that investigates the influence of soil management on the ensemble of soil functions. It is based on the mechanistic relationships between soil functional attributes, each explained by a network of interacting processes as derived from scientific evidence. As the evidence base required for feeding the model is for the most part stored in the existing scientific literature, another central component of our work is to set up a public "knowledge-portal" providing the infrastructure for a community effort towards a comprehensive knowledge base on soil processes as a basis for model developments. The connection to the socio-economic system is established using the Drivers-Pressures-Impacts-States-Responses (DPSIR) framework where our improved understanding about soil ecosystem processes is linked to ecosystem services and resource efficiency via the soil functions.

  1. ASSESSING CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING IN MATHEMATICS: Using Derivative Function to Solve Connected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin ORHUN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance education plays an important role in the actualization of cultural goals as well as in societal developments. This is an independent teaching and learning method for mathematics which forms the dynamic of scientific thinking. Distance education is an important alternative to traditional teaching applications. These contributions brought by technology enable students to participate actively in having access to information and questioning it. Such an application increases students’ motivation and teaches how mathematics can be used in daily life. Derivative is a mathematical concept which can be used in many areas of daily life. The aim of this study is to enable the concept of derivatives to be understood well by using the derivative function in the solution of various problems. It also aims at interpreting difficulties theoretically in the solution of problems and determining mistakes in terms of teaching methods. In this study, how various aspects of derivatives are understood is emphasized. These aspects concern the explanation of concepts and process, and also their application to certain concepts in physics. Students’ depth of understanding of derivatives was analyzed based on two aspects of understanding; theoretical analysis and contextual application. Follow-up interviews were conducted with five students. The results show that the students preferred to apply an algebraic symbolic aspect instead of using logical meanings of function and its derivative. In addition, in relation to how the graph of the derivative function affects the aspect of function, it was determined that the students displayed low performance.

  2. Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-06-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.

  3. Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-06-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.

  4. Obituary: Thomas Michael Donahue, 1921-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamás I.

    2004-12-01

    Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, and Cassini. Based on observations by the Pioneer Venus entry probe, he concluded that Venus once had an ocean before a runaway greenhouse effect led to its current state. Analyzing similar data from Martian meteorites, he again argued for a substantial Martian ocean, anticipating the current series of missions to Mars. In these and many other cases he laid the foundation for our current understanding of planetary atmospheres. In 1999, Tom described his career this way, "I parlayed my training in atomic physics into a faculty position at Pitt, doing research in aeronomy and laboratory studies of atomic physics. This led to rocket and satellite exploration of the upper atmosphere of Earth in the 60s and spacecraft exploration of Mars, Venus and the Outer Planets beginning in the 70s. Along the way my students, post-docs and I were deeply involved in the problem of anthropogenic destruction of the stratospheric ozone in the early 70s. This led to my continuing interest in global change." Throughout his life Tom retained a keen interest in the history of his family in Ireland, as his mother and grandfather both emigrated from County Kerry. He studied oral and written sources, writing as early as 1942 on the family and the early history of the Eóghanachta Rathleinn. Recently his efforts supported the establishment of the international O'Donoghue society, in particular spearheading a project that continues to reveal fresh detail about family migrations from the High Kings to the Cromwellian period. Tom brought his powerful intellect and drive to a broad range of lifelong passions beyond science. Fluent in several languages, from classical Greek to modern Irish, he was also widely read in American, Irish and French history and literature, and was an exacting student of French wine. He loved classical and folk music, often singing hundreds of songs for his family in keys only he knew. A devotee of tennis, he continued playing weekly matches until early

  5. Double Michael Addition Reaction of Bischalcone under Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Ji-Tai; XU,Wen-Zhi; CHEN,Guo-Feng; LI,Tong-Shuang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Michael addition of 1,5-diaryl-1,4-pentadien-3-ones with active methylene compounds has been the subjects of many investigations. Ultrasound has increasingly been used in organic synthesis in the last three decades. Compared with traditional methods, this method is more convenient and easily controlled. A large number of organic reactions can be carried out in higher yield, shorter reaction time or milder conditions under ultrasonic irradiation. KF/Al2O3 as a useful solid supported catalyst has received considerable attention because of their high level of chemoselectivity and environmental compatibility as well as simplicity of operation and their ready availability at low cost. Herein we report the double Michael addition of dibenzalacetone with active methlene compounds such as dimethyl malonate, diethyl malonate,methyl cyanoacetate and ethyl cyanoacetate catalyzed by KF/Al2O3 under ultrasound irradiation.

  6. Asymmetric Michael Addition Mediated by Chiral Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yumiko

    2018-01-01

    Chiral ionic liquids with a focus on their applications in asymmetric Michael additions and related reactions were reviewed. The examples were classified on the basis of the mode of asymmetric induction (e.g., external induction/non-covalent interaction or internal induction/covalent bond formation), the roles in reactions (as a solvent or catalyst), and their structural features (e.g., imidazolium-based chiral cations, other chiral oniums; proline derivatives). Most of the reactions with high chiral induction are Michael addition of ketones or aldehydes to chalcones or nitrostyrenes where proline-derived chiral ionic liquids catalyze the reaction through enamine/ iminium formation. Many reports demonstrate the recyclability of ionic liquid-tagged pyrrolidines. PMID:29861702

  7. Asymmetric Michael Addition Mediated by Chiral Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yumiko

    2018-06-01

    Chiral ionic liquids with a focus on their applications in asymmetric Michael additions and related reactions were reviewed. The examples were classified on the basis of the mode of asymmetric induction (e.g., external induction/non-covalent interaction or internal induction/covalent bond formation), the roles in reactions (as a solvent or catalyst), and their structural features (e.g., imidazolium-based chiral cations, other chiral oniums; proline derivatives). Most of the reactions with high chiral induction are Michael addition of ketones or aldehydes to chalcones or nitrostyrenes where proline-derived chiral ionic liquids catalyze the reaction through enamine/ iminium formation. Many reports demonstrate the recyclability of ionic liquid-tagged pyrrolidines.

  8. Pengaruh Tipografi pada Era Massimo Vignelli terhadap Tipografi Michael Bierut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Harnoko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Vignelli is a senior graphic designer lived in New York, as a vocal modernism against post-modernism. His statement firmly opposing post-modernism in several occasions: interview in Helvetica the movie, typeradio, talkshow, and some articles in Looking Closer or AIGA Journal. Graphic design works of Massimo Vignelli reflected his characteristic, which is firmly choosing typeface. Typefaces of Vignelly are around 5 typefaces: Bodoni, Helvetica, Times Roman, Century, and Futura. The article uses formal analysis method. The writers collected materials about Michael Bierut, Massimo VIgnelli and Tibor Kalman from books and websites. The writers compare the typeface opinion of Massimo Vignelli (modernism designer, Michael Bierut designer (transition era designer from modernism to post-modernism, and Tibor Kalman (a designer in A Century of Graphic Design, as the influencer of Bierut’s betrayal over Vignelli. 

  9. Compassionate leadership? Some reflections on the work and life of Michael Lapsley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A. Nell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In June 2007, I had the privilege of attending a Healing of Memories workshop lead by Father Michael Lapsley, one of the founder members of the Institute for Healing of Memories. The purpose of the workshop was to help the predominantly white members of a middle class Dutch Reformed congregation in the Northern Suburbs of Cape Town and the predominantly coloured members of a congregation of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Elsies River on the Cape Flats, to share their stories of the past with regard to apartheid with each other. Apart from the stories that were told and the sharing of experiences about the apartheid history that took place, I was struck by the way in which Father Lapsley conducted the workshop. There was a deep compassion for all the participants as was embodied through the way in which he treated each of us with respect. But apart from his cordiality in leading the workshop, one could sense a deeper source of compassion, a source revealing a compassionate understanding of God�s presence amidst the violence and turmoil in our broken world. The aim of this article is to reflect on whether one could speak of something like �compassionate leadership�, and to take a closer look at the relationship between compassion and God images in the life and work of Michael Lapsley. Special attention will be given to the way in which he exercises leadership through his many involvements related to his own personal story of trauma.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article presents literary research on the notion of compassionate leadership as a specific kind of leadership. The results indicate that the leadership of Father Michael Lapsley does indeed portray features of this kind of leadership. The research can become the source for finding new strategies for religious leadership.

  10. Entretien avec Michael Quinn Patton | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 févr. 2011 ... Michael Quinn Patton, évaluateur de renommée internationale, était récemment au CRDI .... C'est un mode de pensée analytique qui doit tout imprégner. ... des données solides et crédibles sur ce qui marche et ce qui ne marche pas. ... des emplois, des infrastructures et un accès à la nourriture et aux mar.

  11. Euroopa parimaks filmiks sai Michael Haneke "Valge lint" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2009-01-01

    Euroopa Filmiakadeemia auhindadest: parima filmiauhinna sai Saksamaal Bochumis toimunud tseremoonial Michael Haneke "Valge lint", mille eest Haneke sai ka parima režissööri ja stsenaristi auhinna. Parimaks meesnäitlejaks pärjati Tahar Rahim ("Un Prophete"), parimaks naisnäitlejaks Kate Winslet ("The Reader"), publikupreemia sai Danny Boyle'i "Rentslimiljonär. Ka teistest võitjatest

  12. Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, Pim P; Schepman, Sanneke M; Opheij, Wilfrid; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to understand the complexity of integrated care. The search method involved a combination of electronic database searches, hand searches of reference lists (snowball method) and contacting researchers in the field. The process of synthesizing the literature was iterative, to relate the concepts of primary care and integrated care. First, we identified the general principles of primary care and integrated care. Second, we connected the dimensions of integrated care and the principles of primary care. Finally, to improve content validity we held several meetings with researchers in the field to develop and refine our conceptual framework. The conceptual framework combines the functions of primary care with the dimensions of integrated care. Person-focused and population-based care serve as guiding principles for achieving integration across the care continuum. Integration plays complementary roles on the micro (clinical integration), meso (professional and organisational integration) and macro (system integration) level. Functional and normative integration ensure connectivity between the levels. The presented conceptual framework is a first step to achieve a better understanding of the inter-relationships among the dimensions of integrated care from a primary care perspective.

  13. Combining computer modelling and cardiac imaging to understand right ventricular pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, John; van Everdingen, Wouter; Cramer, Maarten J; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, Tammo; Lumens, Joost

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a strong predictor of outcome in heart failure and is a key determinant of exercise capacity. Despite these crucial findings, the RV remains understudied in the clinical, experimental, and computer modelling literature. This review outlines how recent advances in using computer modelling and cardiac imaging synergistically help to understand RV function in health and disease. We begin by highlighting the complexity of interactions that make modelling the RV both challenging and necessary, and then summarize the multiscale modelling approaches used to date to simulate RV pump function in the context of these interactions. We go on to demonstrate how these modelling approaches in combination with cardiac imaging have improved understanding of RV pump function in pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dyssynchronous heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and repaired tetralogy of Fallot. We conclude with a perspective on key issues to be addressed by computational models of the RV in the near future. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A Proteogenomic Approach to Understanding MYC Function in Metastatic Medulloblastoma Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome A. Staal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children, and medulloblastoma is the most prevalent malignant childhood/pediatric brain tumor. Providing effective treatment for these cancers, with minimal damage to the still-developing brain, remains one of the greatest challenges faced by clinicians. Understanding the diverse events driving tumor formation, maintenance, progression, and recurrence is necessary for identifying novel targeted therapeutics and improving survival of patients with this disease. Genomic copy number alteration data, together with clinical studies, identifies c-MYC amplification as an important risk factor associated with the most aggressive forms of medulloblastoma with marked metastatic potential. Yet despite this, very little is known regarding the impact of such genomic abnormalities upon the functional biology of the tumor cell. We discuss here how recent advances in quantitative proteomic techniques are now providing new insights into the functional biology of these aggressive tumors, as illustrated by the use of proteomics to bridge the gap between the genotype and phenotype in the case of c-MYC-amplified/associated medulloblastoma. These integrated proteogenomic approaches now provide a new platform for understanding cancer biology by providing a functional context to frame genomic abnormalities.

  15. Understanding the Functionality of Human Activity Hotspots from Their Scaling Pattern Using Trajectory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activity hotspots are the clusters of activity locations in space and time, and a better understanding of their functionality would be useful for urban land use planning and transportation. In this article, using trajectory data, we aim to infer the functionality of human activity hotspots from their scaling pattern in a reliable way. Specifically, a large number of stopping locations are extracted from trajectory data, which are then aggregated into activity hotspots. Activity hotspots are found to display scaling patterns in terms of the sublinear scaling relationships between the number of stopping locations and the number of points of interest (POIs, which indicates economies of scale of human interactions with urban land use. Importantly, this scaling pattern remains stable over time. This finding inspires us to devise an allometric ruler to identify the activity hotspots, whose functionality could be reliably estimated using the stopping locations. Thereafter, a novel Bayesian inference model is proposed to infer their urban functionality, which examines the spatial and temporal information of stopping locations covering 75 days. Experimental results suggest that the functionality of identified activity hotspots are reliably inferred by stopping locations, such as the railway station.

  16. Comparative Approaches to Understanding the Relation Between Aging and Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Jamie N; Cesari, Matteo; Seals, Douglas R; Shively, Carol A; Carter, Christy S

    2016-10-01

    Despite dedicated efforts to identify interventions to delay aging, most promising interventions yielding dramatic life-span extension in animal models of aging are often ineffective when translated to clinical trials. This may be due to differences in primary outcomes between species and difficulties in determining the optimal clinical trial paradigms for translation. Measures of physical function, including brief standardized testing batteries, are currently being proposed as biomarkers of aging in humans, are predictive of adverse health events, disability, and mortality, and are commonly used as functional outcomes for clinical trials. Motor outcomes are now being incorporated into preclinical testing, a positive step toward enhancing our ability to translate aging interventions to clinical trials. To further these efforts, we begin a discussion of physical function and disability assessment across species, with special emphasis on mice, rats, monkeys, and man. By understanding how physical function is assessed in humans, we can tailor measurements in animals to better model those outcomes to establish effective, standardized translational functional assessments with aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Towards a Stochastic Predictive Understanding of Ecosystem Functioning and Resilience to Environmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem processes respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Process-based modeling of ecosystem functioning is therefore challenging, especially when long-term predictions are envisioned. Here we analyze the statistical properties of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability, i.e., the variability of ecosystem process related to vegetation carbon dynamics, from hourly to decadal timescales. 23 extra-tropical forest sites, covering different climatic zones and vegetation characteristics, are examined. Micrometeorological and reanalysis data of precipitation, air temperature, shortwave radiation and vapor pressure deficit are used to describe hydrometeorological variability. Ecosystem variability is quantified using long-term eddy covariance flux data of hourly net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between land surface and atmosphere, monthly remote sensing vegetation indices, annual tree-ring widths and above-ground biomass increment estimates. We find that across sites and timescales ecosystem variability is confined within a hydrometeorological envelope that describes the range of variability of the available resources, i.e., water and energy. Furthermore, ecosystem variability demonstrates long-term persistence, highlighting ecological memory and slow ecosystem recovery rates after disturbances. We derive an analytical model, combining deterministic harmonics and stochastic processes, that represents major mechanisms and uncertainties and mimics the observed pattern of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability. This stochastic framework offers a parsimonious and mathematically tractable approach for modelling ecosystem functioning and for understanding its response and resilience to environmental changes. Furthermore, this framework reflects well the observed ecological memory, an inherent property of ecosystem functioning that is currently not

  18. Actin—Towards a Deeper Understanding of the Relationship Between Tissue Context, Cellular Function and Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Virginia A.

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in tumor development yet the contribution made by nuclear actin is ill-defined. In a recent study, nuclear actin was identified as a key mediator through which laminin type III (LN1) acts to control epithelial cell growth. In the breast, epithelial tumors are surrounded by an environment which lacks LN1. These findings point to actin as a potential mediator of tumor development. Here our current understanding of the roles of cytoplasmic and nuclear actin in normal and tumor cell growth is reviewed, relating these functions to cell phenotype in a tissue context

  19. Understanding Service Composition with Non-functional Properties Using Declarative Model-to-model Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Mäuhlhäuser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing applications comprising service composition is a complex task. Therefore, to lower the skill barrier for developers, it is important to describe the problem at hand on an abstract level and not to focus on implementation details. This can be done using declarative programming which allows to describe only the result of the problem (which is what the developer wants rather than the description of the implementation. We therefore use purely declarative model-to-model transformations written in a universal model transformation language which is capable of handling even non functional properties using optimization and mathematical programming. This makes it easier to understand and describe service composition and non-functional properties for the developer.

  20. The prefrontal landscape: implications of functional architecture for understanding human mentation and the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Rakic, P S

    1996-10-29

    The functional architecture of prefrontal cortex is central to our understanding of human mentation and cognitive prowess. This region of the brain is often treated as an undifferentiated structure, on the one hand, or as a mosaic of psychological faculties, on the other. This paper focuses on the working memory processor as a specialization of prefrontal cortex and argues that the different areas within prefrontal cortex represent iterations of this function for different information domains, including spatial cognition, object cognition and additionally, in humans, semantic processing. According to this parallel processing architecture, the 'central executive' could be considered an emergent property of multiple domain-specific processors operating interactively. These processors are specializations of different prefrontal cortical areas, each interconnected both with the domain-relevant long-term storage sites in posterior regions of the cortex and with appropriate output pathways.

  1. Making Sense of Abstract Algebra: Exploring Secondary Teachers' Understandings of Inverse Functions in Relation to Its Group Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on semi-structured, task-based interviews to explore secondary teachers' (N = 7) understandings of inverse functions in relation to abstract algebra. In particular, a concept map task is used to understand the degree to which participants, having recently taken an abstract algebra course, situated inverse functions within its…

  2. An attempt to understand kidney's protein handling function by comparing plasma and urine proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the help of proteomics technology, the human plasma and urine proteomes, which closely represent the protein compositions of the input and output of the kidney, respectively, have been profiled in much greater detail by different research teams. Many datasets have been accumulated to form "reference profiles" of the plasma and urine proteomes. Comparing these two proteomes may help us understand the protein handling aspect of kidney function in a way, however, which has been unavailable until the recent advances in proteomics technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After removing secreted proteins downstream of the kidney, 2611 proteins in plasma and 1522 in urine were identified with high confidence and compared based on available proteomic data to generate three subproteomes, the plasma-only subproteome, the plasma-and-urine subproteome, and the urine-only subproteome, and they correspond to three groups of proteins that are handled in three different ways by the kidney. The available experimental molecular weights of the proteins in the three subproteomes were collected and analyzed. Since the functions of the overrepresented proteins in the plasma-and-urine subproteome are probably the major functions that can be routinely regulated by excretion from the kidney in physiological conditions, Gene Ontology term enrichment in the plasma-and-urine subproteome versus the whole plasma proteome was analyzed. Protease activity, calcium and growth factor binding proteins, and coagulation and immune response-related proteins were found to be enriched. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The comparison method described in this paper provides an illustration of a new approach for studying organ functions with a proteomics methodology. Because of its distinctive input (plasma and output (urine, it is reasonable to predict that the kidney will be the first organ whose functions are further elucidated by proteomic methods in the near future. It

  3. O que é a Multidão? Questões para Michael Hardt e Antonio Negri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Brown

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multidão, livro mais recente de Michael Hardt e Antonio Negri, é uma tentativa de nomear e compreender as condições que envolvem a dinâmica social do século xxi. Na entrevista a seguir, Hardt e Negri discorrem sobre as possibilidades de constituição da multidão como agente político, discutem os fundamentos do livro e defendem conceitos que consideram determinantes para a compreensão dos novos tempos, tais como biopolítica e biopoder.Multitude, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri’s latest book, is an attempt at understanding conditions involving social dynamics in the xxi century. In the interview below, Hardt and Negri consider the constitution of the multitude as a political agent, discuss the structure of their book and support concepts seen as crucial for the comprehension of our time, such as biopolitics and biopower.

  4. Understanding deep roots and their functions in ecosystems: an advocacy for more unconventional research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Alain; Maeght, Jean-Luc; Clément, Corentin; Montoroi, Jean-Pierre; Hartmann, Christian; Gonkhamdee, Santimaitree

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep roots are a common trait among a wide range of plant species and biomes, and are pivotal to the very existence of ecosystem services such as pedogenesis, groundwater and streamflow regulation, soil carbon sequestration and moisture content in the lower troposphere. Notwithstanding the growing realization of the functional significance of deep roots across disciplines such as soil science, agronomy, hydrology, ecophysiology or climatology, research efforts allocated to the study of deep roots remain incommensurate with those devoted to shallow roots. This is due in part to the fact that, despite technological advances, observing and measuring deep roots remains challenging. Scope Here, other reasons that explain why there are still so many fundamental unresolved questions related to deep roots are discussed. These include the fact that a number of hypotheses and models that are widely considered as verified and sufficiently robust are only partly supported by data. Evidence has accumulated that deep rooting could be a more widespread and important trait among plants than usually considered based on the share of biomass that it represents. Examples that indicate that plant roots have different structures and play different roles with respect to major biochemical cycles depending on their position within the soil profile are also examined and discussed. Conclusions Current knowledge gaps are identified and new lines of research for improving our understanding of the processes that drive deep root growth and functioning are proposed. This ultimately leads to a reflection on an alternative paradigm that could be used in the future as a unifying framework to describe and analyse deep rooting. Despite the many hurdles that pave the way to a practical understanding of deep rooting functions, it is anticipated that, in the relatively near future, increased knowledge about the deep rooting traits of a variety of plants and crops will have direct and tangible

  5. Invited Commentary: Continuing to Loosen the Constraints on Epidemiology in an Age of Change-A Comment on McMichael's "Prisoners of the Proximate".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro

    2017-06-01

    Published in 1999, McMichael's "Prisoners of the Proximate: Loosening the Constraints on Epidemiology in an Age of Change" (Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(10):887-897) outlined an exciting vision for epidemiology as the field that that can help us better understand the drivers of population health so that we may intervene, paving the way for healthier populations. McMichael's paper remains today what it was when it was first published: clear, thoughtful, provocative, and usefully prescriptive in its call to action. McMichael identified 4 constraints facing epidemiology. The field has risen to this challenge and addressed some of these constraints. I discuss how successful (or not) we have been in addressing each of these 4 challenges. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Functional understanding of the diverse exon-intron structures of human GPCR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Dorothy A; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

    2014-02-01

    The GPCR genes have a variety of exon-intron structures even though their proteins are all structurally homologous. We have examined all human GPCR genes with at least two functional protein isoforms, totaling 199, aiming to gain an understanding of what may have contributed to the large diversity of the exon-intron structures of the GPCR genes. The 199 genes have a total of 808 known protein splicing isoforms with experimentally verified functions. Our analysis reveals that 1301 (80.6%) adjacent exon-exon pairs out of the total of 1,613 in the 199 genes have either exactly one exon skipped or the intron in-between retained in at least one of the 808 protein splicing isoforms. This observation has a statistical significance p-value of 2.051762 * e(-09), assuming that the observed splicing isoforms are independent of the exon-intron structures. Our interpretation of this observation is that the exon boundaries of the GPCR genes are not randomly determined; instead they may be selected to facilitate specific alternative splicing for functional purposes.

  7. Revisiting the Holy Grail: using plant functional traits to understand ecological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Larson, Julie E; Ames, Gregory M; Butterfield, Bradley J; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Firn, Jennifer; Laughlin, Daniel C; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E; Williams, Laura; Wright, Justin

    2017-05-01

    One of ecology's grand challenges is developing general rules to explain and predict highly complex systems. Understanding and predicting ecological processes from species' traits has been considered a 'Holy Grail' in ecology. Plant functional traits are increasingly being used to develop mechanistic models that can predict how ecological communities will respond to abiotic and biotic perturbations and how species will affect ecosystem function and services in a rapidly changing world; however, significant challenges remain. In this review, we highlight recent work and outstanding questions in three areas: (i) selecting relevant traits; (ii) describing intraspecific trait variation and incorporating this variation into models; and (iii) scaling trait data to community- and ecosystem-level processes. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in the characterization of plant strategies based on traits and trait relationships, and the integration of traits into multivariate indices and models of community and ecosystem function. However, the utility of trait-based approaches in ecology will benefit from efforts that demonstrate how these traits and indices influence organismal, community, and ecosystem processes across vegetation types, which may be achieved through meta-analysis and enhancement of trait databases. Additionally, intraspecific trait variation and species interactions need to be incorporated into predictive models using tools such as Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Finally, existing models linking traits to community and ecosystem processes need to be empirically tested for their applicability to be realized. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Michael Kohlhaas or the Germans and Their Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Jung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Asked to pick a single representative ‘German’ piece for a discourse on ‘Law and Literature’ one almost inevitably ends up with Kleist’s tale Michael Kohlhaas. It seems to be the literary incarnation of the German stance vis-à-vis the law. It is all about horses; it could just as well be about dogs. Kohlhaas fights a devastating battle, using legal means and outright violence, even warfare, for their recovery in good shape. Victorious eventually with his legal actions, he is happy to trade in his own life for this victory, thus giving an extreme example for the nice line between being in the right and pursuing this position with disproportionate rigour. Of course, the interpretations of Michael Kohlhaas (which, in its complete version, dates of 1810 have varied from epoch to epoch as well as from reader to reader. It is not possible to rehearse the bulk of ‘Kohlhaas literature’. In comparing legal cultures, it might be of interest to look into the question why such a somber story on the law forms part and will continue to form part of the German cultural heritage. Si se tiene que elegir un único representante “alemán” para una ponencia sobre “derecho y literatura”, es inevitable optar por la obra de Kleist, Michael Kohlhaas. Parece la encarnación literaria de la posición alemana hacia el derecho. El libro trata de caballos; también podría tratar sobre perros. Kohlhaas libra una batalla devastadora usando medios legales y la violencia pura y dura, incluso la guerra, para que se recuperen en buena forma. Finalmente resulta ganador mediante acciones legales, está contento de dedicar su propia vida para conseguir esta victoria, dando así un ejemplo extremo de la línea que existe entre tener la razón y seguir esta posición con un rigor desproporcionado. Por supuesto, las interpretaciones de Michael Kohlhaas (publicado en 1810 han variado de una época a otra, y de un lector a otro. No es posible revisar el grueso de

  9. The Correspondence of Michael Faraday Pt 6 1860-1867

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, James

    2012-01-01

    Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was one of the most important men of science in nineteenth century Britain. His discoveries of electro-magnetic rotations (1821) and electro-magnetic induction (1831) laid the foundations of the modern electrical industry. His discovery of the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism (1845) led him to formulate the field theory of electro-magnetism, which forms one of the cornerstones of modern physics.These and a whole host of other fundamental discoveries in physics and chemistry, together with his lecturing at the Royal Institution, his work for the state (includi

  10. Michael Marinov memorial volume multiple facets of quantization and supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vainshtein, A I

    2002-01-01

    This book is dedicated to the memory of Michael Marinov, the theorist who, together with Felix Berezin, introduced the classical description of spin by anticommuting Grassmann variables. It contains original papers and reviews by physicists and mathematicians written specifically for the book. These articles reflect the current status and recent developments in the areas of Marinov's research: quantum tunneling, quantization of constrained systems, supersymmetry, and others. The personal recollections included portray the human face of M Marinov, a person of great knowledge and integrity.

  11. Using Brain Oscillations and Corticospinal Excitability to Understand and Predict Post-Stroke Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Thibaut

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation—TMS and brain oscillations (electroencephalography—EEG. In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke were recruited in two sites. We analyzed TMS measures (i.e., motor threshold—MT—of the affected and unaffected sides and EEG variables (i.e., power spectrum in different frequency bands and different brain regions of the affected and unaffected hemispheres and their correlation with motor impairment as measured by Fugl-Meyer. Multiple univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of good motor function. A significant interaction effect of MT in the affected hemisphere and power in beta bandwidth over the central region for both affected and unaffected hemispheres was found. We identified that motor function positively correlates with beta rhythm over the central region of the unaffected hemisphere, while it negatively correlates with beta rhythm in the affected hemisphere. Our results suggest that cortical activity in the affected and unaffected hemisphere measured by EEG provides new insights on the association between high-frequency rhythms and motor impairment, highlighting the role of an excess of beta in the affected central cortical region in poor motor function in stroke recovery.

  12. Using Sandia's Z Machine and Density Functional Theory Simulations to Understand Planetary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth

    2017-06-01

    The use of Z, NIF, and Omega have produced many breakthrough results in high pressure physics. One area that has greatly benefited from these facilities is the planetary sciences. The high pressure behavior of planetary materials has implications for numerous geophysical and planetary processes. The continuing discovery of exosolar super-Earths demonstrates the need for accurate equation of state data to better inform our models of their interior structures. Planetary collision processes, such as the moon-forming giant impact, require understanding planetary materials over a wide-range of pressures and temperatures. Using Z, we examined the shock compression response of some common planetary materials: MgO, Mg2SiO4, and Fe2O3 (hematite). We compare the experimental shock compression measurements with density functional theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. The combination of experiment and theory provides clearer understanding of planetary materials properties at extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Metabolomics: An Essential Tool to Understand the Function of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, Jessica E.; Peters, Jeffrey M.; Correll, Jared B.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Patterson, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear hormone transcription factors (PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ) is regulated by a wide array of ligands including natural and synthetic chemicals. PPARs have important roles in control of energy metabolism and are known to influence inflammation, differentiation, carcinogenesis, and chemical toxicity. As such, PPARs have been targeted as therapy for common disorders such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes. The recent application of metabolomics, or the global, unbiased measurement of small molecules found in biofluids, or extracts from cells, tissues, or organisms, has advanced our understanding of the varied and important roles that the PPARs have in normal physiology as well as in pathophysiological processes. Continued development and refinement of analytical platforms, and the application of new bioinformatics strategies, have accelerated the widespread use of metabolomics and have allowed further integration of small molecules into systems biology. Recent studies using metabolomics to understand PPARα function, as well as to identify PPARα biomarkers associated with drug efficacy/toxicity and drug-induced liver injury, will be discussed. PMID:23197196

  14. Potential use of MEG to understand abnormalities in auditory function in clinical populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLarson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG provides a direct, non-invasive view of neural activity with millisecond temporal precision. Recent developments in MEG analysis allow for improved source localization and mapping of connectivity between brain regions, expanding the possibilities for using MEG as a diagnostic tool. In this paper, we first describe inverse imaging methods (e.g., minimum-norm estimation and functional connectivity measures, and how they can provide insights into cortical processing. We then offer a perspective on how these techniques could be used to understand and evaluate auditory pathologies that often manifest during development. Here we focus specifically on how MEG inverse imaging, by providing anatomically-based interpretation of neural activity, may allow us to test which aspects of cortical processing play a role in (central auditory processing disorder ([C]APD. Appropriately combining auditory paradigms with MEG analysis could eventually prove useful for a hypothesis-driven understanding and diagnosis of (CAPD or other disorders, as well as the evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention strategies.

  15. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; hide

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  16. Gait and Cognition: A Complementary Approach to Understanding Brain Function and the Risk of Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Verghese, Joe; Beauchet, Olivier; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, clinicians and researchers have performed gait assessments and cognitive assessments separately when evaluating older adults. Increasing evidence from clinical practice, epidemiological studies, and clinical trials shows that gait and cognition are inter-related in older adults. Quantifiable alterations in gait among older adults are associated with falls, dementia, and disability. At the same time, emerging evidence indicates that early disturbances in cognitive processes such as attention, executive function, and working memory are associated with slower gait and gait instability during single and dual-task testing, and that these cognitive disturbances assist in the prediction of future mobility loss, falls, and progression to dementia. This paper reviews the importance of the gait-cognition inter-relationship in aging and presents evidence that gait assessments can provide a window into the understanding of cognitive function and dysfunctions, and fall risk in older people in clinical practice. To this end, the benefits of dual-task gait assessments (e.g., walking while performing an attention-demanding task) as a marker of fall risk are summarized. Further, we also present a potential complementary approach for reducing the risk of falls by improving certain aspects of cognition through both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Untangling the relationship between early gait disturbances and early cognitive changes may be helpful for identifying older adults at higher risk of experiencing mobility decline, falls and the progression to dementia. PMID:23110433

  17. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie

    2018-02-20

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  18. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Rowe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  19. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitness, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement. PMID:29461487

  20. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia: Functional assessment of missense variants in GLDC to understand phenotypes of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Alonso, Irene; Navarrete, Rosa; Arribas-Carreira, Laura; Perona, Almudena; Abia, David; Couce, María Luz; García-Cazorla, Angels; Morais, Ana; Domingo, Rosario; Ramos, María Antonia; Swanson, Michael A; Van Hove, Johan L K; Ugarte, Magdalena; Pérez, Belén; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar

    2017-06-01

    The rapid analysis of genomic data is providing effective mutational confirmation in patients with clinical and biochemical hallmarks of a specific disease. This is the case for nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), a Mendelian disorder causing seizures in neonates and early-infants, primarily due to mutations in the GLDC gene. However, understanding the impact of missense variants identified in this gene is a major challenge for the application of genomics into clinical practice. Herein, a comprehensive functional and structural analysis of 19 GLDC missense variants identified in a cohort of 26 NKH patients was performed. Mutant cDNA constructs were expressed in COS7 cells followed by enzymatic assays and Western blot analysis of the GCS P-protein to assess the residual activity and mutant protein stability. Structural analysis, based on molecular modeling of the 3D structure of GCS P-protein, was also performed. We identify hypomorphic variants that produce attenuated phenotypes with improved prognosis of the disease. Structural analysis allows us to interpret the effects of mutations on protein stability and catalytic activity, providing molecular evidence for clinical outcome and disease severity. Moreover, we identify an important number of mutants whose loss-of-functionality is associated with instability and, thus, are potential targets for rescue using folding therapeutic approaches. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Advances in the understanding of the BBSome complex structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Hernandez V

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Victor Hernandez-Hernandez, Dagan JenkinsGenetics and Genomic Medicine Programme, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UKAbstract: Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by important clinical features, including obesity, blindness, renal cystic disease, and intellectual disability. BBS is caused by mutations in >20 genes, a subset of which form the so-called BBSome. The BBSome is a complex that coats intracellular vesicles and interacts with key proteins, such as small GTPases, that regulate the trafficking of these vesicles to the base of cilia. Cilia are microtubular protusions present on the surface of most cells that are defective in a key group of disorders known as ciliopathies, of which BBS is one. BBSome components particularly localize to the basal body of cilia, and also centrosomes, where they interact with pericentriolar material proteins that regulate their function. The BBSome also facilitates the transport of key cargo within cilia by acting as an adaptor protein for intraflagellar transport complexes, and as such BBS mutations lead to a variety of functional defects in cilia in a tissue- and cell-type-specific manner. This might include defects in photoreceptor trafficking linked to the connecting cilium, abnormal hedgehog signaling within bone, and aberrant calcium signaling in response to fluid flow along renal tubules, although the precise mechanisms are still not completely understood. Taken together, the BBSome is an important complex that may be targeted for treatment of a variety of common and important disorders, and understanding the precise function of the BBSome will be essential to capitalize on this translationally.Keywords: retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator, polycystin, disrupted in schizophrenia 1, Hedgehog signaling, calcium signaling, photoreceptors

  2. Understanding the HIV-1 protease reactivity with DFT: what do we gain from recent functionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrec, J; Sautet, P; Fleurat-Lessard, P

    2011-07-07

    The modeling of HIV-1 plays a crucial role in the understanding of its reactivity and its interactions with specific drugs. In this work, we propose a medium sized model to test the ability of a variety of quantum chemistry approaches to provide reasonable geometric parameters and energetics for this system. Although our model is large enough to include the main polarizing groups of the active site, it is small enough to be used within full quantum studies up to the second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) level with extrapolations to coupled cluster CCSD(T) level. These high level calculations are used as reference to assess the ability of electronic structure methods (semiempirical and DFT) to provide accurate geometries and energies for the HIV-1 protease reaction. All semiempirical methods fail to describe the geometry of the protease active site. Within DFT, pure generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals have difficulty in reproducing the reaction energy and underestimate the barrier. Hybrid and/or meta GGA approaches do not yield a consistent improvement. The best results are obtained with hybrid GGA B3LYP or X3LYP and with hybrid meta GGA functionals with a fraction of exact exchange around 30-40%, such as M06, B1B95, or BMK functionals. On the basis of these results, we propose an accurate and computationally efficient strategy, employing quantum chemistry methods. This is applied here to study the protonation state of the reaction intermediate and could be easily used in further QM/MM studies.

  3. Understanding recovery: changes in the relationships of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) components over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Ibrahim, S; Hogg-Johnson, S; Wong, R; Badley, E M

    2012-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework describes human functioning through body structure and function, activity and participation in the context of a person's social and physical environment. This work tested the temporal relationships of these components. Our hypotheses were: 1) there would be associations among physical impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions within time; 2) prior status of a component would be associated with future status; 3) prior status of one component would influence status of a second component (e.g. prior activity limitations would be associated with current participation restrictions); and, 4) the magnitude of the within time relationships of the components would vary over time. Participants from Canada with primary hip or knee joint replacement (n = 931), an intervention with predictable improvement in pain and disability, completed standardized outcome measures pre-surgery and five times in the first year post-surgery. These included physical impairment (pain), activity limitations and participation restrictions. ICF component relationships were evaluated cross-sectionally and longitudinally using path analysis adjusting for age, sex, BMI, hip vs. knee, low back pain and mood. All component scores improved significantly over time. The path coefficients supported the hypotheses in that both within and across time, physical impairment was associated with activity limitation and activity limitation was associated with participation restriction; prior status and change in a component were associated with current status in another component; and, the magnitude of the path coefficients varied over time with stronger associations among components to three months post surgery than later in recovery with the exception of the association between impairment and participation restrictions which was of similar magnitude at all times. This work enhances understanding of the

  4. A History of Experiences and Thinking Men. The History of Political Thought according to Michael Oakeshott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Pupo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Oakeshott conceives the history of European political thought as a structuring of ideas and arguments of the practical experience aimed to understanding political expressions in vogue in the culture of a people. It is not a continuous and cumulative history of abstract and disembodied ideas, as it is wrongly conceived, but of some men who thought politics in a certain way on the basis of the language and of the set of actions, moral beliefs and contingencies of the people which they belong to. The article highlights the comparison between Oakeshott, Quentin Skinner and Gianfranco Miglio on the search for the most appropriate method to be applied in the study of the history of political thought.

  5. Cognitive Shifting as a Predictor of Progress in Social Understanding in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hans J. C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study of 17 high-functioning residentially treated adolescents with autism found that cognitive shifting, as measured by card sorting tests, was the only significant factor in predicting progress in social understanding. (Author/JDD)

  6. Urban Ecological Stewardship: Understanding the Structure, Function and Network of Community-based Urban Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based urban land managers, an assessment was conducted in 2004 by the research subcommittee of the Urban Ecology Collaborative. The goal of the assessment was to better understand the role of stewardship organizations engaged in urban ecology initiatives in selected major cities in the Northeastern U.S.: Boston, New Haven, New York City, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. A total of 135 active organizations participated in this assessment. Findings include the discovery of a dynamic social network operating within cities, and a reserve of social capital and expertise that could be better utilized. Although often not the primary land owner, stewardship groups take an increasingly significant responsibility for a wide range of land use types including street and riparian corridors, vacant lots, public parks and gardens, green roofs, etc. Responsibilities include the delivery of public programs as well as daily maintenance and fundraising support. While most of the environmental stewardship organizations operate on staffs of zero or fewer than ten, with small cohorts of community volunteers, there is a significant difference in the total amount of program funding. Nearly all respondents agree that committed resources are scarce and insufficient with stewards relying upon and potentially competing for individual donations, local foundations, and municipal support. This makes it a challenge for the groups to grow beyond their current capacity and to develop long-term programs critical to resource management and education. It also fragments groups, making it difficult for planners and

  7. Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop: functional genomics for understanding metabolic pathways and genetic improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

    2013-10-01

    Jatropha curcas is currently attracting much attention as an oilseed crop for biofuel, as Jatropha can grow under climate and soil conditions that are unsuitable for food production. However, little is known about Jatropha, and there are a number of challenges to be overcome. In fact, Jatropha has not really been domesticated; most of the Jatropha accessions are toxic, which renders the seedcake unsuitable for use as animal feed. The seeds of Jatropha contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively impact the biofuel quality. Fruiting of Jatropha is fairly continuous, thus increasing costs of harvesting. Therefore, before starting any improvement program using conventional or molecular breeding techniques, understanding gene function and the genome scale of Jatropha are prerequisites. This review presents currently available and relevant information on the latest technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) to decipher important metabolic pathways within Jatropha, such as oil and toxin synthesis. Further, it discusses future directions for biotechnological approaches in Jatropha breeding and improvement. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multilevel functional genomics data integration as a tool for understanding physiology: a network biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Turan, Nil; Egginton, Stuart; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The overall aim of physiological research is to understand how living systems function in an integrative manner. Consequently, the discipline of physiology has since its infancy attempted to link multiple levels of biological organization. Increasingly this has involved mathematical and computational approaches, typically to model a small number of components spanning several levels of biological organization. With the advent of "omics" technologies, which can characterize the molecular state of a cell or tissue (intended as the level of expression and/or activity of its molecular components), the number of molecular components we can quantify has increased exponentially. Paradoxically, the unprecedented amount of experimental data has made it more difficult to derive conceptual models underlying essential mechanisms regulating mammalian physiology. We present an overview of state-of-the-art methods currently used to identifying biological networks underlying genomewide responses. These are based on a data-driven approach that relies on advanced computational methods designed to "learn" biology from observational data. In this review, we illustrate an application of these computational methodologies using a case study integrating an in vivo model representing the transcriptional state of hypoxic skeletal muscle with a clinical study representing muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The broader application of these approaches to modeling multiple levels of biological data in the context of modern physiology is discussed. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Complexities in Understanding Attentional Functioning among Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental reports of attention problems and clinical symptomatology of ADHD among children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorder (FASD were assessed in relation to performance on standardized subtests of attantional control/shifting and selective attention from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch; Manly et al., 1998. The participants included 14 children with FASD with a mean CA of 11.7 years and a mean MA of 9.7 years, and 14 typically developing (TD children with no reported history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or attention problems with a mean CA of 8.4 years and a mean MA of 9.6 years. The children with FASD were rated by their caregivers as having clinically significant attention difficulties for their developmental age. The reported symptomatology for the majority of the children with FASD were consistent with a diagnosis of ADHD, combined type, and only one child had a score within the average range. These reports are consistent with the finding here that the children with FASD demonstrated difficulties on the Creature Counting subtest of attentional control/shifting, but inconsistent with the finding that they outperformed the TD children on the Map Mission subtest of selective attention. These findings are considered within the context of the complexity in understanding attentional functioning among children with FASD and discrepancies across sources of information and components of attention.

  10. A brief histone in time: understanding the combinatorial functions of histone PTMs in the nucleosome context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Marlee K; Cheung, Peter

    2016-02-01

    It has been over 50 years since Allfrey et al. proposed that histone acetylation regulates RNA synthesis, and the study of histone modifications has progressed at an extraordinary pace for the past two decades. In this review, we provide a perspective on some key events and advances in our understanding of histone modifications. We also highlight reagents and tools from past to present that facilitated progress in this research field. Using histone H3 phosphorylation as an underlying thread, we review the rationale that led to the proposal of the histone code hypothesis, as well as examples that illustrate the concepts of combinatorial histone modifications and cross-talk pathways. We further highlight the importance of investigating these mechanisms in the context of nucleosomes rather than just at the histone level and present current and developing approaches for such studies. Overall, research on histone modifications has yielded great mechanistic insights into the regulation of genomic functions, and extending these studies using nucleosomes will further elucidate the complexity of these pathways in a more physiologically relevant context.

  11. Inverting the diastereoselectivity of the mukaiyama-michael addition with graphite-based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Acocella, Maria Rosaria

    2014-02-07

    Here, we show that graphite-based catalysts, mainly graphite oxide (GO) and exfoliated GO, are effective recyclable catalysts for a relevant stereoselective Mukaiyama-Michael addition, outperforming currently available catalysts. Moreover, the graphite-based catalysts described here invert the diastereoselectivity relative to that observed with known catalysts, with the unprecedented large prevalence of the anti diastereoisomer. This inverted diastereoselectivity is increased when the catalyst concentration is reduced and after catalyst recycling. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the selectivity is determined by two types of supramolecular interactions operating between the catalyst and the substrates at the diastereoselectivity- determining transition state, specifically, the π-stacking of b-nitrostyrene with graphite and the van der Waals interaction between the SiMe3 group of the silyl ether and the graphite. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. A Study of Postmodern Narrative in Michael Cunningham's The Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Abbasi Narinabad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project aims at providing a detailed analysis of the major features of the theory of postmodern narrative and at going through the novel The Hours by the American writer Michael Cunningham concentrating on some postmodern narrative techniques. To do so, the researcher goes through the theories set forth by some postmodern theoreticians like Roland Barthes, Jacque Derrida, Jean-François Lyotard and Julia Kristeva to investigate the postmodern narrative techniques and elements used in the novel. The researcher first examines the theories and then critically applies them on the novel. The article goes through the most eminent elements of postmodern narrative including intertextuality, stream of consciousness style, fragmentation and representation respectively which are delicately utilized in The Hours. The article concludes by recommending a few directions for the further research.

  13. Michael Longley’s Father: Memory, Mourning and History

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    Barry Sloan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Longley’s father has been a recurring presence in the poet’s work from his earliest to his most recent collection. This paper examines the exceptional strength of that bond reflected in the varied and changing ways in which the poet has responded to it – memorizing and mourning his loss; discovering through his father’s First World War stories a means of memorialising loss of life in contemporary conflicts and a way of facing the history of the twentieth century; confronting his own ageing and sense of mortality; and marking the specific, but also representative, generational history of his family. Close readings of key poems are offered to highlight Longley’s skills in meeting his own exacting standards of aesthetic propriety and moral and social responsibility for writers of elegy in order to avoid either exploitation of tragedy and loss, or facile gestures of consolation.

  14. Estratégia competitiva: Michael Porter 30 anos depois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos de estratégia têm sido muito influenciados pelos trabalhos de Michael Porter, em todas as suas fases, como as cinco forças, as estratégias genéricas, a cadeia de valor e as vantagens competitivas das nações. Neste artigo, analisou-se a influência de Porter nos trabalhos brasileiros em estratégia, a partir dos trabalhos selecionados e apresentados no EnANPAD. No levantamento para a análise dos artigos, considerando 10 anos de EnANPAD (1997-2006, foram selecionados 46 artigos. A identificação e seleção dos artigos envolveram os seguintes critérios: busca complementar por palavra-chave Porter na base de dados do EnANPAD; avaliação dos títulos e resumos dos artigos apresentados na área de estratégia entre 1997 e 2006, bem como na íntegra quando necessário. Procedeu-se também à análise das referências utilizadas nos artigos e o posicionamento dos autores em relação às tipologias de Porter. Como resultado, verificou-se que Michael Porter é um autor com grande influência nas pesquisas acadêmicas de estratégia. Seus estudos mais utilizados são os da análise da indústria e das estratégias genéricas, e também se verificou que a maioria dos estudos analisados é favorável aos seus conceitos, mesmo existindo pesquisas contrárias.

  15. Understanding the Structure-Function Relationships of Dendrimers in Environmental and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    We are living an era wherein nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in our lives. Dendrimers are special polymeric NPs with unique physiochemical properties, which have been intensely explored for a variety of applications. Current studies on dendrimers are bottlenecked by insufficient understandings of their structure and dynamic behaviors from a molecular level. With primarily computational approaches supplemented by many other experimental technics, this dissertation aims to establish structure-function relationships of dendrimers in environmental and biomedical applications. More specifically, it thoroughly investigates the interactions between dendrimers and different biomolecules including carbon-based NPs, metal-based NPs, and proteins/peptides. Those results not only provide profound knowledge for evaluating the impacts of dendrimers on environmental and biological systems but also facilitate designing next-generation functional polymeric nanomaterials. The dissertation is organized as following. Chapter 1 provides an overview of current progresses on dendrimer studies, where methodology of Discrete Molecular Dynamics (DMD), my major research tool, is also introduced. Two directions of utilizing dendrimers will be discussed in following chapters. Chapter 2 will focus on environmental applications of dendrimers, where two back-to-back studies are presented. I will start from describing some interesting observations from experiments i.e. dendrimers dispersed model oil molecules. Then, I will reveal why surface chemistries of dendrimers lead to different remediation efficiencies by computational modelings. Finally, I will demonstrate different scenarios of dendrimer-small molecules association. Chapter 3 is centered on dendrimers in the biomedical applications including two subtopics. In the first topic, we will discuss dendrimers as surfactants that modulating the interactions between proteins and NPs. Some fundamental concepts regarding to NPs

  16. Predictive Understanding of Mountainous Watershed Hydro-Biogeochemical Function and Response to Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Williams, K. H.; Agarwal, D.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Bouskill, N.; Brodie, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Nico, P. S.; Steefel, C. I.; Steltzer, H.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dwivedi, D.; Newcomer, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Recognizing the societal importance, vulnerability and complexity of mountainous watersheds, the `Watershed Function' project is developing a predictive understanding of how mountainous watersheds retain and release downgradient water, nutrients, carbon, and metals. In particular, the project is exploring how early snowmelt, drought, floods and other disturbances will influence mountainous watershed dynamics at seasonal to decadal timescales. Located in the 300km2 East River headwater catchment of the Upper Colorado River Basin, the project is guided by several constructs. First, the project considers the integrated role of surface and subsurface flow and biogeochemical reactions - from bedrock to the top of the vegetative canopy, from terrestrial through aquatic compartments, and from summit to receiving waters. The project takes a system-of-systems perspective, focused on developing new methods to quantify the cumulative watershed hydrobiogeochemical response to perturbations based on information from select subsystems within the watershed, each having distinct vegetation-subsurface biogeochemical-hydrological characteristics. A `scale-adaptive' modeling capability, in development using adaptive mesh refinement methods, serves as the organizing framework for the SFA. The scale-adaptive approach is intended to permit simulation of system-within-systems behavior - and aggregation of that behavior - from genome through watershed scales. This presentation will describe several early project discoveries and advances made using experimental, observational and numerical approaches. Among others, examples may include:quantiying how seasonal hydrological perturbations drive biogeochemical responses across critical zone compartments, with a focus on N and C transformations; metagenomic documentation of the spatial variability in floodplain meander microbial ecology; 3D reactive transport simulations of couped hydrological-biogeochemical behavior in the hyporheic zone; and

  17. Building an Understanding of Functions: A Series of Activities for Pre-Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2008-01-01

    Building block toys can be used to illustrate various concepts connected with functions including graphs and rates of change of linear and exponential functions, piecewise functions, and composition of functions. Five brief activities suitable for a pre-calculus course are described.

  18. Studying Teachers and Schools: Michael Pressley's Legacy and Directions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Lindsey; Lundeberg, Mary A.; Reffitt, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Much of Michael Pressley's work during the past decade focused on the nature of highly effective, engaging literacy instruction. Michael Pressley believed that studying effective teachers and schools had the potential to influence more engaging and effective teaching, especially in underresourced schools. First, we describe the grounded…

  19. Markets, Marx, Modernity and Mathematics Education: A Response to Michael Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter

    This paper is a response to Michael Apple's paper, "What Postmodernists Forget: Cultural Capital and Official Knowledge." The paper advocates Michael's identification of the current dangers and processes of the growth of new right ideologies in the development of subjectivity, society, and education. The differences in success in the education…

  20. Reflections on Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri’s Book “Assembly”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents reflections on Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri’s book “Assembly” (2017, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0190677961. Keywords: assembly, Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri, multitude, common, entrepreneurship of the multitude, the new Prince, digital capitalism, digital assemblage, neoliberalism, finance

  1. Integrating community assembly and biodiversity to better understand ecosystem function: the Community Assembly and the Functioning of Ecosystems (CAFE) approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannar-Martin, K.; Kremer, C.; Ernest, S.K. Morgan; Leibold, M.; Auge, H.; Chase, J.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Eisenhauer, Nico; Harpole, W.S.; Hillebrand, H.; Isbell, F.; Koffel, T.; Larsen, S.; Narwani, A.; Petermann, J.; Roscher, C.; Sarmento Cabral, J.; Supp, S.

    2018-01-01

    The research of a generation of ecologists was catalysed by the recognition that the number and identity of species in communities influences the functioning of ecosystems. The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is most often examined by controlling species richness

  2. Integrating community assembly and biodiversity to better understand ecosystem function: the Community Assembly and the Functioning of Ecosystems (CAFE) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannar-Martin, Katherine H; Kremer, Colin T; Ernest, S K Morgan; Leibold, Mathew A; Auge, Harald; Chase, Jonathan; Declerck, Steven A J; Eisenhauer, Nico; Harpole, Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Isbell, Forest; Koffel, Thomas; Larsen, Stefano; Narwani, Anita; Petermann, Jana S; Roscher, Christiane; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Supp, Sarah R

    2018-02-01

    The research of a generation of ecologists was catalysed by the recognition that the number and identity of species in communities influences the functioning of ecosystems. The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is most often examined by controlling species richness and randomising community composition. In natural systems, biodiversity changes are often part of a bigger community assembly dynamic. Therefore, focusing on community assembly and the functioning of ecosystems (CAFE), by integrating both species richness and composition through species gains, losses and changes in abundance, will better reveal how community changes affect ecosystem function. We synthesise the BEF and CAFE perspectives using an ecological application of the Price equation, which partitions the contributions of richness and composition to function. Using empirical examples, we show how the CAFE approach reveals important contributions of composition to function. These examples show how changes in species richness and composition driven by environmental perturbations can work in concert or antagonistically to influence ecosystem function. Considering how communities change in an integrative fashion, rather than focusing on one axis of community structure at a time, will improve our ability to anticipate and predict changes in ecosystem function. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hexamethoxylated Monocarbonyl Analogues of Curcumin Cause G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in NCI-H460 Cells via Michael Acceptor-Dependent Redox Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Li-Ping; Dai, Fang; Yan, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hai-Bo; Tu, Zhi-Shan; Zhou, Bo

    2015-09-09

    Curcumin, derived from the dietary spice turmeric, holds promise for cancer prevention. This prompts much interest in investigating the action mechanisms of curcumin and its analogues. Two symmetrical hexamethoxy-diarylpentadienones (1 and 2) as cucumin analogues were reported to possess significantly enhanced cytotoxicity compared with the parent molecule. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, compounds 1 and 2 were identified as the G2/M cell cycle arrest agents to mediate the cytotoxicity toward NCI-H460 cells via Michael acceptor-dependent redox intervention. Compared with curcumin, they could more easily induce a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and collapse of the redox buffering system. One possible reason is that they could more effectively target intracellular TrxR to convert this antioxidant enzyme into a ROS promoter. Additionally, they caused up-regulation of p53 and p21 and down-regulation of redox-sensitive Cdc25C along with cyclin B1/Cdk1 in a Michael acceptor- and ROS-dependent fashion. Interestingly, in comparison with compound 2, compound 1 displayed a relatively weak ability to generate ROS but increased cell cycle arrest activity and cytotoxicity probably due to its Michael acceptor-dependent microtubule-destabilizing effect and greater GST-inhibitory activity, as well as its enhanced cellular uptake. This work provides useful information for understanding Michael acceptor-dependent and redox-mediated cytotoxic mechanisms of curcumin and its active analogues.

  4. Understanding the Pathophysiology of Spinocerebellar Ataxias through genetics, neurophysiology, structural and functional neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Pal

    2015-12-01

    largely absent with additional activity in contralateral cortices and in thalami in patients with SCA1; increased thalamic function could be one of the causes for disinhibition of the motor cortex contributing to uncoordinated movements.Studies on larger cohort of each subtype of SCAs to validate the above findings, follow-up studies to determine the rate and nature of progression of neurodegeneration and evaluation of pre-symptomatic genetically confirmed SCAs will help understand the pathophysiology of the SCAs.

  5. An examination of student attitudes and understanding of exponential functions using interactive instructional multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Cynthia M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' attitudes and understanding of exponential functions using InterAct Math, a mathematics tutorial software. The researcher used a convenience sampling of a total of 78 students from two intact pre-calculus classes; the students in the experimental group totaled 41 and the control group totaled 37. The two groups were exposed to the same curriculum content taught by the same instructor, the researcher. The experimental group used the mathematics tutorial software as an integral part of the instructional delivery. The control group used traditional instruction without integration of the educational technology. Data were collected during a two week span using a mixed-methodology to address the major research questions: (1) Is there a statistically significant difference in the mean achievement test scores between the experimental and the control groups? (2) Is there a statistically significant difference in students' attitudes toward learning mathematics between the experimental group and the control group? The researcher utilized paired t-tests and independent t-tests as statistical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention and to establish whether there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Based on the analyses of the quantitative data, it was established that the students who received the InterAct Math tutorial (experimental group) did not perform better than the control group on exponential functions, graphs and applications. However, the quantitative part of the study (Aiken-Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale) revealed that, while students in the experimental and control groups started with similar attitudes about mathematics and the integration of technology, their attitudes were significantly different at the conclusion of the study. The fear of mathematics was reduced for the experimental group at the end of the study, and their enjoyment of the subject matter

  6. Advances in Statistical Control, Algebraic Systems Theory, and Dynamic Systems Characteristics A Tribute to Michael K Sain

    CERN Document Server

    Won, Chang-Hee; Michel, Anthony N

    2008-01-01

    This volume - dedicated to Michael K. Sain on the occasion of his seventieth birthday - is a collection of chapters covering recent advances in stochastic optimal control theory and algebraic systems theory. Written by experts in their respective fields, the chapters are thematically organized into four parts: Part I focuses on statistical control theory, where the cost function is viewed as a random variable and performance is shaped through cost cumulants. In this respect, statistical control generalizes linear-quadratic-Gaussian and H-infinity control. Part II addresses algebraic systems th

  7. Michael Field’s “A Dance of Death”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeeAnne Richardson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1912 poem "A Dance of Death" by Michael Field (pen name of Katherine Bradley and her niece Edith Cooper depicts Salome in an alternate version of the biblical story: this Salome dances on a frozen river, falls through the ice, and is decapitated on a jagged edge. Nonetheless, her beautiful head continues dancing over the frozen river. This poem is highly unusual, especially in the context of the other poems in the postconversion volume Poems of Adoration, because it questions, rather than submits to, authority. In re-writing a familiar Christian tale, as well as a familiar decadent theme, Field uses the poem to assert the supremacy of their artistic vision, which (despite their ardent Catholicism cannot be subject to any law outside themselves. Like the continually dancing head of Salome, which continues to create beauty even after nature (and perhaps God has struck it down, the poet is subjugate only to her own law and creates without boundaries or restrictions on her art. Bradley and Cooper were acutely aware of their authorial persona (actively taking not only a masculine but also a singular poetic identity, and their mode of reconciling the apparent contradictions of this identity are mirrored in their presentation of Salome in a "Dance of Death."

  8. A Musical Italy: Michael W. Balfe’s Italian Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Walsh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin-born musician, Michael W. Balfe, was a singer, composerand conductor whose brilliant musical career was heavily influenced byformative experiences in Italy. In 1825, Balfe, interested in broadeninghis musical studies first went to Paris where he was introduced to thegreat composers, Luigi Cherubini and Gioachino Rossini, who took apersonal interest in him and his musical talents. On the advice of Rossinihe spent the next few years in Italy studying singing with the famousRossini singer, Filippo Galli, and taking music composition lessonsfrom Ferdinando Paer, in Rome. Later in Milan he studied harmonyand counterpoint with Vincenzo Federici. By 1831, when he was only23 years old, his first three operas had been produced in Palermo, Pavia,and Milan. He returned to London in August 1835, participatingwith the great Lablache, Tamburini, Rubini and Grisi in a concert inVauxhall Gardens. In 1834 he made his debut at La Scala, Milan, singingopposite the renowned mezzo-soprano, Maria Malibran in Rossini’sOtello. He appeared again with Malibran in Venice early in 1835,singing once more in Rossini and Bellini operas. Balfe worked as a singerand composer throughout the Italian peninsula/states during the years,1825-1835 and this article will chart these experiences and demonstratehow the time he spent in Italy and the people he met, influenced hislife and later career as an important and popular European composer.

  9. Symbolic Understanding of Pictures in Low-Functioning Children with Autism: The Effects of Iconicity and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated whether symbolic understanding of pictures in low-functioning children with autism is mediated by iconicity and language. In Experiment 1, participants were taught novel words paired with unfamiliar pictures that varied in iconicity (black-and-white line drawings, greyscale photographs, colour line drawings, colour…

  10. Expression and function of nuclear receptor coregulators in brain : understanding the cell-specific effects of glucocorticoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Siem van der

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the raising awareness of the role of glucocorticoids in the onset of numerous (neuro)-pathologies constitutes the increasing necessity of understanding the mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids in bodily processes and brain functioning. Glucocorticoids mediate their effects by binding

  11. Group Theory of Wannier Functions Providing the Basis for a Deeper Understanding of Magnetism and Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Krüger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the group theory of optimally-localized and symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in a crystal of any given space group G or magnetic group M. Provided that the calculated band structure of the considered material is given and that the symmetry of the Bloch functions at all of the points of symmetry in the Brillouin zone is known, the paper details whether or not the Bloch functions of particular energy bands can be unitarily transformed into optimally-localized Wannier functions symmetry-adapted to the space group G, to the magnetic group M or to a subgroup of G or M. In this context, the paper considers usual, as well as spin-dependent Wannier functions, the latter representing the most general definition of Wannier functions. The presented group theory is a review of the theory published by one of the authors (Ekkehard Krüger in several former papers and is independent of any physical model of magnetism or superconductivity. However, it is suggested to interpret the special symmetry of the optimally-localized Wannier functions in the framework of a nonadiabatic extension of the Heisenberg model, the nonadiabatic Heisenberg model. On the basis of the symmetry of the Wannier functions, this model of strongly-correlated localized electrons makes clear predictions of whether or not the system can possess superconducting or magnetic eigenstates.

  12. Genetics and evolution of function-valued traits: understanding environmentally responsive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Many central questions in ecology and evolutionary biology require characterizing phenotypes that change with time and environmental conditions. Such traits are inherently functions, and new 'function-valued' methods use the order, spacing, and functional nature of the data typically ignored by traditional univariate and multivariate analyses. These rapidly developing methods account for the continuous change in traits of interest in response to other variables, and are superior to traditional summary-based analyses for growth trajectories, morphological shapes, and environmentally sensitive phenotypes. Here, we explain how function-valued methods make flexible use of data and lead to new biological insights. These approaches frequently offer enhanced statistical power, a natural basis of interpretation, and are applicable to many existing data sets. We also illustrate applications of function-valued methods to address ecological, evolutionary, and behavioral hypotheses, and highlight future directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 62635 - Proposed Information Collection (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Collection (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program) Activity: Comment Request... determine patients' satisfaction with services provided by or through the Michael E. DeBakey Home Care...: Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program, VA Form 10-0476. OMB Control Number...

  14. The molecular understanding of interfacial interactions of functionalized graphene and chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-ping; Luo, Xue-gang; Lin, Xiao-yan; Lu, Xiong; Tang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The type of the functional groups can be used to modulating interactions between graphene sheet and chitosan. - Highlights: • Investigate interfacial interactions between chitosan and functionalized graphene by DFT. • Observe covalent linkages between COOH-modified graphene and chitosan units. • Multi-functionalized graphene regulates the interfacial interactions with chitosan. • It is useful for guiding the preparation of graphene/chitosan composites. - Abstract: Graphene-reinforced chitosan scaffolds have been extensively studied for several years as promising hard tissue replacements. However, the interfacial interactions between graphene and chitosan are strongly related to the solubility, processability, and mechanical properties of graphene-reinforced chitosan (G–C) composites. The functionalization of graphene is regarded as the most effective way to improve the abovementioned properties of the G–C composite. In this study, the interfacial interactions between chitosan and functionalized graphene sheets with carboxylization (COOH-), amination (NH 2 -), and hydroxylation (OH-) groups were systematically studied at the electronic level using the method of ab initio simulations based on quantum mechanics theory and the observations were compared with reported experimental results. The covalent linkages between COOH-modified graphene and the chitosan units were demonstrated and the combination of multi-functionalization on graphene could regulate the interfacial interactions between graphene and the chitosan. The interfacial interactions between chitosan and properly functionalized graphene are critical for the preparation of G–C-based composites for tissue engineering scaffolds and other applications.

  15. On the Axiomatization of Mathematical Understanding: Continuous Functions in the Transition to Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction to general topology represents a challenging transition for students of advanced mathematics. It requires the generalization of their previous understanding of ideas from fields like geometry, linear algebra, and real or complex analysis to fit within a more abstract conceptual system. Students must adopt a new lexicon of…

  16. Understanding integrated care: a comprehensive conceptual framework based on the integrative functions of primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, P.P.; Schepman, S.M.; Opheij, W.; Bruijnzeels, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to

  17. Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

  18. Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Executive Functions in Mathematics Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive psychology research has suggested an important role for executive functions, the set of skills that monitor and control thought and action, in learning mathematics. However, there is currently little evidence about whether teachers are aware of the importance of these skills and, if so, how they come by this information. We conducted an online survey of teachers' views on the importance of a range of skills for mathematics learning. Teachers rated executive function skills, and in particular inhibition and shifting, to be important for mathematics. The value placed on executive function skills increased with increasing teaching experience. Most teachers reported that they were aware of these skills, although few knew the term "executive functions." This awareness had come about through their teaching experience rather than from formal instruction. Researchers and teacher educators could do more to highlight the importance of these skills to trainee or new teachers.

  19. Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Executive Functions in Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychology research has suggested an important role for executive functions, the set of skills that monitor and control thought and action, in learning mathematics. However, there is currently little evidence about whether teachers are aware of the importance of these skills and, if so, how they come by this information. We conducted an online survey of teachers' views on the importance of a range of skills for mathematics learning. Teachers rated executive function skills, and in particular inhibition and shifting, to be important for mathematics. The value placed on executive function skills increased with increasing teaching experience. Most teachers reported that they were aware of these skills, although few knew the term “executive functions.” This awareness had come about through their teaching experience rather than from formal instruction. Researchers and teacher educators could do more to highlight the importance of these skills to trainee or new teachers. PMID:25674156

  20. Gene networks, occlusal clocks, and functional patches: new understanding of pattern and process in the evolution of the dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, P David

    2015-05-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of the dentition has been transformed by advances in the developmental biology, genetics, and functional morphology of teeth, as well as the methods available for studying tooth form and function. The hierarchical complexity of dental developmental genetics combined with dynamic effects of cells and tissues during development allow for substantial, rapid, and potentially non-linear evolutionary changes. Studies of selection on tooth function in the wild and evolutionary functional comparisons both suggest that tooth function and adaptation to diets are the most important factors guiding the evolution of teeth, yet selection against random changes that produce malocclusions (selectional drift) may be an equally important factor in groups with tribosphenic dentitions. These advances are critically reviewed here.

  1. Beyond Self-Monitoring: Understanding Non-functional Aspects of Home-based Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    the appropriation of healthcare technologies and people with comorbidity may have diverse but co-existing monitoring needs. In this paper, we seek to understand home-based health monitoring practices to better design and integrate them into people’s everyday life. We perform an analysis of socio......-technical complexities in home-based healthcare technologies through three case studies of self-monitoring: 1) pre-eclampsia (i.e. pregnancy poisoning), 2) heart conditions, and 3) preventive care. Through the analysis seven themes emerged (people, resources, places, routines, knowledge, control and motivation) that can...... facilitate the understanding of home-based healthcare activities. We present three modes of self-monitoring use and provide a set of design recommendations for future Ubicomp designs of home-based healthcare technology....

  2. Understanding the functions and relationships of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louveau, Antoine; Plog, Benjamin A; Antila, Salli

    2017-01-01

    to the peripheral (CNS-draining) lymph nodes. We speculate on the relationship between the two systems and their malfunction that may underlie some neurological diseases. Although much remains to be investigated, these new discoveries have changed our understanding of mechanisms underlying CNS immune privilege...... and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems....

  3. Using Genetically Engineered Animal Models in the Postgenomic Era to Understand Gene Function in Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T.; Harris, R. Adron; Noronha, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene’s function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput “next-generation sequencing” technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism. PMID:23134044

  4. Nerve Regeneration: Understanding Biology and Its Influence on Return of Function After Nerve Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa

    2016-05-01

    Poor functional outcomes are frequent after peripheral nerve injuries despite the regenerative support of Schwann cells. Motoneurons and, to a lesser extent, sensory neurons survive the injuries but outgrowth of axons across the injury site is slow. The neuronal regenerative capacity and the support of regenerating axons by the chronically denervated Schwann cells progressively declines with time and distance of the injury from the denervated targets. Strategies, including brief low-frequency electrical stimulation that accelerates target reinnervation and functional recovery, and the insertion of cross-bridges between a donor nerve and a recipient denervated nerve stump, are effective in promoting functional outcomes after complete and incomplete injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of Time-Varying Coherence and Its Application in Understanding Brain Functional Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-varying coherence is a powerful tool for revealing functional dynamics between different regions in the brain. In this paper, we address ways of estimating evolutionary spectrum and coherence using the general Cohen's class distributions. We show that the intimate connection between the Cohen's class-based spectra and the evolutionary spectra defined on the locally stationary time series can be linked by the kernel functions of the Cohen's class distributions. The time-varying spectra and coherence are further generalized with the Stockwell transform, a multiscale time-frequency representation. The Stockwell measures can be studied in the framework of the Cohen's class distributions with a generalized frequency-dependent kernel function. A magnetoencephalography study using the Stockwell coherence reveals an interesting temporal interaction between contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortices under the multisource interference task.

  6. Towards an understanding of structure-function relationships of elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1994-01-01

    In light of the recently determined structure of elongation factor Tu, and taking into account chemical studies mapping functional sites, a number of residues have been selected for site-directed mutagenesis studies. Gly94, Gly126, His66, His118, Lys89 and Asp90 have each been point-mutated. Prel......In light of the recently determined structure of elongation factor Tu, and taking into account chemical studies mapping functional sites, a number of residues have been selected for site-directed mutagenesis studies. Gly94, Gly126, His66, His118, Lys89 and Asp90 have each been point...

  7. Theory and practice in action: the contributions of Michael Perkins to clinical linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, Jack S; Lynch, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the scholarly contributions of Michael R. Perkins in the discipline of clinical linguistics and provides some indication of the reasons that he has been so successful. Three primary attributes were described through an analysis of his publications.

  8. Tõsine fotoelamus Dubrovnikus / Wade Goddard, Heidi Levine, Michael Robinson Chaver ; interv. Ahto Külvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goddard, Wade

    2007-01-01

    Dubrovniku vanalinnas asub Sõjafotokeskus. Intervjuu keskuse asutaja, kanadalasest fotograafi Wade Goddardi ja kahe seal augustis avatud näitusel osalenud fotograafi Heidi Levine'i ja Michael Robinson Chavez'iga. Sõjafotograafi tööst

  9. Joseph and Michael Haydn in the Bohemian music archives. An anniversary tribute

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2012), s. 117-126. ISBN 978-3-486-58949-8. ISSN 1865-5696 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Joseph Haydn * Michael Haydn * music archives Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. Chiral Aminophosphines as Catalysts for Enantioselective Double-Michael Indoline Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohyun Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The bisphosphine-catalyzed double-Michael addition of dinucleophiles to electron-deficient acetylenes is an efficient process for the synthesis of many nitrogen-containing heterocycles. Because the resulting heterocycles contain at least one stereogenic center, this double-Michael reaction would be even more useful if an asymmetric variant of the reaction were to be developed. Aminophosphines can also facilitate the double-Michael reaction and chiral amines are more readily available in Nature and synthetically; therefore, in this study we prepared several new chiral aminophosphines. When employed in the asymmetric double-Michael reaction between ortho-tosylamidophenyl malonate and 3-butyn-2-one, the chiral aminophosphines produced indolines in excellent yields with moderate asymmetric induction.

  11. Arenethiolatecopper(I) complexes as homogeneous catalysts for Michael addition reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Klaveren, M. van; Lambert, F.; Eijkelkamp, D.J.F.M.; Grove, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Arenethiolatocopper(I) complexes are shown to be efficient homogeneous catalysts in Michael addition reactions of several Grignard reagents to acyclic enones; the addition products are formed with excellent chemoselectivity (>99%) and good enantioselectivity (76% e.e.).

  12. Hexafluorobenzene: A powerful solvent for a noncovalent stereoselective organocatalytic Michael addition reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Lattanzi, Alessandra; De Fusco, Claudia; Russo, Alessio; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic enhancement of the diastereo- and enantioselectivity in the nitro-Michael addition reaction organocatalysed by a commercially available α,α-l-diaryl prolinol was disclosed when performing the reaction in unconventional hexafluorobenzene

  13. Eesti disain on kõva, ent see tuleb moondada ekspordiks / Michael Thomson ; interv. Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thomson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Disainiassotsiatsioonide Liidu presidendi ja Tallinnas toimunud festivali Disainiöö Eesti disainiauhinna Bruno žürii juhi Michael Thomsoni arvamus eesti disainist ning disainipoliitika vajalikkusest Eestis. Auhinnasaajate nimekiri

  14. Reports of the working groups / Eino Tamm, Sahlin Michael, Valve Kirsipuu...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Töögruppide "EU enlargement and relevant institutional reforms" (juhatajad Eino Tamm, Michael Sahlin) ja "Maintaining of competitiveness of Estonia and other candidate countries" (juhatajad Valve Kirsipuu, Terry Calbom) tööst. Autor: Reformierakond

  15. Michael Bloomberg ähvardab USA valimised "ära rikkuda" / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    New Yorgi praegune linnapea Michael Bloomberg võib kolmanda kandidaadina sekkuda presidendikandidaatide valimiskampaaniasse, probleem on aga tema vähene tuntus. Lisa: Seni on riigipeakoha jaganud kaks suurparteid

  16. Prints Charles ja prints Michael külastasid Tallinna kirikuid / Allan Tammiku

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammiku, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Prints Charles külastas 6. novembril Eesti-visiidi ajal Tallinna toomkirikut ja Pühavaimu kirikut, prints Michael viibis Tallinnas 11. novembril eravisiidil, ta külastas toomkirikut, Niguliste ja Pühavaimu kirikut

  17. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience to understanding functional mechanisms of visual search.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphreys, G.W.; Hodsoll, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Yoon, E.Y.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that cognitive neuroscience can contribute not only information about the neural localization of processes underlying visual search, but also information about the functional nature of these processes. First we present an overview of recent work on whether search for form - colour

  18. The function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament : its implications for understanding low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Vleeming, A; Hammudoghlu, D; Stoeckart, R.; Snijders, C.; Mens, Jan M A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: In embalmed human bodies the tension of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament was measured during incremental loading of anatomical structures that are biomechanically relevant. OBJECTIVES: To assess the function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In many

  19. A Visualisation-Based Semiotic Analysis of Learners' Conceptual Understanding of Graphical Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaly, Vimolan

    2014-01-01

    Within the South African school curriculum, the section on graphical functional relationships consists of signs which include symbols, notation and imagery. In a previous article we explored the role visualisation played in the way learners understood mathematical concepts. That paper reported on the learners' fixation with the physical features…

  20. Understanding Functional Reuse of ERP Requirements in the Telecommunication Sector: an Empirical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an empirical study on the application of Function Points (FP) and a FP-based reuse measurement model in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects in three organizations in the telecommunication sector. The findings of the study are used to compare the requirements reuse for one

  1. A Dyadic Approach to Understanding the Link Between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Satisfaction in Heterosexual Couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascoal, Patrícia M.; Byers, E. Sandra; Alvarez, Maria-João; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Nobre, Pedro J.; Pereira, Cicero Roberto; Laan, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that several dimensions of sexual functioning (e.g., sexual desire, arousal, orgasm) are associated with the sexual satisfaction of individuals in a committed mixed-sex (male-female) relationship. We extended this research by comparing a dyadic model that included both

  2. Probability density of wave function of excited photoelectron: understanding XANES features

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipr, Ondřej

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 232-234 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/0404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : XANES * PED - probability density of wave function Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  3. Understanding the Emergence and Functioning of River Committees in a Catchment of the Pangani Basin, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C. Komakech

    2011-06-01

    To explain the difference in the performance of the three RCs we need to consider factors related to heterogeneity. We find that the functioning of RCs is strongly influenced by group size, spatial distance, heterogeneity of users and uses, and market forces.

  4. Phloem function: A key to understanding and manipulating plant responses to rising atmospheric [CO2]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) directly stimulates photosynthesis and reduces stomatal conductance in C3 plants. Both of these physiological effects have the potential to alter phloem function at elevated [CO2]. Recent research has clearly established that photosynthetic...

  5. Understanding the Contribution of Zinc Transporters in the Function of the Early Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho; Matsunaga, Mayu; Takeda, Taka-Aki

    2017-10-19

    More than one-third of newly synthesized proteins are targeted to the early secretory pathway, which is comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and other intermediate compartments. The early secretory pathway plays a key role in controlling the folding, assembly, maturation, modification, trafficking, and degradation of such proteins. A considerable proportion of the secretome requires zinc as an essential factor for its structural and catalytic functions, and recent findings reveal that zinc plays a pivotal role in the function of the early secretory pathway. Hence, a disruption of zinc homeostasis and metabolism involving the early secretory pathway will lead to pathway dysregulation, resulting in various defects, including an exacerbation of homeostatic ER stress. The accumulated evidence indicates that specific members of the family of Zn transporters (ZNTs) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIPs), which operate in the early secretory pathway, play indispensable roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux of zinc. In this review, the biological functions of these transporters are discussed, focusing on recent aspects of their roles. In particular, we discuss in depth how specific ZNT transporters are employed in the activation of zinc-requiring ectoenzymes. The means by which early secretory pathway functions are controlled by zinc, mediated by specific ZNT and ZIP transporters, are also subjects of this review.

  6. Chinese Middle Classes: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...

  7. Cuestión de tiempo: Michael Fried y el tiempo del arte moderno A matter of time: Michael Fried and modernist art the time of modernist art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz Soto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo XIX, autores fundacionales del formalismo, como Fiedler o Hildebrand, contrapusieron estrictamente las artes plásticas, «puramente visuales», a las artes verbales del discurso, proscribiéndoles la narración y disociándolas de la temporalidad: se trata del «principio de exclusión del tiempo», vinculado al formalismo. Más tarde, el crítico «modernista» de arte Clement Greenberg planteó la instantaneidad, en tanto que opuesta a la duración, como modalidad ideal de la experiencia artística. Pero el historiador y crítico de arte Michael Fried, en sus textos de los años 60 sobre arte abstracto, se distancia de Greenberg, desarrollando un discurso sobre la temporalidad en las artes plásticas, con nociones como «tiempo visual»; y en sus posteriores textos historiográficos investiga las modalidades temporales de la representación pictórica. La aparente paradoja entre la crítica de Fried a la hipóstasis «literalista» de la duración en las tardovanguardias y el papel crucial que concede a Manet y a la instantaneidad en el origen del arte moderno, la resolveremos atendiendo a su reivindicación de la temporalidad durativa de «lo cotidiano». Así cabe comprender la concepción de la modalidad temporal característica de la modernidad y del arte moderno, a la que apunta su noción teórica de presentness.In the nineteenth century, seminal authors of Formalism, like Fiedler or Hildebrand, strictly compared the «purely visual» plastic arts to the discursive arts of verbal language, ruling out narrativity from plastic arts, which they dissociated from temporality - the formalist «principle of exclusion of time». Later on, «modernist» art critic Clement Greenberg claimed that instantaneousness, as opposed to duration, was the ideal modality for artistic experience. Art critic and historian Michael Fried did not share Greenberg's position, but developed instead a discourse about time in plastic arts. In his early

  8. Creative Industries, Value Theory and Michael Heinrich’s New Reading of Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick H. Pitts

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article utilises the new reading of Marx found in the work of Michael Heinrich to analyse the creative industries. It considers the role played in the production of value by the labour that takes place in the sphere of circulation. The specific focus is on creative industries such as graphic design, advertising and branding. It applies Heinrich's conceptualisation of 'social validation' to these sectors. This suggests that valorisation depends upon goods and services attaining commodity status by selling for money. Value is subject to this validation. The capitalist use of advertising, graphic design and branding guarantees the possibility of this validation. Using Heinrich, it reevaluates claims made about the creative industries and cognate fields in three main respects. First, it exposes as inadequate certain Marxist understandings of productive and unproductive labour and the place of circulation activities within this distinction. Second, it refutes autonomist Marxist claims as to the immeasurability of immaterial labour and the redundancy of the law of value. Third, it suggests that creative industries possess a significant role in a capitalist economy blighted by a necessity towards the overproduction of commodities.

  9. Diffusible gradients are out - an interview with Lewis Wolpert. Interviewed by Richardson, Michael K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    In 1969, Lewis Wolpert published a paper outlining his new concepts of "pattern formation" and "positional information". He had already published research on the mechanics of cell membranes in amoebae, and a series of classic studies of sea urchin gastrulation with Trygve Gustavson. Wolpert had presented his 1969 paper a year earlier at a Woods Hole conference, where it received a very hostile reception: "I wasnt asked back to America for many years!". But with Francis Crick lining up in support of diffusible morphogen gradients, positional information eventually became established as a guiding principle for research into biological pattern formation. It is now clear that pattern formation is much more complex than could possibly have been imagined in 1969. But Wolpert still believes in positional information, and regards intercalation during regeneration as its best supporting evidence. However, he and others doubt that diffusible morphogen gradients are a plausible mechanism: "Diffusible gradients are too messy", he says. Since his retirement, Lewis Wolpert has remained active as a theoretical biologist and continues to publish in leading journals. He has also campaigned for a greater public understanding of the stigma of depression. He was interviewed at home in London on July 26th, 2007 by Michael Richardson.

  10. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.

  11. Mechanistic understanding of N-glycosylation in Ebola virus glycoprotein maturation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yujie; Frabutt, Dylan A; Zhang, Xihe; Yao, Xiaoyu; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Zhuo; Liu, Chaonan; Zheng, Shimin; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2017-04-07

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) trimeric envelope glycoprotein (GP) precursors are cleaved into the receptor-binding GP 1 and the fusion-mediating GP 2 subunits and incorporated into virions to initiate infection. GP 1 and GP 2 form heterodimers that have 15 or two N -glycosylation sites (NGSs), respectively. Here we investigated the mechanism of how N -glycosylation contributes to GP expression, maturation, and function. As reported before, we found that, although GP 1 NGSs are not critical, the two GP 2 NGSs, Asn 563 and Asn 618 , are essential for GP function. Further analysis uncovered that Asn 563 and Asn 618 regulate GP processing, demannosylation, oligomerization, and conformation. Consequently, these two NGSs are required for GP incorporation into EBOV-like particles and HIV type 1 (HIV-1) pseudovirions and determine viral transduction efficiency. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we knocked out the two classical endoplasmic reticulum chaperones calnexin (CNX) and/or calreticulin (CRT) and found that both CNX and CRT increase GP expression. Nevertheless, NGSs are not required for the GP interaction with CNX or CRT. Together, we conclude that, although Asn 563 and Asn 618 are not required for EBOV GP expression, they synergistically regulate its maturation, which determines its functionality. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Understanding the value of plant diversity for ecosystem functioning through niche theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Purves, Drew W.; Loreau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity experiments have generated robust empirical results supporting the hypothesis that ecosystems function better when they contain more species. Given that ecosystems provide services that are valued by humans, this inevitably suggests that the loss of species from natural ecosystems could diminish their value. This raises two important questions. First, will experimental results translate into the real world, where species are being lost at an alarming rate? And second, what are the benefits and pitfalls of such valuation exercises? We argue that the empirical results obtained in experiments are entirely consistent with well-established theories of species coexistence. We then examine the current body of work through the lens of niche theory and highlight where closer links with theory could open up opportunities for future research. We argue that niche theory predicts that diversity–functioning relationships are likely to be stronger (and require more species) in the field than in simplified experimental settings. However, we caution that while many of the biological processes that promote coexistence can also generate diversity–function relationships, there is no simple mapping between the two. This implies that valuation exercises need to proceed with care. PMID:27928043

  13. Understanding the response of pulsed electric field on osteoblast functions in three-dimensional mesh structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Nune, K C; Misra, Rdk

    2016-10-01

    The endogenous electric field plays a determining role in impacting biological functions including communication with the physiological system, brain, and bone regeneration by influencing cellular functions. From this perspective, the objective of the study described here is to elucidate the effect of external electric field under dynamic conditions, in providing a guiding cue to osteoblasts in terms of cell-cell interactions and synthesis of prominent adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins. This was accomplished using pulsed direct current electric field of strength 0.1-1 V/cm. The electric field provided guided cue to the cells to migrate toward cathode. Membrane blebbing or necrosis was nearly absent in the vicinity of cathode at 0.1 and 0.5 V/cm electric field strength. Moreover, a higher cell proliferation as well as higher expression of vinculin and densely packed actin stress fibers was observed. At anode, the cells though healthy but expression of actin and vinculin was less. We underscore for the first time that the biological functionality can be favorably modulated on 3D printed scaffolds in the presence of electric field and under dynamic conditions with consequent positive effect on cell proliferation, growth, and expression level of prominent proteins. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Using analyses of amino Acid coevolution to understand protein structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenberg, Orr; Laub, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Determining which residues of a protein contribute to a specific function is a difficult problem. Analyses of amino acid covariation within a protein family can serve as a useful guide by identifying residues that are functionally coupled. Covariation analyses have been successfully used on several different protein families to identify residues that work together to promote folding, enable protein-protein interactions, or contribute to an enzymatic activity. Covariation is a statistical signal that can be measured in a multiple sequence alignment of homologous proteins. As sequence databases have expanded dramatically, covariation analyses have become easier and more powerful. In this chapter, we describe how functional covariation arises during the evolution of proteins and how this signal can be distinguished from various background signals. We discuss the basic methodology for performing amino acid covariation analysis, using bacterial two-component signal transduction proteins as an example. We provide practical suggestions for each step of the process including assembly of protein sequences, construction of a multiple sequence alignment, measurement of covariation, and analysis of results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Understanding QGP through Spectral Functions and Euclidean Correlators (Volume 89)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocsy, A.; Petreczky, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, one of the most important goals of the nuclear physics community has been the production and characterization of the new state of matter--Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Understanding how properties of hadrons change in medium, particularly, the bound state of a very heavy quark and its antiquark, known as quarkonium, as well as determining the transport coefficients is crucial for identifying the properties of QGP and for the understanding of the experimental data from RHIC. On April 23rd, more than sixty physicists from twenty-seven institutions gathered for this three-day topical workshop held at BNL to discuss how to understand the properties of the new state of matter obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (particularly at RHIC-BNL) through spectral functions. In-medium properties of the different particle species and the transport properties of the medium are encoded in spectral functions. The former could yield important signatures of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration at high temperatures and densities, while the later are crucial for the understanding of the dynamics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Participants at the workshop are experts in various areas of spectral function studies. The workshop encouraged direct exchange of scientific information among experts, as well as between the younger and the more established scientists. The workshops success is evident from the coherent picture that developed of the current understanding of transport properties and in-medium particle properties, illustrated in the current proceedings. The following pages show calculations of meson spectral functions in lattice QCD, as well as implications of these for quarkonia melting/survival in the quark gluon plasma; Lattice calculations of the transport coefficients (shear and bulk viscosities, electric conductivity); Calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients in field theories using weak coupling

  16. Insight from Mitochondrial Functions and Proteomics to Understand Cardiometabolic Disorders in Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Jade; Spahis, Schohraya; Bonneil, Eric; Garofalo, Carole; Grimard, Guy; Morel, Sophia; Laverdière, Caroline; Krajinovic, Maja; Drouin, Simon; Delvin, Edgard; Sinnett, Daniel; Marcil, Valérie; Levy, Emile

    2018-03-18

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) is the most prevalent form of cancer in children. Due to advances in treatment and therapy, young cALL subjects now achieve a 90% survival rate. However, this tremendous advance does not come without consequence since ~2/3 of cALL survivors are affected by long-term and late, severe complications. Although the metabolic syndrome is a very serious sequel of cALL, the mechanisms remain undefined. It is also surprising to note that the mitochondrion, a central organelle in metabolic functions and the main cellular energy generator, have not yet been explored. To determine whether cALL survivors exhibit impairments in their mitochondrial functions and proteomic profiling in relationship with metabolic disorders in cALL survivors compared to healthy controls. Anthropometric measures, metabolic characteristics and lipid profiles were assessed, mitochondria isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and proteomic analyzed. Our data demonstrated that metabolically Unhealthy survivors exhibited several metabolic syndrome components (e.g. overweight, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation) whereas Healthy cALL survivors resemble the Controls. In line with these abnormalities, functional experiments in these subjects revealed a significant decrease in the protein expression of mitochondrial antioxidant superoxide dismutase, PGC1-α transcription factor (a key modulator of mitochondrion biogenesis), and an increase in pro-apoptotic cytochrome c. Proteomic analysis of mitochondria by mass spectrometry revealed changes in the regulation of proteins related to inflammation, apoptosis, energy production, redox and antioxidant activity, fatty acid β-oxidation, protein transport and metabolism, and signalling pathways between groups. Through the use of proteomic analysis, our work demonstrated a number of significant alterations in protein expression in mitochondria of cALL survivors, especially the metabolically

  17. Beyond form and functioning: Understanding how contextual factors influence village health committees in northern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Scott

    Full Text Available Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures. However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74, focus groups (n = 18 and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups

  18. Beyond form and functioning: Understanding how contextual factors influence village health committees in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Ved, Rajani; Garimella, Surekha; Sheikh, Kabir

    2017-01-01

    Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership) and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures). However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC) functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74), focus groups (n = 18) and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups) presented

  19. Receiver functions analysis in Northern Tanzania to understand the earliest stage of rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberi, C.; Albaric, J.; Deschamps, A.; Deverchere, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Ferdinand, R. W.; Gautier, S.; Lambert, C.; Msabi, M.; Mtelela, K.; Muzuka, A.; Perrot, J.; Rasendra, N.; Roecker, S. W.; Rodzianko, A.; Witkin, E.

    2013-12-01

    The East African Rift (EAR) is the site of stretching and breakup of the lithosphere in response to a combination of regional pulling forces and mantle upwellings. Deformation results from complex interactions between magmatic intrusions, faulting, asthenospheric dynamism and far field stresses. It thus involves both deep processes and local inherited fabrics. In the frame of two international projects CRAFTI (NSF) and CoLiBrEA (ANR), we gather our skills to lead a multidisciplinary project in order to characterize the factors involved in continental rifting. We target the first 5 My of a magmatic rift initiating in thick (>150 km) continental lithosphere, where we can directly image and detect fault and magma interactions, the role of inherited and rheological heterogeneities of the lithosphere on rift localisation. We deployed 35 broadband seismic stations in Natron and Ngorongoro areas in January 2013 to characterize crustal and mantle structures of the rift. The stations were equipped by 3 component sensors and Reftek Recorders to continuously record teleseisms as well as local seismicity. We present here a receiver function analyse on the teleseismic events recorded during the first 6 months of the experiment. Both P- and S-waves receiver functions were proceeded to document the modification of the crust and the mantle due to plate stretching and magmatic processes. The Vp/Vs ratio informs on the state of the crust, which is affected by magmatic and fluids intrusions at different depths. The S-wave receiver function gives insight into the lithosphere state and the nature of the mantle beneath the rift (archean or plume affected).

  20. Understanding handpump sustainability: Determinants of rural water source functionality in the Greater Afram Plains region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael B; Shields, Katherine F; Chan, Terence U; Christenson, Elizabeth; Cronk, Ryan D; Leker, Hannah; Samani, Destina; Apoya, Patrick; Lutz, Alexandra; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access.

  1. Understanding predictors of functional recovery and outcome 30 months following early childhood head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki A; Catroppa, Cathy; Dudgeon, Paul; Morse, Sue A; Haritou, Flora; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in school-age children; however, recovery in early childhood is less well understood. Some argue that such injuries should lead to good outcome, because of the plasticity of the developing brain. Other purport that the young brain is vulnerable, with injury likely to result in a substantial impairment (H. G. Taylor & J. Alden, 1997). The aim of this study was to examine outcomes following TBI during early childhood, to plot recovery over the 30 months postinjury, and to identify predictors of outcome. The study compared 3 groups of children sustaining mild, moderate, and severe TBI, ages 2.0 to 6.11 years at injury, with healthy controls. Groups were comparable for preinjury adaptive and behavioral function, psychosocial characteristics, age, and gender. Results suggested a strong association between injury severity and outcomes across all domains. Further, 30-month outcome was predicted by injury severity, family factors, and preinjury levels of child function. In conclusion, children with more severe injuries and lower preinjury adaptive abilities, and whose families are coping poorly, are at greatest risk of long-term impairment in day-to-day skills, even several years postinjury.

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.

  3. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.

  4. Spot light on skeletal muscles: optogenetic stimulation to understand and restore skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bremen, Tobias; Send, Thorsten; Sasse, Philipp; Bruegmann, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential. Herein we summarize the current knowledge about the use of this technology to control skeletal muscle function with the focus on the direct, non-neuronal stimulation of muscle fibers. The high temporal flexibility of using light pulses allows new stimulation patterns to investigate skeletal muscle physiology. Furthermore, the high spatial precision of focused illumination was shown to be beneficial for selective stimulation of distinct nearby muscle groups. Finally, the cell-type specific expression of the light-sensitive effector proteins in muscle fibers will allow pain-free stimulation and open new options for clinical treatments. Therefore, we believe that direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscles is a very potent method for basic scientists that also harbors several distinct advantages over electrical stimulation to be considered for clinical use in the future.

  5. Understanding the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy from its electron work function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.C.; Lu, H.; Li, D.Y., E-mail: dongyang.li@ualberta.ca

    2016-04-15

    The electrode potential or galvanic series is usually used to reflect the nobility of metals and semi-metals. However, this potential is environment-dependent and the intrinsic nobility of a metal is ultimately governed by its electron stability, which can be represented by the electron work function (EWF). This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy in HCl and NaCl solutions, respectively. It was demonstrated that the EWF of the alloy increased as the Ni concentration was increased, so did the corrosion resistance in the acidic solution. In the sodium chloride solution, however, the trend was reversed due to adsorption, hydrolysis and the formation of oxide scale on Cu-rich samples, which more or less prevented them from further corrosion in this solution. In order to confirm this, corrosive wear tests were performed to analyze the performance of the alloy when the effect of oxide scale was eliminated or minimized by the mechanical action. - Highlights: • Increasing %Ni resulted in higher overall electron work function of Cu–Ni alloy. • Higher EWF corresponded to higher resistance to corrosion in a HCl solution. • Trend was reversed in a NaCl solution due to the formation of oxide scale. • During slurry-jet tests, alloys with higher EWFs performed better.

  6. Understanding the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy from its electron work function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.C.; Lu, H.; Li, D.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The electrode potential or galvanic series is usually used to reflect the nobility of metals and semi-metals. However, this potential is environment-dependent and the intrinsic nobility of a metal is ultimately governed by its electron stability, which can be represented by the electron work function (EWF). This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy in HCl and NaCl solutions, respectively. It was demonstrated that the EWF of the alloy increased as the Ni concentration was increased, so did the corrosion resistance in the acidic solution. In the sodium chloride solution, however, the trend was reversed due to adsorption, hydrolysis and the formation of oxide scale on Cu-rich samples, which more or less prevented them from further corrosion in this solution. In order to confirm this, corrosive wear tests were performed to analyze the performance of the alloy when the effect of oxide scale was eliminated or minimized by the mechanical action. - Highlights: • Increasing %Ni resulted in higher overall electron work function of Cu–Ni alloy. • Higher EWF corresponded to higher resistance to corrosion in a HCl solution. • Trend was reversed in a NaCl solution due to the formation of oxide scale. • During slurry-jet tests, alloys with higher EWFs performed better.

  7. Ordering Interfluves: a Simple Proposal for Understanding Critical Zone Evolution and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecheisen, Z. S.; Richter, D., Jr.; Moon, S.; Halpin, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    A geomorphic interfluve ordering system, a reciprocal to the Hortonian-Strahler stream network order, is envisioned at the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory (CCZO) in the South Carolina Piedmont. In this system the narrowest and most highly dissected interfluves (gentle ridges and hilltops) are 1st order and increase in rank dendritically through interfluve branching and broadening. Interfluve order attends to the structure, function, and management of residual porous-solid systems in the transport of water, solutes, and eroded solids in our deeply weathered (>30m soil/saprolite) critical zone. Recently generated geospatial data regarding the interactions of geomorphology, human land use, and forest ecology further strengthen the utility of this system. These upland networks and corresponding "land-sheds" have potential in linking recent work in the fields of geophysics and geomorphology regarding bedrock weathering front dynamics. Patterns of bedrock weathering depth, landcover & land-use change, and soil erosion are considered as they correspond to interfluve order. With LiDAR mapping and the burgeoning development and utilization of geophysical techniques and models enabling new quantitative research of critical zone landscape structure and function, many physiographic regions could benefit from a system that delineates and orders interfluve networks.

  8. Understanding and solving disorder in the substitution pattern of amino functionalized MIL-47(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Jurn; Dubbeldam, David

    2016-03-14

    Electronic energies and elastic constants of four amino functionalized MIL-47(V) supercells were computed using plane wave density functional theory to determine the influence of the substituent positions on the organic linker. An inverse relationship between the ab initio energies and the elastic constants was found, indicating that the high electronic stability correlates with high mechanical stability. Torsion in all supercells was induced upon substitution, which caused strain in the NH2-MIL-47(V) supercell. The combined effect of the substituent bulkiness and the induced torsion reduced the pore volume of the NH2-MIL-47(V) structures by >7% and the surface area by >14% with respect to MIL-47(V). This reduction was confirmed by lower saturation capacities of methane, CO2 and benzene. When unfavourable substituent positions are chosen, large torsions caused a further reduction of the saturation capacity. Differences in surface area, pore volume and saturation capacity illustrate the importance of choosing the correct NH2-MIL-47(V) supercell.

  9. A dual-factor model of mental health: toward a more comprehensive understanding of youth functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaramian, Susan P; Scott Huebner, E; Hills, Kimberly J; Valois, Robert F

    2010-10-01

    Traditional mental health models focus on psychological problems and distress; accordingly, health is viewed as the absence of illness or disability. In contrast, a dual-factor model of mental health incorporates both indicators of positive subjective well-being (SWB) and measures of psychopathological symptoms to comprehensively determine an individual's psychological adjustment. This study used such a dual-factor model to measure the mental health status of young adolescents. A total of 764 middle school students were classified into one of four distinct groups based on having high or low psychopathology and high or low SWB. Furthermore, group differences in student engagement, academic achievement, and environmental support for learning were investigated. Results demonstrated the existence of a traditionally neglected group of adolescents (low SWB and low psychopathology) who are nonetheless at risk for academic and behavior problems in school and who performed no better than the most troubled group of adolescents. Overall, both the presence of positive well-being and the absence of symptoms were necessary for ensuring the most advantageous school performance. These results highlight the importance of incorporating positive indicators of well-being along with traditional negative factors in more fully understanding relationships between individuals' mental health and educational outcomes. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  10. Understanding the protective effects of wine components and their metabolites in the brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban-Fernández A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate wine consumption has been suggested to exert a positive effect in prevention of neurodegenerative process and cognitive impairment. With the ultimate aim of achieving a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this benefit, we have investigated the role of certain wine- derived phenolic metabolites and aroma compounds in the MAPK cascade (including ERK1/2, p38, one of the routes directly related to inflammation in neuronal cells. Some of the tested phenolic compounds, especially in the case of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, showed a significant neuroprotective effect against SIN-1-induced neuronal death. Regarding their effect over MAPK phosphorylation, inmunoblotting technique revealed a beneficial and significant decrease on the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 kinases after incubation with wine constituents. In addition, activity of caspase3-like protease, an executor of neuronal apoptosis and a downstream signal of MAPK, was significantly diminished by 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid and linalool, counterbalancing the increase produced by SIN-1. Altogether, these results suggest that wine aroma, phenolic compounds and their gut metabolites could exert neuroprotective actions by modulating MAPK signalling and caspase-3 proteases activation, which are known to play a key role in oxidative/ nitrosative stress-induced response.

  11. Understanding the functions and relationships of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Plog, Benjamin A; Antila, Salli; Alitalo, Kari; Nedergaard, Maiken; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Recent discoveries of the glymphatic system and of meningeal lymphatic vessels have generated a lot of excitement, along with some degree of skepticism. Here, we summarize the state of the field and point out the gaps of knowledge that should be filled through further research. We discuss the glymphatic system as a system that allows CNS perfusion by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). We also describe the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels and their role in drainage of the brain ISF, CSF, CNS-derived molecules, and immune cells from the CNS and meninges to the peripheral (CNS-draining) lymph nodes. We speculate on the relationship between the two systems and their malfunction that may underlie some neurological diseases. Although much remains to be investigated, these new discoveries have changed our understanding of mechanisms underlying CNS immune privilege and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems.

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for understanding ROS function in physiology and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda-Vizuete

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ROS (reactive oxygen species are potentially damaging by-products of aerobic metabolism which, unchecked, can have detrimental effects on cell function. However, it is now widely accepted that, at physiological levels, certain ROS play important roles in cell signaling, acting as second messengers to regulate cell choices that contribute to the development, adaptation and survival of plants and animals. Despite important recent advances in the biochemical tools available to study redox-signaling, the molecular mechanisms underlying most of these responses remain poorly understood, particularly in multicellular organisms. As we will review here, C. elegans has emerged as a powerful animal model to elucidate these and other aspects of redox biology.

  13. Phasic firing in vasopressin cells: understanding its functional significance through computational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J MacGregor

    Full Text Available Vasopressin neurons, responding to input generated by osmotic pressure, use an intrinsic mechanism to shift from slow irregular firing to a distinct phasic pattern, consisting of long bursts and silences lasting tens of seconds. With increased input, bursts lengthen, eventually shifting to continuous firing. The phasic activity remains asynchronous across the cells and is not reflected in the population output signal. Here we have used a computational vasopressin neuron model to investigate the functional significance of the phasic firing pattern. We generated a concise model of the synaptic input driven spike firing mechanism that gives a close quantitative match to vasopressin neuron spike activity recorded in vivo, tested against endogenous activity and experimental interventions. The integrate-and-fire based model provides a simple physiological explanation of the phasic firing mechanism involving an activity-dependent slow depolarising afterpotential (DAP generated by a calcium-inactivated potassium leak current. This is modulated by the slower, opposing, action of activity-dependent dendritic dynorphin release, which inactivates the DAP, the opposing effects generating successive periods of bursting and silence. Model cells are not spontaneously active, but fire when perturbed by random perturbations mimicking synaptic input. We constructed one population of such phasic neurons, and another population of similar cells but which lacked the ability to fire phasically. We then studied how these two populations differed in the way that they encoded changes in afferent inputs. By comparison with the non-phasic population, the phasic population responds linearly to increases in tonic synaptic input. Non-phasic cells respond to transient elevations in synaptic input in a way that strongly depends on background activity levels, phasic cells in a way that is independent of background levels, and show a similar strong linearization of the response

  14. La figura del libro in Die unendliche Geschichte di Michael Ende: da finestra a varco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Di Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book is an object which can be considered as a window in the novel Die unendliche Geschichte (1979 written by Michael Ende. It allows Bastian to look at the world of Phantasien and to communicate indirectly with the Childlike Empress. Furthermore, this object will show its function as an symbol of evolution, which will enable the passage of the protagonist into the world of Phantasien: first the book appears as a window, then it becomes a two-way-mirror that allows Bastian and Atreju to look at each other, and finally it turns into a gate which enables them to live many adventures together. Die unendliche Geschichte can be considered as a modern Bildungsroman in which the young protagonist gradually reaches his maturation. This progress must be seen in a psychological perspective: it is the growth of a child-mind through literature which makes reference to the German novel tradition but also (as children’s literature to the world of unconsciousness.

  15. Overview of experimental progress on understanding photon strength functions with an emphasis of the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krticka, Milan

    2015-10-01

    The so-called Photon Strength Functions (PSFs) for different multipolarities are, together with the Nuclear Level Density (NLD) the key entities describing the statistical γ-decay of nucleus. It is well known that PSFs at energies above the threshold for particle emission are well described by the Lorentzian shape of the Giant Electric Dipole Resonance (GEDR). On the other hand, shapes of RSFs at the low-energy tail of GEDR are known rather poorly. Information on the PSFs at the GEDR tail can be obtained from several different experimental techniques. They will be summarized and the most important ones briefly introduced in this contribution. Special emphasis will be put on the so-called Oslo method which allows simultaneous extraction of the NLD and the PSFs from particle- γ coincidence measurements. This method has been used for determining the NLD and the PSFs in many nuclei in A ~ 45- 240 range during past years. Examples of the most interesting results obtained with this method will be shown. The results will be compared to information on the PSFs available from other experimental techniques. The strengths and the weaknesses of the method will be thoroughly discussed.

  16. Formation, function, and exhaustion of notochordal cytoplasmic vacuoles within intervertebral disc: current understanding and speculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkemani, Arjun; Xie, Zhi-Yang; Shi, Rui; Wei, Ji-Nan; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Notochord nucleus pulposus cells are characteristic of containing abundant and giant cytoplasmic vacuoles. This review explores the embryonic formation, biological function, and postnatal exhaustion of notochord vacuoles, aiming to characterize the signal network transforming the vacuolated nucleus pulposus cells into the vacuole-less chondrocytic cells. Embryonically, the cytoplasmic vacuoles within vertebrate notochord originate from an evolutionarily conserved vacuolation process during neurulation, which may continue to provide mechanical and signal support in constructing a mammalian intervertebral disc. For full vacuolation, a vacuolating specification from dorsal organizer cells, synchronized convergent extension, well-structured notochord sheath, and sufficient post-Golgi trafficking in notochord cells are required. Postnatally, age-related and species-specific exhaustion of vacuolated nucleus pulposus cells could be potentiated by Fas- and Fas ligand-induced apoptosis, intolerance to mechanical stress and nutrient deficiency, vacuole-mediated proliferation check, and gradual de-vacuolation within the avascular and compression-loaded intervertebral disc. These results suggest that the notochord vacuoles are active and versatile organelles for both embryonic notochord and postnatal nucleus pulposus, and may provide novel information on intervertebral disc degeneration to guide cell-based regeneration. PMID:28915712

  17. Understanding how commensal obligate anaerobic bacteria regulate immune functions in the large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Roy, Nicole C

    2014-12-24

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases.

  18. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  19. A Foray into Fungal Ecology: Understanding Fungi and Their Functions Across Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, N.; Dunkirk, N. C.; Peay, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their incredible diversity and importance to terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are not included in a standard high school science curriculum. This past summer, however, my work for the Stanford EARTH High School Internship program introduced me to fungal ecology through experiments involving culturing, genomics and root dissections. The two fungal experiments I worked on had very different foci, both searching for answers to broad ecological questions of fungal function and physiology. The first, a symbiosis experiment, sought to determine if the partners of the nutrient exchange between pine trees and their fungal symbionts could choose one another. The second experiment, a dung fungal succession project, compared the genetic sequencing results of fungal extractions from dung versus fungal cultures from dung. My part in the symbiosis experiment involved dissection, weighing and encapsulation of root tissue samples characterized based on the root thickness and presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The dung fungi succession project required that I not only learn how to culture various genera of dung fungi but also learn how to extract DNA and RNA for sequencing from the fungal tissue. Although I primarily worked with dung fungi cultures and thereby learned about their unique physiologies, I also learned about the different types of genetic sequencing since the project compared sequences of cultured fungi versus Next Generation sequencing of all fungi present within a dung pellet. Through working on distinct fungal projects that reassess how information about fungi is known within the field of fungal ecology, I learned not only about the two experiments I worked on but also many past related experiments and inquiries through reading scientific papers. Thanks to my foray into fungal research, I now know not only the broader significance of fungi in ecological research but also how to design and conduct ecological experiments.

  20. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Some aspects of executive functions as predictors of understanding textual mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japundža-Milisavljević Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most significant segment during the process of solving mathematical tasks is translation from mathematical to native language, in the basis o which, among others, are the following factors: resistance to distraction and forming adequate verbal strategies. The goal of this research is to evaluate the contribution of some aspects of executive functions in explaining the variance of solving illustrative mathematical tasks in students with mild intellectual disability. The sample consists of 90 students with mild intellectual disability aged from 12 to 16 (M=14.7; SD=1.6, of both sexes (44.4% boys and 55.6% girls. The Twenty questions test and the Stroop test were used to estimate the executive functions. Verbal problem tasks were used for the purpose of understanding mathematical language The obtained results show that the estimated aspects of executive functions are significant predictors of understanding mathematical language in students with intellectual disabilities. The strongest predictor is distraction resistance (p=0.01.

  2. From understanding cellular function to novel drug discovery: the role of planar patch-clamp array chip technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe ePy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All excitable cell functions rely upon ion channels that are embedded in their plasma membrane. Perturbations of ion channel structure or function result in pathologies ranging from cardiac dysfunction to neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, to understand the functions of excitable cells and to remedy their pathophysiology, it is important to understand the ion channel functions under various experimental conditions – including exposure to novel drug targets. Glass pipette patch-clamp is the state of the art technique to monitor the intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons. However, this technique is labor-intensive and has low data throughput. Planar patch-clamp chips, integrated into automated systems, offer high throughputs but are limited to isolated cells from suspensions, resulting in questionable models of true physiological function, and are unsuitable for studies involving neuronal communication. Multi-electrode arrays (MEA, in contrast, have the ability to monitor network activity by measuring local field potentials from multiple extracellular sites, but specific ion channel activity is challenging to extract from these multiplexed signals. Here we describe a novel planar patch-clamp chip technology that enables the simultaneous high resolution electrophysiological interrogation of individual neurons at multiple sites in synaptically connected neuronal networks, thereby combining the advantages of MEA and patch-clamp techniques. Each neuron can be probed through an aperture that connects to a dedicated subterranean microfluidic channel. Neurons growing in networks are aligned to the apertures by physisorbed or chemisorbed chemical cues. In this review, we describe the design and fabrication process of these chips, the approach to the chemical patterning for cell placement, and present physiological data from cultured neuronal cells.

  3. QCD propagators and vertices from lattice QCD (in memory of Michael Müller-Preußker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternbeck André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review lattice calculations of the elementary Greens functions of QCD with a special emphasis on the Landau gauge. These lattice results have been of interest to continuum approaches to QCD over the past 20 years. They are used as reference for Dyson-Schwinger- and functional renormalization group equation calculations as well as for hadronic bound state equations. The lattice provides low-energy data for propagators and three-point vertices in Landau gauge at zero and finite temperature even including dynamical fermions. We summarize Michael Müller-Preußker’s important contributions to this field and put them into the perspective of his other research interests.

  4. The value of eutherian-marsupial comparisons for understanding the function of glucocorticoids in female mammal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Kerry V; Parrott, Marissa L

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Chronic stress is known to inhibit female reproductive function. Consequently, it is often assumed that glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations should be negatively correlated with reproductive success because of the role they play in stress physiology. In contrast, a growing body of evidence indicates that GCs play an active role in promoting reproductive function. It is precisely because GCs are so integral to the entire process that disruptions to adrenal activity have negative consequences for reproduction. The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the increasing evidence showing that increases in adrenal activity are important for healthy female reproduction. Furthermore, we outline several hypotheses about the functional role(s) that GCs may play in mediating reproduction and argue that comparative studies between eutherian and marsupial mammals, which exhibit some pronounced differences in reproductive physiology, may be particularly useful for testing different hypotheses about the functional role of GCs in reproduction. Much of our current thinking about GCs and reproduction comes from research involving stress-induced levels of GCs and has led to broad assumptions about the effects of GCs on reproduction. Unfortunately, this has left a gaping hole in our knowledge about basal GC levels and how they may influence reproductive function, thereby preventing a broader understanding of adrenal physiology and obscuring potential solutions for reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dr. O.S Michael Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its machinery just as much as he has in the anatomical laboratory, and ...to combine ... nurses, and other health professionals, in addition to delivering medical care to patients. ... better understanding of human physiology and was the earliest ...

  6. WHEN DYLAN MET THE BARD: TRANSLATING HAMLET FROM TEXT TO SCREEN (SOUND: MICHAEL ALMEREYDA’S HAMLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gerzic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Director Michael Almereyda’s diverse musical choices in the film are a threshold into understanding his cinematic interpretation of Hamlet (2000. Almereyda recontextualises Hamlet in terms of contemporary social problems. Hamlet and Ophelia are confronted with and battle against urban claustrophobia, conspiracy and global corporate power. A fragment of the Bob Dylan song ‘All Along the Watchtower’ (1966 is used as a filmic shortcut to translate Shakespeare’s iconic ‘gravedigger scene’ between Hamlet and the Gravedigger from playtext to screen. ‘All Along the Watchtower’ encapsulates certain ideas about mortality and the worth of life from the ‘gravedigger scene’ and demonstrates these issues still resonate in the contemporary urban world the film is set.

  7. Tool-use training in a species of rodent: the emergence of an optimal motor strategy and functional understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Okanoya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tool use is defined as the manipulation of an inanimate object to change the position or form of a separate object. The expansion of cognitive niches and tool-use capabilities probably stimulated each other in hominid evolution. To understand the causes of cognitive expansion in humans, we need to know the behavioral and neural basis of tool use. Although a wide range of animals exhibit tool use in nature, most studies have focused on primates and birds on behavioral or psychological levels and did not directly address questions of which neural modifications contributed to the emergence of tool use. To investigate such questions, an animal model suitable for cellular and molecular manipulations is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated for the first time that rodents can be trained to use tools. Through a step-by-step training procedure, we trained degus (Octodon degus to use a rake-like tool with their forelimbs to retrieve otherwise out-of-reach rewards. Eventually, they mastered effective use of the tool, moving it in an elegant trajectory. After the degus were well trained, probe tests that examined whether they showed functional understanding of the tool were performed. Degus did not hesitate to use tools of different size, colors, and shapes, but were reluctant to use the tool with a raised nonfunctional blade. Thus, degus understood the functional and physical properties of the tool after extensive training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that tool use is not a specific faculty resulting from higher intelligence, but is a specific combination of more general cognitive faculties. Studying the brains and behaviors of trained rodents can provide insights into how higher cognitive functions might be broken down into more general faculties, and also what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the emergence of such cognitive functions.

  8. Chiropractic physicians: toward a select conceptual understanding of bureaucratic structures and functions in the health care institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Marcel; Kondellas, Bill; Hang, Lam; Fredericks, Janet; Ross, Michael Wv

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to present select concepts and theories of bureaucratic structures and functions so that chiropractic physicians and other health care professionals can use them in their respective practices. The society-culture-personality model can be applied as an organizational instrument for assisting chiropractors in the diagnosis and treatment of their patients irrespective of locality. Society-culture-personality and social meaningful interaction are examined in relationship to the structural and functional aspects of bureaucracy within the health care institution of a society. Implicit in the examination of the health care bureaucratic structures and functions of a society is the focus that chiropractic physicians and chiropractic students learn how to integrate, synthesize, and actualize values and virtues such as empathy, integrity, excellence, diversity, compassion, caring, and understanding with a deep commitment to self-reflection. It is essential that future and current chiropractic physicians be aware of the structural and functional aspects of an organization so that chiropractic and other health care professionals are able to deliver care that involves the ingredients of quality, affordability, availability, accessibility, and continuity for their patients.

  9. Chiropractic physicians: toward a select conceptual understanding of bureaucratic structures and functions in the health care institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Marcel; Kondellas, Bill; Hang, Lam; Fredericks, Janet; Ross, Michael WV

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to present select concepts and theories of bureaucratic structures and functions so that chiropractic physicians and other health care professionals can use them in their respective practices. The society-culture-personality model can be applied as an organizational instrument for assisting chiropractors in the diagnosis and treatment of their patients irrespective of locality. Discussion Society-culture-personality and social meaningful interaction are examined in relationship to the structural and functional aspects of bureaucracy within the health care institution of a society. Implicit in the examination of the health care bureaucratic structures and functions of a society is the focus that chiropractic physicians and chiropractic students learn how to integrate, synthesize, and actualize values and virtues such as empathy, integrity, excellence, diversity, compassion, caring, and understanding with a deep commitment to self-reflection. Conclusion It is essential that future and current chiropractic physicians be aware of the structural and functional aspects of an organization so that chiropractic and other health care professionals are able to deliver care that involves the ingredients of quality, affordability, availability, accessibility, and continuity for their patients. PMID:22693481

  10. Understanding large multiprotein complexes: applying a multiple allosteric networks model to explain the function of the Mediator transcription complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian A

    2010-01-15

    The regulation of transcription and of many other cellular processes involves large multi-subunit protein complexes. In the context of transcription, it is known that these complexes serve as regulatory platforms that connect activator DNA-binding proteins to a target promoter. However, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the function of these complexes. Why do multi-subunit complexes exist? What is the molecular basis of the function of their constituent subunits, and how are these subunits organized within a complex? What is the reason for physical connections between certain subunits and not others? In this article, I address these issues through a model of network allostery and its application to the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II Mediator transcription complex. The multiple allosteric networks model (MANM) suggests that protein complexes such as Mediator exist not only as physical but also as functional networks of interconnected proteins through which information is transferred from subunit to subunit by the propagation of an allosteric state known as conformational spread. Additionally, there are multiple distinct sub-networks within the Mediator complex that can be defined by their connections to different subunits; these sub-networks have discrete functions that are activated when specific subunits interact with other activator proteins.

  11. Global meta-analysis of leaf area index in wetlands indicates uncertainties in understanding of their ecosystem function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Taddeo, S.; Foster, K.

    2017-12-01

    Projecting ecosystem responses to global change relies on the accurate understanding of properties governing their functions in different environments. An important variable in models of ecosystem function is canopy leaf area index (LAI; leaf area per unit ground area) declared as one of the Essential Climate Variables in the Global Climate Observing System and extensively measured in terrestrial landscapes. However, wetlands have been largely under-represented in these efforts, which globally limits understanding of their contribution to carbon sequestration, climate regulation and resilience to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. This study provides a global synthesis of >350 wetland-specific LAI observations from 182 studies and compares LAI among wetland ecosystem and vegetation types, biomes and measurement approaches. Results indicate that most wetland types and even individual locations show a substantial local dispersion of LAI values (average coefficient of variation 65%) due to heterogeneity of environmental properties and vegetation composition. Such variation indicates that mean LAI values may not sufficiently represent complex wetland environments, and the use of this index in ecosystem function models needs to incorporate within-site variation in canopy properties. Mean LAI did not significantly differ between direct and indirect measurement methods on a pooled global sample; however, within some of the specific biomes and wetland types significant contrasts between these approaches were detected. These contrasts highlight unique aspects of wetland vegetation physiology and canopy structure affecting measurement principles that need to be considered in generalizing canopy properties in ecosystem models. Finally, efforts to assess wetland LAI using remote sensing strongly indicate the promise of this technology for cost-effective regional-scale modeling of canopy properties similar to terrestrial systems. However, such efforts urgently require more

  12. Michael Goodsite gæsteprofessor på Thunderbird School of Global Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2010-01-01

    Professor Michael Goodsite er blevet udnævnt til "Visiting Professor of Global Processes and Senior Research Fellow in Climate Strategy" ved Thunderbird School of Global Management, som har verdens højst rangerede MBA uddannelse inden for international handel.......Professor Michael Goodsite er blevet udnævnt til "Visiting Professor of Global Processes and Senior Research Fellow in Climate Strategy" ved Thunderbird School of Global Management, som har verdens højst rangerede MBA uddannelse inden for international handel....

  13. A Greener, Efficient Approach to Michael Addition of Barbituric Acid to Nitroalkene in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany J. Al-Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a–t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a–k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination.

  14. The problem of consciousness: an assessment of Michael Tye's and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    It is considered nonphysical and beyond what can be captured in the .... Some of these versions include behaviourism, mind-brain identity theory, functionalism, ... dealt with, by phenomenal concept strategy, by drawing attention to the a priori.

  15. A data-model integration approach toward improved understanding on wetland functions and hydrological benefits at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I. Y.; Lang, M.; Lee, S.; Huang, C.; Jin, H.; McCarty, G.; Sadeghi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The wetland ecosystem plays crucial roles in improving hydrological function and ecological integrity for the downstream water and the surrounding landscape. However, changing behaviours and functioning of wetland ecosystems are poorly understood and extremely difficult to characterize. Improved understanding on hydrological behaviours of wetlands, considering their interaction with surrounding landscapes and impacts on downstream waters, is an essential first step toward closing the knowledge gap. We present an integrated wetland-catchment modelling study that capitalizes on recently developed inundation maps and other geospatial data. The aim of the data-model integration is to improve spatial prediction of wetland inundation and evaluate cumulative hydrological benefits at the catchment scale. In this paper, we highlight problems arising from data preparation, parameterization, and process representation in simulating wetlands within a distributed catchment model, and report the recent progress on mapping of wetland dynamics (i.e., inundation) using multiple remotely sensed data. We demonstrate the value of spatially explicit inundation information to develop site-specific wetland parameters and to evaluate model prediction at multi-spatial and temporal scales. This spatial data-model integrated framework is tested using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with improved wetland extension, and applied for an agricultural watershed in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. This study illustrates necessity of spatially distributed information and a data integrated modelling approach to predict inundation of wetlands and hydrologic function at the local landscape scale, where monitoring and conservation decision making take place.

  16. Understanding Catalytic Activity Trends for NO Decomposition and CO Oxidation using Density Functional Theory and Microkinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne

    -metal surfaces by combining a database of adsorption energies on stepped metal surfaces with known Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi (BEP) relations for the activation barriers of dissociation of diatomic molecules over stepped transition- and noble-metal surfaces. The potential energy diagram directly points to why Pd......The main aim of this thesis is to understand the catalytic activity of transition metals and noble metals for the direct decomposition of NO and the oxidation of CO. The formation of NOx from combustion of fossil and renewable fuels continues to be a dominant environmental issue. We take one step...... towards rationalizing trends in catalytic activity of transition metal catalysts for NO decomposition by combining microkinetic modelling with density functional theory calculations. We establish the full potential energy diagram for the direct NO decomposition reaction over stepped transition...

  17. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  18. Ecosystem function in complex mountain terrain: Combining models and long-term observations to advance process-based understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, William R.; Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.; Swenson, Sean C.; Suding, Katharine N.

    2017-04-01

    Abiotic factors structure plant community composition and ecosystem function across many different spatial scales. Often, such variation is considered at regional or global scales, but here we ask whether ecosystem-scale simulations can be used to better understand landscape-level variation that might be particularly important in complex terrain, such as high-elevation mountains. We performed ecosystem-scale simulations by using the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 to better understand how the increased length of growing seasons may impact carbon, water, and energy fluxes in an alpine tundra landscape. The model was forced with meteorological data and validated with observations from the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Program site. Our results demonstrate that CLM is capable of reproducing the observed carbon, water, and energy fluxes for discrete vegetation patches across this heterogeneous ecosystem. We subsequently accelerated snowmelt and increased spring and summer air temperatures in order to simulate potential effects of climate change in this region. We found that vegetation communities that were characterized by different snow accumulation dynamics showed divergent biogeochemical responses to a longer growing season. Contrary to expectations, wet meadow ecosystems showed the strongest decreases in plant productivity under extended summer scenarios because of disruptions in hydrologic connectivity. These findings illustrate how Earth system models such as CLM can be used to generate testable hypotheses about the shifting nature of energy, water, and nutrient limitations across space and through time in heterogeneous landscapes; these hypotheses may ultimately guide further experimental work and model development.

  19. Hydrologic Synthesis Across the Critical Zone Observatory Network: A Step Towards Understanding the Coevolution of Critical Zone Function and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Harman, C. J.; Molotch, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    generation). Storage-discharge relationships vary widely across the Network, and may be associated with inter-site differences in sub-surface architecture. Moving forward, we seek to reconcile top-down analysis results against the bottom-up understanding of critical zone structure and hydrologic function at each CZO site.

  20. Passings to note: Paul Michael Packman, MD; S. Charles Schulz, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2018-02-01

    One of the keys to the success of Annals of Clinical Psychiatry has always been the tireless efforts of our dedicated Editorial Board. We recently lost 2 longtime Editorial Board members, Drs. Paul Michael Packman and S. Charles Schulz. Both will be greatly missed.

  1. Michael Perelman: An ecological future in view of Marxist Economics (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Xiaomei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Interviewee profile: Michael Perelman, currently professor of Economics Department of California State University, USA, American economist and economic historian with nearly 20 publications in the field of economics criticism, including Railroading Economics, Manufacturing Discontent, The Perverse Economy, and The Invention of Capitalism.

  2. Wolff-Michael Roth's passibility: at the limits of the constructivist metaphor: a book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.

  3. Assessment of lipid profile of a group of undergraduates in Michael ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the lipid fractions in serum blood samples of apparently healthy undergraduates of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Methods: A total of one hundred consenting males and females aged between 19-30 years were purposively selected from the ...

  4. Hexafluorobenzene: A powerful solvent for a noncovalent stereoselective organocatalytic Michael addition reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Lattanzi, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic enhancement of the diastereo- and enantioselectivity in the nitro-Michael addition reaction organocatalysed by a commercially available α,α-l-diaryl prolinol was disclosed when performing the reaction in unconventional hexafluorobenzene as a medium. DFT calculations were performed to clarify the origin of stereoselectivity and the role of C 6F 6. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  5. Briti ekspert : euroliidus kaob Eestist tööpuudus / Michael Richardson ; interv. Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Richardson, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Eestis Suurbritannia tööreformi tutvustava töö- ja sotsiaalnõuniku sõnul on Suurbritannias peaaegu kadunud pikaajaline töötus noorte hulgas, vanematest inimestest on vaid üksikud tööta kauem kui aasta. Vt. samas: Kes on Michael Richardson?

  6. Moral Education and Education in Altruism: Two Replies to Michael Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2016-01-01

    This article is a critical discussion of two recent papers by Michael Hand on moral education. The first is his "Towards a Theory of Moral Education", published in the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" in 2014 (Volume 48, Issue 4). The second is a chapter called "Beyond Moral Education?" in an edited book of new…

  7. Recollections of Jack Michael and the Application of Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Jack Michael offered a course on verbal behavior almost every year throughout his teaching career. Jack was also interested in the application of Skinner's work and in 1976 began to offer a graduate course at Western Michigan University titled Verbal Behavior Applications. Jack and his students pursued the application of Skinner's work on verbal…

  8. From Gouldner to Gramsci: The Making of Michael Apple's "Ideology and Curriculum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Michael Apple's "Ideology and Curriculum", published in 1979, helped initiate a broad turn in the field of education in the United States to Marxist thought as a lens through which to analyze the relationship between school and society. This classic text continues to inform scholarship in the field. While "Ideology" has…

  9. Outside in America: George Michael's music video, public sex and global pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2004-01-01

    Six months after his controversial arrest for ‘lewd conduct’ at a men’s public restroom in Beverly Hills, British pop star George Michael released the song and music video ‘Outside’ which can be seen as an explicit commentary on the controversy. In this article, I read the music video in three ways:

  10. "Raising Standards" or Reducing Aspirations and Opportunities Still Further? Michael Gove and Examination Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Well before the examinations grade crisis of 2012, Michael Gove had set out clear intentions for reforming public examinations. Though he claimed to be improving examinations and assessment by replicating practices that took place in high-performing countries and thus improving the ability of the UK economy to "compete", this…

  11. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  12. Astronaut C. Michael Foale is briefed on use of Sky Genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut C. Michael Foale, STS-63 mission specialist, is briefed on the use of Sky Genie device by Karin L. Porter. The device would aid in emergency egress operations aboard a troubled Space Shuttle. Porter, an employee of Rockwell International, helps train astronauts in egress procedures at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  13. Gender Relations and Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Michael Crichton's "Disclosure" as a Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to use Michael Crichton's novel "Disclosure" and the film based on it for class discussions of such issues as what constitutes sexual harassment, harassment of men, relationship between sexual harassment and power, organizational responses to harassment, and gender differences in career advancement tactics. (SK)

  14. The power of virtual integration: an interview with Dell Computer's Michael Dell. Interview by Joan Magretta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, M

    1998-01-01

    Michael Dell started his computer company in 1984 with a simple business insight. He could bypass the dealer channel through which personal computers were then being sold and sell directly to customers, building products to order. Dell's direct model eliminated the dealer's markup and the risks associated with carrying large inventories of finished goods. In this interview, Michael Dell provides a detailed description of how his company is pushing that business model one step further, toward what he calls virtual integration. Dell is using technology and information to blur the traditional boundaries in the value chain between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. The individual pieces of Dell's strategy--customer focus, supplier partnerships, mass customization, just-in-time manufacturing--may be all be familiar. But Michael Dell's business insight into how to combine them is highly innovative. Direct relationships with customers create valuable information, which in turn allows the company to coordinate its entire value chain back through manufacturing to product design. Dell describes how his company has come to achieve this tight coordination without the "drag effect" of ownership. Dell reaps the advantages of being vertically integrated without incurring the costs, all the while achieving the focus, agility, and speed of a virtual organization. As envisioned by Michael Dell, virtual integration may well become a new organizational model for the information age.

  15. Kunstlik viljastamine - kas rahva püsimajäämise võti? / Michael Cook

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cook, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Kunstlikust viljastamisest pole üksi abi - vaid siis, kui noored mehed ja naised pööravad selja tarbimiskultusele ja individualismile, hakkab sündimus tõusma taastootmisest kõrgemale, kirjutab BioEdge toimetaja Michael Cook

  16. Training and Mastery of Techniques in Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy: A Response to Michael Luntley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Responding to Michael Luntley's article, "Learning, Empowerment and Judgement," the author shows he cannot successfully make the following three moves: (1) dissolve the analytic distinction between learning by training and learning by reasoning, while advocating the latter; (2) diminish the role of training in Wittgenstein's philosophy, nor…

  17. Vision and Elusiveness in Philosophy of Education: R. S. Peters on the Legacy of Michael Oakeshott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Despite his elusiveness on important issues, there is much in Michael Oakeshott's educational vision that Richard Peters quite rightly wishes to endorse. The main aim of this essay is, however, to consider Peters' justifiable critique of three features of Oakeshott's work. These are (1) the rigidity of his distinction between vocational and…

  18. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for St. Michael Quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 159 water samples from the St. Michael Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  19. SYNTHESIS OF SOME PROLINE DERIVATIVES BY MEANS OF MICHAEL ADDITIONS OF GLYCINE ESTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERF, A; KELLOGG, RM

    1991-01-01

    Addition of the Schiff bases derived from reaction of glycine alkyl esters with benzophenoneimine to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, followed by hydrogenation of the addition products, leads to 5- or 3,5-substituted prolines. Hydrolysis of the Michael adducts rather than hydrogenation allows

  20. Gulliver's Travels: Michael Moore the Explorer in "Who to Invade Next"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    America is identified as a nation of immigrants. These immigrants are thought to be the source of its subcultures. It is also a nation of individual explorers and inventors. Their activities are also a source of diverse subcultures. Many notable movies have made heroes of such innovators in different fields of endeavor. Michael Moore's movie…

  1. A Critical Analysis of Michael Tippett's "A Child of Our Time"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallee, Jean-Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    After more than ten years of thoughtful planning, Michael Tippett (1905-1998) summed up his musical, political, spiritual and philosophical beliefs in his first oratorio, "A Child of Our Time" (1941). Representing the emergence of a new level of confidence and musical maturity for Tippett, the oratorio has become the composer's most widely known…

  2. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Michael W. Allen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Michael W. Allen, the Chairman and CEO of Allen Interactions, is an architect of interactive multimedia learning and is recognized for his many insights, inventions, and presentations. With over 50 years of experience in e-learning, both in academic and corporate settings, he is known for his role in creating Authorware and overseeing the work of…

  3. European Management: an emerging competitive advantage of European nations : A reply to Michael Porter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); A.A. van Prooijen

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis article extends the debate begun in the June 1992 issue of EMJ when the authors first criticized Michael Porter's explanatory framework in his Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990), over the role of national culture on the competitive advantage of nations. In this paper, Frans van

  4. New Models at Lasell: Q&A with President Michael Alexander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2018-01-01

    The "New England Journal of Higher Education" ("NEJHE") Executive Editor John O. Harney had the chance to catch up with Lasell College President Michael Alexander about the small Newton, Massachusetts, college's plans to challenge the higher education business model. The interview is presented in this article.

  5. Subjectivity and Cultural Adjustment in Mathematics Education: A Response to Wolff-Michael Roth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this volume, Wolff-Michael Roth provides a critical but partial reading of Tony Brown's book "Mathematics Education and Subjectivity". The reading contrasts Brown's approach with Roth's own conception of subjectivity as derived from the work of Vygotsky, in which Roth aims to "reunite" psychology and sociology. Brown's book, however, focuses on…

  6. Little Mosie from the Margaree: A Biography of Moses Michael Coady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Michael R.

    This book examines the life of the Reverend Moses Michael Coady (1890-1959), a Roman Catholic priest who led the Antigonish Movement. During the Antigonish Movement, residents of the small maritime town of Antigonish, Nova Scotia, worked to achieve a nonviolent alternative to communism and fascism and to effect the social and economic…

  7. An efficient oxa-Michael addition to diethyl vinylphosphonate under mild reaction conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Jansa, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Špaček, Petr; Janeba, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2012), s. 1282-1284 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : oxa-Michael addition * secondary alcohols * diethyl vinylphosphonate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2012

  8. What Work Do the Concepts of "Language" and "Literature" Do for Michael Rosenak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Michael Rosenak uses the twin metaphors of "language" and "literature," borrowed from Oakeshott and Peters, to argue that the goal of education is initiation into a language. This goal transcends the study of literature in that language. It includes, as well, the development of the capacity both to critique literature and to…

  9. Michael Faraday on the Learning of Science and Attitudes of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elspeth

    1998-01-01

    Makes use of Michael Faraday's ideas on learning, focusing on his attitudes toward the unknowns of science and the development of an attitude that improves scientific decision making. This approach acknowledges that there is an inner struggle involved in facing unknowns. (DDR)

  10. An Interview with Michael Horn: Blending Education for High-Octane Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning holds the potential of improving the way we educate students and of making them more motivated. Blended education--the melding of information technology based distance learning with school attendance--is perhaps the best way to educate students for 21st century skills, says Michael Horn in a "Kappan" interview. Horn points out…

  11. DNA-based catalytic enantioselective intermolecular oxa-Michael addition reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, Rik P.; Roelfes, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Using the DNA-based catalysis concept, a novel Cu(II) catalyzed enantioselective oxa-Michael addition of alcohols to enones is reported. Enantioselectivities of up to 86% were obtained. The presence of water is important for the reactivity, possibly by reverting unwanted side reactions such as

  12. C. P. Snow's "The Two Cultures": Michael Polanyi's Response and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Struan

    2011-01-01

    C. P. Snow's "The Two Cultures" controversially contrasted science and literature, suggesting that neither scientists nor literary intellectuals have much in common with, and seldom bother speaking to, the other. Responding to Snow, Michael Polanyi argued that specialization has made modern culture, not twofold but manifold. In his major work,…

  13. Noted astrophysicist Michael S. Turner to Head NSF'S mathematical and physical sciences directorate

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The National Science Foundation has named celebrated astrophysicist Michael S. Turner of the University of Chicago as Assistant Director for Mathematical and Physical Sciences. He will head a $1 billion directorate that supports research in mathematics, physics, chemistry, materials and astronomy, as well as multidisciplinary programs and education" (1/2 page).

  14. 77 FR 69550 - Proposed Information Collection (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY.... DeBakey Home Care Program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program, VA Form 10-0476. OMB Control Number...

  15. 76 FR 624 - Proposed Information Collection (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Collection (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program) Activity: Comment Request... satisfaction with the quality of services/care provided by home care program staff. An agency may not conduct... Form 10-0476).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home...

  16. 78 FR 6851 - Proposed Information Collection (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... (Patient Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... Satisfaction Survey Michael E. DeBakey Home Care Program, VA Form 10-0476. OMB Control Number: 2900-0775. Type... home care program staff. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond...

  17. 77 FR 30047 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Michael J Smith Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Comment on Surplus Property Release at Michael J Smith Field, Beaufort, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation... J Smith Field, be used for aeronautical purposes. DATES: Comments must be received on or before June... property at the Michael J Smith Field. The property consists of one parcel located on the north side of...

  18. Using extremely halophilic bacteria to understand the role of surface charge and surface hydration in protein evolution, folding, and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Wouter; Deole, Ratnakar; Osu Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Halophilic Archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant, and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that only function at high salinity. We examine osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila. We find that H. halophila has an acidic proteome and accumulates molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt media. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt media, its cytoplasmic K + content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. We conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K + ions and acidic side chains, but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. We propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K + binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface.

  19. Understanding the notion of function and articulation of semiotic records that represent between students entering a program Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Prada-Núñez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the understanding of the notion of function and the ability to articulate different semiotic registers for representation by new students in the university in Colombia. Immediate context is taken as the Faculty of Engineering at a public university. Epistemologically the study is based on symbolic interaction by analyzing the meanings that students attributed to this mathematical concept when addressing problem solving. The methodology, therefore, is qualitatively and use of theoretical coding is done. For analysis of the results it has been applied grounded theory with a structured approach. The information generated by this study corresponds to a test that showed students two graphic representations with the intent to identify which of them was a function, besides which should argue their response. Altogether 86 arguments around the concept are analyzed. Data analysis was done through atlas.ti 7.0 software. The system allows a glimpse of emerging categories the following findings: conceptual deficiencies, diversity in conceptual approaches, conceptual referents, semiotic representations, and finally highlight the various conceptual variations.

  20. Understanding the Formation of Kinetically Stable Compounds and the Development of Thin Film Pair Distribution Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzannah Rebecca

    Navigating the synthesis landscape poses many challenges when developing novel solid state materials. Advancements in both synthesis and characterization are necessary to facilitate the targeting of specific materials. This dissertation discusses the formation of chalcogenide heterostructures and their properties in the first part and the development of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) in the second part. The heterostructures were formed by the self-assembly of designed precursors deposited by physical vapor deposition in a modulated elemental reactants approach, which provides the control and predictability to synthesis. Specifically, a series of (BiSe)1+delta(TiSe2) n, where n = 2,3,&4, were synthesized to explore the extent of charge transfer from the BiSe to TiSe2 layers. To further explore the role Bi plays in charge donation, a family of structurally similar compounds, (Bix Sn1-xSe)1+deltaTiSe2, where 0≥x≥1, were synthesized and characterized. Electrical measurements show doping efficiency decreases as x increases, correlated with the structural distortion and the formation of periodic antiphase boundaries containing Bi-Bi pairs. The first heterostructures composed of three unique structural types were synthesized and Bi2Se3 layer thickness was used to tune electrical properties and further explore charge transfer. To better understand the potential energy landscape on which these kinetically stable compounds exist, two investigations were undertaken. The first was a study of the formation and subsequent decomposition of [(BiSe)1+delta]n(TiSe2)n compounds, where n= 2&3, the second an investigation of precursor structure for thermodynamically stable FeSb2 and kinetically stable FeSb3. The second section describes the development of thin film pair distribution function analysis, a technique in which total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis is obtained from thin films, suitable for local structure analysis

  1. Epistemologia pragmatyczna Michaela Williamsa (PRAGMATIST EPISTEMOLOGY BY MICHAEL WILLIAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ziemińska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents three main elements of Williams' epistemology: the concept of knowledge, the problem of skepticism and the concept of truth. Williams takes knowledge not as pure descriptive but partly normative concept (to know is to be engaged and entitled. He rejects the demonstrative conception of knowledge (knowledge is infallible and prefers the fallibilist conception of knowledge (knowledge is uncertain and fallible. Williams is good at bringing skeptical presuppositions to light: the demonstrative conception of knowledge and the conception of justification with Prior Grounding Requirement, epistemological realism and priority for internal knowledge. He rightly observes that when we change that presuppositions (skeptic's context, knowledge does exist. However, Williams-fallibilist is close to a skeptic: they both agree that our beliefs are uncertain. The difference is only whether some of our beliefs deserve to be called knowledge. The most important worries concern Williams' concept of truth (deflationary pragmatism. According to Williams truth has no nature and it is not a goal of inquiry. However, if truth is not a goal, we can hardly understand the previous discussion with skepticism and the defense of rationality.

  2. The Ever-Evolving Concept of the Gene: The Use of RNA/Protein Experimental Techniques to Understand Genome Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cipriano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence together with advances in sequencing technologies have shifted the paradigm of the genome, as composed of discrete and hereditable coding entities, and have shown the abundance of functional noncoding DNA. This part of the genome, previously dismissed as “junk” DNA, increases proportionally with organismal complexity and contributes to gene regulation beyond the boundaries of known protein-coding genes. Different classes of functionally relevant nonprotein-coding RNAs are transcribed from noncoding DNA sequences. Among them are the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, which are thought to participate in the basal regulation of protein-coding genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Although knowledge of this field is still limited, the ability of lncRNAs to localize in different cellular compartments, to fold into specific secondary structures and to interact with different molecules (RNA or proteins endows them with multiple regulatory mechanisms. It is becoming evident that lncRNAs may play a crucial role in most biological processes such as the control of development, differentiation and cell growth. This review places the evolution of the concept of the gene in its historical context, from Darwin's hypothetical mechanism of heredity to the post-genomic era. We discuss how the original idea of protein-coding genes as unique determinants of phenotypic traits has been reconsidered in light of the existence of noncoding RNAs. We summarize the technological developments which have been made in the genome-wide identification and study of lncRNAs and emphasize the methodologies that have aided our understanding of the complexity of lncRNA-protein interactions in recent years.

  3. Of mice and men: how animal models advance our understanding of T-cell function in RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobezda, Tamás; Ghassemi-Nejad, Sheida; Mikecz, Katalin; Glant, Tibor T; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2014-03-01

    The involvement of autoreactive T cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as in autoimmune animal models of arthritis has been well established; however, unanswered questions, such as the role of joint-homing T cells, remain. Animal models of arthritis are superb experimental tools in demonstrating how T cells trigger joint inflammation, and thus can help to further our knowledge of disease mechanisms and potential therapies. In this Review, we discuss the similarities and differences in T-cell subsets and functions between RA and mouse arthritis models. For example, various T-cell subsets are involved in both human and mouse arthritis, but differences might exist in the cytokine regulation and plasticity of these cells. With regard to joint-homing T cells, an abundance of synovial T cells is present in humans compared with mice. On the other hand, local expansion of type 17 T-helper (TH17) cells is observed in some animal models, but not in RA. Finally, whereas T-cell depletion therapy essentially failed in RA, antibody targeting of T cells can work, at least preventatively, in most arthritis models. Clearly, additional human and animal studies are needed to fill the gap in our understanding of the specific contribution of T-cell subsets to arthritis in mice and men.

  4. Towards an understanding of students’ thinking in learning new and unfamiliar concepts: Focus on the factorial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satsope Maoto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used participant observation to explore students’ thinking when learning the concept of factorial functions. First-year university students undertaking a mathematics methodology course were asked to find the number of ways in which five people could sit around a circular table with five seats. Using grounded theory as a qualitative research strategy, we analysed student responses and written reflections according to the sequence of their experiential realities: practical and textual experiences. This was followed by an analysis of their reflections on both experiences in a pedagogical context. We found that the way basic mathematics operations are learned impacts on the student’s ability to experience components of new problems as familiar. Consequently, they encounter these problems as new and unfamiliar. At the same time we found that engagement with practical experience does allow for the emergence of representations that have the potential to be used as foundations for learning new and unfamiliar concepts. The blending of practical, textual and teaching experiences provoked students’ thinking and ultimately their understanding of a given new and unfamiliar mathematics concept.

  5. Multicomponent Synthesis of Isoindolinone Frameworks via RhIII -Catalysed in situ Directing Group-Assisted Tandem Oxidative Olefination/Michael Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Xi; Liu, Jian-Biao; Shen, Jun; Chen, Qun; He, Ming-Yang

    2018-04-04

    A Rh III -catalysed three-component synthesis of isoindolinone frameworks via direct assembly of benzoyl chlorides, o-aminophenols and activated alkenes has been developed. The process involves in situ generation of o-aminophenol (OAP)-based bidentate directing group (DG), Rh III -catalysed tandem ortho C-H olefination and subsequent cyclization via aza-Michael addition. This protocol exhibits good chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance. Computational studies showed that the presence of hydroxyl group on the N-aryl ring could enhance the chemoselectivity of the reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nano-organocatalyst: magnetically retrievable ferrite-anchored glutathione for microwave-assisted Paal–Knorr reaction, aza-Michael addition, and pyrazole synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-01-01

    Postsynthetic Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles by glutathione imparts desirable chemical functionality and enables the generation of catalytic sites on the surfaces of ensuing organocatalysts. In this article, we discuss the developments, unique activity, and high selectivity of nano-organocatalysts for microwave-assisted Paal-Knorr reaction, aza-Michael addition, and pyrazole synthesis. Their insoluble character Coupled with paramagnetic nature enables easy separation of these nano-catalysts from the reaction mixture using external magnet, which eliminates the requirement of catalyst filtration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Understanding the Function of Genes Involved in Inherited Retinal Degeneration-Insights into the Pathogenesis and Function of C8ORF37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Ali Sakawa

    -downs identified KTN1, RAB28, UCHL1, and PSMD14 suggesting that C8ORF37 may have a role in protein homeostasis. Chapter 4 concludes and discusses the impact of generating and characterizing C8orf37 animal models for future studies in understanding photoreceptor function and in the development of therapeutics against retinal degeneration.

  8. Michael Winkler普通教育學之探究 Inquiry into Michael Winkler'’s General Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    梁福鎮 Frank Liang

    2015-12-01

    the concept of general pedagogy; second, understanding historical development of the concept of cultivation; third, explaining the relation between educational theories and practice; fourth, criticizing mistakes of educational doctrines; fifth, understanding the missions of general pedagogy. Nevertheless, it also contains the following problems: first, it denies the natural value of children; second, it neglects the discourse across disciplines; third, it needs more explanation about the structure of educational activities. Winkler’s general pedagogy can be considered as a reference for the establishment of educational theories and the solutions to educational problems. It can help us to promote general pedagogy as a core subject, and provide teachers with a guide to instructional implementation and a solution for educational problems in the postmodern society. Winkler’s general pedagogy deserves more academic attention.

  9. Brändi näkyy musiikkivideossa : Esimerkkitapaus Michael Jackson

    OpenAIRE

    Kontinen, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Tutkin opinnäytetyössäni brändin ja musiikkivideon suhdetta toisiinsa. Työssä käsitellään lyhyesti myös tähteyttä. Esittelen ensin vähän historiaa ja peruskäsitteitä, minkä jälkeen käytän Michael Jacksonin Billie Jean -musiikkivideota esimerkkinä tutkiessani Michael Jacksonin brändiä. Teoksessa käytetään lähdeaineistoa sekä omaa analyysia. Keskityn tarkastelemaan musiikkivideoita, ja niihin liittyviä sisältöjä yleisesti, ei niinkään teknisesti. Toivon, että työstäni on apua jollekin,...

  10. Interviews with Michael Baxandall, February 3rd and 4th, 1994, Berkeley, CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Langdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following interviews with Michael Baxandall were conducted in Berkeley on February 3rd and 4th of 1994. The content of these interviews include general responses about developments in art history in the years between 1960 and 1985, a period of dramatic modifications in the discipline. Among the issues are the rise of the social history of art and the sources from anthropology that informed Baxandall’s concept of the ‘Period Eye’. Baxandall talks about his own work, his personal intellectual history, and the scholars of past and current generations who influenced him. Other topics include Baxandall’s professional trajectory, the Warburg Library, and aspects of cultural history having to do with Renaissance Humanism. These interviews first appeared as an appendix to the PhD dissertation by Allan Langdale, Art History and Intellectual History: Michael Baxandall’s Work between 1963 and 1985, U. C. Santa Barbara, 1995.

  11. [An exceptional human relationship (Michael P. Kierkegaard, Søren Kierkegaard)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R

    1978-01-01

    There were a father and a son, Michael and Sören Kierkegaard, both highly talented, imaginitive, witty, humorous, especially interested in shrewd dialectrical dialogues respectively debates, both profound melancholy ponderers. But according to very own individuality their congeniality wasn't absolute. The father, being under a questionable rigorous opinion of sin, suffered from undeserved divine grace since early childhood. And Michael Kierkegaard made Sören anxious with the religious experience of original sin. This anxiety moved (touched or affected) the sensitive son mighty. Nevertheless he should not despair hopelessly like his unlucky father. On the contrary: Sørens incomparable melancholy, mental agony and anxiety (fear or anguish) forced the faith, existing independently of them, in a radical refining. That is why Sören Kierkegaard succeeded in sublimation of all psychological and philosophic (al) attitudes (or opinions) in the sphere of religiousness. And the result? A novel philosophy of life: Christian existentialism.

  12. Michael K. Scullin: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Michael K. Scullin as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. "For an outstanding research paper that examines the relationship between prospective memory in executing a goal and various lapses of time from 20 minutes up to a 12- hour wake delay and a 12-hour sleep delay. The results suggest that consolidation processes active during sleep increase the probability of goal execution. The paper, titled 'Remembering to Execute a Goal: Sleep On It!' was published in Psychological Science in 2010 and was the basis for Michael K. Scullin's selection as the recipient of the 2011 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Mark A. McDaniel, PhD, served as faculty research advisor." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Navigating Transition: Freedom, Limitation and the Post-colonial Persona in Michael Ondaatje's The Cat's Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Alghamdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ondaatje's 2011 novel The Cat's Table follows a young boy's voyage from Colombo, Sri Lanka to London, England. Through this character and the unique environment of the ship, which forms a compelling sense of transitory place, Ondaatje explores liminality and its relationship with limitations or barriers. The young protagonist, Michael, and his companions enjoy an unusual level of freedom aboard the contained and hierarchically segmented ship. Polarization and transition between Eastern and Western culture is present but pales in importance compared to the validation of the self that is located within and defined by the sense of the in-between, an essential rite of passage undertaken before re-joining society.

  14. Learned Helplessness Encountered by Michael Oher in the Blind Side Movie

    OpenAIRE

    PAMUNGKAS, DIMAS PROBO

    2014-01-01

    Pamungkas, Dimas Probo. 2014. Learned Helplessness Encountered by Michael Oher in The Blind Side Movie. Study Program of English, Department of Languages and Literature, Faculty of Culture Studies, Universitas Brawijaya. Supervisor: Dyah Eko Hapsari;Co-supervisor: Sarlettina Vidyayani EkaKeywords: Learned Helplessness, African-American, Psychological, Social Behavior, Depression, The Blind Side.Social behavior shows several interactions between person and social situations, which stress...

  15. Dropping The Bomb? On Critical and Cinematic Reactions to Michael Ondaatje's The English Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Pesch, Josef

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses Anthony Minghella's film adaptation of Michael Ondaatje’s The English Patient. It aims at establishing patterns of transformation and strategies of adaptation. Not only the nostalgie romanticisation, but also the de-politicisation of the novel is critically scrutinized. As dropping all reference to the atomic bomb from the film is the most blatant example of deviation from the novel, critical and political background is provided which may explain this act of self-censorshi...

  16. Horror movie aspects and experimentation in Michael Jackson’s Thriller music video

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Herom; Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul - USCS; Gonçalves, Rafael; Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul - USCS

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of elements from the horror fi lm genre in the music video Thriller (1982), by Michael Jackson, as experimentation within the field of pop music. Based on the semiotics of culture, grounded on the concepts of cultural text, semiosphere, border and modeling, developed by Iuri Lotman, the analysis identified innovations in the use of horror as humor and, in the music, modeling of creatures, moving among horror, the fantastic and the reality.Keywords: horror, music ...

  17. Review: Cornelia Behnke & Michael Meuser (1999). Geschlechterforschung und qualitative Methoden [Gender Research and Qualitative Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Döring

    2001-01-01

    In less than 100 pages Cornelia BEHNKE and Michael MEUSER explain how gender studies evolved from women's studies and what feminist methodology is all about. They also discuss the interrelation of qualitative research and gender studies. The great potential of qualitative research based on a constructivist gender concept is demonstrated with a group discussion study involving different men only groups. Finally the authors deal with the question of how the researcher's gender affects both data...

  18. Feeding Health: Michael Pollan on Improving Public Health through the Food Systems

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-19

    In this podcast, author Michael Pollan discusses his March 2009 visit to CDC and offers his thoughts on the intersection between the government, the food systems, and public health.  Created: 8/19/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Office of Sustainability.   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  19. Mediation With Muscle: Understanding When Mediators Commit Resources to Civil War Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    unified and cohesive as to allow its negotiators to act without extensive consensus building and persuasion among their own side—certain elements will...UNDERSTANDING WHEN MEDIATORS COMMIT RESOURCES TO CIVIL WAR NEGOTIATIONS by Michael D. Caplan December 2015 Thesis Advisor: T. Camber Warren Second Reader... NEGOTIATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael D. Caplan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA

  20. En memoria de Michael Jiménez (1948-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Archila Neira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El 1 de septiembre de 2001 murió el historiador Michael Jiménez. Su apellido provenía de España de donde emigró su abuelo en busca de mejor suerte al otro lado del Atlántico. Nacido en el pequeño pueblo de Merced, California (Estados Unidos en agosto de 1948 en el seno de una familia obrera, Michael vivió su infancia en Colombia. A fines de ese año, su padre se desplazó a estas tierras para ser funcionario de la Texas, una multinacional petrolera que tenía sus reales en Puerto Boyacá. Michael estudió en el colegio Nueva Granada -becado por la Texas- hasta los catorce años. En dicho colegio fue compañero de pupitre de Herbert Braun, descendiente a su vez de una familia de emigrantes a Colombia, y con quien la vida lo juntaría de nuevo en las tierras del norte y en oficios similares.

  1. Between Irish National Cinema and Hollywood: Neil Jordan’s Michael Collins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raita Merivirta-Chakrabarti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available When Neil Jordan’s film Michael Collins was released in 1996, it was seen by some as a Hollywood epic, by others as a great national film. I would argue that Michael Collins combines these two traditions and occupies a space between Irish national cinema and Hollywood. The subject matter, the creative talent and the locations were Irish and the film was produced by using the Irish filmmaking infrastructure and the Irish government’s support mechanisms, but it was largely financed and distributed by a Hollywood studio. Also, to make it more appealing especially globally, but probably also locally (since Hollywood is now the international standard, it makes use of Hollywood conventions, making it accessible to international audiences as well. Despite the Hollywood mode, the fact remains that Michael Collins is a national film text, and Jordan does not make too many concessions to the non-Irish audiences.

  2. A celebration of mechanics: from nano to macro. The J. Michael T. Thompson Festschrift issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elishakoff, Isaac

    2013-06-28

    This Theme Issue is dedicated to the topic 'Mechanics: from nano to macro' and marks the 75th birthday of Dr J. Michael T. Thompson, Fellow of the Royal Society, whose current affiliations are as follows: (i) Honorary Fellow, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge; (ii) Emeritus Professor of Nonlinear Dynamics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London; and (iii) Professor of Theoretical and Applied Dynamics (Distinguished Sixth Century Chair, part-time), University of Aberdeen. He also serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors at ES-Consult (consulting engineers) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The pertinent question that arises from the very start is: should we first salute Michael and then describe the Theme Issue, or vice versa? Indeed, according to Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), the last thing one discovers in composing a work is what to put first. I would like to take the liberty of deviating from the tradition of the Philosophical Transactions and start with the tribute to Michael; after all he is the prime cause of this Theme Issue.

  3. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Michael Addition of 4-Hydroxycoumarin to β,γ-Unsaturated α-Keto Esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Chang Won; Han, Tae Hyun; Kim, Dae Young [Soonchunhyang Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    In conclusion, we have developed organocatalytic enantioselective conjugate addition reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) to β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters 2 to afford biologically valuable warfarin derivatives 3. The process is efficiently catalyzed by a binaphthyl-modified thiourea organocatalyst. The coumarin core is present as a characteristic structural motif in a large number of natural products and biologically active molecules.1 Particularly, many of these naturally occurring 4-hydroxycoumarin and their synthetic analogues are important precursors for the synthesis of natural products and pharmaceuticals. Enantioselective organocatalytic conjugate addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to α,β-unsaturated ketones is a straightforward method to access warfarin which is an effective anticoagulants. Although a number of reactions of α,β-unsaturated ketones as Michael acceptors have been reported, the corresponding β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters have received relatively little attention as Michael acceptors. Recently, several groups have reported the asymmetric Michael addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters catalyzed by Cu(II)-bisoxazoline, N,N'-dioxide-Ni(II) complexes, thiourea catalysts. Although several efficient methods have been achieved by these systems, an effective method for the synthesis of warfarin analogues is still a challenge.

  4. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Michael Addition of 4-Hydroxycoumarin to β,γ-Unsaturated α-Keto Esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Won; Han, Tae Hyun; Kim, Dae Young

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, we have developed organocatalytic enantioselective conjugate addition reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin (1) to β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters 2 to afford biologically valuable warfarin derivatives 3. The process is efficiently catalyzed by a binaphthyl-modified thiourea organocatalyst. The coumarin core is present as a characteristic structural motif in a large number of natural products and biologically active molecules.1 Particularly, many of these naturally occurring 4-hydroxycoumarin and their synthetic analogues are important precursors for the synthesis of natural products and pharmaceuticals. Enantioselective organocatalytic conjugate addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to α,β-unsaturated ketones is a straightforward method to access warfarin which is an effective anticoagulants. Although a number of reactions of α,β-unsaturated ketones as Michael acceptors have been reported, the corresponding β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters have received relatively little attention as Michael acceptors. Recently, several groups have reported the asymmetric Michael addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters catalyzed by Cu(II)-bisoxazoline, N,N'-dioxide-Ni(II) complexes, thiourea catalysts. Although several efficient methods have been achieved by these systems, an effective method for the synthesis of warfarin analogues is still a challenge

  5. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  6. A perspectiva de Michael Apple para os estudos das políticas educacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Armando Gandin

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as contribuições de Michael Apple para o campo da pesquisa em políticas educacionais. Na extensa obra de Michael Apple, destacamos seis elementos que podem auxiliar aqueles que estão interessados na área de políticas em educação: o princípio epistemológico da análise relacional; o exame do Estado como relação; a herança de Antonio Gramsci e de Raymond Williams que Michael Apple incorpora no uso de conceitos como hegemonia e senso comum; a análise que Michael Apple faz das políticas educacionais como políticas culturais, como disputas por visão de mundo, como luta por consolidação de uma hegemonia que vai além do econômico; a sua postura de pesquisador; e a capacidade que Michael Apple tem de ir além da lógica da reprodução e determinação para enfatizar o papel da agência e da contra-hegemonia. Através de exemplos práticos da própria obra de Apple e de outras pesquisas empíricas, apresentam-se as implicações de cada um dos seis pontos acima citados para os pesquisadores interessados na área de políticas educacionais. Conclui-se que muitas das contribuições de Apple podem auxiliar em pesquisas nessa área, tendo em vista a discussão que o autor realiza em sua obra e sua crítica ao determinismo econômico nas análises do campo educacional, salientando a importância, assim, de aspectos que estão relacionados à esfera da cultura.

  7. Tagasipöördumine esteetika juurde = Return to aesthetics / Keith Moxey, Michael Ann Holly ; interv. Anu Allas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moxey, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika kunstiajaloolased Keith Moxey ning Michael Ann Holly tutvustavad uut lähenemist kunstiajaloole (new art history). Nn. naasmine esteetika juurde tähendab püüet integreerida kunstiajalukku ja -teooriasse uuesti ja tugevamalt kunstiteos

  8. Review: Barr, Michael and Zlatko Skrbiš (2008, Constructing Singapore. Elitism, Ethnicity and the Nation-Building Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Michel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Barr, Michael and Zlatko Skrbiš, Constructing Singapore. Elitism, Ethnicity and the Nation-Building Project, Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, ISBN 978-87-7694-029-4, 304 pages

  9. Correction: Synthesis of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives via asymmetric Michael addition reactions of carboxylate-substituted enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Feng; Garifullina, Ainash; Tanaka, Fujie

    2018-04-25

    Correction for 'Synthesis of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives via asymmetric Michael addition reactions of carboxylate-substituted enones' by Feng Yin et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 15, 6089-6092.

  10. Tandem Knoevenagel–Michael reactions in aqueous diethylamine medium: A greener and efficient approach toward bis-dimedone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Majid

    2017-02-01

    The use of inexpensive, eco-friendly and readily available reagents, easy work-up, and high purity products makes the procedure a convenient and robust method for the synthesis of tandem Knoevenagel–Michael adducts.

  11. Michael T. Westrate. Living Soviet in Ukraine from Stalin to Maidan: Under the Falling Red Star in Kharkiv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitie V. Hyman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Michael T. Westrate. Living Soviet in Ukraine from Stalin to Maidan: Under the Falling Red Star in Kharkiv. Rowman & Littlefield, 2016. xx, 232 pp. Illustrations. Appendices. Bibliography. Index. $85.00, cloth.

  12. The big picture : What the Baltics may learn from Ireland's success story / Michael Bourke ; interv. Maris Biezaitis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bourke, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Baltiiskii kurss 2002/Zima/Vesna nr. 20 lk. 14-17. Iirimaa aukonsul Lätis, Michael Joseph Bourke arutleb Iirimaa majandusedu teemal ning pakub välja, mida Baltimaad saaksid sellest õppida. Tabel, diagramm. Lisa

  13. Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Niels Ole

    2010-01-01

    Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology. Medford. Information Today. ASIS&T Monographs, 2009. 185 pages. $ 59.50. ISBN 978-1-57387-373-4......Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology. Medford. Information Today. ASIS&T Monographs, 2009. 185 pages. $ 59.50. ISBN 978-1-57387-373-4...

  14. The olivo-cerebellar system: a key to understanding the functional significance of intrinsic oscillatory brain properties

    OpenAIRE

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    The reflexological view of brain function (Sherrington 1906) has played a crucial role in defining both the nature of connectivity and the role of the synaptic interactions among neuronal circuits. One implicit assumption of this view, however, has been that CNS function is fundamentally driven by sensory input. This view was questioned as early as the beginning of the last century when a possible role for intrinsic activity in CNS function was proposed by Thomas Graham Brow (Brown 1911; Brow...

  15. Understanding Mathematic Concept in Relation and Function Method through Active Learning Type Group to Group Distributed LKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudri, F.; Rahmi, R.; Haryono, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This research is motivated by the lack of understanding of mathematical concepts students and teachers have not familiarize students discussed in groups. This researchaims to determine whether an understanding of mathematical concepts junior class VIII SMPN 2 in Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat by applying active learning strategy group to group types with LKS better than conventional learning. The type of research is experimental the design of randomized trials on the subject. The population in the study were all students VIII SMPN 2 Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat in year 2012/2013 which consists of our class room experiment to determine the grade and control class with do nerandomly, so that classes VIII1 elected as a experiment class and class VIII4 as a control class. The instruments used in the test empirically understanding mathematical concepts are shaped by the essay with rt=0,82 greater than rt=0,468 means reliable tests used. The data analysis technique used is the test with the help of MINITAB. Based on the results of the data analisis known that both of the sample are normal and homogenity in real rate α = 0,05, so the hypothesis of this research is received. So, it can be concluded students’ understanding mathematical concept applied the active Group to Group learning strategy with LKS is better than the students’ understanding mathematical concept with Conventional Learning.

  16. Using Solution Strategies to Examine and Promote High-School Students' Understanding of Exponential Functions: One Teacher's Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendefur, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on how elementary students develop mathematical understanding and subsequently how teachers might use this information. This article builds on this type of work by investigating how one high-school algebra teacher designs and conducts a lesson on exponential functions. Through a lesson study format she studies with…

  17. A Comparative Study of the Use and Understanding of Self-Presentational Display Rules in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The use and understanding of self-presentational display rules (SPDRs) was investigated in 21 children with high-functioning autism (FHA), 18 children with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and 20 typically developing (TD) children (all male, aged 4- to 11-years, matched on mental age). Their behaviour was coded during a deception scenario to assess use…

  18. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  19. An Interview with Michael Betancourt, author of Agnotology & Crisis in Digital Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Scanlan; Michael Betancourt

    2015-01-01

    Sean Scanlan, NANO's editor, interviews artist, curator, art historian and critical theorist Michael Betancourt to discuss the nature of agnotology, a term that means the “creation of uncertainty and ambivalent ‘fact’; it is a competitive tool incompatible with the idealized ‘free market’ of capitalism.” Betancourt is skeptical of Big Data and the ways that the consumers who unknowingly “produce” data for business interpretation are increasingly becoming transformed into a “token of exchange ...

  20. Athlete endorsement as a marketing strategy: a case study of Nike and Michael Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Masár Vieites, Laura Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Les empreses intenten obrir mercats nous constantment, aconseguint atraure nous clients objectiu i augmentar el reconeixement de la marca. Aquest treball investiga el cóm i per què el patrocini d'atletes, per a que aquests representin els productes d'una empresa, ja que és una eina cada vegada més àmplia i popular en el màrqueting mix de les empreses. Michael Jordan, un estel retirada de bàsquet, ha rebut molta atenció dels mitjans publicitaris i ha representat sota patrocini a diversos produ...

  1. [The problem of evil in families--the filmmaker Michael Haneke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skårderud, Finn

    2010-09-23

    With the beautiful and dark film "The white ribbon", from 2009, the Austrian film director Michael Haneke consolidated his status as an international success. A central theme in his films is evilness and its roots. But just as important is his ambition to develop films where evil is not only portrayed, but where spectators are challenged to relate to their own ethical standards and their role as spectators. Haneke is a highly original filmmaker with his consistent search for a film aesthetic that stimulates ethical self-reflection and mentalizing. He partly succeeds in this quest.

  2. Organocatalytic Michael and Friedel–Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltsev, O V; Beletskaya, Irina P; Zlotin, Sergei G

    2011-01-01

    Recent applications of organocatalytic Michael and Friedel–Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds: natural products, pharmaceutical agents and plant protection agents are reviewed. The key mechanisms of stereoinduction, types of organocatalysts and reagents used in these reactions are considered. The material is classified according to the type of newly formed bonds incorporating the asymmetric carbon atom, and the information for the most numerous C–C coupling reactions is systematized according to the natures of the electrophile and the nucleophile. The bibliography includes 433 references.

  3. The Great War and All That in A Hundred Doors by Michael Longley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Delattre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Great War has featured regularly in Michael Longley’s poetry, for personal, family, aesthetic and political reasons. His collection published in 2011 under the title A Hundred Doors contains a number of poems relating to his father and the so-called War Poets, in connection with others in which love and nature, life and death are also dominant themes. This article will show how, as elsewhere in his poetry, everything is interrelated, “the nature poetry”, in Longley’s words, “fertilizing the war poetry”.

  4. European Management: an emerging competitive advantage of European nations: A reply to Michael Porter

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Frans; Prooijen, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis article extends the debate begun in the June 1992 issue of EMJ when the authors first criticized Michael Porter's explanatory framework in his Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990), over the role of national culture on the competitive advantage of nations. In this paper, Frans van den Bosch and Arno van Prooijen stress that Europe is a locus of competitive advantage if one is prepared to pay attention to the possibility of ‘European Management’ as a potential asset of Europ...

  5. POLYETHYLENEIMINE (PEI ON SILICA AS CATALYST IN KNOEVENAGEL AND MICHAEL REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATIHA ZAOUI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After the synthesis of polyethylenimine supported on silica, it has been used as a new and efficient catalyst in Knoevenagel and Michael condensations. The presence of the polyethylenimine in the catalytic system together with silica displays an acido-basic character allows a better catalytic activity in the condensations. Carried out under microwave irradiation, without organic solvent and during short time, the syntheses are respectful towards green chemistry. The solid catalyst can be easily reused. This catalyst has the acido-basic character at the same time.

  6. Understanding Different Levels of Group Functionality: Activity Systems Analysis of an Intercultural Telecollaborative Multilingual Digital Storytelling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego, Sabrina; Liaw, Meei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    An Activity Theory framework has been increasingly applied for understanding the tension or contradictions in telecollaboration. However, to date, few researchers have applied it to the analysis of digital stories, and none of them, to our knowledge, have used it to analyze the co-creation of multilingual digital stories. In this study, we explore…

  7. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  8. The role of coherence of mind and reflective functioning in understanding binge-eating disorder and co-morbid overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Hilary; Tasca, Giorgio A; Grenon, Renee; Faye, Megan; Ritchie, Kerri; Bissada, Hany; Balfour, Louise

    2017-08-01

    Coherence of mind and reflective functioning may impact negative affect and interpersonal functioning over and above the effects of symptoms of depression and interpersonal problems that contribute to symptoms of binge-eating disorder (BED) and overweight/obesity. Matched samples of overweight women with BED and overweight and normal weight women without BED completed the Adult Attachment Interview, a measure of depressive symptoms, and a measure of interpersonal problems. Greater symptoms of depression distinguished women with BED from the matched comparison samples. Greater interpersonal problems differentiated women with BED from overweight women without BED. Coherence of Mind scores did not differentiate the samples. However, lower Reflective Functioning scores did distinguish both women with BED and overweight women without BED from normal weight women. Lower reflective functioning may lead to binge eating independent of depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems.

  9. Advances in the understanding of early Huntington's disease using the functional imaging techniques of PET and SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, T.C.; Brooks, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The functional imaging techniques of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPET) have been used to study regional brain function in Huntington's disease (HD) in vivo. Reduced striatal glucose metabolism and dopamine receptor binding are evident in all symptomatic HD patients and in ∼50% of asymptomatic adult mutation carriers. These characteristics correlate with clinical measures of disease severity. Reduced cortical glucose metabolism and dopamine receptor binding, together with reduced striatal and cortical opioid receptor binding, have also been demonstrated in symptomatic patients with HD. Repeat PET measures of striatal function have been used to monitor the progression of this disease objectively. In the future, functional imaging will provide a valuable way of assessing the efficacy of both fetal striatal cell implants and putative neuroprotective agents, such as nerve growth factors. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Significance of functional disease-causal/susceptible variants identified by whole-genome analyses for the understanding of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Yuki; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2017-01-01

    Human genome variation may cause differences in traits and disease risks. Disease-causal/susceptible genes and variants for both common and rare diseases can be detected by comprehensive whole-genome analyses, such as whole-genome sequencing (WGS), using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, in addition to the application of an NGS as a whole-genome analysis method, we summarize approaches for the identification of functional disease-causal/susceptible variants from abundant genetic variants in the human genome and methods for evaluating their functional effects in human diseases, using an NGS and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. We also discuss the clinical applications of the functional disease causal/susceptible variants to personalized medicine.

  11. Understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in lung cancer: the role of immune checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Cao, Maria Gonzalez; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    Survival rates for metastatic lung cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), are poor with 5-year survivals of less than 5%. The immune system has an intricate and complex relationship with tumorigenesis; a groundswell of research on the immune system is leading to greater understanding of how cancer progresses and presenting new ways to halt disease progress. Due to the extraordinary power of the immune system-with its capacity for memory, exquisite specificity and central and universal role in human biology-immunotherapy has the potential to achieve complete, long-lasting remissions and cures, with few side effects for any cancer patient, regardless of cancer type. As a result, a range of cancer therapies are under development that work by turning our own immune cells against tumors. However deeper understanding of the complexity of immunomodulation by tumors is key to the development of effective immunotherapies, especially in lung cancer.

  12. Understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in lung cancer: the role of immune checkpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Cao, Maria Gonzalez; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Survival rates for metastatic lung cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), are poor with 5-year survivals of less than 5%. The immune system has an intricate and complex relationship with tumorigenesis; a groundswell of research on the immune system is leading to greater understanding of how cancer progresses and presenting new ways to halt disease progress. Due to the extraordinary power of the immune system—with its capacity for memory, exquisite specificity and central and universal role in human biology—immunotherapy has the potential to achieve complete, long-lasting remissions and cures, with few side effects for any cancer patient, regardless of cancer type. As a result, a range of cancer therapies are under development that work by turning our own immune cells against tumors. However deeper understanding of the complexity of immunomodulation by tumors is key to the development of effective immunotherapies, especially in lung cancer

  13. From inflammation to wound healing: using a simple model to understand the functional versatility of murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lauren M; Paskow, Michael; Morris, Sidney M; Hesse, Matthias; Strogatz, Steven

    2011-11-01

    Macrophages are fundamental cells of the innate immune system. Their activation is essential for such distinct immune functions as inflammation (pathogen-killing) and tissue repair (wound healing). An open question has been the functional stability of an individual macrophage cell: whether it can change its functional profile between different immune responses such as between the repair pathway and the inflammatory pathway. We studied this question theoretically by constructing a rate equation model for the key substrate, enzymes and products of the pathways; we then tested the model experimentally. Both our model and experiments show that individual macrophages can switch from the repair pathway to the inflammation pathway but that the reverse switch does not occur.

  14. LECTURE CANCELLED - “The power of collaboration - innovating collaborative relationships" by Michael Kimmel | 8 March

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS LECTURE IS CANCELLED Friday, 8 March -  from 11.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Globe of Science and Innovation Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva International Women’s Day Conference Lecture will be in English - Interpreting available in French Limited number of seats - registration is essential Reservation: + 41 22 767 76 76 or cern.reception@cern.ch Dr. Michael Kimmel, a renowned sociologist and an expert on male-female relationships, will share his latest findings on gender collaboration and how it can lead to innovation and improved relationships both at work and in the world outside. Michael Kimmel is among the world’s leading experts on male-female relationships. A Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, he is the author or editor of more than 20 books on the topic. He consults corporations, NGOs and public sector organisations all over the world on gender equity issues, including work-family balance, reducing workplac...

  15. Michael Polanyi and his generation origins of the social construction of science

    CERN Document Server

    Nye, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    In Michael Polanyi and His Generation, Mary Jo Nye investigates the role that Michael Polanyi and several of his contemporaries played in the emergence of the social turn in the philosophy of science. This turn involved seeing science as a socially based enterprise that does not rely on empiricism and reason alone but on social communities, behavioral norms, and personal commitments. Nye argues that the roots of the social turn are to be found in the scientific culture and political events of Europe in the 1930s, when scientific intellectuals struggled to defend the universal status of scientific knowledge and to justify public support for science in an era of economic catastrophe, Stalinism and Fascism, and increased demands for applications of science to industry and social welfare. At the center of this struggle was Polanyi, who Nye contends was one of the first advocates of this new conception of science. Nye reconstructs Polanyi’s scientific and political milieus in Budapest, Berlin, and Manchester f...

  16. Production of Low-Freezing-Point Highly Branched Alkanes through Michael Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yaxuan; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2017-12-22

    A new approach for the production of low-freezing-point, high-quality fuels from lignocellulose-derived molecules was developed with Michael addition as the key step. Among the investigated catalysts, CoCl 2 ⋅6 H 2 O was found most active for the Michael addition of 2,4-pentanedione with FA (single aldol adduct of furfural and acetone, 4-(2-furanyl)-3-butene-2-one). Over CoCl 2 ⋅6 H 2 O, a high carbon yield of C 13 oxygenates (about 75 %) can be achieved under mild conditions (353 K, 20 h). After hydrodeoxygenation, low-freezing-point (hydrodeoxygenation, high density (0.8415 g mL -1 ) and low-freezing-point (<223 K) branched alkanes with 18, 23 carbons within lubricant range were also obtained over a Pd/NbOPO 4 catalyst. These highly branched alkanes can be directly used as transportation fuels or additives. This work opens a new strategy for the synthesis of highly branched alkanes with low freezing point from renewable biomass. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Adapting Shakespeare – Converting Shylock in Michael Radford’s the Merchant of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakes Luke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the extension and evolution of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice through Michael Radford’s 2004 cinematic adaptation. By investigating the concept of adaptation and the significance of intertextuality, Shakespeare’s source text is considered alongside Radford’s twenty-first century recreation to reimagine and redefine the construction of Shylock as both a comic and tragic device utilized across film and play. Issues of racial and religious prejudices alongside anti- Semitic views were particularly prominent in Elizabethan England and, by concentrating on recontextualisation, this article looks to expose Shakespeare’s characterization as a reflective commentary concerning societal discriminations at the time of the play’s performance. By focusing primarily on Shakespeare’s Jewish Usurer, Radford is able to reconstruct and reestablish the dramatic devices and characters within the cinematic version, metaphorically converting Shylock from comic villain to tragic victim. Finally, it argues that this dynamic shift inevitably metamorphoses Shylock from a spectator’s perspective and provides Michael Radford with an opportunity to offer a social commentary on social inequality in the twenty-first century.

  18. Can We Understand Why Cognitive Function Predicts Mortality? Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, John; Bayer, Anthony; Dunstan, Frank; Yarnell, John; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2009-01-01

    The association between cognitive function and mortality is of increasing interest. We followed 1870 men aged 55-69 years at cognitive assessment for 16 years to establish associations with all case and cause specific mortality. Cognitive assessment included AH4, 4 choice reaction time (used as estimates of mid-life cognition) and the National…

  19. Incorporating Modeling and Simulations in Undergraduate Biophysical Chemistry Course to Promote Understanding of Structure-Dynamics-Function Relationships in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Sanchita; Bhattacharyya, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    A project-based biophysical chemistry laboratory course, which is offered to the biochemistry and molecular biology majors in their senior year, is described. In this course, the classroom study of the structure-function of biomolecules is integrated with the discovery-guided laboratory study of these molecules using computer modeling and…

  20. Specifying Links between Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind during Middle Childhood: Cognitive Flexibility Predicts Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Allison M.; Gallaway, Kristin C.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the development of and links between executive functioning and theory of mind during middle childhood. One hundred four 7- to 12-year-old children completed a battery of age-appropriate tasks measuring working memory, inhibition, flexibility, theory of mind, and vocabulary. As expected, spatial working…

  1. Understanding the effects of packing and chemical terminations on the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Caterina; Draxl, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    In a first-principles study based on many-body perturbation theory, we analyze the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with increasing packing density and different terminations, considering for comparison the corresponding gas-phase molecules and dimers. Intermolecular coupling increases with the density of the chromophores independently of the functional groups. The intense π → π* resonance that triggers photo-isomerization is present in the spectra of isolated dimers and diluted SAMs, but it is almost completely washed out in tightly packed architectures. Intermolecular coupling is partially inhibited by mixing differently functionalized azobenzene derivatives, in particular when large groups are involved. In this way, the excitation band inducing the photo-isomerization process is partially preserved and the effects of dense packing partly counterbalanced. Our results suggest that a tailored design of azobenzene-functionalized SAMs which optimizes the interplay between the packing density of the chromophores and their termination can lead to significant improvements in the photo-switching efficiency of these systems.

  2. On understanding the relationship between structure in the potential surface and observables in classical dynamics: A functional sensitivity analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, R.S.; Rabitz, H.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between structure in the potential surface and classical mechanical observables is examined by means of functional sensitivity analysis. Functional sensitivities provide maps of the potential surface, highlighting those regions that play the greatest role in determining the behavior of observables. A set of differential equations for the sensitivities of the trajectory components are derived. These are then solved using a Green's function method. It is found that the sensitivities become singular at the trajectory turning points with the singularities going as eta -3 /sup // 2 , with eta being the distance from the nearest turning point. The sensitivities are zero outside of the energetically and dynamically allowed region of phase space. A second set of equations is derived from which the sensitivities of observables can be directly calculated. An adjoint Green's function technique is employed, providing an efficient method for numerically calculating these quantities. Sensitivity maps are presented for a simple collinear atom--diatom inelastic scattering problem and for two Henon--Heiles type Hamiltonians modeling

  3. Dyslexia and psycho-social functioning: an exploratory study of the role of self-esteem and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, Melody M; Thompson, Lucy C; Minnis, Helen

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. University of Denver, CO: Denver; 1985) and psycho-social adjustment using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1997; 38: 581-586) and examined child and parent understanding, attitudes and the perceived impact of reading difficulties on daily life. Sixty-eight children assessed as dyslexic on the basis of discrepancy scores (mean age 11.2 years; 44 male), and their parents, participated. No global self-esteem deficit was found, but the mean score for both child and parent-rated scholastic competence was significantly lower than that of the general population. Rates of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties were significantly higher than in the general population and were correlated with self-esteem. For children who had high global self-worth, both children and their parents had more positive attitudes towards their reading difficulties and were less likely to perceive a negative impact on relationships. The association between academic self-esteem and emotional symptoms is consistent with the proposed link between dyslexia and internalizing difficulties. Good self-esteem and a good understanding of dyslexia may help children avoid some of these difficulties. Further research with larger more representative samples is necessary as understanding the factors that promote successful psycho-social adjustment is essential to the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies.

  4. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  5. Improving patients' understanding of terms and phrases commonly used in self-reported measures of sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Angel M; Flynn, Kathryn E; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Keefe, Francis J; Reeve, Bryce B; Schultz, Wesley; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Shelby, Rebecca A; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2014-08-01

    There is a significant gap in research regarding the readability and comprehension of existing sexual function measures. Patient-reported outcome measures may use terms not well understood by respondents with low literacy. This study aims to test comprehension of words and phrases typically used in sexual function measures to improve validity for all individuals, including those with low literacy. We recruited 20 men and 28 women for cognitive interviews on version 2.0 of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®) ) Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures. We assessed participants' reading level using the word reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test. Sixteen participants were classified as having low literacy. In the first round of cognitive interviews, each survey item was reviewed by five or more people, at least two of whom had lower than a ninth-grade reading level (low literacy). Patient feedback was incorporated into a revised version of the items. In the second round of interviews, an additional three or more people (at least one with low literacy) reviewed each revised item. Participants with low literacy had difficulty comprehending terms such as aroused, orgasm, erection, ejaculation, incontinence, and vaginal penetration. Women across a range of literacy levels had difficulty with clinical terms like labia and clitoris. We modified unclear terms to include parenthetical descriptors or slang equivalents, which generally improved comprehension. Common words and phrases used across measures of self-reported sexual function are not universally understood. Researchers should appreciate these misunderstandings as a potential source of error in studies using self-reported measures of sexual function. This study also provides evidence for the importance of including individuals with low literacy in cognitive pretesting during the measure development. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... polysaccharides and consist of backbones rich in galacturonic acids, which are decorated with a range of functional groups including acetyl esters and arabinan sidechains. Although much effort has been made to uncover biological functions of pectins in plants and remarkable progresses have taken place, many...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...

  7. Metabolomics: A Window for Understanding Long Term Physical Consequences of Distrubed Sleep and Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Function in Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function in Posttraumatic Stress PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sabra Inslicht, Ph.D. RECIPIENT: Northern California Institute...Posttraumatic Stress 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0313 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sabra Inslicht, PhD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...ABSTRACT Post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a common psychiatric condition that may result after combat exposure and can have a profound effect on sleep

  8. Micro morphological and Chemical Approaches to Understand Changes in Ecological Functions of Metal-Impacted Soils under Various Land Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, J.A; Martinez, S.M; Faz, A; Van Mourik, J.M; Arocena, J.M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the changes in faunal activities as measures of the ecological functions of soils impacted by potentially toxic metals (PTMs) under urban, industrial, agricultural, and natural uses. Concentrations and distributions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Fe were estimated by sequential chemical extractions, while relicts and present faunal activities were studied by micro morphological analyses. Urban and natural lands were contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn. Micro arthropods and fungi are observed to be active in the litter decomposition in natural, agricultural and urban lands which indicates that total concentration of PTMs in soils is not a good indicator to evaluate the limitations of PTMs to fauna activity. Metals immobilization on carbonates and Fe/Mn oxides, and fertilizations reduced the negative effects of metals on faunal activity. Micro morphological analyses showed the impacts of metal on soil ecological functions in industrial site, where the surface soils are devoid of any evidence of faunal activity; likely due to high proportion of Pb and Zn in organic components. Therefore, the impacts of metals in soil fauna activities, hence ecological functions of soils, are best evaluated by the knowledge of metal partitioning on solid phases in combination with observations of fauna activities using micro morphological techniques.

  9. The Olivo-cerebellar System: A Key to understanding the functional significance of intrinsic oscillatory brain properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflexological view of brain function (Sherrington 1906 has played a crucial role in defining both the nature of connectivity and the role of the synaptic interactions among neuronal circuits. One implicit assumption of this view, however, has been that CNS function is fundamentally driven by sensory input. This view was questioned as early as the beginning of the last century when a possible role for intrinsic activity in CNS function was proposed by Thomas Graham Brow (Brown 1911; Brown 1914. However, little progress was made in addressing intrinsic neuronal properties in vertebrates until the discovery of calcium conductances in vertebrate central neurons leading dendritic electroresponsiveness (Llinas and Hess 1976, Llinas and Sugimori 1980a and b and subthreshold neuronal oscillation in mammalian inferior olive (IO neurons (Llinas and Yarom 1981; Llinas and Yarom 1981.This happened in parallel with a similar set of findings concerning invertebrate neuronal system (Marder and Bucher 2001. The generalization into a more global view of intrinsic rhythmicity, at forebrain level, occurred initially with the demonstration that the thalamus has similar oscillatory properties (Llinas and Jahnsen 1982 and the ionic properties responsible for some oscillatory activity were, in fact, similar to those in the IO (Jahnsen and Llinas 1984; Llinas 1988. Thus lending support to the view that not only motricity, but cognitive properties, are organized as coherent oscillatory states (Pare, deCurtis et al. 1992; Singer 1993; Hardcastle 1997; Llinas, Ribary et al. 1998; Varela, Lachaux et al. 2001.

  10. Micromorphological and Chemical Approaches to Understand Changes in Ecological Functions of Metal-Impacted Soils under Various Land Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in faunal activities as measures of the ecological functions of soils impacted by potentially toxic metals (PTMs under urban, industrial, agricultural, and natural uses. Concentrations and distributions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Fe were estimated by sequential chemical extractions, while relicts and present faunal activities were studied by micromorphological analyses. Urban and natural lands were contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn. Microarthropods and fungi are observed to be active in the litter decomposition in natural, agricultural and urban lands which indicates that total concentration of PTMs in soils is not a good indicator to evaluate the limitations of PTMs to fauna activity. Metals immobilization on carbonates and Fe/Mn oxides, and fertilizations reduced the negative effects of metals on faunal activity. Micromorphological analyses showed the impacts of metal on soil ecological functions in industrial site, where the surface soils are devoid of any evidence of faunal activity; likely due to high proportion of Pb and Zn in organic components. Therefore, the impacts of metals in soil fauna activities, hence ecological functions of soils, are best evaluated by the knowledge of metal partitioning on solid phases in combination with observations of fauna activities using micromorphological techniques.

  11. An Empirical Study of Financial Shared Services: Understanding of an organization moves towards establishing financial shared service as a strategic finance function

    OpenAIRE

    Nik Mustaffa, Nik Azah Karimah

    2009-01-01

    This paper is prepared to understand an organization moves towards establishing financial shared service as a strategic finance function. The research is conducted by selected few multinational organizations from oil and gas industry to analyze the purpose of the move, how organizations are restructure and values generated from the financial shared services. The research also will extend towards identifying various challenges faced by the organizations during the restructuring process. The is...

  12. A functional genomics approach to understand the control and regulation of storage protein biosynthesis in barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, É; Hansen, M; Bowra, S

    2008-01-01

    assembled in our laboratory. To identify coregulated genes, a distance matrix was constructed and we identified three clusters corresponding to the early, middle and late seed development. The gene expression pattern associated with the clusters was investigated using pathway specific analysis with specific......The aim of the study was to obtain an insight into amino acid and storage protein metabolism in the developing barley grain at the molecular level. Our strategy was to analyse the transcriptome of relevant pathways in developing grains of field grown barley using a grain specific microarray...... pathways in the barley grain. The study described here could provide a strong complement to existing knowledge assisting further  understanding of seed development and thereby provide a foundation for plant breeding towards storage protein with improved nutritional quality....

  13. Using Whole Stream {delta}{sup 15}N Additions to Understand the Effects of Land Use Change on Stream Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, L. A.; Neill, C.; Thomas, S.; Haupert, C. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Victoria, R. L.; Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we introduce an emerging new technique; the use of {delta}{sup 15}N stable isotope tracers to understand both short term and long term alterations in stream ecosystem nitrogen biogeochemistry and food web dynamics. The use of {delta}{sup 15}N isotopes to determine stream nitrogen cycling was developed in small tundra streams in Alaska (USA), but a network of researchers using similar technique has rapidly grown to answer questions about nitrogen cycling and stream food webs in a variety of ecosystem types and subject to human modifications. Here we provide an overview of some of the information that can be provided using stable isotope additions and describe the general approach of an isotope addition experiment. To illustrate the scope of isotope applicability some examples are provided of work undertaken in the Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  14. Delayed entry into first marriage and marital stability: Further evidence on the Becker-Landes-Michael hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lehrer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In their pioneering research, Becker, Landes, and Michael (1977 found that beyond age 30 there is a positive relationship between women's age at first marriage and marital instability. They interpreted this finding as a "poor-match effect" emerging when the biological clock begins to tick. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to ascertain with more recent data whether or not there is evidence of a poor match effect and if so, whether it is associated with higher marital instability. METHODS We used data on non-Hispanic white women from the 2006-2010 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG (N = 3,184. RESULTS We found evidence of the existence of a poor-match effect: women who delay marriage disproportionately make unconventional matches, which are generally associated with high marital instability. We also found, however, that their unions are very solid. Both of these results were consistent with earlier findings for the 1995 and 2002-2003 NSFG cycles. In attempting to explain this puzzle, we proposed and tested competing hypotheses. We found that the destabilizing effects associated with indicators of unconventional matches are also present in marriages contracted late, but are dwarfed by the stabilizing influences associated with higher levels of education and older ages. CONCLUSIONS This paper contributes to our understanding of the determinants of marital instability and the poor match effect by providing a new interpretation for the puzzle described above. COMMENTS Our findings have implications for analyses of changes over time in the extent of positive assortative mating in the marriage market, and for the extensive literature showing that heterogamy in traits that are complementary in the context of marriage is destabilizing -- heterogamous marriages contracted at a late age are likely to be stable.

  15. Understanding and Calibrating Density-Functional-Theory Calculations Describing the Energy and Spectroscopy of Defect Sites in Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; Sajid, A; Kobayashi, Rika; Ford, Michael J

    2018-03-13

    Defect states in 2-D materials present many possible uses but both experimental and computational characterization of their spectroscopic properties is difficult. We provide and compare results from 13 DFT and ab initio computational methods for up to 25 excited states of a paradigm system, the V N C B defect in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Studied include: (i) potentially catastrophic effects for computational methods arising from the multireference nature of the closed-shell and open-shell states of the defect, which intrinsically involves broken chemical bonds, (ii) differing results from DFT and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations, (iii) comparison of cluster models to periodic-slab models of the defect, (iv) the starkly differing effects of nuclear relaxation on the various electronic states that control the widths of photoabsorption and photoemission spectra as broken bonds try to heal, (v) the effect of zero-point energy and entropy on free-energy differences, (vi) defect-localized and conduction/valence-band transition natures, and (vii) strategies needed to ensure that the lowest-energy state of a defect can be computationally identified. Averaged state-energy differences of 0.3 eV are found between CCSD(T) and MRCI energies, with thermal effects on free energies sometimes also being of this order. However, DFT-based methods can perform very poorly. Simple generalized-gradient functionals like PBE fail at the most basic level and should never be applied to defect states. Hybrid functionals like HSE06 work very well for excitations within the triplet manifold of the defect, with an accuracy equivalent to or perhaps exceeding the accuracy of the ab initio methods used. However, HSE06 underestimates triplet-state energies by on average of 0.7 eV compared to closed-shell singlet states, while open-shell singlet states are predicted to be too low in energy by 1.0 eV. This leads to misassignment of the ground state of the V N C B defect. Long

  16. Understanding the Form, Function, and Logic of Clandestine Insurgent and Terrorist Networks: The First Step in Effective Counternetwork Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    are examples of this external non- professional genre . These groups function much like the U.S. Army Special Forces conducting unconventional warfare...security force vehicle the IED was built to destroy, and conducts the operation. If he films the event, then he drops off the film at a drop-off point...and notifies the cell leader that the operation is complete. The cell leader directs the media cell to pick up the film from the drop-off site, and

  17. The use of Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) in a mid-air collision to understand some characteristics of the air traffic management system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues de Carvalho, Paulo Victor

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Resonance Analysis Model (FRAM) defines a systemic framework to model complex systems for accident analysis purposes. We use FRAM in the mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the Air Traffic Management System (ATM). This ATM system related accident occurred at 16:56 Brazilian time on September 29, 2006 in the Amazonian sky. FRAM analysis of flight monitoring functions showed system constraints (equipment, training, time, and supervision) that produce variability in system behavior, creating demand resources mismatches in an attempt to perceive and control the developing situation. This variability also included control and coordination breakdowns and automation surprises (TCAS functioning). The analysis showed that under normal variability conditions (without catastrophic failures) the ATM system (pilots, controllers, supervisors, and equipment) was not able to close the control loops of the flight monitoring functions using feedback or feedforward strategies to achieve an adequate control of an aircraft flying in the controlled air space. Our findings shed some light on the resilience of Brazilian ATM system operation and indicated that there is a need of a deeper understanding on how the system is actually functioning. - Highlights: → The Functional Resonance Analysis Model (FRAM) was used in a mid-air collision over Amazon. → The aim was to understand key resilience characteristics of the Air Traffic Management System (ATM). → The analysis showed how, under normal conditions, the system was not able to control flight functions. → The findings shed some light about the resilience of Brazilian ATM system operation.

  18. The use of Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) in a mid-air collision to understand some characteristics of the air traffic management system resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues de Carvalho, Paulo Victor, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [National Nuclear Energy Commission/Nuclear Engineering Institute, Cidade Universitaria-Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The Functional Resonance Analysis Model (FRAM) defines a systemic framework to model complex systems for accident analysis purposes. We use FRAM in the mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the Air Traffic Management System (ATM). This ATM system related accident occurred at 16:56 Brazilian time on September 29, 2006 in the Amazonian sky. FRAM analysis of flight monitoring functions showed system constraints (equipment, training, time, and supervision) that produce variability in system behavior, creating demand resources mismatches in an attempt to perceive and control the developing situation. This variability also included control and coordination breakdowns and automation surprises (TCAS functioning). The analysis showed that under normal variability conditions (without catastrophic failures) the ATM system (pilots, controllers, supervisors, and equipment) was not able to close the control loops of the flight monitoring functions using feedback or feedforward strategies to achieve an adequate control of an aircraft flying in the controlled air space. Our findings shed some light on the resilience of Brazilian ATM system operation and indicated that there is a need of a deeper understanding on how the system is actually functioning. - Highlights: > The Functional Resonance Analysis Model (FRAM) was used in a mid-air collision over Amazon. > The aim was to understand key resilience characteristics of the Air Traffic Management System (ATM). > The analysis showed how, under normal conditions, the system was not able to control flight functions. > The findings shed some light about the resilience of Brazilian ATM system operation.

  19. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  20. Understanding the functional anatomy of the frontalis and glabellar complex for optimal aesthetic botulinum toxin type A therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Smith, Stacy; Nestor, Mark; Nelson, Diane; Moradi, Amir

    2013-10-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) is approved for the treatment of glabellar lines and also is commonly injected in an off-label fashion in the frontalis (i.e., frontalis epicranius) muscle to improve the appearance of horizontal forehead lines. This study aimed to review and discuss both the anatomy and physiology of the frontalis muscle and its relationship with antagonist muscles in the upper face and to provide a guide for the use of BoNTA to treat forehead rhytides while minimizing the occurrence of complications such as brow ptosis. A PubMed search was conducted to identify practitioner opinion and clinical publications on the efficacy and safety of BoNTA for aesthetic treatment of the upper face. The use of BoNTA produces durable improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe horizontal forehead lines. Dose and injection technique must be adjusted and individualized based on the variable anatomy and function/mass of muscles in the forehead and upper face as well as on patient goals. Optimal aesthetic outcomes can be achieved by skillfully balancing the opposing effects of the frontalis muscle and its intricate interactions with the procerus, corrugator supercilii, depressor supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles. The use of BoNTA to improve the aesthetic appearance of horizontal forehead lines is optimized when clinicians take into account variations in frontalis muscle function and position, anatomy of the brow, and proper injection technique when they devise individualized treatment regimens.

  1. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalysed Diastereoselective Vinylogous Michael Addition Reaction of gamma-Substituted deconjugated Butenolides

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Hao; Xing, Fen; Du, Guang-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Dai, Bin; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalysed vinylogous Michael addition of deconjugated butenolides was developed. In the presence of 5 mol% of the NHC catalyst, both γ-alkyl and aryl-substituted deconjugated butenolides undergo vinylogous Michael addition with various α, β-unsaturated ketones, esters, or nitriles to afford γ,γ-disubstituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereoselectivities. In this process, the free carbene is assumed to act as a strong Brønsted base to promote the conjugate addition.

  2. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalysed Diastereoselective Vinylogous Michael Addition Reaction of gamma-Substituted deconjugated Butenolides

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Hao

    2015-11-16

    An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalysed vinylogous Michael addition of deconjugated butenolides was developed. In the presence of 5 mol% of the NHC catalyst, both γ-alkyl and aryl-substituted deconjugated butenolides undergo vinylogous Michael addition with various α, β-unsaturated ketones, esters, or nitriles to afford γ,γ-disubstituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereoselectivities. In this process, the free carbene is assumed to act as a strong Brønsted base to promote the conjugate addition.

  3. Enantio- and Stereoselective Construction of Atisane Scaffold via Organocatalytic Intramolecular Michael Reaction and Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Hiroko; Adachi, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Ippei; Sato, Yusuke; Nakada, Masahisa

    2017-05-05

    An enantio- and stereoselective construction of the atisane scaffold via organocatalytic intramolecular Michael reaction and Diels-Alder reaction is described. The organocatalytic intramolecular Michael reaction has been found to stereoselectively generate a trans-stereodiad comprising an all-carbon quaternary and a tertiary stereogenic centers. Use of the chiral secondary amine bearing thiourea with benzoic acid as additive is the key to obtaining the desired product with excellent ee in synthetically acceptable yield. The prepared chiral building block has been successfully converted to the compound including the atisane scaffold via the highly stereoselective intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction.

  4. Las relaciones entre la Iglesia y el Estado en la teoría de la justicia de Michael Walzer

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán, Alberto Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Roldan, A. F. (2009). Las relaciones entre la Iglesia y el Estado en la teoría de la justicia de Michael Walzer (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bernal, Argentina. En la presente tesis, se discuten las relaciones entre la Iglesia –término que se utiliza no en el sentido confesional sino en tanto institución religiosa- y el Estado moderno. Se escoge como marco teórico la filosofía política del pensador judío americano Michael Walzer, exponente del “comunitarismo”, un...

  5. Isoindolinones as Michael Donors under Phase Transfer Catalysis: Enantioselective Synthesis of Phthalimidines Containing a Tetrasubstituted Carbon Stereocenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Scorzelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Readily available chiral ammonium salts derived from cinchona alkaloids have proven to be effective phase transfer catalysts in the asymmetric Michael reaction of 3-substituted isoindolinones. This protocol provides a convenient method for the construction of valuable asymmetric 3,3-disubstituted isoindolinones in high yields and  moderate to good enantioselectivity. Diastereoselectivity was also investigated in the construction of contiguous tertiary and quaternary stereocenters. The use of acrolein as Michael acceptor led to an interesting tricyclic derivative, a pyrroloisoindolinone analogue, via a tandem conjugated addition/cyclization reaction.

  6. Conotoxins as Tools to Understand the Physiological Function of Voltage-Gated Calcium (CaV Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium (CaV channels are widely expressed and are essential for the completion of multiple physiological processes. Close regulation of their activity by specific inhibitors and agonists become fundamental to understand their role in cellular homeostasis as well as in human tissues and organs. CaV channels are divided into two groups depending on the membrane potential required to activate them: High-voltage activated (HVA, CaV1.1–1.4; CaV2.1–2.3 and Low-voltage activated (LVA, CaV3.1–3.3. HVA channels are highly expressed in brain (neurons, heart, and adrenal medulla (chromaffin cells, among others, and are also classified into subtypes which can be distinguished using pharmacological approaches. Cone snails are marine gastropods that capture their prey by injecting venom, “conopeptides”, which cause paralysis in a few seconds. A subset of conopeptides called conotoxins are relatively small polypeptides, rich in disulfide bonds, that target ion channels, transporters and receptors localized at the neuromuscular system of the animal target. In this review, we describe the structure and properties of conotoxins that selectively block HVA calcium channels. We compare their potency on several HVA channel subtypes, emphasizing neuronal calcium channels. Lastly, we analyze recent advances in the therapeutic use of conotoxins for medical treatments.

  7. Understanding the experiences of people with disfigurements: An integration of four models of social and psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G

    2000-05-01

    Both psychological (Cash, 1996; Partridge, 1998; Leary et al ., 1998) and sociological (Goffman, 1968) models have been used to explain the personal and social consequences of cosmetic blemishes. In this study, people with the skin disease vitiligo were asked to describe a situation in which their condition had recently affected their lives. Consistent with theories of body image disturbance, incidents usually involved a triggering event when concerns about appearance were raised due to bodily exposure or enacted stigma. These events led respondents to be vigilant to others' behaviour, to be self-conscious and to attribute the cause of the event to their appearance. Theories of social anxiety could be used to account for how the respondents used impression management strategies such as avoidance and concealment. Respondents described how they could be uncertain as to how to deal with others' behaviour, illustrating the relevance of social skills models. In addition, avoidance/concealment had a number of social and personal costs, including the loss of valued activities, reluctance to develop intimate relationships and continuing anxiety. Thus, theories of body image, social anxiety, social skills and the sociology of stigma could be used to understand the respondents' experiences. It seems likely that therapeutic interventions based on different models are useful because they influence different aspects of the above process.

  8. The scope and consequences of metaphoric thinking: Using individual differences in metaphor usage to understand how metaphor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Bair, Jessica L; Werth, Marc; Landkammer, Florian; Robinson, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    People often think, feel, and behave metaphorically according to conceptual metaphor theory. There are normative sources of support for this theory, but individual differences have received scant attention. This is surprising because people are likely to differ in the frequency with which they use metaphors and, therefore, the frequency with which they experience the costs and benefits of metaphoric thinking. To investigate these ideas, a 5-study program of research (total N = 532) was conducted. Study 1 developed and validated a Metaphor Usage Measure (MUM), finding that people were fairly consistent in their tendencies toward literal thought and language on the one hand versus metaphoric thought and language on the other. These differences were, in turn, consequential. Although metaphor usage predicted susceptibility to metaphor transfer effects (Studies 2 and 3), it was also linked to higher levels of emotional understanding (Studies 4 and 5). The findings provide support for several key premises of conceptual metaphor theory in the context of a new measure that can be used to track the consequences of metaphoric thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Bridging the gap between theory and practice: dynamic systems theory as a framework for understanding and promoting recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; DeMatteo, Carol

    2009-11-01

    A theoretical framework can help physiotherapists understand and promote recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries (ABI). Physiotherapy interventions for this population have traditionally been based in hierarchical-maturational theories of motor development emphasizing the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in controlling motor behaviour. In contrast, Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) views movement as resulting from the interaction of many subsystems within the individual, features of the functional task to be accomplished, and the environmental context in which the movement takes place. DST is now a predominant theoretical framework in pediatric physiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to describe how DST can be used to understand and promote recovery of function after pediatric ABI. A DST-based approach for children and youth with ABI does not treat the impaired CNS in isolation but rather emphasizes the role of all subsystems, including the family and the environment, in influencing recovery. The emphasis is on exploration, problem solving, and practice of functional tasks. A case scenario provides practical recommendations for the use of DST to inform physiotherapy interventions and clinical decision making in the acute phase of recovery from ABI. Future research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based in this theoretical framework.

  10. Understanding the gut-kidney axis in nephrolithiasis: an analysis of the gut microbiota composition and functionality of stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Milani, Christian; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ferrario, Chiara; Dodi, Rossella; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Del Rio, Daniele; Ventura, Marco; Meschi, Tiziana

    2018-04-28

    The involvement of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis has been hypothesised since the discovery of the oxalate-degrading activity of Oxalobacter formigenes , but never comprehensively studied with metagenomics. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the faecal microbiota composition and functionality between recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers (SFs) and controls. Faecal samples were collected from 52 SFs and 48 controls (mean age 48±11). The microbiota composition was analysed through 16S rRNA microbial profiling approach. Ten samples (five SFs, five controls) were also analysed with deep shotgun metagenomics sequencing, with focus on oxalate-degrading microbial metabolic pathways. Dietary habits, assessed through a food-frequency questionnaire, and 24-hour urinary excretion of prolithogenic and antilithogenic factors, including calcium and oxalate, were compared between SFs and controls, and considered as covariates in the comparison of microbiota profiles. SFs exhibited lower faecal microbial diversity than controls (Chao1 index 1460±363vs 1658±297, fully adjusted p=0.02 with stepwise backward regression analysis). At multivariate analyses, three taxa ( Faecalibacterium , Enterobacter , Dorea ) were significantly less represented in faecal samples of SFs. The Oxalobacter abundance was not different between groups. Faecal samples from SFs exhibited a significantly lower bacterial representation of genes involved in oxalate degradation, with inverse correlation with 24-hour oxalate excretion (r=-0.87, p=0.002). The oxalate-degrading genes were represented in several bacterial species, whose cumulative abundance was inversely correlated with oxaluria (r=-0.85, p=0.02). Idiopathic calcium SFs exhibited altered gut microbiota composition and functionality that could contribute to nephrolithiasis physiopathology. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  11. Michael Fordham and the Journal of Analytical Psychology: the view from Hangman's Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    This short paper was presented to a conference in honour of the 60(th) year of the JAP and was one of others that acknowledged the contribution of Michael Fordham. The subtitle refers to the paper's overview of Fordham's published oeuvre and the particular place of the Journal of Analytical Psychology, for which he was the founding editor. Fordham's contribution to a Jungian-based model of development is discussed, with reference to his papers in the British Journal of Medical Psychology. The paper notes miscellaneous pieces from Fordham's commentaries, obituaries, papers and reviews which capture not only the development of Fordham as a thinker but also his character. There is discussion of his reviews of Melanie Klein's Envy and Gratitude and manuscripts by Erich Neumann. A reminiscence of Fordham as supervisor is recounted. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  12. Lizards, ticks and contributions to Australian parasitology: C. Michael Bull (1947-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephanie S; Gardner, Michael G

    2017-12-01

    Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species ( Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri ) on the sleepy lizard ( Tiliqua rugosa ). In this article, we provide an overview of how this research journey developed to become one of the longest-running studies of lizards and their ticks, totalling 35 years of continuous surveys of ticks on lizards, and the insights and knowledge that he generated along that journey.

  13. 'Introducing Michael Gove to Loïc Wacquant': Why Social Work Needs Critical Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Garrett, Paul

    2016-06-01

    In 2013, Michael Gove, then Secretary of State for Education and Health in the UK coalition government, criticised social workers for laying insufficient emphasis on the 'agency' of individuals and for being too preoccupied with social and economic inequalities. Such a perspective, which is not unique to Gove, needs to be countered by reaffirming the significance of an expansively critical sociology for social work. In this context, the thematic concerns of the French theorist, Loïc Wacquant, illuminates key aspects of social work engagement with clients which Gove and his ideological associates appear intent on ignoring. The issues raised have significant political resonances given the pending UK General Election taking place in May 2015.

  14. Modalities of representation and perception in Michael Ondaatje’s Anil’s Ghost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Renaux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p113 This study analyses the way in which the interdependence of the representation and perception of reality is exemplified and questioned in Michael Ondaatje’s Anil’s Ghost (2000. As we enter this work of resistance literature by way of an omniscient narrator, we enter not just the geographical spaces and cultural history of Sri Lanka, but find ourselves taking part in the daily struggle of the people to survive, to identify and do justice to the many dead in this conflict between ethnic groups and the government. This fragmentation of the narrative structure – casting doubt on the conflicting relationships established between the characters’ present and the past, between western and eastern values in relation to the concept of truth, the search for lost identity and love – highlights still further the interchangeability of representation and perception of reality.

  15. Michael Oakeshott´s Work as a Liberal-Conserv ative Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Baqués

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As is the case with other thinkers linked to what can be broadly defined as conservatism, it is arguable whether Michael Oakeshott was just a conservative, or whether he was also a liberal. He often rejected this last label. He also tried to avoid the classic debate between the left/right wing divide, conferring instead a mantle of neutrality on his work. This analysis shows, on the one hand, that Oakeshott´s work is ideologically orientated and, on the other hand, that it contains a substantial liberal component. In fact, he offered a liberal-conservative synthesis in which the free market appears to be not only the best, but the only feasible outcome in the proposed scenario of political prudence. I will fi rst connect Oakeshott with the main traditions of thought, then analyse the theoretical implications of his position, and finally explore the consequences derived from all this for everyday political practice.

  16. The role of Michael Pupin in solving of Serbian national question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael I. Pupin was a professor at the University of Columbia, member and the president of Academy of Science in New York; one of the esteemed members of USA National Academy of Science; member and president of many experts and scientific institutions and societies in the USA; member of State Council for Scientific Research by president of the USA during the World War I. Of the great importance for political geography and geopolitics was his activity in Paris during the Peace Conference after the World War I in 1919 also as his great contribution to establishment of state borders of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (later Yugoslavia, which helped those nations to establish their national borders at maximum level. Pupin claimed that he was Yugoslav patriot and American citizen. Role of M. Pupin in battle for national interests and Yugoslav borders after the World War I is shown in this article.

  17. Rationalism and traditionalism in politics. The correspondence between Karl R. Popper and Michael Oakeshott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Pupo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence of 1948 between Karl Popper and Michael Oakeshott, translated for the first time in Italian and published in the appendix to this paper, demonstrates the existence of two different ways of thinking about politics: the rationalist approach, founded on the “argumentation” as a rational means for the non-violent solution of problems (Popper, and the traditionalist mode, inspired by the method of “conversation” as a guarantee of constant openness to the diversity of identities (Oakeshott. To rise from the letters is a mutual influence on the interpretation of the key concepts that characterize the thought of the two authors, which however does not cancel the fundamental divergence of their political orientation.

  18. "Alarme de incêndio": Michael Löwy e a crítica ecossocialista da civilização capitalista moderna "Fire alarm": Michael Löwy and the ecosocialist critique of the modern capitalist civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mascaro Querido

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A emergência da crise ecológica, como sintoma mais nítido de uma verdadeira crise civilizató-ria, impôs novos desafios ao pensamento crítico e, em especial, ao marxismo. Partindo desse pressuposto, o objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a defesa de Michael Löwy de uma radicalização ecossocialista da crítica marxista da modernidade, tarefa para a qual a grande recusa de Walter Benjamin das ideologias do pro- gresso é uma das fontes decisivas de inspiração. Para Michael Löwy, a ruptura com as ideologias do progresso e com o paradigma civilizatório capitalista moderno é uma condição indispensável para a atua-lização ecossocialista do marxismo.The emergence of the ecological crisis as a clearer symptom of a true civilizatory crisis has imposed new challenges to critical thought and, in particular, to Marxism. Based on this assumption, this article aims to present Michael Löwy's defense of an ecosocialist radicalization of the Marxist critique of modernity, a task for which Walter Benjamin's great refusal of the ideologies of progress is one of the critical sources of inspiration. To Michael Löwy, breaking away from the ideologies of progress and from the modern capitalistic civilizatory paradigm is a prerequisite for the ecosocialist updating of Marxism.

  19. Functional brain imaging: what has it brought to our understanding of neuropathic pain? A special focus on allodynic pain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Brain responses to nociception are well identified. The same is not true for allodynic pain, a strong painful sensation in response to touch or innocuous cold stimuli that may be experienced by patients with neuropathic pain. Brain (or spinal cord) reorganization that may explain this paradoxical perception still remains largely unknown. Allodynic pain is associated with abnormally increased activity in SII and in the anterior insular cortex, contralateral and/or ipsilateral to allodynia. Because a bilateral increase in activity has been repeatedly reported in these areas in nociceptive conditions, the observed activation during allodynia can explain that a physiologically nonpainful stimulus could be perceived by the damaged nervous system as a painful one. Both secondary somatosensory and insular cortices receive input from the thalamus, which is a major relay of sensory and spinothalamic pathways, the involvement of which is known to be crucial for the development of neuropathic pain. Both thalamic function and structure have been reported to be abnormal or impaired in neuropathic pain conditions including in the basal state, possibly explaining the spontaneous component of neuropathic pain. A further indication as to how the brain can create neuropathic pain response in SII and insular cortices stems from examples of diseases, including single-case reports in whom a focal brain lesion leads to central pain disappearance. Additional studies are required to certify the contribution of these areas to the disease processes, to disentangle abnormalities respectively related to pain and to deafferentation, and, in the future, to guide targeting of stimulation studies.

  20. The cognitive processing of somatic anxiety: Using functional measurement to understand and address the fear of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anxiety has both dispositional and situational determinants, little is known about how individuals' anxiety-related sensitivities and their expectations about stressful events combine to determine anxiety. This research used Information Integration Theory and Functional Measurement to assess how participants' anxiety sensitivity and event expectancy are cognitively integrated to determine their anxiety about physical pain. Two studies were conducted-one with university students and one with anxiety clinic patients-in which participants were presented with multiple scenarios of a physically painful event, each representing a different degree of event probability, from which subjective expectancies were derived. Independent variables included anxiety sensitivity (low, moderate, high and event expectancy (low, medium, high, no probability information. Participants were asked to indicate their anxiety (dependent measure in each expectancy condition in this 3 X 4 mixed, quasi-experimental design. The results of both studies strongly suggest that anxiety sensitivity and event expectancy are integrated additively to produce somatic anxiety. Additional results and their implications for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders are also discussed.

  1. Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individual differences in procrastination are tied to everyday goal-management abilities, but little research has been conducted on specific cognitive abilities that may underlie tendencies for procrastination, such as executive functions (EFs). In this study, we used behavioral genetics methodology to investigate 2 hypotheses about the relationships between procrastination and EF ability: (a) that procrastination is negatively correlated with general EF ability, and (b) that this relationship is due to the genetic components of procrastination that are most related to other everyday goal-management abilities. The results confirmed both of these hypotheses. Procrastination was related to worse general EF ability at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, and this relationship was due to the component of procrastination shared with self-report measures of everyday goal-management failures. These results were observed even after controlling for potential self-report biases stemming from the urge to respond in a socially desirable manner. Together, these findings provide strong evidence for growing theories of procrastination emphasizing the importance of goal-related cognitive abilities and further highlight important genetic influences that underlie procrastination. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Progress in the structural understanding of voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV) function and modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Daniel L; Findeisen, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs) are large, transmembrane multiprotein complexes that couple membrane depolarization to cellular calcium entry. These channels are central to cardiac action potential propagation, neurotransmitter and hormone release, muscle contraction, and calcium-dependent gene transcription. Over the past six years, the advent of high-resolution structural studies of CaV components from different isoforms and CaV modulators has begun to reveal the architecture that underlies the exceptionally rich feedback modulation that controls CaV action. These descriptions of CaV molecular anatomy have provided new, structure-based insights into the mechanisms by which particular channel elements affect voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI), calcium‑dependent inactivation (CDI), and calcium‑dependent facilitation (CDF). The initial successes have been achieved through structural studies of soluble channel domains and modulator proteins and have proven most powerful when paired with biochemical and functional studies that validate ideas inspired by the structures. Here, we review the progress in this growing area and highlight some key open challenges for future efforts.

  3. A small stone column of the altar screen from the treasures of St Archangel Michael's monastery in Prevlaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Dejan

    2013-01-01

    it. The material, size, characteristic shape, together with its special personal details, such as the channel around the whole height of its left lateral side, as well as the shallow hole on its upper surface, without doubt show that it was one of the original stone columns of a particular stone altar screen. Analysis of the motif's source, decorative forms, and the quality of its carving confirm that this segment of the altar screen represents one more parts of the same sculptors' workshop which produced one preserved part of the stone altar screen of St Triphon in Kotor, which received the same decorative and sculptural treatment, also undoubtedly originating from no before than the 11th century. The possibility of completely resolving the dilemma of which sacred complex the column originally belonged to will only be resolved when archaeological excavation and investigation of the site of the monastery of St Archangel Michael in Prevlaka, in whose treasury it stands, together with the neighbouring island of St Gavrilo, on which the pillar was found, takes place. The possibility of precisely dating this stone altar screen will only occur with the expected full understanding of the whole altar screen of the Cathedral church of St Triphon in Kotor. However, this segment of the stone altar screen also represents a reason to better comprehend the morphological characteristics and variety of stylistic expression present and specifically applied in the decorative elements of early-medieval sculpture on the southern-eastern Adriatic coast.

  4. Toward Probabilistic Diagnosis and Understanding of Depression Based on Functional MRI Data Analysis with Logistic Group LASSO.

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    Yu Shimizu

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of psychiatric disorders based on brain imaging data is highly desirable in clinical applications. However, a common problem in applying machine learning algorithms is that the number of imaging data dimensions often greatly exceeds the number of available training samples. Furthermore, interpretability of the learned classifier with respect to brain function and anatomy is an important, but non-trivial issue. We propose the use of logistic regression with a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO to capture the most critical input features. In particular, we consider application of group LASSO to select brain areas relevant to diagnosis. An additional advantage of LASSO is its probabilistic output, which allows evaluation of diagnosis certainty. To verify our approach, we obtained semantic and phonological verbal fluency fMRI data from 31 depression patients and 31 control subjects, and compared the performances of group LASSO (gLASSO, and sparse group LASSO (sgLASSO to those of standard LASSO (sLASSO, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Random Forest. Over 90% classification accuracy was achieved with gLASSO, sgLASSO, as well as SVM; however, in contrast to SVM, LASSO approaches allow for identification of the most discriminative weights and estimation of prediction reliability. Semantic task data revealed contributions to the classification from left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, left inferior frontal cortex (pars triangularis, and left cerebellum (c rus1. Weights for the phonological task indicated contributions from left inferior frontal operculum, left post central gyrus, left insula, left middle frontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal cortices, bilateral precuneus, left inferior frontal cortex (pars triangularis, and left precentral gyrus. The distribution of normalized odds ratios further showed, that predictions with absolute odds ratios higher than 0.2 could be regarded as certain.

  5. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it.

  6. Michael Novak's "Business as a Calling" as a Vehicle for Addressing Ethical and Policy Concerns in a Business Law Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tonia Hap

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience of incorporating Michael Novak's "Business as a Calling: Work and the Examined Life" into a Business Law course. The author views it as a positive addition to the course, one that may be of interest to her colleagues at other institutions. Accordingly, after an overview of Novak's analysis in…

  7. N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalysed Diastereoselective Vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael Reaction of 2-(Trimethylsilyloxy)furan and Enones

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ying; Du, Guang Fen; Xing, Fen; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Dai, Bin; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    N-heterocyclic carbenes have been utilised as highly efficient nucleophilic organocatalysts to mediate vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael reactions of 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)furan with enones to afford γ-substituted butenolides in 44-99% yield with 3:1-32:1 diastereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Komparativistlikke ja kultuuriteaduslikke ärgitusi Baltimaade germanistikale / Michael Schwidtal ; saksa keelest tõlkinud Vahur Aabrams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwidtal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    3. - 5. sept. 2001 toimus Riias sümpoosion "Unter diesem braunen Himmel. Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz und die deutsche Literatur des Baltikums", 7. - 9. sept. Tartus "Torm ja tung Liivimaal. Mässu mudelid", pühendatud J. M. R. Lenzi ja Kristian Jaak Petersoni loomingule. Ülevaade

  9. Jack Michael's Musings on the 60th Anniversary of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Barbara E.; Esch, John W.; Palmer, David C.

    2017-01-01

    When the B. F. Skinner Foundation reprinted Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" in 1992, Jack Michael wrote one of its two forewords, a detailed outline of the book's purpose and scope. On the 60th anniversary of the first publication (1957) of "Verbal Behavior", Jack reflects on the book's impact and its importance to the…

  10. What I Think I May Have Learned--Reflections on 50 Years of Teaching: An Interview with Michael Wertheimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kurt D.

    2006-01-01

    Kurt Michael is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Appalachian State University (ASU) where he teaches history and systems of psychology, abnormal psychology, child psychopathology, and interventions for children and adolescents. He received his BA (cum laude) from the University of Colorado at Boulder and his MS and PhD in…

  11. Effective Integration of Technology and Instruction. Q&A with Michael Jay. REL Mid-Atlantic Educator Effectiveness Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In this webinar, long-time educator and developer of education technology Michael Jay discussed the importance of using technology to support learning and gave examples of how teachers can integrate technology into their instruction based on the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. The PowerPoint presentation and…

  12. N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalysed Diastereoselective Vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael Reaction of 2-(Trimethylsilyloxy)furan and Enones

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ying

    2015-10-15

    N-heterocyclic carbenes have been utilised as highly efficient nucleophilic organocatalysts to mediate vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael reactions of 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)furan with enones to afford γ-substituted butenolides in 44-99% yield with 3:1-32:1 diastereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Progress in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for condensed matter sciences developed from ultrasonic nebulization theories since Michael Faraday

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwakikunga, BW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines, in great detail, the history of the phenomenon of ultrasonic nebulization of liquids since the discovery of such an effect by Michael Faraday and the explanation of the phenomenon by capillary wave mechanism and “cavitation...

  14. Jack Michael's Appointments at the University of Houston and Arizona State University: Reflections from a Former Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Jack Michael was an early enthusiast for what is now called applied behavior analysis. His many seminal contributions were through early publications in applied behavior analysis and the work of the students he trained (e.g., T. Ayllon, M. M. Wolf). His close mentorship of students earned him acclaim as a teacher along with his many theoretical…

  15. Solvent-free, catalyst-free aza-Michael addition of cyclohexylamine to diethyl maleate: reaction mechanism and kinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Michal; Trhlíková, Olga; Podešva, Jiří; Abbrent, Sabina; Steinhart, Miloš; Dybal, Jiří; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2018), s. 58-67 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Aza-Michael addition * solvent-free * catalyst-free Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  16. Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann and Michael North (eds., Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia

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    Claartje Rasterhoff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book notice of: Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann and Michael North (eds., Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia (Amsterdam Studies in the Dutch Golden Age Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2014. 348 pp. ISBN 978-90-8964-569-2. € 99,00.

  17. Der Wert von Worten. Michael Serrer aus dem Literaturbüro Düsseldorf im Interview mit der Textpraxis-Redaktion

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    Michael Serrer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Textpraxis-Redaktion unterhält sich mit Michael Serrer über Literaturvermittlung in Zeiten der Digitalisierung, über Kanonisierung und die Rolle der Literatur in der Gesellschaft. Michael Serrer ist Leiter des Literaturbüros NRW und Feuilletonist.

  18. Book Review: America’s Blind Spot: Chávez, Oil and US Security by Andrés Cala and Michael Economides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Review of: America’s Blind Spot: Chávez, Oil and US Security. Andrés Cala and Michael Economides. Continuum Books. 2012.......Review of: America’s Blind Spot: Chávez, Oil and US Security. Andrés Cala and Michael Economides. Continuum Books. 2012....

  19. Entrevista com Mathieu Dosse, Gian Luigi de Rosa e Michael Kegler

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    Andréia Guerini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available O conjunto das três entrevistas que seguem aborda a mesma temática, isto é, aspectos de tradução/adaptação em geral e da tradução do romance Estive em Lisboa e lembrei de você de Luiz Ruffato em particular. O romance de Ruffato foi escrito em 2009, editado em Portugal (Quetzal, 2010 e traduzido para diferentes línguas, como italiano (La Nuova Frontiera, 2011, espanhol (Eterna Cadencia, 2011, francês (Chandeigne, 2015, alemão (Assoziation A, 2016 e, nos próximos meses será publicado em finlandês (Into. O livro foi adaptado para o cinema em 2015, pelo cineasta português José Barahona, sendo exibido em festivais nacionais e internacionais. As entrevistas abaixo foram feitas com os tradutores Gian Luigi De Rosa, Mathieu Dosse e Michael Kegler em 2016. Gian Luigi De Rosa (Itália/1969-- possui doutorado em “Culture e Istituzioni dei paesi di lingue iberiche in età moderna e contemporanea” e é professor de português na Universidade do Salento, em Lecce. É autor de livros e ensaios sobre língua e linguística portuguesa, literatura portuguesa e brasileira e tradução audiovisual e intersemiótica. É também responsável pela elaboração das legendas em italiano do filme Estive em Lisboa e lembrei de você. Mathieu Dosse (Brasil/1978-- é formado pela Université Paris 8, onde estudou Teoria da Tradução. Traduziu para o francês Graciliano Ramos, Luiz Ruffato e João Guimarães Rosa. Michael Kegler (Alemanha/1967-- estudou literatura brasileira e portuguesa na universidade de Frankfurt, sem concluir o curso. Trabalhou como livreiro no Centro do Livro de Língua Portuguesa, antes de se tornar tradutor literário. Traduziu para o alemão José Eduardo Agualusa, Moacyr Scliar, Luiz Ruffato, entre outros autores. Em julho de 2016, junto com Ruffato, recebeu o prêmio literário Hermann Hesse na Alemanha, pela qualidade da obra publicada em conjunto com a sua tradução.

  20. An Oral History Interview with MICHAEL M. CERNEA (interviewer: Judith Freidenberg

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    MICHAEL M. CERNEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The editors and editorial board of Human Organization are pleased to introduce readers to the following oral history interview with Michael M. Cernea, a development social scientist who has militated throughout his academic career and applied work for "putting people first", in the forefront of development projects and policies. Working for a long time for the promotion of anthropological and sociological knowledge, either in the activities of the World Bank or in the policies and programs of governments of both developed and developing countries, Dr. Cernea cleared pathways for applied social science that are sure to benefit people in development settings for many years to come. Undoubtedly many readers already know Dr. Cernea's work well, especially those of us who teach the anthropology of development or work in applied settings and organizations, but this interview embeds his broad body of work into a personal, human, and at times tragic context that opens with brushes with death, Nazi brutality, and exile. It also provides valuable insights for carrying out the work of development anthropologists within large-scale organizations and governments.This interview with Dr. Cernea was conducted by Dr. Judith Freidenberg, of the University of Maryland, on June 30, 2003, for the Society for Applied Anthropology Oral History Project, headquartered at the University of Kentucky Libraries. This Project aims to create, through the vehicle of oral histories, a record of the life, activities and experiences of number of selected scholars-anthropologists who devoted a great part of their scientific work to research, to applied work in different settings, to inducing development, including to hands-on work on crafting public social policies and actual development programs. The present transcript of the interview was reviewed by both participants for editorial purposes. Michael M. Cernea expanded some of his oral responses, for historical accuracy or to add

  1. Ecossocialismo, romantismo e (autocrítica da modernidade em Michael Löwy

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    Fabio Mascaro Querido

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da concreticidade da crise ecológica e das transformações contemporâneas no âmbito dos processos de acumulação capitalista, o objetivo geral deste artigo é versar algumas notas preliminares a propósito da perspectiva teórica e política do assim chamado ecossocialismo, tal qual formulado em Michael Löwy. “Corrente de pensamento e de ação” cuja resposta à crise ecológica, a um só tempo romântica e socialista, constitui igualmente uma crítica às potencialidades destrutivas contidas no interior do paradigma societário e produtivo da modernidade. Neste trajeto, busca -se uma aproximação à apropriação löwiniana da obra de Walter Benjamin, especialmente de sua crítica do “progresso” moderno e das ideologias apologetas da “modernização”. Almeja -se assim antever a forma através da qual Michael Löwy e os ecossocialistas respondem às profundas transformações da (pós modernidade capitalista contemporânea, com ênfase particular sobre um argumento central projetado na obra do intelectual franco -brasileiro, qual seja: a defesa da necessidade de que o marxismo radicalize “sua crítica da modernidade, do paradigma da civilização ocidental, industrial, moderna, burguesa” (LÖWY, 2000c, p.242, argumento que o levaria, já em meados da década de 1980, a valorizar as potencialidades revolucionárias subjacentes a crítica romântica da modernidade. Por fim, indaga -se sobre a projeção ecossocialista da necessidade de superação revolucionária do paradigma civilizatório propalado pelo capitalismo moderno

  2. High-speed imaging and small-scale explosive characterization techniques to understand effects of primary blast-induced injury on nerve cell structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, T.; Banton, R.; Zander, N.; Duckworth, J.; Benjamin, R.; Sparks, R.

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with blast exposure. Even in the absence of penetrating injury or evidence of tissue injury on imaging, blast TBI may trigger a series of neural/glial cellular and functional changes. Unfortunately, the diagnosis and proper treatment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by explosive blast is challenging, as it is not easy to clinically distinguish blast from non-blast TBI on the basis of patient symptoms. Damage to brain tissue, cell, and subcellular structures continues to occur slowly and in a manner undetectable by conventional imaging techniques. The threshold shock impulse levels required to induce damage and the cumulative effects upon multiple exposures are not well characterized. Understanding how functional and structural damage from realistic blast impact at cellular and tissue levels at variable timescales after mTBI events may be vital for understanding this injury phenomenon and for linking mechanically induced structural changes with measurable effects on the nervous system. Our working hypothesis is that there is some transient physiological dysfunction occurring at cellular and subcellular levels within the central nervous system due to primary blast exposure. We have developed a novel in vitro indoor experimental system that uses real military explosive charges to more accurately represent military blast exposure and to probe the effects of primary explosive blast on dissociated neurons. We believe this system offers a controlled experimental method to analyze and characterize primary explosive blast-induced cellular injury and to understand threshold injury phenomenon. This paper will also focus on the modeling aspect of our work and how it relates to the experimental work.

  3. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  4. Novel Interecting Blends Based on Amino Terminited Oligoimides by Using Michael Addition Reaction-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New amino terminated oligoimides (AOIs were prepared by the Michael addition reaction of various bismaleimide (1, namely, 1-(4-((4-((2, 5-dioxocyclopent-3 enylamino methyl cyclohexyl methyl cyclohexyl-1, 6-dihydropyridine-2, 5-dione with excess of various diamines (2a-c. These AOIs were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectral studies and number average molecular weight estimated by non-aqueous conductometric titrations. AOIs were then treated with acrylol chloride and resultant acryl terminated oligoimides (AcOIs samples were also characterized thermogravimetrically. Each of these AcOI was then combined with the N-phenyl maleimide (PM in THF solvent. The resultant suspensions were then heated in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator. The AcOI and PM polymerized through double bond simultaneously and form interacting blends, which were analyzed thermogravimetrically. The glass fiber reinforced composites were fabricated by using the suspensions of the AcOI and PM. The composites of Interacting blends were analyzed for their mechanical, chemical and electrical properties.

  5. Nacionalismos e internacionalismo: um debate entre Michael Löwy e Michel Cahen

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    Ângela Lazagna

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo consiste em um debate realizado entre Michel Löwy e Michael Cahen em meados dos anos 1990 e revisto para esta publicação. Mesmo que a discussão refira-se a acontecimentos que até certo ponto podem ser considerados datados, a preocupação de fundo que é comum a esses artigos concede-lhes atualidade: a necessidade do aprofundamento de uma reflexão, a partir da teoria marxista, sobre o problema dos nacionalismos e do internacionalismo em tempos de mundialização. Esse aprofundamento, segundo os autores, faz-se necessário sobretudo por meio de uma reflexão que rompa criticamente com uma visão eurocêntrica dos diferentes nacionalismos e que supere a atitude de muitos marxistas de desprezarem tudo aquilo que não seja diretamente relevante à "consciência de classe".

  6. A man and his island: The island mirror in Michael Crummey’s Sweetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1946 and 1975, dozens of islands and outports in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador were abandoned as part of a government resettlement policy. Families and communities were torn apart, and a culture and way of life that revolved around the fishery changed irrevocably. The practice, which continues to this day, has been well documented, particularly by artists and writers. Michael Crummey’s 2014 novel Sweetland is a recent iteration. The relationship between humans and place is complex: on an island, with compressed space and a very real boundary that is the ocean, emotional attachments to one’s place are often heightened and distilled. What happens when a person is displaced from his or her island; when bonds of attachment are severed and one’s mirrored double is destroyed? Sweetland offers a fictional lens through which we see an example of a mirrored relationship between an island protagonist and his island setting. Exploring themes of attachment to place, and what Barry Lopez calls a “storied” or “reciprocal” relationship with the land, this paper examines what happens to a man when confronted with leaving an island he knows as deeply as his own body and soul; and how the island reacts.

  7. Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L M; Grant, B S; Saccheri, I J; Mallet, J

    2012-08-23

    Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism were attacked, and there has been general scepticism about birds as selective agents. Experiments and observations were accordingly carried out by Michael Majerus to address perceived weaknesses of earlier work. Unfortunately, he did not live to publish the results, which are analysed and presented here by the authors. Majerus released 4864 moths in his six-year experiment, the largest ever attempted for any similar study. There was strong differential bird predation against melanic peppered moths. Daily selection against melanics (s ≈ 0.1) was sufficient in magnitude and direction to explain the recent rapid decline of melanism in post-industrial Britain. These data provide the most direct evidence yet to implicate camouflage and bird predation as the overriding explanation for the rise and fall of melanism in moths.

  8. Regression and new beginnings: Michael, Alice and Enid Balint and the circulation of ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    This article offers a new evaluation of Michael Balint's history. It starts with his growing up in Hungary and examines the central concepts of his writing: the analytic pair, regression and the basic fault and creativity, up to and including his renowned work on the eponymous Balint groups (which forged a unique link between psychoanalysis and medicine). While his name is, of course, well known, this article aims to bring his ideas to the attention of a modern analytic audience. Having trained in the 1920s with Ferenczi, Balint brought Ferenczi's literary inheritance to England where he lived until his death in 1970. His connections to Klein, Winnicott and Lacan, all of whom respected his analytic stance, are also examined. Furthermore, this article argues that his ideas were filtered through the theoretical lens of his first wife Alice Balint and later through Enid Balint, both of whom played a key - and rarely recognised - role in the development of his thought. It ends with a brief discussion of his ideas on analytic training and his quest, successful only after his death, to publish the complete Freud-Ferenczi correspondence, together with Ferenczi's diary. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Losing Touch: A Theology of Death for Michael Haneke’s Amour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Worley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This proposed theology of death for Michael Haneke’s Amour, a fraught but poignant piece of cinema, will employ Martin Heidegger’s existentialism to reframe the ethical structure of the film and apply a “lived theology” rejoinder to its perceived hopelessness. The proposal will address the question of ethics in relation to Haneke’s cinema, in particular his seemingly nihilistic perspective and confrontational style. To do so, it will revisit the film itself and examine the ways that Georges and Anne’s love is tested. Principally, we examine the film’s great question, which—in the filmmaker’s own words—is: “How do I cope with the suffering of a loved one?” With aid from the theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer, this ‘lived theology’ proposal will attempt to give an account of love’s irrepressible strength in the midst of even astounding suffering. While Heidegger’s ethic of resoluteness calls for interiority and solitude, Bonhoeffer’s account of death more satisfactorily invokes a transcendent summons contained within our own pledges to loved ones. Such a theological reading of Haneke’s Amour will draw two distinct conclusions: first, the film exposes the superficiality of any hoped-for solitude or escape from a loved one’s death, and secondly, it demonstrates that the mutuality of authentic love entails impossible sacrifices.

  10. Synthesis of some pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives via Michael-Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baih, Fatma E.M.; Al-Rasheed, Hessa H.; Al-Hazimi, Hassan M.

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine analogues 4 and 6-9 were achieved by Michael-addition of compounds containing either active methylene groups like, malononitrile , ethyl cyanoacetate and 1-tetralone or compounds containing active hydrogen atoms like, guanidine in the presence of an oxidizing agent and thiourea to 2-arylmethylidine-1-tetralone and 2-arylmethylidine-6-methoxy-1-tetralone (2) (enones). Addition of malononitrile in piperidine at room temperature to 2-amino-3-cyno-naphtho [1, 2-malonoitrile in sodium alkoxide or sodium hydroxide to 2 gave 4. Cyclization of 3a with acetic anhydride in the presence of conc. H2sO4 gave the naphtha-pyrano[2, 3-d]pyrimidin-8-one (5). Condensation of the pyrimidine thione derivatives 9 with chloroacetic acid gave the 3-oxobenzo[h]thiazoladino[2, 3-b]quinazoline derivatives (10), which were reacted through their active methylene groups with aromatic aldehydes to give the arylidine derivatives 11. These compounds were also prepared in one step by reacting 9 with chloroacetic acid and aromatic aldehydes. Condensation of 9 with 3-bromopropanoic acid gave 4-oxo-benzo[h]1, 3-thiazino[2, 3-b]quinazoline derivatives (12). The structures of the prepared compounds were mainly confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic methods. (author)

  11. A Continental-scale River Corridor Model to Synthesize Understanding and Prioritize Management of Water Purification Functions and Ecological Services in Large Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Scott, D.; Boyer, E. W.; Schmadel, N. M.; Alexander, R. B.; Eng, K.; Golden, H. E.; Kettner, A.; Konrad, C. P.; Moore, R. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schwarz, G. E.; Soulsby, C.

    2017-12-01

    The functional values of rivers depend on more than just wetted river channels. Instead, the river channel exchanges water and suspended materials with adjacent riparian, floodplain, hyporheic zones, and ponded waters such as lakes and reservoirs. Together these features comprise a larger functional unit known as the river corridor. The exchange of water, solutes, and sediments within the river corridor alters downstream water quality and ecological functions, but our understanding of the large-scale, cumulative impacts is inadequate and has limited advancements in sustainable management practices. A problem with traditional watershed, groundwater, and river water quality models is that none of them explicitly accounts for river corridor storage and processing, and the exchanges of water, solutes, and sediments that occur many times between the channel and off-channel environments during a river's transport to the sea. Our River Corridor Working Group at the John Wesley Powell Center is quantifying the key components of river corridor functions. Relying on foundational studies that identified floodplain, riparian, and hyporheic exchange flows and resulting enhancement of chemical reactions at river reach scales, we are assembling the datasets and building the models to upscale that understanding onto 2.6 million river reaches in the U.S. A principal goal of the River Corridor Working group is to develop a national-scale river corridor model for the conterminous U.S. that will reveal, perhaps for the first time, the relative influences of hyporheic, riparian, floodplain, and ponded waters at large spatial scales. The simple but physically-based models are predictive for changing conditions and therefore can directly address the consequences and effectiveness of management actions in sustaining valuable river corridor functions. This presentation features interpretation of useful river corridor connectivity metrics and ponded water influences on nutrient and sediment

  12. Threats to safety during sedation outside of the operating room and the death of Michael Jackson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Craig S; Mason, Keira P; Shafer, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    From an understanding of human psychology and the reliability of high-technology systems, this review considers critical threats to the safety of patients undergoing sedation outside of the operating room, and will stratify these threats along what we define as the 'Patient Risk Continuum'. We then consider interventions suitable for addressing identified risks. The technology, organization and delivery of healthcare continue to become more complex, highlighting the importance of maintaining the safety of patients. Sedation outside of the operating room is known to be associated with higher rates of adverse events. However, a number of recent safety initiatives have shown benefit in improving patient safety. The following threats to patients undergoing sedation, in increasing order of risk, are discussed: equipment and environmental factors, known patient risks, poor team performance, combinatorial problems and egregious violations. To address these threats, we discuss a number of approaches consistent with the systems approach to safety, namely: encouraging functions, forcing functions, cognitive safety nets, information sharing, recovery strategies and regulatory change. Demonstrating improvement with any safety initiative relies critically on quality data collected on the problem area in question.

  13. A Phytochemical-Sensing Strategy Based on Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolic Profiling for Understanding the Functionality of the Medicinal Herb Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2017-09-27

    Low-molecular-weight phytochemicals have health benefits and reduce the risk of diseases, but the mechanisms underlying their activities have remained elusive because of the lack of a methodology that can easily visualize the exact behavior of such small molecules. Recently, we developed an in situ label-free imaging technique, called mass spectrometry imaging, for visualizing spatially-resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol and its phase II metabolites. In addition, we established a mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling technique capable of evaluating the bioactivities of diverse green tea extracts, which contain multiple phytochemicals, by focusing on their compositional balances. This methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate the relative contributions of the multiple compounds present in a multicomponent system to its bioactivity. This review highlights small molecule-sensing techniques for visualizing the complex behaviors of herbal components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of the functionalities of multicomponent medicinal herbs.

  14. “This fabulous flotsam”: Michael Moorcock’s Urban Anthropology in “London under London”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houswitschka Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Moorcock is often described as “one of the most prolific and varied writers working in Britain” (Malcolm 146. His success as a writer and editor of science fiction and fantasy literature is well established, but he is also the author of two novels about London, Mother London (1988 and King of the City (2000. Hardly known, Mother London by Michael Moorcock, offers itself to a variety of approaches that have been widely discussed in the context of studies on English literature during the Thatcher years, post-modernism, and psycho-geography. The novel resonates with the author’s own childhood in war-time London without being autobiographical. It tells the story of three Londoners who were traumatised during the Blitz. The following article focuses on the mysteries of subterranean London that represents the hidden and unconscious identities of its inhabitants in the post-war period.

  15. Theoretical study on the reaction mechanisms of Michael chirality addition between propionaldehyde and nitroalkene catalyzed by an enantioselective catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinming; Li, Ling; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yajun; Du, Dongmei; Fu, Hui

    2018-06-01

    The asymmetric Michael addition between propionaldehyde and nitroalkene catalyzed by 8-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic acid has obtained relatively high yields and excellent enantioselectivities at room temperature. In this study, the molecular structures and optical activity of the most stable conformation I are optimized at B3LYP/6-311++ G(d,p) level. We find that levorotatory conformation I catalyzing the same Michael addition can produce laevo-product A and dextrorotatory conformation I' can obtain the dextral-product A'. These results have guiding significance for further studying on the new chemzymes and the mechanism of the obtained different chiral products. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The works of Joseph and Michael Haydn in Ondřej Horník's collection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, 1-2 (2017), s. 14-23 ISSN 1803-7828 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : music manuscripts * Joseph Haydn * Michael Haydn * Ondřej Horník's collection * church music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy) http://www.nm.cz/publikace/archiv.php?id=16

  17. Leadership and creativity in public services: An interview with Lord Michael Bichard, Chair of the National Audit Office

    OpenAIRE

    Bolden, R.; O'Regan, N.

    2018-01-01

    This interview with Lord Michael Bichard, one of the most distinguished public sector leaders in the UK, explores his ideas around the relationship between leadership, creativity and innovation. A champion of place-based approaches to public services, where citizens are actively involved in service design, delivery and appraisal, Bichard advocates the need for inclusive and supportive leadership that enables the emergence of the kinds of creativity required to respond to the financial challen...

  18. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,4-Unsubstituted Thiochromenes through Sulfa-Michael/Julia-Kocienski Olefination Cascade Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simlandy, Amit Kumar; Mukherjee, Santanu

    2017-05-05

    A highly enantioselective cascade sulfa-Michael/Julia-Kocienski olefination reaction between 2-mercaptobenzaldehydes and β-substituted vinyl PT-sulfones has been realized for the synthesis of 3,4-unsubstituted 2H-thiochromenes. This reaction, catalyzed by diphenylprolinol TMS ether, proceeds through an aromatic iminium intermediate and furnishes a wide range of 2-substiuted 2H-thiochromenes with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99:1 er).

  19. Using the Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase as a Model to Understand Viral Polymerase Structure, Function and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sesmero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral polymerases replicate and transcribe the genomes of several viruses of global health concern such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Ebola virus. For this reason they are key targets for therapies to treat viral infections. Although there is little sequence similarity across the different types of viral polymerases, all of them present a right-hand shape and certain structural motifs that are highly conserved. These features allow their functional properties to be compared, with the goal of broadly applying the knowledge acquired from studying specific viral polymerases to other viral polymerases about which less is known. Here we review the structural and functional properties of the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B in order to understand the fundamental processes underlying the replication of viral genomes. We discuss recent insights into the process by which RNA replication occurs in NS5B as well as the role that conformational changes play in this process.

  20. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy-the European dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag 2 S and PbF 2 and coined terms such as cation and anion , electrode and electrolyte . In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an 'evolving scheme of materials science', point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.

  1. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an ‘evolving scheme of materials science’, point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987. PMID:27877585

  2. Corrupting Capitalism: Michael Ende’s Momo and “Cathedral Station”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Polster

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ende, the well-known author of The Neverending Story , foresaw dramatic changes in the fabric of society resulting from a turn toward neoliberal policies. One such far-reaching and dangerous change has to do with a diminishing of temporal autonomy, the ability to freely determine the use and meaning of our time. This article explores how neoliberalism is shaping our concept of time and our experience of it. In an effort to demonstrate the process and the line of reasoning behind the monetization of time, and to connect time to more qualitative considerations of the human condition, I shall demonstrate how Ende conceptualizes time as an integral part of the accumulation process of capitalism. I also discuss a fairly cryptic short story, “Cathedral Station,” that envisions “the mystery of money.” Utilizing Walter Benjamin’s critique issued in his 1921 fragment “Capitalism as Religion,” I outline Ende’s dystopian vision of the uncontested, unquestioned reign of capitalism as a religious cult. Read together, the novel and the short story offer a way of contrasting two extreme byproducts of capitalism’s colonization of time, namely what I would call an “ideology of work” and an “ideology of growth.” The first of these is a result of capitalism’s commodification of time according to liberal ideals such as choice, freedom, and self-interest. The second is a decidedly neoliberal phenomenon in that the “financialization of everything,” to use David Harvey’s phrase, results in the ever-present expectation of unlimited, exponential growth. By drawing out these two interconnected ideologies through close readings, the subtle processes of capitalism’s colonization of time are revealed.

  3. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Funke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an 'evolving scheme of materials science', point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals, by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.

  4. Suspense, culpa y cintas de vídeo. Caché/Escondido de Michael Haneke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martínez-Cabeza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Caché/Escondido (2005 representa dentro de la filmografía de Michael Haneke el ejemplo más destacado de síntesis de los planteamientos formales e ideológicos del cineasta austriaco. Este artículo analiza el filme como manifiesto cinematográfico y como explotación de las convenciones genéricas para construir un modelo de espectador reflexivo. La investigación del modo en que el director plantea y abandona las técnicas del suspense aporta claves para explicar el éxito casi unánime de crítica y la respuesta mucho menos homogénea de las audiencias. El desencadenante de la trama, unas cintas de vídeo que reciben los Laurent, es alusión directa a Carretera Perdida (1997 de David Lynch; no obstante, el misterio acerca del autor de la videovigilancia pierde interés en relación al sentimiento de culpa que desencadena en el protagonista. El episodio infantil de celos y venganza hacia un niño argelino y la actitud del Georges adulto representan una alegoría de la relación de Francia con su pasado colonial que tampoco cierra la narración de Haneke. Es precisamente la apertura formal con que el filme (desestructura cuestiones actuales como el límite entre la responsabilidad individual y colectiva lo que conforma un espectador tan distanciado de la diégesis como consciente de su propio papel de observador.

  5. Enantioselective organocatalyzed Oxa-Michael-Aldol cascade reactions: Construction of chiral 4H-chromenes with a trifluoromethylated tetrasubstituted carbon stereocenter

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jing; Ajitha, Manjaly John; He, Lin; Liu, Kai; Dai, Bin; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The first organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of 4H-chromenes bearing a trifluoromethylated tetrasubstituted carbon center is presented. Chiral secondary amines promote the oxa-Michael-aldol cascade reaction between alkynals and 2

  6. Why There Are Certain Parallels Between Joachim C. Fest’s Hitler-Biography and Michael Wolff’s Trump-Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Joachim C. Fest published one of the most widely read Hitler biographies in 1973. Are there parallels of its analytical approach to Michael Wolff’s “Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House”?

  7. Resources, attitudes and culture: an understanding of the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms in primary health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Susan M; Molyneux, Sassy; Gilson, Lucy

    2013-08-16

    District level health system governance is recognised as an important but challenging element of health system development in low and middle-income countries. Accountability is a more recent focus in health system debates. Accountability mechanisms are governance tools that seek to regulate answerability between the health system and the community (external accountability) and/or between different levels of the health system (bureaucratic accountability). External accountability has attracted significant attention in recent years, but bureaucratic accountability mechanisms, and the interactions between the two forms of accountability, have been relatively neglected. This is an important gap given that webs of accountability relationships exist within every health system. There is a need to strike a balance between achieving accountability upwards within the health system (for example through information reporting arrangements) while at the same time allowing for the local level innovation that could improve quality of care and patient responsiveness. Using a descriptive literature review, this paper examines the factors that influence the functioning of accountability mechanisms and relationships within the district health system, and draws out the implications for responsiveness to patients and communities. We also seek to understand the practices that might strengthen accountability in ways that improve responsiveness--of the health system to citizens' needs and rights, and of providers to patients. The review highlights the ways in which bureaucratic accountability mechanisms often constrain the functioning of external accountability mechanisms. For example, meeting the expectations of relatively powerful managers further up the system may crowd out efforts to respond to citizens and patients. Organisational cultures characterized by supervision and management systems focused on compliance to centrally defined outputs and targets can constrain front line

  8. dbSWEET: An Integrated Resource for SWEET Superfamily to Understand, Analyze and Predict the Function of Sugar Transporters in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2018-04-14

    SWEET (Sweet Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins have been recently discovered and form one of the three major families of sugar transporters. Homologs of SWEET are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacterial SWEET homologs have three transmembrane segments forming a triple-helical bundle (THB) and the functional form is dimers. Eukaryotic SWEETs have seven transmembrane helical segments forming two THBs with a linker helix. Members of SWEET homologs have been shown to be involved in several important physiological processes in plants. However, not much is known regarding the biological significance of SWEET homologs in prokaryotes and in mammals. We have collected more than 2000 SWEET homologs from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For each homolog, we have modeled three different conformational states representing outward open, inward open and occluded states. We have provided details regarding substrate-interacting residues and residues forming the selectivity filter for each SWEET homolog. Several search and analysis options are available. The users can generate a phylogenetic tree and structure-based sequence alignment for selected set of sequences. With no metazoan SWEETs functionally characterized, the features observed in the selectivity filter residues can be used to predict the potential substrates that are likely to be transported across the metazoan SWEETs. We believe that this database will help the researchers to design mutational experiments and simulation studies that will aid to advance our understanding of the physiological role of SWEET homologs. This database is freely available to the scientific community at http://bioinfo.iitk.ac.in/bioinfo/dbSWEET/Home. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The transcriptome of the developing grain: a resource for understanding seed development and the molecular control of the functional and nutritional properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2017-10-11

    Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.

  10. A Phytochemical-Sensing Strategy Based on Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolic Profiling for Understanding the Functionality of the Medicinal Herb Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight phytochemicals have health benefits and reduce the risk of diseases, but the mechanisms underlying their activities have remained elusive because of the lack of a methodology that can easily visualize the exact behavior of such small molecules. Recently, we developed an in situ label-free imaging technique, called mass spectrometry imaging, for visualizing spatially-resolved biotransformations based on simultaneous mapping of the major bioactive green tea polyphenol and its phase II metabolites. In addition, we established a mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling technique capable of evaluating the bioactivities of diverse green tea extracts, which contain multiple phytochemicals, by focusing on their compositional balances. This methodology allowed us to simultaneously evaluate the relative contributions of the multiple compounds present in a multicomponent system to its bioactivity. This review highlights small molecule-sensing techniques for visualizing the complex behaviors of herbal components and linking such information to an enhanced understanding of the functionalities of multicomponent medicinal herbs.

  11. Comparison of codon usage bias across Leishmania and Trypanosomatids to understand mRNA secondary structure, relative protein abundance and pathway functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Abhishek; Sarkar, Ram Rup

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the variations in gene organization and its effect on the phenotype across different Leishmania species, and to study differential clinical manifestations of parasite within the host, we performed large scale analysis of codon usage patterns between Leishmania and other known Trypanosomatid species. We present the causes and consequences of codon usage bias in Leishmania genomes with respect to mutational pressure, translational selection and amino acid composition bias. We establish GC bias at wobble position that governs codon usage bias across Leishmania species, rather than amino acid composition bias. We found that, within Leishmania, homogenous codon context coding for less frequent amino acid pairs and codons avoiding formation of folding structures in mRNA are essentially chosen. We predicted putative differences in global expression between genes belonging to specific pathways across Leishmania. This explains the role of evolution in shaping the otherwise conserved genome to demonstrate species-specific function-level differences for efficient survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging Cajal's neuronal avalanche: how wide-field optical imaging of the point-spread advanced the understanding of neocortical structure-function relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostig, Ron D; Chen-Bee, Cynthia H; Johnson, Brett A; Jacobs, Nathan S

    2017-07-01

    This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species. Together, these findings advance our understanding about the neocortex at the mesoscopic level by underscoring that the cortical PS constitutes a fundamental motif of neocortical structure-function relationship.

  13. Using Plant Functional Traits and Phylogenies to Understand Patterns of Plant Community Assembly in a Seasonal Tropical Forest in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manichanh Satdichanh

    Full Text Available Plant functional traits reflect different evolutionary responses to environmental variation, and among extant species determine the outcomes of interactions between plants and their environment, including other plant species. Thus, combining phylogenetic and trait-based information can be a powerful approach for understanding community assembly processes across a range of spatial scales. We used this approach to investigate tree community composition at Phou Khao Khouay National Park (18°14'-18°32'N; 102°38'- 102°59'E, Laos, where several distinct forest types occur in close proximity. The aim of our study was to examine patterns of plant community assembly across the strong environmental gradients evident at our site. We hypothesized that differences in tree community composition were being driven by an underlying gradient in soil conditions. Thus, we predicted that environmental filtering would predominate at the site and that the filtering would be strongest on sandier soil with low pH, as these are the conditions least favorable to plant growth. We surveyed eleven 0.25 ha (50x50 m plots for all trees above 10 cm dbh (1221 individual trees, including 47 families, 70 genera and 123 species and sampled soils in each plot. For each species in the community, we measured 11 commonly studied plant functional traits covering both the leaf and wood economic spectrum traits and we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree for 115 of the species in the community using rbcL and matK sequences downloaded from Genebank (other species were not available. Finally we compared the distribution of trait values and species at two scales (among plots and 10x10m subplots to examine trait and phylogenetic community structures. Although there was strong evidence that an underlying soil gradient was determining patterns of species composition at the site, our results did not support the hypothesis that the environmental filtering dominated community assembly processes

  14. New eco-friendly animal bone meal catalysts for preparation of chalcones and aza-Michael adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadi Yassine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two efficient reactions were successfully carried out using Animal Bone Meal (ABM and potassium fluoride or sodium nitrate doped ABMs as new heterogeneous catalysts under very mild conditions. After preparation and characterization of the catalysts, we first report their use in a simple and convenient synthesis of various chalcones by Claisen–Schmidt condensation and then in an aza-Michael addition involving several synthesized chalcones with aromatic amines. All the reactions were carried out at room temperature in methanol; the chalcone synthesis was also achieved in water environment under microwave irradiation. Doping ABM enhances the rate and yield at each reaction. Catalytic activities are discussed and the ability to re-use the ABM is demonstrated. Results For Claisen–Schmidt the use of ABM alone, yields never exceeded 17%. In each entry, KF/ABM and NaNO3/ABM (79-97% gave higher yields than using ABM alone under thermic condition. Also the reaction proceeded under microwave irradiation in good yields (72-94% for KF/ABM and 81-97% for NaNO3/ABM and high purity. For aza-Michael addition the use of ABM doped with KF or NaNO3 increased the catalytic activity remarkably. The very high yields could be noted (84-95% for KF/ABM and 81-94% for NaNO3/ABM. Conclusion The present method is an efficient and selective procedure for the synthesis of chalcones an aza-Michael adducts. The ABM and doped ABMs are a new, inexpensive and attractive solid supports which can contribute to the development of catalytic processes and reduced environmental problems.

  15. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ???30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (???30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and minor dwarf birch (Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ???30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca. 11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs (Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce (Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Michael Faraday en die letterlike lesing van twee ‘boeke’ van God: 'n Gevallestudie oor verhouding tussen geloof en wetenskap1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive historical approach to the history of science provides a methodological approach which makes it possible to take into account most of the factors which were constitutive in the formation of scientific meaning in scientific concept formation. In this article this approach is linked with a methodology of metaphorical hermeneutics in order to determine the role played by religious factors in the meaning of scientific concepts. Contrary to traditional approaches in which religious factors are primarily seen as confessional in nature, the term religious is utilized here to identify those absolute presuppositions which fulfil a controlling or regulative function in scientific concept formation and theorizing. 'This approach is applied to a case study of the relationship of faith and science in the work of the nineteenth century British physicist, Michael Faraday. This approach provides an analysis of the change in conceptual structure which the concept of force undergoes in a transition from a mechanistic to a dynamistic metaphysical framework. In this analysis attention is also given to the distinction between confessional religious factors, metaphysical frameworks, meta-scientific principles and theories.

  17. Michael additions of thiocompounds to {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in aqueous media: stereoselectivity with unambiguous characterization by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Queli Aparecida Rodrigues de; Pereira, Maria Luiza de Oliveira; Coelho, Ricardo Bezerra; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Jones Junior, Joel; Silva, Flavia Martins da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: soa@iq.ufrj.br; Carvalho, Erika Martins de [Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos (Far-Manguinhos), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The reactions of crotonaldehyde (8) with thiophenol (2) and benzalacetone (10) with ethane-1,2- dithiol (11) yield Michael addition products. The reactions of thiophenol (2) with (R)-carvone (13) and (S)-perillaldehyde (15) lead to (2S,3R,5S)-5-isopropenyl-2-methyl-3-(phenylthio)cyclohexanone (14) and (1R,2R,4S)-4-isopropenyl-2-(phenylthio)cyclohexanecarbaldehyde (16), respectively. An unambiguous elucidation of the stereochemistry of 14 and 16 by NMR is also presented. (author)

  18. Tandem Aldol-Michael Reactions in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium: A Greener and Efficient Approach to Bis-Pyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Majid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol, involving the green synthesis for the construction of novel bis-pyrimidine derivatives, 3a–i and 4a–e are accomplished by the aqueous diethylamine media promoted tandem Aldol-Michael reaction between two molecules of barbituric acid derivatives 1a,b with various aldehydes. This efficient synthetic protocol using an economic and environmentally friendly reaction media with versatility and shorter reaction time provides bis-pyrimidine derivatives with high yields (88%–99%.

  19. Kochin, Michael S. 2009. Five Chapters on Rhetoric: Character, Action, Things, Nothing and Art (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eithan Orkibi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Deux constatations traversent le nouvel ouvrage de Michael Kochin, et nous invitent à reconsidérer la rhétorique dans la communication persuasive. D’abord, que ce sont les événements concrets et les faits mis à l’épreuve qui ont la plus grande force de conviction ; et ensuite, que le discours a souvent une fonction autre que la persuasion : celle de maintenir les canaux de communication pour sauvegarder les relations et les institutions humaines. Pour l’auteur de cet ouvrage qui porte sur les...

  20. A propósito del libro "Accounting theory: research, regulation and accounting practice" de Michael Gaffikin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Nohora

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En el libro “Accounting theory: research, regulation and accounting practice”, el profesor australiano Michael Gaffikin ofrece al lector una idea del origen y amplio desenvolvimiento de la teoría contable durante el siglo XX “cuyo desarrollo ha sido dominado por Estados Unidos” (Gaffikin, 2008, p. 32. Plantea, igualmente, los desafíos y problemas actuales de la regulación y la profesión contable. Por ejemplo, el autor precisa que ante la incapacidad de lograr un acuerdo sobre las mediciones apropiadas, la tendencia mundial es a instaurar medidas determinadas arbitrariamente (Gaffikin, 2008, p. 154.

  1. New 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering' study course launched. Interview with Professor Horst-Michael Prasser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the Zurich Technical University (ETH) and the Lausanne EPF will launch their joint master course of studies in Nuclear Engineering. Horst-Michael Prasser, Professor for Nuclear Energy Systems at Zurich ETH, is responsible for designing the course. In this interview he comments, among other things, on fundamental questions which may determine a future student's choice of a course of studies, and on the special opportunities offered by the new Nuclear Engineering course. Other subjects addressed include the renaissance of nuclear power and the future prospects of safety research and new reactor developments. (orig.)

  2. ‘Doxographical or Philosophical History of Philosophy: On Michael Frede’s Precepts for Writing the History of Philosophy’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2016-01-01

    In a series of articles from the 1980s and 1990s, Michael Frede analysed the history of histories of philosophy written over the last three hundred years. According to Frede, modern scholars have degenerated into what he calls a “doxographical” mode of writing the history of philosophy. Instead, he...... argued, these scholars should write what he called “philosophical” history of philosophy, first established in the last decades of the seventeenth century but since abandoned. In the present article it is argued that Frede’s reconstruction of the history of histories of philosophy is historically...

  3. Constructing Singapore : Elitism, Ethnicity and the Nation-Building Project, Michael D. Barr & Zlatko Skrbis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Margolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Barr, seul ou en collaboration, est depuis une décennie l’un des auteurs les plus prolifiques et les plus reconnus sur la structuration politique et sociologique du Singapour contemporain. Longtemps attaché à l’université du Queensland (Brisbane, aujourd’hui à Flinders (Adelaide, il est assez représentatif de la nouvelle génération (singapourienne aussi bien qu’étrangère des spécialistes de la cité-état : fermement critique, et parfois même hyper-critique, elle n’en reconnaît pas m...

  4. One-Pot Synthesis of 2-Acylindole-3-acetylketones via Domino Aza-alkylation/Michael Reaction Using o-Aminophenyl α,β-Unsaturated Ketones Followed by Desulfonative Dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A Reum; Yu, Mi Rim; Sim, Jong Tack; Kim, Sung Gon [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of novel and practical synthetic methods with a minimum number of operations for the construction of bioactive structurally complex compounds is a major challenge in synthetic organic chemistry. Recently, we reported an efficient method for the stereoselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indoline derivatives; cis-2,3-disubstituted indolines were obtained by the aza-alkylation/Michael cascade reaction of 2-(tosylamino)phenyl α,β-unsaturated ketones with α-bromoacetophenones in good yields and with excellent diastereoselectivities (Scheme 2, Eq. (1)). Among the available synthetic strategies, domino or cascade reactions have received wide acceptance as highly efficient and powerful methods for the synthesis of molecules with a high structural complexity. An efficient synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indoles was developed by the domino aza-alkylation/intramolecular Michael reaction of 2-(tosylamino)phenyl α,β-unsaturated ketones with α-bromoacetophenones, followed by desulfonative dehydrogenation with DBU. The reaction afforded structurally diverse and highly functionalized 2,3-disubstituted indoles in moderate to excellent yields (up to 99%). The synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indoles without desulfonation through DDQ-induced oxidative dehydrogenation was also achieved.

  5. Receiver function and magnetotelluric analysis to understand the first stage of a continental lithospheric break-up : case of the North Tanzanian Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasman, M.; Tiberi, C.; Tarits, P.; Hautot, S.; Gautier, S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Khalfan, M.

    2015-12-01

    First stage of continental break-up, though intensively studied, is yet poorly understood. This is partly because actual rifting areas are either too mature (more than 10 My) or not easily accessible (thick sediment cover or under water). The North Tanzania part of the East African Rift is the place of a lithosphere's early break-up (less than 5My) in response to a combination of regional pulling forces and mantle upwelling. Deformation there results from complex interactions between magmatic intrusions, faulting, asthenospheric dynamics and far field stresses. CoLiBrEA (ANR) and CRAFTI (NSF) are two multidisciplinary projects which collaboratively focus on this area to understand the interactions between faults and magma, the role of inherited structures and rheological heterogeneities of the lithosphere. For that purpose, we deployed 38 broadband seismic stations in the Natron and Ngorongoro areas from January 2013 to December 2014 and carried out a 120 km East-West magnetotelluric (MT) profile to image the crustal and mantle structures. The 3D resistivity model, obtained from the inversion of the MT data along the profile, shows an highly heterogeneous crust with three-dimensional structures over a more homogeneous upper mantle. The first inversion result from the receiver function (RF) by the Zhu and Kanamori's inversion method show a thick crust (~35 km) with important variations (maximum 15km) especially in the Ngorongoro area, and an average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.75. We then completed this study by combining the MT data and the RF at the 11 sites of the EW profile. For each site, we built a 1D velocity model (Vs and VpVs) obtained by combining the Sambridge forward solution with a non linear descent research algorithm and constrained by the resistivity structure. The inversion shows an heterogeneous crust obviously dominated by the Moho interface at different depths, with low velocity layers mainly corresponding to low resistivity features.

  6. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  7. Trajetória acadêmica e perspectivas acerca do turismo sob o olhar de Colin Michael Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne Gouveia da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho versa sobre a visão do Colin Michael Hall na temática do turismo. Para analisar essa temática imbricou-se em duas leituras principais como parâmetro para a discussão. A primeira é a obra “Planejamento turístico: política, processo e planejamento” e, a segunda, “Turismo como El Ciencia Social de La Movilidade”. Estas obras marcam a mudança de visão do autor, onde o mesmo se dedica a fomentar um novo olhar sobre o turismo suscitando sete aspectos para se pensar no turismo. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a visão de Colin Michael Hall acerca do Turismo. Como metas intermediárias pretende-se, a partir da compilação de informações sobre sua vida acadêmica e suas principais contribuições realizar uma breve crítica. Para o trabalho utilizou-se a pesquisa bibliográfica, e entrevista com o autor. Como resultado obteve-se uma reunião das principais ideias e posições ideológicas do autor, e algumas de suas contribuições com o estudo do turismo.

  8. Synthesis of l-threitol-based crown ethers and their application as enantioselective phase transfer catalyst in Michael additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Zsolt; Nemcsok, Tamás; Pálvölgyi, Ádám; Keglevich, György; Grün, Alajos; Bakó, Péter

    2017-06-01

    A few new l-threitol-based lariat ethers incorporating a monoaza-15-crown-5 unit were synthesized starting from diethyl l-tartrate. These macrocycles were used as phase transfer catalysts in asymmetric Michael addition reactions under mild conditions to afford the adducts in a few cases in good to excellent enantioselectivities. The addition of 2-nitropropane to trans-chalcone, and the reaction of diethyl acetamidomalonate with β-nitrostyrene resulted in the chiral Michael adducts in good enantioselectivities (90% and 95%, respectively). The substituents of chalcone had a significant impact on the yield and enantioselectivity in the reaction of diethyl acetoxymalonate. The highest enantiomeric excess (ee) values (99% ee) were measured in the case of 4-chloro- and 4-methoxychalcone. The phase transfer catalyzed cyclopropanation reaction of chalcone and benzylidene-malononitriles using diethyl bromomalonate as the nucleophile (MIRC reaction) was also developed. The corresponding chiral cyclopropane diesters were obtained in moderate to good (up to 99%) enantioselectivities in the presence of the threitol-based crown ethers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  10. Regele Mihai între „est” și „vest”. Percepții, poziționări, simboluri (King Michael between east and west. Perceptions, positionings, symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MURARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates three strategic directions within the political perceptions of Romanian King Michael involving the East/West paradigm. The article will try to highlight the main positioning, both in Exile and the complicated recent history, immediately after the December 1989 events. King Michael’s relations with Western powers and attitude throughout Romania after 1989, the fate of Bessarabia as a direct „confrontation” between East -West and the significances of the „August 23” Act in reshaping the post-revolutionary memorial debate, represent three fundamental perspectives in understanding the „East” and „West” thinking of the Romanian monarch. These three themes, rich in meanings, have three major connotations: moral, geographic and memorials. Each of them are explained and decrypted with many examples, quotes, and historical and geographical references.

  11. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  12. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  13. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  14. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  15. The Bases of Chemical Thermodynamics, Volumes 1 and 2 by Michael Graetzel and Pierre Infelta

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Gerald R.

    2001-09-01

    Universal Publishers: Parkland, FL, 2000. Vol. 1: 298 pp. ISBN 1-58112-772-3. 25.95. Vol. 2: 300 pp. ISBN 1-58112-771-5. 25.95. Rarely does one pick up a text and find in it so many of one's favorite pedagogical devices. Graetzel and Infelta was a treat to read. The text offers many new and clever derivations of the well-worn equations of chemical thermodynamics and for this reason alone the text should be on the bookshelf of every serious teacher of thermodynamics. The writing is easy to read: not terse, but carefully worded as a thermodynamics text should be. There are no fancy sidebars or tidbits, just a straightforward presentation of material that is frankly refreshing. A brief description of the text should come next, for it consist of two volumes. You find in Volume 1 introductory material, the laws of thermodynamics, auxiliary functions, molar and partial molar quantities, gases, and component phase equilibria; in Volume 2, the energetics of chemical reactions, chemical equilibria, properties of ideal and nonideal mixtures, and an introduction to statistical mechanics. The authors make careful definitions of those slippery concepts, systems, states, and extensive and intensive variables, and use those definitions to show how the thermodynamic state of a system can be described in a minimum number of variables. A pedagogical feature that makes a hit with me is the authors' disuse of deltas. They explicitly write Ufinal - Uinitial instead of just good old DU, which really tells a reader nothing. How much better our students would understand thermodynamics if we were to ban D 's remains to be seen. The authors are consistent in their disuse of D 's except for standard expressions such as DrG°. Entropy, every beginning student's random nightmare, is introduced by the concept of arrangements available to the system. The number of arrangements can be quantified by various permutation formulas. Thank the authors for sticking with arrangements that can be

  16. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  17. A facile and efficient method of enzyme immobilization on silica particles via Michael acceptor film coatings: immobilized catalase in a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Genc, Aysenur; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Ince, Ahmet; Bicak, Niyazi

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for facile immobilization of enzymes on silica surfaces. Herein, we describe a single-step strategy for generating of reactive double bonds capable of Michael addition on the surfaces of silica particles. This method was based on reactive thin film generation on the surfaces by heating of impregnated self-curable polymer, alpha-morpholine substituted poly(vinyl methyl ketone) p(VMK). The generated double bonds were demonstrated to be an efficient way for rapid incorporation of enzymes via Michael addition. Catalase was used as model enzyme in order to test the effect of immobilization methodology by the reactive film surface through Michael addition reaction. Finally, a plug flow type immobilized enzyme reactor was employed to estimate decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide. The highly stable enzyme reactor could operate continuously for 120 h at 30 °C with only a loss of about 36 % of its initial activity.

  18. On the study of culture and mind: Interview with Prof. Michael Cole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2011-01-01

    Culture and mind represent, in themselves, perhaps the two most complicated phenomena to ever be studied. Their massive complexity has posed, for centuries, great challenges to researchers from a variety of fields. It is therefore all the more difficult to understand the interconnection between...... to understanding human nature and human society. Professor Cole, one of the pioneers of cultural psychology, discusses in this interview the theoretical and methodological difficulties that have shaped his work for several decades, a work accompanied at times by great frustrations but also remarkable rewards...

  19. Functional Body Composition and Related Aspects in Research on Obesity and Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.J.; Baracos, V.; Bosy-Westphal, A.; Dulloo, A.; Eckel, J.; Fearon, K.C.H.; Hall, K.D.; Pietrobelli, A.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Speakman, J.; Trayhurn, P.; Visser, M.; Heymsfield, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of “functional body composition” integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and function in the context of metabolic adaptations to weight change and disease. During weight gain and loss there are associated changes in individual body components while the relationships between organ and tissue mass are fixed. Thus, an understanding of weight regulation involves an examination of organ-tissue regulation rather than of individual organ mass. The between organ/tissue mass relationships are associated with and explained by cross-talk between organs and tissues mediated by cytokines, hormones, and metabolites that are coupled with changes in body weight, composition, and function as observed in obesity and cancer cachexia. In addition to established roles in intermediary metabolism, cell function and inflammation, organ-tissue cross-talk mediators are determinants of body composition and its’ change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks’ concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition and metabolism. PMID:24835453

  20. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....