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Sample records for understanding family dynamics

  1. Understanding family support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2018-01-01

    I anmeldelsen understreges, at fremstillingen henvender sig til praktikere og viser de komplekse samspil mellem politik, teori og praksis og indeholder en stor mængde relevant diskussion af betydning for grundlaget i arbejdet med familier (resilience, social kapital, social hjælp m.v.) og hvordan...

  2. Understanding the Strengths of African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn-Blake, Sheila M.; Darling, Carol Anderson

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on strengths of African-American families and how they function, relevant conceptual approaches, and trends and issues in studying African-American families that can facilitate understanding. A shift from studying dysfunctional families to more positive aspects can help African-American families meet societal challenges. (SLD)

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE PUERTO RICAN AND HIS FAMILY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS MARIE, SISTER

    AN UNDERSTANDING OF TRADITIONAL PUERTO RICAN FAMILY CUSTOMS AND BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER LIFE STYLES SHOULD HELP PROFESSIONAL WORKERS SOLVE THE PROBLEMS CREATED BY MIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. THE CULTURE OF THE PUERTO RICAN CAN BE DESCRIBED IN RELATION TO THREE CONCEPTS--DIGNIDAD (SELF-ESTEEM OR SELF-WORTH), RESPETO…

  4. Family dynamics and infant temperament in Danish families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M.E.; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.; White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    , although always in a negative direction, in family dynamics over this transition. The largest change was an increase in perceived role conflict reported by both mothers and fathers. Mothers reported more role conflict than fathers. Positive family dynamics were related to infant rhythmicity.......Transition to parenthood involves the fine balance of family dynamics which both affect, and are affected by, the infant's temperament. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in family dynamics over the transition to parenthood and the relationship of family dynamics to infant...... temperament. A sample of 99 families in Odense, Denmark, completed the Family Dynamics Measure in the third trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 8-9 months old. At this second time, the mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Overall we found small changes...

  5. Family dynamics and infant temperament in Danish families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M.E.; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.; White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    temperament. A sample of 99 families in Odense, Denmark, completed the Family Dynamics Measure in the third trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 8-9 months old. At this second time, the mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Overall we found small changes......Transition to parenthood involves the fine balance of family dynamics which both affect, and are affected by, the infant's temperament. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in family dynamics over the transition to parenthood and the relationship of family dynamics to infant......, although always in a negative direction, in family dynamics over this transition. The largest change was an increase in perceived role conflict reported by both mothers and fathers. Mothers reported more role conflict than fathers. Positive family dynamics were related to infant rhythmicity....

  6. Understanding elder abuse in family practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions. PMID:23242889

  7. Understanding Korean Families With Alcoholic Fathers in a View of Confucian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sihyun; Schepp, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret the dynamics of Korean alcoholic family through the lens of Confucianism, using research conducted in South Korea. To gain an in-depth understanding of the family dynamics and the lived experiences of a certain alcoholic family having a specific ethnicity, health professionals must first understand the uniqueness of their own cultural bases and how those cultural components can shape dynamics of alcoholic family. Thus, we reviewed qualitative studies of Korean families with alcoholic fathers to investigate the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic families in terms of Confucian thoughts and values and discuss how the Confucian thoughts affect family dynamics in those Korean alcoholic families. Relevant literature was found through Korean database Research Information Sharing Service by using several (Korean) searching terms: alcoholic, home, spouse, wife, children, and family. Articles were included if they were studies of a Korean alcoholic family and used qualitative methodology. If the studies did not include familial perspectives or not focused on alcoholism issues, those studies were excluded. Eleven qualitative studies of alcoholic family were searched. The members of alcoholic families in South Korea, including the alcoholic member, have expected roles and duties because of the influence of Confucian thoughts and values. By associating with family member's alcoholism, those expectations are a big burden on those family members. Therefore, future plans for community interventions and programs for this population should incorporate the findings from this study.

  8. Family dynamics in families with children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kangkang; Li, Shasha; Chen, Yixin; Wang, Mingchun

    2012-10-01

    Development of adjunctive family therapy for the treatment of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in China requires a detailed understanding of the family dynamics of these families. Assess the family dynamics of families with children who have ADHD in Nanjing, China. Forty-six children 10 to 17 years of age treated at the Nanjing Brain Hospital for ADHD and 46 control children of the same age and gender from schools in Nanjing completed the 19-item Questionnaire of Systematic Family Dynamics (QSFD) which assesses four dimensions of family functioning: Family Atmosphere, Individuation, Moral Absolutism, and Personal Responsibility for Psychological Problems. There were no differences between groups in the perceived causes of psychological problems but the ADHD children reported a poorer family atmosphere, less independence from parents, and more ambiguity about 'right' and 'wrong' in the family. After adjustment for the potential confounding effects of parental education and family economic status, the findings of poorer family atmosphere and less individuation in the ADHD children remained statistically significant. The internal consistency of the four dimensions of the QSFD as completed by the children were poor (alpha=0.44-0.53). This preliminary study on the family dynamics of families with children that have ADHD finds that the ADHD children report a poor family atmosphere and little independence from parents. Further work is needed to validate the methods for assessing family dynamics in Chinese families, particularly when using children as informants, but this method provides valuable information that could be used as the focus of adjunctive family therapy to augment the traditional pharmacological and behavioral approaches to the treatment of ADHD.

  9. Familial Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Alphabet Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, Matthew D; Chu, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    While most colorectal cancers (CRCs) originate from nonhereditary spontaneous mutations, one-third of cases are familial or hereditary. Hereditary CRCs, which account for < 5% of all CRCs, have identifiable germline mutations and phenotypes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Familial CRCs, which account for up to 30% of CRCs, have no identifiable germline mutation or specific pattern of inheritance, but higher-than-expected incidence within a family. Since the discovery that certain genotypes can lead to development of CRC, thousands of mutations have now been implicated in CRC. These new findings have enhanced our ability to identify at-risk patients, initiate better surveillance, and take preventative measures. Given the large number of genes now associated with hereditary and familial CRCs, clinicians should be familiar with the alphabet soup of genes to provide the highest quality of care for patients and families.

  10. Understanding the Strategic Decisions Women Make in Farming Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin

    2010-01-01

    Decision-systems theory (DST) was developed from in-depth interviews with farming families and provides an interpretation of the processes farming families use in making strategic decisions in regard to the family members, the farm and the businesses the farming family run. Understanding the nature and justifications used for different decisions…

  11. Understanding familial and non-familial renal cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodmer, Daniëlle; van den Hurk, Wilhelmina; van Groningen, Jan J. M.; Eleveld, Marc J.; Martens, Gerard J. M.; Weterman, Marian A. J.; van Kessel, Ad Geurts

    2002-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of familial and non-familial cases of conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) revealed a critical role(s) for multiple genes on human chromosome 3. For some of these genes, e.g. VHL, such a role has been firmly established, whereas for others, definite confirmation is

  12. Understanding familial and non-familial renal cell cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodmer, D.; Hurk, W.H. van den; Groningen, J.J.M. van; Eleveld, M.J.; Martens, G.J.M.; Weterman, M.A.J.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of familial and non-familial cases of conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) revealed a critical role(s) for multiple genes on human chromosome 3. For some of these genes, e.g. VHL, such a role has been firmly established, whereas for others, definite confirmation is

  13. Understanding the transgenerational orientation of family businesses: the role of family governance and business family identity

    OpenAIRE

    Süss-Reyes, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The development of a transgenerational orientation is one of the most significant challenges that family businesses face and only a small number actually survive across generations. While prior research has focused on the business unit to provide us with a solid understanding of how corporate governance affects business performance and continuity, the role of the business family in the development of a transgenerational orientation has received less attention. To address this g...

  14. Understanding familial and non-familial renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmer, Daniëlle; van den Hurk, Wilhelmina; van Groningen, Jan J M; Eleveld, Marc J; Martens, Gerard J M; Weterman, Marian A J; van Kessel, Ad Geurts

    2002-10-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of familial and non-familial cases of conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) revealed a critical role(s) for multiple genes on human chromosome 3. For some of these genes, e.g. VHL, such a role has been firmly established, whereas for others, definite confirmation is still pending. Additionally, a novel role for constitutional chromosome 3 translocations as risk factors for conventional RCC development is rapidly emerging. Also, several candidate loci have been mapped to other chromosomes in both familial and non-familial RCCs of distinct histologic subtypes. The MET gene on chromosome 7, for example, was found to be involved in both forms of papillary RCC. A PRCC-TFE3 fusion gene is typically encountered in t(X;1)-positive non-familial papillary RCCs and results in abrogation of the cell cycle mitotic spindle checkpoint in a dominant-negative fashion, thus leading to RCC. Together, these data turn human RCC into a model system in which different aspects of both familial and non-familial syndromes may act as novel paradigms for cancer development.

  15. Adolescents, families and schools: A triangulated approach to understanding nonsuicidal self-injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kelada, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the direct and intentional destruction of body tissue without the intention to end one’s life and is typically engaged in to regulate emotion. Family factors may contribute to understanding why NSSI onsets in adolescence and provide a means by which NSSI prevention and intervention can occur. The relationship between NSSI and family functioning is dynamic; poor family functioning can be an antecedent to NSSI, and in turn, NSSI can impact ...

  16. Understanding and Modeling Teams As Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C.; Dunbar, Terri A.; Grimm, David; Gipson, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    By its very nature, much of teamwork is distributed across, and not stored within, interdependent people working toward a common goal. In this light, we advocate a systems perspective on teamwork that is based on general coordination principles that are not limited to cognitive, motor, and physiological levels of explanation within the individual. In this article, we present a framework for understanding and modeling teams as dynamical systems and review our empirical findings on teams as dynamical systems. We proceed by (a) considering the question of why study teams as dynamical systems, (b) considering the meaning of dynamical systems concepts (attractors; perturbation; synchronization; fractals) in the context of teams, (c) describe empirical studies of team coordination dynamics at the perceptual-motor, cognitive-behavioral, and cognitive-neurophysiological levels of analysis, and (d) consider the theoretical and practical implications of this approach, including new kinds of explanations of human performance and real-time analysis and performance modeling. Throughout our discussion of the topics we consider how to describe teamwork using equations and/or modeling techniques that describe the dynamics. Finally, we consider what dynamical equations and models do and do not tell us about human performance in teams and suggest future research directions in this area. PMID:28744231

  17. Dynamical portrait of the Hoffmeister asteroid family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Bojan; Maurel, Clara; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Knezevic, Zoran; Radovic, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    The (1726) Hoffmeister asteroid family is located in the middle of the Main Belt, between 2.75 and 2.82 AU. It draws our attention due to its unusual shape when projected to the semi-major axis vs. inclination plane. Actually, the distribution of family members as seen in this plane clearly suggests different dynamical evolution for the two parts of the family delimited in terms of semi-major axis.Therefore, we investigate here the dynamics of the family members aiming primarily to explain the observed unusual shape, but we also reconstruct the evolution of the whole family in time, and estimated its age.The Hoffmeister family is close to the fourth degree secular resonance z1=g-g6+s-s6, and in the neighborhood of the most massive asteroid (1) Ceres, each of these possibly being responsible for the strange shape of the family. To identify which ones, if any, among the different possible dynamical mechanisms are actually at work here, we performed a set of numerical integrations. We integrate the orbits of test particles over 300 Myr, as the age of the Hoffmeister family was previously roughly estimated to be 300 ± 200 Myr. Moreover, in order to identify and isolate the main perturber(s), we repeat four times the integrations using each time a different dynamical model, taking or not into account the Yarkovsky effect and dwarf planet Ceres as a perturbing body.Our results reveal the significant role of a so far overlooked dynamical aspect, namely a secular resonance between the dwarf planet Ceres and other asteroids. In particular, we show that the post-impact evolution of the Hoffmeister asteroid family is a direct consequence of the nodal secular resonance with Ceres.

  18. Understanding the Entrepreneurial Process: a Dynamic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable predominance in the adoption of perspectives based on characteristics in research into entrepreneurship. However, most studies describe the entrepreneur from a static or snapshot approach; very few adopt a dynamic perspective. The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of knowledge concerning entrepreneurial process dynamics through an understanding of the values, characteristics and actions of the entrepreneur over time. By focusing on personal attributes, we have developed a framework that shows the importance of affective and cognitive aspects of entrepreneurs and the way that they evolve during the development of their business.

  19. Asteroid families, dynamics and astrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.G.; Gibson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The proper elements and family assignments for the 1227 Palomar-Leiden Survey asteroids of high quality were tabulated. In addition to the large table, there are also auxiliary tables of Mars crossers and commensurate objects, histograms of the proper element distributions, and a discussion. Probably the most important part of the discussion describes the Mars crossing boundary, how the closest distances of approach to Mars and Jupiter are calculated, and why the observed population of Mars crossers should bombard that planet episodically rather than uniformly. Analytical work was done to derive velocity distributions of family forming events from proper element distributions subject to assumptions which may be appropriate for cratering events. Software was developed for a microcomputer to permit plotting of the proper elements. Three orthogonal views are generated and stereo pairs can be printed when desired. This program was created for the study of asteroid families. The astrometry task is directed toward measuring and reducing positions on faint comets and the minor planets with less common orbits. The observational material is CCD frames taken with the Palomar 1.5 m telescope. Positions of 10 comets and 16 different asteroids were published on the Minor Planet Circulars

  20. [Physician's professional retirement. Family dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Gas, Héctor G

    2011-01-01

    Human beings have a natural resistance to think about their old age, both personally and professionally. Governments have targeted efforts to successfully prolong the life of the population, situation which already is a social and economic problem. “Old is a person with physical, intellectual and emotional limitations, who has a reduced autonomy and welfare, as a result of the years lived”. Not everyone ages at the same age; it will depend on health, habits, physical and intellectual activity, nutritional status, vices and attitude towards life. A physician may decide not to continue exercising medicine due to: health problems, because they do not want to, because they do not feel competent, because of the risk of having to deal with a complaint or a lawsuit, to have a new life project, or because they have no patients. The options available for a doctor at the time of retirement will depend on his/her age, health status, stage of the aging process: autonomy, dependency or old age; his/her physical and mental condition, professional development, economic situation and family environment. A doctor may remain independent, join another family or seek shelter in a retirement home.

  1. Dynamical properties of the Watsonia asteroid family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirvoulis, G.; Novakovic, B.; Knezevic, Z.; Cellino, A.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: In recent years, a rare class of asteroids has been discovered [1], with its distinguishing characteristic being the anomalous polarimetric properties of its members. Named Barbarians, after (234) Barbara, the prototype of the class, these asteroids show negative polarization at unusually high phase-angles compared to normal asteroids. Motivated by the fact that some of the few discovered Barbarians seemed to be related to the Watsonia asteroid family, Cellino et al. [2] performed a search for more Barbarians among its members. A positive result of this search led to the conclusion that Watsonia is indeed an important repository of Barbarian asteroids. Based on these findings, we decided to analyze this family in detail. Basic information: According to available data, Watsonia is an L-type asteroid family, located in the middle of the main asteroid belt (2.68 < a_{p} < 2.82 au), with low to moderate orbital eccentricities (0.1 < e_{p} < 0.15) and relatively high inclinations (16.5^{o} < i_{p} < 18^{o}). Methodology: The first step in our study is to derive a reliable list of Watsonia family members. To that purpose, we first calculate the synthetic proper elements [3] of an extended catalogue including numbered, as well as multi and single opposition asteroids, in a wide region around the family. To this catalogue we apply the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM)[4] to determine the membership of the family, coinciding with the requirement that all confirmed neighboring Barbarians are included (see figure). To detect potential interlopers and refine the membership list, additional data such as the SDSS colors and WISE albedos are used. Moreover, we identify all relevant resonances and analyze the dynamical characteristics of the region occupied by the family. Then we estimate the age of the family, and finally, we perform numerical integrations of test particles to investigate possible dynamical links to other known Barbarians and to the near

  2. Understanding Family Caregiver Communication to Provide Family-Centered Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Buller, Haley; Ferrell, Betty; Koczywas, Marianna; Borneman, Tami

    2017-12-01

    To describe a family caregiver communication typology and demonstrate identifiable communication challenges among four caregiver types: Manager, Carrier, Partner, and Lone. Case studies based on interviews with oncology family caregivers. Each caregiver type demonstrates unique communication challenges that can be identified. Recognition of a specific caregiver type will help nurses to adapt their own communication to provide tailored support. Family-centered cancer care requires attention to the communication challenges faced by family caregivers. Understanding the challenges among four family caregiver communication types will enable nurses to better address caregiver burden and family conflict. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Board composition in family-influenced firms: A dynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiem El Manaa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a sample of 76 family businesses in Tunisia to investigate the impact of the family firm dynamic on the composition of their boards of directors. We argue that whether or not a transition in ownership is planned, firms have different governance needs and characteristics depending on the generational phase. The empirical results show that board composition is positively influenced by both generational evolution and succession planning. This study provides evidence of an increase in the appointment of outside directors to boards of family firms from the third generation of ownership. This result implies that it is important to consider the generational phase and succession process of the family firm in order to better understand its governance system.

  4. Understanding the dynamics of parent involvement in schooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the dynamics of parent involvement in schooling within the poverty context. ... South African Journal of Education ... understand the realities and dynamics facing parents when attempting to be involved in their child\\'s schooling.

  5. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  6. Asteroid family dynamics in the inner main belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuis, Melissa Joy

    The inner main asteroid belt is an important source of near-Earth objects and terrestrial planet impactors; however, the dynamics and history of this region are challenging to understand, due to its high population density and the presence of multiple orbital resonances. This dissertation explores the properties of two of the most populous inner main belt family groups --- the Flora family and the Nysa-Polana complex --- investigating their memberships, ages, spin properties, collision dynamics, and range in orbital and reflectance parameters. Though diffuse, the family associated with asteroid (8) Flora dominates the inner main belt in terms of the extent of its members in orbital parameter space, resulting in its significant overlap with multiple neighboring families. This dissertation introduces a new method for membership determination (the core sample method) which enables the distinction of the Flora family from the background, permitting its further analysis. The Flora family is shown to have a signature in plots of semimajor axis vs. size consistent with that expected for a collisional family dispersed as a result of the Yarkovsky radiation effect. The family's age is determined from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 950 My. Furthermore, a survey of the spin sense of 21 Flora-region asteroids, accomplished via a time-efficient modification of the epoch method for spin sense determination, confirms the single-collision Yarkovsky-dispersed model for the family's origin. The neighboring Nysa-Polana complex is the likely source region for many of the carbonaceous near-Earth asteroids, several of which are important targets for spacecraft reconnaissance and sample return missions. Family identification in the Nysa-Polana complex via the core sample method reveals two families associated with asteroid (135) Hertha, both with distinct age and reflectance properties. The larger of these two families demonstrates a correlation in semimajor axis and eccentricity

  7. The childhood and family dynamics of transvestites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, R L

    1995-06-01

    This article reports a survey of childhood experiences and family dynamics reported by a sample of 85 cross-dressing males drawn from the readership of a magazine for transvestites. The sample had a higher percentage of only children and eldest children compared to a national sample and also a much closer relationship with their mothers than with their fathers. Their identification as nuclear or marginal transvestites or transsexuals is related to the quality of the reported relationship with the mother, to the factors they identify as associated with their cross-dressing, and to their sexual orientation. Covert cross-dressers account for over three fourths of the subjects, but those who were overt (their cross-dressing openly encouraged by female family members) show significantly different patterns and distributions on several variables. A constellation of family and parental relationships is proposed--drawn in part from the insights of object relations and family systems theory--which may contribute to the development of transvestism.

  8. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  9. Understanding nurses' and parents' perceptions of family-centred care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Megan; Melling, Sally

    2014-09-01

    To explore and compare differences between parents' and nurses' perceptions of family-centred care (FCC) for children's acute short-stay admissions. Mixed-method questionnaires were designed to compare care task delegation between nurse and parent participants in the study. Parents and nurses had similar perceptions of task allocation in FCC. Parents generally were prepared to undertake basic care tasks only, rather than help with nursing interventions. Nurses had a comprehensive understanding of FCC. Most parents were not able to define FCC but carried it out naturally. In the UK, nurses and parents have similar expectations of FCC. It is unusual for parents to be given information or opportunities to engage in the care of the child beyond everyday tasks. The investigation highlighted the importance of negotiating with family members on each separate admission because, although most parents would be comfortable undertaking care tasks, each family and each situation is different.

  10. Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Gwen K

    2014-04-16

    To explore Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in order to inform responsive public health interventions that are designed to meet the needs of Nunavummiut. A qualitative indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit epistemology and methodology, as described in the Piliriqatigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 parents in three Nunavut communities in 2011. An immersion and crystallization analytical approach was used to analyze the data and to identify groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Parents in this study largely discussed sexual health in the context of historical community events related to settlement and/or residential schools. Residential schools and forced settlement into communities were linked to trauma, family separation, hardship and grief. These experiences were prominent in participants' understandings of sexual health and perceptions of sexual health behaviours among youth in the community. This study highlights the complexity of the landscape of sexual health in Nunavut and the need for public health approaches that are inclusive of Inuit family perspectives on sexual health. Greater understanding of historical and community context can contribute to the development of pertinent, evidence-based public health interventions that will meet the needs of the population.

  11. Understanding dynamic capabilities through knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Paarup

    2006-01-01

    In the paper eight knowledge management activities are identified; knowledge creation, acquisition, capture, assembly, sharing, integration, leverage and exploitation. These activities are assembled into the three dynamic capabilities of knowledge development, knowledge (re......)combination and knowledge use. The dynamic capabilities and the associated knowledge management activities create flows to and from the firm’s stock of knowledge and they support the creation and use of organizational capabilities....

  12. Family Perspectives: Using a Cultural Prism to Understand Families from Asian Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hyang; Turnbull, Ann P.; Zan, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Educators can better serve students who come from diverse cultural backgrounds by understanding the differing cultural values of these students and their families. This article explores different cultural perspectives using a cultural prism approach, focused most specifically on the Korean and Chinese cultures. (Contains 2 tables.)

  13. Ideas and things: understanding the dynamic dimension of intellectual capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaan Stam

    2010-01-01

    In today’s intellectual capital literature, we see a shift from identifying intangibles towards understanding the dynamics of value creation. As it is not clear what “dynamic” stands for, the aim of this explorative and conceptual paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the dynamic

  14. Understanding Digital Learning from the Perspective of Systems Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The System Dynamics approach can be seen as a new way of understanding dynamical phenonema (natural, physical, biological, etc.) that occur in our daily lives taking into consideration not only single pairs of cause-effect variables, but the functioning of the system as a whole. This approach also provides the students with a new understanding in…

  15. Understanding calcium dynamics experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malchow, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Intracellular Calcium is an important messenger in living cells. Calcium dynamics display complex temporal and spatial structures created by the concentration patterns which are characteristic for a nonlinear system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Written as a set of tutorial reviews on both experimental facts and theoretical modelling, this volume is intended as an introduction and modern reference in the field for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, biochemistry and applied mathematics.

  16. Mission Driven Scene Understanding: Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    WindowsSdkDir%VisualStudioInteg ration \\Tools\\Bin;%PATH% set INCLUDE=%VCINSTALLDIR%Include;%WindowsSdkDir%VisualStudioInte gration\\Common\\Inc;%INCLUDE...Hung HSW. From visual saliency to video behaviour understanding [doctoral dissertation]. [London (UK)]: Queen Mary, University of London; 2007. 10

  17. A Scientific Understanding of Keystroke Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    of Procedia — Social and Behavioral Sciences . Elsevier, 2011. S. Douhou and J. R. Magnus. The reliability of user authentication through keystroke...manifestations of people’s behavior — keystroke timings especially so. As such, looking to other sciences for solutions to the problem of understanding...excitement and enthusiasm over being studied. The discovery spurred changes in the research methods of behavioral science (Shadish et al., 2002

  18. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciation and availability, through to mechanisms of uptake by crop plants and potential mitigation strategies. This review makes a case for taking steps to prevent or limit crop uptake of arsenic, wherever possible, and to work toward a long-term solution to the presence of arsenic in agronomic systems. The past two decades have seen important advances in our understanding of how biogeochemical and physiological processes influence human exposure to soil arsenic, and thus must now prompt an informed reconsideration and unification of regulations to protect the quality of agricultural and residential soils. Consumption of staple foods such as rice, beverages such as apple juice, or vegetables grown in historically arsenic-contaminated soils is now recognized as a tangible route of arsenic exposure that, in many cases, is more significant than exposure from drinking water. Understanding the sources of arsenic to crop plants and the factors that influence them is key to reducing exposure now and preventing exposure in future. In addition to the abundant natural sources of arsenic, there are a large number of industrial and agricultural sources of arsenic to the soil; from mining wastes, coal fly

  19. Characteristics and dynamics of the family of talented adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Jane Farias Chagas; Fleith,Denise de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family characteristics and dynamics of talented adolescents. Forty-two adolescents between 12 and 18 years old who attended a program for gifted students and their family participated in the data collection. A family characteristics questionnaire and the Parent Success Indicator Inventory, children's and parents' versions were used as instruments. The results indicated that more than half of the families with talented adolescents had a traditional fig...

  20. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  1. Family Dynamics and Personal Strengths among Dementia Caregivers in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasseh, Aaliah G.; Trujillo, Michael A.; Peralta, Silvina Victoria; Stolfi, Miriam E.; Morelli, Eliana; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether healthier family dynamics were associated with higher personal strengths of resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism among dementia caregivers in Argentina. Caregivers are usually required to assist individuals with dementia, and family members have typically fulfilled that role. Personal strengths such as resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism have been shown to protect caregivers from some of the negative experiences of providing care, though the family-related variables associated with these personal strengths are largely unknown. Hierarchical multiple regressions investigated the extent to which family dynamics variables are associated with each of the caregiver personal strengths after controlling for demographic and caregiver characteristics. A sample of 105 caregivers from Argentina completed a set of questionnaires during a neurologist visit. Family dynamics explained 32% of the variance in resilience and 39% of the variance in sense of coherence. Greater family empathy and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher resilience. Greater communication and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher sense of coherence. Optimism was not found to be significantly associated with family dynamics. These results suggest that caregiver intervention research focused on the family may help improve caregiver personal strengths in Argentina and other Latin American countries. PMID:27413574

  2. Family Dynamics and Personal Strengths among Dementia Caregivers in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaliah G. Elnasseh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether healthier family dynamics were associated with higher personal strengths of resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism among dementia caregivers in Argentina. Caregivers are usually required to assist individuals with dementia, and family members have typically fulfilled that role. Personal strengths such as resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism have been shown to protect caregivers from some of the negative experiences of providing care, though the family-related variables associated with these personal strengths are largely unknown. Hierarchical multiple regressions investigated the extent to which family dynamics variables are associated with each of the caregiver personal strengths after controlling for demographic and caregiver characteristics. A sample of 105 caregivers from Argentina completed a set of questionnaires during a neurologist visit. Family dynamics explained 32% of the variance in resilience and 39% of the variance in sense of coherence. Greater family empathy and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher resilience. Greater communication and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher sense of coherence. Optimism was not found to be significantly associated with family dynamics. These results suggest that caregiver intervention research focused on the family may help improve caregiver personal strengths in Argentina and other Latin American countries.

  3. Understanding family dynasty: Nurturing the corporate identity across generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemilentsev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the Ahlstrom annual reports. The content analysis contributes to family business corporate identity. According to the results family business corporate identity is based both on history and on the future. Human resource management, customer relationships, high quality, and also family ownership reflect corporate identity in large family corporations. Modern family business corporate identity is based on continuously developing the business concept and its core competency. Meeting the needs of customers and technical quality standards combined with upgrading and developing the business idea characterises family business corporate identity.

  4. FAMILY DYNAMICS, FAMILY BREAKUPS, AND THEIR IMPACTS ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayah Khisbiyah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of family breakups has been increasing in the last few decade, particularly in the developed, industrial world. By far the highest divorce rate in the industrial countries is that of the United States. According to current rates, about half of all American marriages are dissolved.

  5. Understanding Service-Oriented Systems Using Dynamic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    When trying to understand a system that is based on the principles of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), it is typically not enough to understand the individual services in the architecture, but also the interactions between the services. In this paper, we present a technique based on dynamic

  6. Family secrets: Law and understandings of openness in everyday relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Uncovering old or historical family secrets has become an enjoyable pastime yet in contemporary families the keeping of secrets, especially those relating to reproduction and paternity, is seen increasingly as undesirable. This article explores these issues and the growing tendency for family law and policy to favour exposing genetic truths seeing this form of scientific veracity as crucial to child welfare and equality. The article explores the changing contexts of family secrets (using data...

  7. Listening to Parents: Understanding the Impact of ASD on Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytel, Jayne; Lopez-Garcia, Jorge; Stacey, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    No two families cope with the diagnosis of a child's developmental disability in exactly the same way. In this article, three parents share their experiences with the diagnosis and treatment of an autism spectrum disorder. Listening to parents describe the impact of autism on their families reminds us that each child and family bring a unique set…

  8. [Family dynamics and chronic illness: children with diabetes in the context of their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirlach-Bartosik, S; Schubert, M T; Freilinger, M; Schober, E

    2005-01-01

    The present study is based on the assumption of an interaction between family functioning and chronic illness. Using a systemic approach, the intra-familial situation of families with a diabetes-affected child is examined. 44 families were evaluated using a family diagnostic instrument ("Familienbögen") and compared with 31 control families with a healthy child. Furthermore, the study looked at the influence of the level of family functioning on glycemic control, as measured by HbA1c values, and vice versa. Families with a child affected by diabetes showed significantly more dysfunctional domains and higher discrepancies of the ratings in the family diagnostic instrument (p familial dynamics, it may, at the same time, offer opportunities for an improvement of family relationships. However, if physiological parameters deteriorate in the child (poor glycemic control), family problems seem to become less important. Success in the treatment of diabetes patients should therefore not only be measured by the quality of glycemic control, but also by considering psychological factors and aspects of family dynamics.

  9. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven to be the only effective treatment for HIV/AIDS worldwide. Good adherence to HAART might require good family support. Objective: To determine the family dynamics and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its ...

  10. Within-Family Dynamics and Self-Regulation in Preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Separate research lines have stressed the importance of within-family dynamics on the one hand and self-regulation on the other hand for the development and stability of problem behavior in young children. Few empirical studies have directly addressed the relation between family processes and

  11. Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Waldfogel

    1998-01-01

    As the gender gap in pay between women and men has been narrowing, the 'family gap' in pay between mothers and nonmothers has been widening. One reason may be the institutional structure in the United States, which has emphasized equal pay and opportunity policies but not family policies, in contrast to other countries that have implemented both. The authors now have evidence on the links between one such family policy and women's pay. Recent research suggests that maternity leave coverage, b...

  12. Towards a feminist understanding of intersecting violence against women and children in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Carlson, Catherine; O'Hara, Kathleen; Nakuti, Janet; Bukuluki, Paul; Lwanyaaga, Julius; Namakula, Sylvia; Nanyunja, Barbrah; Wainberg, Milton L; Naker, Dipak; Michau, Lori

    2017-07-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and violence against children (VAC) have emerged as distinct fields of research and programming, a growing number of studies demonstrate the extent to which these forms of violence overlap in the same households. However, existing knowledge of how and why such co-occurrence takes place is limited, particularly in the Global South. The current study aims to advance empirical and conceptual understanding of intersecting IPV and VAC within families in order to inform potential programming. We explore shared perceptions and experiences of IPV and VAC using qualitative data collected in December 2015 from adults and children in Kampala, Uganda (n = 106). We find that the patriarchal family structure creates an environment that normalizes many forms of violence, simultaneously infantilizing women and reinforcing their subordination (alongside children). Based on participant experiences, we identify four potential patterns that suggest how IPV and VAC not only co-occur, but more profoundly intersect within the family, triggering cycles of emotional and physical abuse: bystander trauma, negative role modeling, protection and further victimization, and displaced aggression. The discussion is situated within a feminist analysis, including careful consideration of maternal violence and an emphasis on the ways in which gender and power dynamics can coalesce and contribute to intra-family violence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the dynamics of parent involvement in schooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    A qualitative study was undertaken to understand the realities and dynamics facing parents when attempting to be ... programmatic efforts for promoting children's adjustment and com- ... then conducted with six parents of two community-based support .... included in important issues regarding the education of their children.

  14. Learning and Understanding System Stability Using Illustrative Dynamic Texture Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Hongyan; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-01-01

    System stability is a basic concept in courses on dynamic system analysis and control for undergraduate students with computer science backgrounds. Typically, this was taught using a simple simulation example of an inverted pendulum. Unfortunately, many difficult issues arise in the learning and understanding of the concepts of stability,…

  15. Understanding Learner Agency as a Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to contribute to a fuller understanding of the nature of language learner agency by considering it as a complex dynamic system. The purpose of the study was to explore detailed situated data to examine to what extent it is feasible to view learner agency through the lens of complexity theory. Data were generated through a…

  16. Understanding conflict’s dynamics in participatory natural resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idrissou, L.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Leeuwis, C.; Paassen, van A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigated conflicts in participatory protected areas management in Benin to better understand their dynamics. This review paper is based on four articles written from three case-studies of conflicts that emerged and evolved in participatory protected areas management in Benin and a

  17. Understanding Work-Family Spillover in Hotel Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Crouter, Ann C.; O’Neill, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the experience of work-family spillover among 586 hotel managers (HMs) working in 50 full-service hotels throughout the U.S. Work-family spillover occurs when behaviors, moods, stresses, and emotions from work spill over into family. We first investigated which hotel managers were more likely to experience spillover and stressful work conditions based on their life circumstances (gender, parental status, age, decision-making latitude at work). Second, we investigated which work conditions (hours worked per week, organizational time expectations, emotional labor, and permeable boundaries) predicted more work-family spillover. Women, employees without children at home, and younger adults experienced the highest levels of negative work-family spillover. Work conditions, particularly organizational time expectations, put HMs at risk for experiencing more negative and less positive work-family spillover. The results provide evidence that modifying certain work conditions in the hotel industry may be helpful in improving the quality of HMs’ jobs and retention. PMID:23888092

  18. Understanding Work-Family Spillover in Hotel Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; Crouter, Ann C; O'Neill, John W

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the experience of work-family spillover among 586 hotel managers (HMs) working in 50 full-service hotels throughout the U.S. Work-family spillover occurs when behaviors, moods, stresses, and emotions from work spill over into family. We first investigated which hotel managers were more likely to experience spillover and stressful work conditions based on their life circumstances (gender, parental status, age, decision-making latitude at work). Second, we investigated which work conditions (hours worked per week, organizational time expectations, emotional labor, and permeable boundaries) predicted more work-family spillover. Women, employees without children at home, and younger adults experienced the highest levels of negative work-family spillover. Work conditions, particularly organizational time expectations, put HMs at risk for experiencing more negative and less positive work-family spillover. The results provide evidence that modifying certain work conditions in the hotel industry may be helpful in improving the quality of HMs' jobs and retention.

  19. Family dynamics during the grieving process: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalibera, Mayra; Presa, Joana; Coelho, Alexandra; Barbosa, António; Franco, Maria Helena Pereira

    2015-04-01

    The loss of a loved one can affect family dynamics by changing the family system and creating the need for family members to reorganize. Good family functioning, which is characterized by open communication, expression of feelings and thoughts and cohesion among family members, facilitates adaptive adjustment to the loss. This study conducted a systematic review of the literature on family dynamics during the grieving process. A search was conducted in the EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Bireme databases for scientific articles published from January 1980 to June 2013. Of the 389 articles found, only 15 met all the inclusion criteria. The selected studies provided evidence that dysfunctional families exhibit more psychopathological symptoms, more psychosocial morbidity, poorer social functioning, greater difficulty accessing community resources, lower functional capacity at work, and a more complicated grieving process. Family conflicts were also emphasized as contributing to the development of a complicated grieving process, while cohesion, expression of affection and good communication in families are believed to mitigate grief symptoms.

  20. Family dynamics during the grieving process: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Delalibera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of a loved one can affect family dynamics by changing the family system and creating the need for family members to reorganize. Good family functioning, which is characterized by open communication, expression of feelings and thoughts and cohesion among family members, facilitates adaptive adjustment to the loss. This study conducted a systematic review of the literature on family dynamics during the grieving process. A search was conducted in the EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Bireme databases for scientific articles published from January 1980 to June 2013. Of the 389 articles found, only 15 met all the inclusion criteria. The selected studies provided evidence that dysfunctional families exhibit more psychopathological symptoms, more psychosocial morbidity, poorer social functioning, greater difficulty accessing community resources, lower functional capacity at work, and a more complicated grieving process. Family conflicts were also emphasized as contributing to the development of a complicated grieving process, while cohesion, expression of affection and good communication in families are believed to mitigate grief symptoms.

  1. Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

  2. Artifacts as Stories: Understanding Families, Digital Literacies, and Storied Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Ellison, Tisha

    2016-01-01

    This column focuses on the interactions during family and group conversation circles that not only helped participants talk about personal, emotional, and social issues in their digital stories but also helped them make sense of artifacts and the meanings that stories carry in shared spaces and practices. This work adds to the bourgeoning…

  3. Understanding Families with Children with Special Needs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing dialogues and exchanges for special education programs between China and the rest of the world as the development continues in China. Policy makers, administrators, and educators need to keep in mind the historical and cultural backgrounds when working with families with children with special needs in China. Together, this…

  4. Understanding the Roles of Families in Virtual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Rubin, Rachel; Smith, Sean J.

    2014-01-01

    Families choose to enroll their children in fully online schools for many reasons. Online schools offer the possibility of flexible schedules and the potential to learn at a pace and in a manner that is not available to students in their brick-and-mortar schools (Cavanaugh & Clark, 2007). Because online education can allow for individualized…

  5. Using homeopathy for treating childhood asthma: understanding a family's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, L

    2001-08-01

    The incidence and severity of asthma are increasing despite concerted efforts in comprehensive management. Families may be expected to look to complementary or alternative therapies (CAM) for help in treating persistent childhood asthma. One such therapy is homeopathy, a system of medicine that uses specially prepared, highly dilute substances to induce the body's self-healing in a comprehensive manner. This article describes the contrasting experiences for a family who undergoes specialty consultations with an allergist and with a homeopath. The style of the interview and the diagnostic tools used vary, as well as the basic philosophies and goals. The advantages and limitations, as well as the regulatory framework of homeopathy are explained, as evidenced by the literature. For nurses and other clinicians caring for children and families who use nonconventional therapies, the clinical implications are that these professionals need to become knowledgeable about the various alternative therapies which can complement conventional care. Families who wish to try homeopathy along with conventional care need to have open lines of communication and cooperation between their providers, both conventional and homeopathic. The care of childhood asthma may prove to benefit from clinical trials in homeopathy. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  6. Understanding dynamics using sensitivity analysis: caveat and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Parametric sensitivity analysis (PSA) has become one of the most commonly used tools in computational systems biology, in which the sensitivity coefficients are used to study the parametric dependence of biological models. As many of these models describe dynamical behaviour of biological systems, the PSA has subsequently been used to elucidate important cellular processes that regulate this dynamics. However, in this paper, we show that the PSA coefficients are not suitable in inferring the mechanisms by which dynamical behaviour arises and in fact it can even lead to incorrect conclusions. Results A careful interpretation of parametric perturbations used in the PSA is presented here to explain the issue of using this analysis in inferring dynamics. In short, the PSA coefficients quantify the integrated change in the system behaviour due to persistent parametric perturbations, and thus the dynamical information of when a parameter perturbation matters is lost. To get around this issue, we present a new sensitivity analysis based on impulse perturbations on system parameters, which is named impulse parametric sensitivity analysis (iPSA). The inability of PSA and the efficacy of iPSA in revealing mechanistic information of a dynamical system are illustrated using two examples involving switch activation. Conclusions The interpretation of the PSA coefficients of dynamical systems should take into account the persistent nature of parametric perturbations involved in the derivation of this analysis. The application of PSA to identify the controlling mechanism of dynamical behaviour can be misleading. By using impulse perturbations, introduced at different times, the iPSA provides the necessary information to understand how dynamics is achieved, i.e. which parameters are essential and when they become important. PMID:21406095

  7. The masculine principle in lesbian families: a Jungian understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Using the concepts of individuation and masculine and feminine principles from Jungian psychology, the author explores the use of the masculine principle in parenting male children in families without an embodied father. The role of lesbian parents' own relationship with the masculine within themselves, features of the initiation process, and the function that team sports can play in a boy child's development are presented and examined. Lesbian parenting of sons is explored from both personal and professional perspectives.

  8. Toward understanding dynamic annealing processes in irradiated ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Michael Thomas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2013-05-01

    High energy particle irradiation inevitably generates defects in solids. The ballistic formation and thermalization of the defect creation process occur rapidly, and are believed to be reasonably well understood. However, knowledge of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic annealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable postirradiation disorder in ion-beam-processing of semiconductors, and determines the “radiation tolerance” of many nuclear materials. The purpose of this dissertation is to further our understanding of the processes involved in dynamic annealing. In order to achieve this, two main tasks are undertaken.

  9. Challenges and opportunities for improved understanding of regional climate dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew; Minobe, Shoshiro; Barreiro, Marcelo; Bordoni, Simona; Kaspi, Yohai; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Keenlyside, Noel; Manzini, Elisa; O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Sutton, Rowan; Xie, Shang-Ping; Zolina, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical processes in the atmosphere and ocean are central to determining the large-scale drivers of regional climate change, yet their predictive understanding is poor. Here, we identify three frontline challenges in climate dynamics where significant progress can be made to inform adaptation: response of storms, blocks and jet streams to external forcing; basin-to-basin and tropical-extratropical teleconnections; and the development of non-linear predictive theory. We highlight opportunities and techniques for making immediate progress in these areas, which critically involve the development of high-resolution coupled model simulations, partial coupling or pacemaker experiments, as well as the development and use of dynamical metrics and exploitation of hierarchies of models.

  10. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with family members of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. These interviews explore how families came to understand that their child had an intellectual disability; the availability of family support; and family hopes and dreams for the future, and were a part of a wider exploratory study that gathered insight from individuals with disabilities, families, and other providers of support to explore understandings and perceptions of disability in Dar es Salaam. Understanding family experiences will help researchers, policy makers, non-governmental organisations, and others to identify family strengths and family support needs which can ultimately improve family quality of life and the quality of life of the member with a disability. PMID:28729979

  11. Cultivating Resilience in Families Who Foster: Understanding How Families Cope and Adapt Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Cynthia A; Julien-Chinn, Francie J; Geiger, Jennifer M; Hayes Piel, Megan

    2016-12-01

    Families who foster offer essential care for children and youth when their own parents are unable to provide for their safety and well-being. Foster caregivers face many challenges including increased workload, emotional distress, and the difficulties associated with health and mental health problems that are more common in children in foster care. Despite these stressors, many families are able to sustain fostering while maintaining or enhancing functioning of their unit. This qualitative study applied an adaptational process model of family resilience that emerged in previous studies to examine narratives of persistent, long-term, and multiple fostering experiences. Data corroborated previous research in two ways. Family resilience was again described as a transactional process of coping and adaptation that evolves over time. This process was cultivated through the activation of 10 family strengths that are important in different ways, during varied phases. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  12. Family matters: effects of birth order, culture, and family dynamics on surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T; McMahan, Ryan D; Williams, Brie A; Sharma, Rashmi K; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  13. Family Matters: Effects of Birth Order, Culture, and Family Dynamics on Surrogate Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T.; McMahan, Ryan D.; Williams, Brie A.; Sharma, Rashmi K.; Sudore, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English- and Spanish-speakers from county and Veterans hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants’ experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 years ± 14 and 29% were African American, 26% were White, 26% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within 3 overarching categories of communication, emotion, and conflict: Communication – (1) unspoken expectations and (2) discussion of death as taboo; Emotion – (3) emotional stress and (4) feelings of loneliness; and Conflict – (5) family conflict and (6) potential solutions to prevent conflict. These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict. PMID:24383459

  14. Understanding the Dynamics between Preterm Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Anna R.; Champion, Patricia R.

    2008-01-01

    The high-tech environment of the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) may seem a million miles away from the classroom, but the baby who has been born prematurely, wired up in an incubator in the former, will in five years' time be a learner in the other. The journeys through our education system of children who have survived premature birth to become…

  15. Understanding Transportation Choice of Families with Small Children in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Scott Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study took place in the Oslo area and focused on the transportation mode choices of parents with children in day care. Understanding why parents choose a certain mode of transport was the main objective of this research. Answers to the question of why were looked at in the context of theories stemming from urban planning, sociology, psychology amongst others. The findings show that while geographical distances did have the largest impact on how people travelled around work h...

  16. Knowledge of Dementia: Do family members understand dementia as a terminal condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sharon; McInerney, Fran; Toye, Christine; Parkinson, Camillus-Anthony; Robinson, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Current research identifies advanced dementia to be the terminal phase of this progressive and incurable condition. However, there has been relatively little investigation into how family members of people with advanced dementia understand their relative's condition. In this article, we report on semi-structured interviews with 10 family members of people with advanced dementia, in a residential aged care facility. Using a qualitative, descriptive design, we explored family members' understandings of dementia, whether they were aware that it was a terminal condition, and the ways they developed their understandings. Findings revealed that the majority of family members could not recognize the terminal nature of dementia. Relying on predominantly lay understandings, they had little access to formal information and most failed to conceptualize a connection between dementia and death. Moreover, family members engaged in limited dialogue with aged care staff about such issues, despite their relatives being in an advanced stage of the disease. Findings from our study suggest that how family members understand their relative's condition requires greater attention. The development of staff/family partnerships that promote shared communication about dementia and dying may enhance family members' understandings of the dementia trajectory and the types of decisions they may be faced with during the more advanced stages of the disease.

  17. Integrating the social sciences to understand human-water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Many interesting and exciting socio-hydrological models have been developed in recent years. Such models often aim to capture the dynamic interplay between people and water for a variety of hydrological settings. As such, peoples' behaviours and decisions are brought into the models as drivers of and/or respondents to the hydrological system. To develop and run such models over a sufficiently long time duration to observe how the water-human system evolves the human component is often simplified according to one or two key behaviours, characteristics or decisions (e.g. a decision to move away from a drought or flood area; a decision to pump groundwater, or a decision to plant a less water demanding crop). To simplify the social component, socio-hydrological modellers often pull knowledge and understanding from existing social science theories. This requires them to negotiate complex territory, where social theories may be underdeveloped, contested, dynamically evolving, or case specific and difficult to generalise or upscale. A key question is therefore, how can this process be supported so that the resulting socio-hydrological models adequately describe the system and lead to meaningful understanding of how and why it behaves as it does? Collaborative interdisciplinary research teams that bring together social and natural scientists are likely to be critical. Joint development of the model framework requires specific attention to clarification to expose all underlying assumptions, constructive discussion and negotiation to reach agreement on the modelled system and its boundaries. Mutual benefits to social scientists can be highlighted, i.e. socio-hydrological work can provide insights for further exploring and testing social theories. Collaborative work will also help ensure underlying social theory is made explicit, and may identify ways to include and compare multiple theories. As socio-hydrology progresses towards supporting policy development, approaches that

  18. Modeling the Dynamical Structure of the Haumea Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Benjamin; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    Collisions are known to be critical in explaining the full story of the outer Solar System. The dwarf planet Haumea provides a unique empirical view into this, as Haumea is the only known example of a collisional family in the Kuiper Belt. Although there have been many Haumea formation hypotheses presented in the literature, none are fully self-consistent. In particular, it is challenging to explain the low ejection velocity of the family. With the addition of many new Haumea family members (Maggard & Ragozzine 2018, in prep.), we further investigate how we can use collision models to recreate the current dynamical distribution of Haumea family members in (proper) a-e-i-dv-H space. Using synthetic families created using different collision models, we use a Bayesian methodology to infer the posterior distribution of our model parameters that best matches the current family. Our newest results continue to exclude the planar distribution of family members that would result from a ‘graze-and-merge’ type collision (e.g., Leinhardt et al. 2010) based on a lack of a-e-i correlation (Proudfoot & Ragozzine, DPS 2017, DDA 2017). We present here our results from more models. We have also validated a statistical method for automatically and self-consistently identifying interlopers from the background population.

  19. Understanding the Dynamics of EngagingIinteraction in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Halskov, Kim

    We present an analysis of three interactive installations in public spaces, in terms of their support of engagement as an evolving process. In particular, we focus on how engagement unfolds as a dynamic process that may be understood in terms of evolving relations between cultural, physical......, content-related, and social elements of interactive environments. These elements are explored through the literature on engagement with interaction design, and it is argued that, although valuable contributions have been made towards understanding engagement with interactive environments, the ways...

  20. Understanding bicycling in cities using system dynamics modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alexandra; Woodcock, James

    2017-12-01

    Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes. We used participatory system dynamics modelling to develop causal loop diagrams (CLDs) of cycling in three contrasting contexts: Auckland, London and Nijmegen. We combined qualitative interviews and workshops to develop the CLDs. We used the three CLDs to compare and contrast influences on cycling at different points on a "cycling trajectory" and drew out policy insights. The three CLDs consisted of feedback loops dynamically influencing cycling, with significant overlap between the three diagrams. Common reinforcing patterns emerged: growing numbers of people cycling lifts political will to improve the environment; cycling safety in numbers drives further growth; and more cycling can lead to normalisation across the population. By contrast, limits to growth varied as cycling increases. In Auckland and London, real and perceived danger was considered the main limit, with added barriers to normalisation in London. Cycling congestion and "market saturation" were important in the Netherlands. A generalisable, dynamic causal theory for urban cycling enables a more ordered set of policy recommendations for different cities on a cycling trajectory. Participation meant the collective knowledge of cycling stakeholders was represented and triangulated with research evidence. Extending this research to further cities, especially in low

  1. Are lepton and quark families quantized dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    1980-04-01

    Lepton and quark families (#betta#sub(N)), (esub(N))) and (usub(N)), (dsub(N) are conjectured to be quantum-dynamical systems in the space of generations N = 0,1,2,... Such a conjecture, called the ''zeroth quantization'', implies the form of lepton and quark mass spectra, if lepton and quark families are supposed to be almost in thermal equilibrium with the rest of the Universe. Toponium is predicted at about 38 GeV, while the next charged lepton at 28.5 GeV. (author)

  2. Understanding dynamic friction through spontaneously evolving laboratory earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, V; Rosakis, A J; Lapusta, N

    2017-06-29

    Friction plays a key role in how ruptures unzip faults in the Earth's crust and release waves that cause destructive shaking. Yet dynamic friction evolution is one of the biggest uncertainties in earthquake science. Here we report on novel measurements of evolving local friction during spontaneously developing mini-earthquakes in the laboratory, enabled by our ultrahigh speed full-field imaging technique. The technique captures the evolution of displacements, velocities and stresses of dynamic ruptures, whose rupture speed range from sub-Rayleigh to supershear. The observed friction has complex evolution, featuring initial velocity strengthening followed by substantial velocity weakening. Our measurements are consistent with rate-and-state friction formulations supplemented with flash heating but not with widely used slip-weakening friction laws. This study develops a new approach for measuring local evolution of dynamic friction and has important implications for understanding earthquake hazard since laws governing frictional resistance of faults are vital ingredients in physically-based predictive models of the earthquake source.

  3. Mapping the Daily Media Round: Novel Methods for Understanding Families' Mobile Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katie Headrick; Takeuchi, Lori; Stevens, Reed

    2018-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices in families' homes has dramatically changed the physical and temporal arrangement of co-viewing media content; the representative image of American families seated around a TV set is an anachronism. But understanding and describing contemporary co-participation arrangements around digital media is challenging…

  4. The confluence model: birth order as a within-family or between-family dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R B; Sulloway, Frank J

    2007-09-01

    The confluence model explains birth-order differences in intellectual performance by quantifying the changing dynamics within the family. Wichman, Rodgers, and MacCallum (2006) claimed that these differences are a between-family phenomenon--and hence are not directly related to birth order itself. The study design and analyses presented by Wichman et al. nevertheless suffer from crucial shortcomings, including their use of unfocused tests, which cause statistically significant trends to be overlooked. In addition, Wichman et al. treated birth-order effects as a linear phenomenon thereby ignoring the confluence model's prediction that these two samples may manifest opposing results based on age. This article cites between- and within-family data that demonstrate systematic birth-order effects as predicted by the confluence model. The corpus of evidence invoked here offers strong support for the assumption of the confluence model that birth-order differences in intellectual performance are primarily a within-family phenomenon.

  5. Understanding catchment dynamics through a Space-Society-Water trialectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Catherine; Jewitt, Graham; Risko, Susan; Hay, Ducan; Stuart-Hill, Sabine; Browne, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Can healthy catchments be utilized to secure water for the benefit of society? This is a complex question as it requires an understanding of the connections and relations between biophysical, social, political, economic and governance dimensions over space and time in the catchment and must interrogate whether there is 'value' in investing in the catchment natural or ecological infrastructure (EI), how this should be done, where the most valuable EI is located, and whether an investment in EI will generate co-benefits socially, environmentally and economically. Here, we adopt a social ecological relations rather than systems approach to explore these interactions through development of a space-society-water trialectic. Trialectic thinking is challenging as it requires new epistemologies and it challenges conventional modes of thought. It is not ordered or fixed, but rather is constantly evolving, revealing the dynamic relations between the elements under exploration. The construction of knowledge, through detailed scientific research and social learning, which contributes to the understanding and achievement of sustainable water supply, water related resilient economic growth, greater social equity and justice in relation to water and the reduction of environmental risk is illustrated through research in the uMngeni Catchment, South Africa. Using four case studies as a basis, we construct the catchment level society-water-space trialectic as a way of connecting, assembling and comparing the understanding and knowledge that has been produced. The relations in the three elements of the trialectic are constructed through identifying, understanding and analysing the actors, discourses, knowledge, biophysical materialities, issues and spatial connections in the case studies. Together these relations, or multiple trajectories, are assembled to form the society-water-space trialectic, which illuminates the dominant relations in the catchment and hence reveal the leverage

  6. Modeling Dynamic Food Choice Processes to Understand Dietary Intervention Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M; Persky, Susan

    2018-02-17

    Meal construction is largely governed by nonconscious and habit-based processes that can be represented as a collection of in dividual, micro-level food choices that eventually give rise to a final plate. Despite this, dietary behavior intervention research rarely captures these micro-level food choice processes, instead measuring outcomes at aggregated levels. This is due in part to a dearth of analytic techniques to model these dynamic time-series events. The current article addresses this limitation by applying a generalization of the relational event framework to model micro-level food choice behavior following an educational intervention. Relational event modeling was used to model the food choices that 221 mothers made for their child following receipt of an information-based intervention. Participants were randomized to receive either (a) control information; (b) childhood obesity risk information; (c) childhood obesity risk information plus a personalized family history-based risk estimate for their child. Participants then made food choices for their child in a virtual reality-based food buffet simulation. Micro-level aspects of the built environment, such as the ordering of each food in the buffet, were influential. Other dynamic processes such as choice inertia also influenced food selection. Among participants receiving the strongest intervention condition, choice inertia decreased and the overall rate of food selection increased. Modeling food selection processes can elucidate the points at which interventions exert their influence. Researchers can leverage these findings to gain insight into nonconscious and uncontrollable aspects of food selection that influence dietary outcomes, which can ultimately improve the design of dietary interventions.

  7. Understanding the HIV coreceptor switch from a dynamical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamp Christel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entry of HIV into its target cells is facilitated by the prior binding to the cell surface molecule CD4 and a secondary coreceptor, mostly the chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4. In early infection CCR5-using viruses (R5 viruses are mostly dominant while a receptor switch towards CXCR4 occurs in about 50% of the infected individuals (X4 viruses which is associated with a progression of the disease. There are many hypotheses regarding the underlying dynamics without yet a conclusive understanding. Results While it is difficult to isolate key factors in vivo we have developed a minimal in silico model based on the approaches of Nowak and May to investigate the conditions under which the receptor switch occurs. The model allows to investigate the evolution of viral strains within a probabilistic framework along the three stages of disease from primary and latent infection to the onset of AIDS with a a sudden increase in viral load which goes along with the impairment of the immune response. The model is specifically applied to investigate the evolution of the viral quasispecies in terms of R5 and X4 viruses which directly translates into the composition of viral load and consequently the question of the coreceptor switch. Conclusion The model can explain the coreceptor switch as a result of a dynamical change in the underlying environmental conditions in the host. The emergence of X4 strains does not necessarily result in the dominance of X4 viruses in viral load which is more likely to occur in the model after some time of chronic infection. A better understanding of the conditions leading to the coreceptor switch is especially of interest as CCR5 blockers have recently been licensed as drugs which suppress R5 viruses but do not seem to necessarily induce a coreceptor switch.

  8. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  9. Understanding of advance care planning by family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  11. Family physicians understanding about Mantoux test: A survey from a high endemic TB country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niloufer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a global health emergency and is a big challenge to diagnose and manage it. Family physicians being first contact health persons should be well competent to diagnose and manage the patients with tuberculosis. Aims This study was aimed to assess the level of understanding about Mantoux Test amongst Family Physicians in Karachi, Pakistan and to determine the difference of level of understanding by gender and number of tuberculosis patients seen in a month. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted among 200 Family Physicians working in Karachi; the largest city and economic hub of Pakistan. Family Physicians who attended Continuous Medical Education sessions were approached after taking consent. Pre-tested, self administered questionnaire was filled consisting of: basic demographic characteristics, questions regarding knowledge about Mantoux Test, its application and interpretation. Data of 159 questionnaires was analyzed for percentages, as rest were incomplete. Chi square test was used to calculate the difference of understanding levels between various groups. Results Almost two thirds of respondents were males and above 35 years of age. Majority of Family Physicians were private practitioners and seeing more than five tuberculosis patients per month. Overall, a big gap was identified about the knowledge of Mantoux Test among study participants. Only 18.8% of Family Physicians secured Excellent (≥ 80% correct responses. This poor level of understanding was almost equally distributed in all comparative groups (Male = 20.8% versus Female = 15.9%; p - 0.69 and (Seen Conclusion Our study revealed an overall major deficit in understanding and interpretation of Mantoux Test amongst Family Physicians which needs to be addressed. Continues Medical Education sessions for Family Physicians should be organized in regular basis for upgrading their knowledge in this regards.

  12. Examining inter-family differences in intra-family (parent-adolescent) dynamics using grid-sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Miriam; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam

    2017-12-01

    Family systems theorists have forwarded a set of theoretical principles meant to guide family scientists and practitioners in their conceptualization of patterns of family interaction-intra-family dynamics-that, over time, give rise to family and individual dysfunction and/or adaptation. In this article, we present an analytic approach that merges state space grid methods adapted from the dynamic systems literature with sequence analysis methods adapted from molecular biology into a "grid-sequence" method for studying inter-family differences in intra-family dynamics. Using dyadic data from 86 parent-adolescent dyads who provided up to 21 daily reports about connectedness, we illustrate how grid-sequence analysis can be used to identify a typology of intrafamily dynamics and to inform theory about how specific types of intrafamily dynamics contribute to adolescent behavior problems and family members' mental health. Methodologically, grid-sequence analysis extends the toolbox of techniques for analysis of family experience sampling and daily diary data. Substantively, we identify patterns of family level microdynamics that may serve as new markers of risk/protective factors and potential points for intervention in families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Performative family: homosexuality, marriage and intergenerational dynamics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Yp; Luo, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Using in-depth interview data on nominal marriages - legal marriages between a gay man and a lesbian to give the appearance of heterosexuality - this paper develops the concept of performative family to explain the processes through which parents and their adult children negotiate and resolve disagreements in relation to marriage decisions in post-socialist China. We identify three mechanisms - network pressure, a revised discourse of filial piety and resource leverage - through which parents influence their gay offspring's decision to turn to nominal marriage. We also delineate six strategies, namely minimizing network participation, changing expectations, making partial concessions, drawing the line, delaying decisions and ending the marriage, by which gay people in nominal marriages attempt to meet parental expectations while simultaneously retaining a degree of autonomy. Through these interactions, we argue that Chinese parents and their gay adult children implicitly and explicitly collaborate to perform family, emphasizing the importance of formally meeting society's expectations about marriage rather than substantively yielding to its demands. We also argue that the performative family is a pragmatic response to the tension between the persistent centrality of family and marriage and the rising tide of individualism in post-socialist China. We believe that our findings highlight the specific predicament of homosexual people. They also shed light on the more general dynamics of intergenerational negotiation because there is evidence that the mechanisms used by parents to exert influence may well be similar between gay and non-gay people. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  14. Voices of the Filipino Community Describing the Importance of Family in Understanding Adolescent Behavioral Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Galura, Kristina; Aliganga, Frank Anthony P; Supan, Jocelyn; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    Filipinos are a large, yet invisible, minority at high risk for adolescent behavioral health problems. Limited research describes the family as offering a source of positive support for some Filipino youths and yet for some it is also a source of stress and isolation, leading to struggles with adolescent depression and suicidal behavior. This article describes a qualitative study that investigates the role of family when understanding behavioral health needs among Filipino adolescents. Findings highlight the importance of addressing family cohesion when designing interventions aimed at improving the well-being of Filipino youth.

  15. Understanding the dynamic performance of microchannel plates in pulsed mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray Thomas; Ming Wu; Nathan Joseph; Craig Kruschwitz; Gregroy A. Rochau

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic performance of a microchannel plate (MCP) is highly dependent on the high-voltage waveforms that are applied to it. Impedance mismatches in MCP detectors can significantly vary the waveforms on the MCP compared to the input pulses. High-voltage pulse waveforms launched onto surface coatings on the MCPs have historically been difficult and expensive to measure. Over the past few years, we have developed and tested techniques utilizing probes to measure the voltage propagation on the surface of MCPs. Square and Gaussian pulses with widths ranging from 200 ps to 2 ns have been applied. We have investigated the effects of coating thickness, microstrip width, and openended versus terminated strips. These data provide a wealth of knowledge that is enabling a better understanding of images recorded with these devices. This presentation discusses a method for measuring voltage profiles on the surface of the MCP and presents Monte Carlo simulations of the optical gate profiles based on the measured waveforms. Excellent agreement in the optical gate profiles have been achieved between the simulations and the experimental measurements using a short-pulse ultraviolet laser

  16. Understanding void fraction in steady state and dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chexal, B.; Maulbetsch, J.; Harrison, J.; Petersen, C.; Jensen, P.; Horowitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Understanding void fraction behavior in steady-state and dynamic environments is important to accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase or two-component systems. The Chexal-Lellouche (C-L) void fraction mode described herein covers the full range of pressures, flows, void fractions, and fluid types (steam-water, air-water, and refrigerants). A drift flux model formulation is used which covers the complete range of concurrent and countercurrent flows. The (1996) model revises the earlier C-L void fraction correlation, improves the capability of the model in countercurrent flow based on the incorporation of additional data, and improves the characteristics of the correlation that are important in transient programs. The model has been qualified with data from a number of steady state two-phase and two-component tests, and has been incorporated into the transient analysis code RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D and evaluated with a variety of transient and steady state tests. A 'plug-in' module for the void fraction correlation has been developed and implemented in RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D. The module is available as source code for inclusion into other thermal-hydraulic programs and can be used in any program that utilizes the same interface variables

  17. Understanding ENSO dynamics through the exploration of past climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, Steven J; Brown, Jaclyn N

    2010-01-01

    The palaeoclimate record shows that significant changes in ENSO characteristics took place during the Holocene. Exploring these changes, using both data and models, provides a means of understanding ENSO dynamics. Previous modelling studies have suggested a mechanism whereby changes in the Earth's orbital geometry explain the strengthening of ENSO over the Holocene. Decreasing summer insolation over the Asian landmass resulted in a weakening of the Asian monsoon system. This led to a weakening of the easterly trade winds in the western Pacific, creating conditions more favourable for El Nino development. To explore this hypothesised forcing mechanism, we use a climate system model to conduct a suite of simulations of the climate of the past 8,000 years. In the early Holocene, we find that the Asian summer monsoon system is intensified, resulting in an amplification of the easterly trade winds in the western Pacific. The stronger trade winds represent a barrier to the eastward propagation of westerly wind bursts, therefore inhibiting the onset of El Nino events. The fundamental behaviour of ENSO remains unchanged, with the major change over the Holocene being the influence of the background state of the Pacific on the susceptibility of the ocean to the initiation of El Nino events.

  18. The Contribution of GGOS to Understanding Dynamic Earth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Geodesy is the science of the Earth's shape, size, gravity and rotation, including their evolution in time. Geodetic observations play a major role in the solid Earth sciences because they are fundamental for the understanding and modeling of Earth system processes. Changes in the Earth's shape, its gravitational field, and its rotation are caused by external forces acting on the Earth system and internal processes involving mass transfer and exchange of angular and linear momentum. Thus, variations in these geodetic quantities of the Earth reflect and constrain mechanical and thermo-dynamic processes in the Earth system. Mitigating the impact on human life and property of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, debris flows, landslides, land subsidence, sea level change, tsunamis, floods, storm surges, hurricanes and extreme weather is an important scientific task to which geodetic observations make fundamental contributions. Geodetic observations can be used to monitor the pre-eruptive deformation of volcanoes and the pre-seismic deformation of earthquake fault zones, aiding in the issuance of volcanic eruption and earthquake warnings. They can also be used to rapidly estimate earthquake fault motion, aiding in the modeling of tsunami genesis and the issuance of tsunami warnings. Geodetic observations are also used in other areas of the Earth sciences, not just the solid Earth sciences. For example, geodesy contributes to atmospheric science by supporting both observation and prediction of the weather by geo-referencing meteorological observing data and by globally tracking change in stratospheric mass and lower tropospheric water vapor fields. Geodetic measurements of refraction profiles derived from satellite occultation data are routinely assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Geodesy contributes to hydrologic studies by providing a unique global reference system for measurements of: sub-seasonal, seasonal and secular movements

  19. Understanding quantum measurement from the solution of dynamical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E. [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique et Systèmes Complexes, ISMANS, 44 Av. Bartholdi, 72000 Le Mans (France); Balian, Roger [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M., E-mail: T.M.Nieuwenhuizen@uva.nl [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The quantum measurement problem, to wit, understanding why a unique outcome is obtained in each individual experiment, is currently tackled by solving models. After an introduction we review the many dynamical models proposed over the years for elucidating quantum measurements. The approaches range from standard quantum theory, relying for instance on quantum statistical mechanics or on decoherence, to quantum–classical methods, to consistent histories and to modifications of the theory. Next, a flexible and rather realistic quantum model is introduced, describing the measurement of the z-component of a spin through interaction with a magnetic memory simulated by a Curie–Weiss magnet, including N≫1 spins weakly coupled to a phonon bath. Initially prepared in a metastable paramagnetic state, it may transit to its up or down ferromagnetic state, triggered by its coupling with the tested spin, so that its magnetization acts as a pointer. A detailed solution of the dynamical equations is worked out, exhibiting several time scales. Conditions on the parameters of the model are found, which ensure that the process satisfies all the features of ideal measurements. Various imperfections of the measurement are discussed, as well as attempts of incompatible measurements. The first steps consist in the solution of the Hamiltonian dynamics for the spin-apparatus density matrix D{sup -hat} (t). Its off-diagonal blocks in a basis selected by the spin–pointer coupling, rapidly decay owing to the many degrees of freedom of the pointer. Recurrences are ruled out either by some randomness of that coupling, or by the interaction with the bath. On a longer time scale, the trend towards equilibrium of the magnet produces a final state D{sup -hat} (t{sub f}) that involves correlations between the system and the indications of the pointer, thus ensuring registration. Although D{sup -hat} (t{sub f}) has the form expected for ideal measurements, it only describes a large set of

  20. Crustal Seismic Anisotropy: Implications for Understanding Crustal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, A.; Christensen, N.; Okaya, D.

    2003-12-01

    variation in % anisotropy, changes in orientation of the regional foliation within the massif, and velocity (splitting) variance due to non-axial propagation through a wide range of event-station azimuths. Because the composition of the massif is basically homogeneous, the rock fabric is well developed, and the structure well constrained, this data set is ideal for studying and quantifying the affect of non-axial propagation through regional foliation. This type of analysis has important implications for understanding crustal dynamics. Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratios are typically used to infer both lithology and rheology of subsurface materials and to provide constraints for thermo-mechanical models of deformation. Current tomography codes do not generally account for anisotropic effects and may potentially under or over estimate velocity structure in the crust. At Nanga Parbat, a prominent low-velocity zone is mapped beneath the core of the massif. The magnitude and extent of this zone constrains crustal flow paths focusing crustal strain, exhumation, and potential zones of partial melting in the crust. Accurate determination of velocity structure is clearly important to understand crustal structure and modification during orogenesis.

  1. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Ann

    Understanding the structure and functionality of biological systems on a nanometer-resolution and short temporal scales is important for solving complex biological problems, developing innovative treatment, and advancing the design of highly functionalized biomimetic materials. For example, adhesion of cells to an underlying substrate plays a crucial role in physiology and disease development, and has been investigated with great interest for several decades. In the talk, we would like to highlight recent advances in utilizing neutron scattering to study bio-related structures in dynamic conditions (e . g . under the shear flow) including in-situ investigations of the interfacial properties of living cells. The strength of neutron reflectometry is its non-pertubative nature, the ability to probe buried interfaces with nanometer resolution and its sensitivity to light elements like hydrogen and carbon. That allows us to study details of cell - substrate interfaces that are not accessible with any other standard techniques. We studied the adhesion of human brain tumor cells (U251) to quartz substrates and their responses to the external mechanical forces. Such cells are isolated within the central nervous system which makes them difficult to reach with conventional therapies and therefore making them highly invasive. Our results reveal changes in the thickness and composition of the adhesion layer (a layer between the cell lipid membrane and the quartz substrate), largely composed of hyaluronic acid and associated proteoglycans, when the cells were subjected to shear stress. Further studies will allow us to determine more conditions triggering changes in the composition of the bio-material in the adhesion layer. This, in turn, can help to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness, which can have significant medical impact for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.

  2. Emergency nurses' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Eilis

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To examine emergency nurses\\' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR in the emergency department, Cork University Hospital, Republic of Ireland. METHOD: A quantitative descriptive design was used in the study. A questionnaire developed by ENA was distributed to emergency nurses working in a level I trauma emergency department at Cork University Hospital. The total sample number was 90, including all emergency nurses with at least 6 months\\' emergency nursing experience. RESULTS: Emergency nurses often took families to the bedside during resuscitation efforts (58.9%) or would do so if the opportunity arose (17.8%). A high percentage (74.4%) of respondents would prefer a written policy allowing the option of family presence during CPR. The most significant barrier to family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) was conflicts occurring within the emergency team. The most significant facilitator to FWR was a greater understanding of health care professionals on the benefits of FWR to patients and families, indicating the need for educational development. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study and previously published studies indicate the need for development of written polices and guidelines on the practice to meet the needs of patients, families, and staff by providing consistent, safe, and caring practices for all involved in the resuscitation process. Recommendations of the study include the development of a written policy and an educational programme on the safe implementation and practices of FWR.

  3. 'The family is only one part …': understanding the role of family in young Thai women's sexual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangpan, Mukdarut; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand young Thai women's perspectives about family influences on their sexual decisions with the goal of informing the future development of HIV programmes and interventions for young Thai women in urban areas. Eight focus groups were conducted with 40 young single women aged 18-25 years, recruited through a peer network of key informants from four sites across Bangkok: universities, government offices, slums and garment factories. Predetermined topics relating to family, sexual decisions and HIV were discussed with 4-5 participants in each group. Qualitative thematic and framework-analysis techniques were used to explore participants' narratives. Findings suggest that young Thai women's sexual decisions are complex and take place under a wide range of personal, familial and social influences. Parents were perceived as a barrier to parent-child communication about sex and HIV. Young women regarded mothers as more supportive and receptive than fathers when discussing sensitive topics. Young Thai women described a tension between having a strong sense of self and modern sexual norms versus traditionally conservative relational orientations. Future HIV interventions could benefit by developing strategies to consider barriers to parent-child communication, strengthening family relationships and addressing the coexistence of conflicting sexual norms in the Thai context.

  4. Descriptive Understandings of the Nature of Science: Examining the Consensual and Family Resemblance Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Maristela; Gurgel, Ivã

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs a critical analysis of the consensual and family resemblance approaches to the nature of science. Despite the debate that surrounds them, between a pragmatic consensus and a more comprehensive understanding, both approaches have in common the goal of helping students to "internalize" knowledge about science in a…

  5. Using a Positive Psychology and Family Framework to Understand Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…

  6. Understanding social support in reunification: the views of foster children, birth families and social workers

    OpenAIRE

    Balsells, M. Àngels; Pastor Vicente, Crescencia; Molina, María Cruz; Fuentes-Peláez, Núria; Vázquez, Noelia

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the social support received from fathers and mothers is a key factor in the reunification process, particularly on a foster child’s return home. However, little is known regarding the nature of this support, its sources and the aspects on which such support should be focused. The aim of this study is to describe the social support that families require at the time of a child’s return to successfully re-establish the family positive dynamics, functioning and routines. Th...

  7. "Shared Destiny": The Dynamics of Relationships in Families of Patients With Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Einav; Levinger, Miriam; Hochman, Yael

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative research focused on the relationships between family members of patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim was to explore the dynamics between caregivers of the family member with a brain injury during rehabilitation hospitalization, and the relationships between them and the rest of the extended family. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with family members. In each family, the spouse of the patient and another family member involved in caregiving were interviewed. The importance of the relationships between family members during rehabilitation hospitalization justifies the examination undertaken in this research. Findings point at the change that took place in the relationships between family members because of the need to cope with a relative's injury. It is possible that direct intervention in the dynamics of the relationship, especially between the family of origin and the nuclear family of the injured person, can benefit extended families in coping with the crisis.

  8. Molecular Approaches to Understanding C & N Dynamics in MArine Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arturo Massol; James Tiedje; Jizhong Zhou; Allan Devol

    2007-05-16

    Continental margin sediments constitute only about 10% of the total sediment surface area in the world’s oceans, nevertheless they are the dominant sites of nitrogen (N) cycling. Recent studies suggest that the oceanic nitrogen budget is unbalanced, primarily due to a higher nitrogen removal rate in contrast to the fixation rate, and it has been suggested that denitrification activity contributes significantly to this imbalance. Although denitrification in marine environments has been studied intensively at the process level, little is known about the species abundance, composition, distribution, and functional differences of the denitrifying population. Understanding the diversity of microbial populations in marine environments, their responses to various environmental factors such as NO3-, and how this impact the rate of denitrification is critical to predict global N dynamics. Environmental Microbiology has the prompt to study the influence of each microbial population on a biogeochemical process within a given ecosystem. Culture-dependent and –independent techniques using nucleic acid probes can access the identity and activity of cultured and uncultured microorganisms. Nucleic acid probes can target distintict genes which set phylogenetic relationships, such as rDNA 16S, DNA gyrase (gyrB) and RNA polymerase sigma 70 factor (rpoD). In the other hand, the genetic capabilities and their expression could be tracked using probes that target several functional genes, such as nirS, nirK, nosZ, and nifH, which are genes involved in denitrification. Selective detection of cells actively expressing functional genes within a community using In Situ Reverse Transcription-PCR (ISRT-PCR) could become a powerful culture-independent technique in microbial ecology. Here we describe an approach to study the expression of nirS genes in denitrifying bacteria. Pure cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Paracoccus denitrificans, as well as co-cultures with non

  9. Global Analysis of miRNA Gene Clusters and Gene Families Reveals Dynamic and Coordinated Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To further understand the potential expression relationships of miRNAs in miRNA gene clusters and gene families, a global analysis was performed in 4 paired tumor (breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue samples using deep sequencing datasets. The compositions of miRNA gene clusters and families are not random, and clustered and homologous miRNAs may have close relationships with overlapped miRNA species. Members in the miRNA group always had various expression levels, and even some showed larger expression divergence. Despite the dynamic expression as well as individual difference, these miRNAs always indicated consistent or similar deregulation patterns. The consistent deregulation expression may contribute to dynamic and coordinated interaction between different miRNAs in regulatory network. Further, we found that those clustered or homologous miRNAs that were also identified as sense and antisense miRNAs showed larger expression divergence. miRNA gene clusters and families indicated important biological roles, and the specific distribution and expression further enrich and ensure the flexible and robust regulatory network.

  10. Exploiting Fast-Variables to Understand Population Dynamics and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, George W. A.; McKane, Alan J.

    2017-11-01

    We describe a continuous-time modelling framework for biological population dynamics that accounts for demographic noise. In the spirit of the methodology used by statistical physicists, transitions between the states of the system are caused by individual events while the dynamics are described in terms of the time-evolution of a probability density function. In general, the application of the diffusion approximation still leaves a description that is quite complex. However, in many biological applications one or more of the processes happen slowly relative to the system's other processes, and the dynamics can be approximated as occurring within a slow low-dimensional subspace. We review these time-scale separation arguments and analyse the more simple stochastic dynamics that result in a number of cases. We stress that it is important to retain the demographic noise derived in this way, and emphasise this point by showing that it can alter the direction of selection compared to the prediction made from an analysis of the corresponding deterministic model.

  11. Understanding original antigenic sin in influenza with a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao

    2011-01-01

    Original antigenic sin is the phenomenon in which prior exposure to an antigen leads to a subsequent suboptimal immune response to a related antigen. Immune memory normally allows for an improved and rapid response to antigens previously seen and is the mechanism by which vaccination works. I here develop a dynamical system model of the mechanism of original antigenic sin in influenza, clarifying and explaining the detailed spin-glass treatment of original antigenic sin. The dynamical system describes the viral load, the quantities of healthy and infected epithelial cells, the concentrations of naïve and memory antibodies, and the affinities of naïve and memory antibodies. I give explicit correspondences between the microscopic variables of the spin-glass model and those of the present dynamical system model. The dynamical system model reproduces the phenomenon of original antigenic sin and describes how a competition between different types of B cells compromises the overall effect of immune response. I illustrate the competition between the naïve and the memory antibodies as a function of the antigenic distance between the initial and subsequent antigens. The suboptimal immune response caused by original antigenic sin is observed when the host is exposed to an antigen which has intermediate antigenic distance to a second antigen previously recognized by the host's immune system.

  12. Understanding ecohydrological connectivity in savannas: A system dynamics modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecohydrological connectivity is a system-level property that results from the linkages in the networks of water transport through ecosystems, by which feedback effects and other emergent system behaviors may be generated. We created a systems dynamic model that represents primary ecohydrological net...

  13. Cannabis changes: Understanding dynamics of use and dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebregts, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Part of ever-users become frequent users and continue to use over a longer period. 600 frequent users (18-30 years) were enrolled in a 3-year longitudinal study. Trajectories of frequent cannabis use and cannabis dependence appeared very dynamic.

  14. How Well Do Students in Secondary School Understand Temporal Development of Dynamical Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forjan, Matej; Grubelnik, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Despite difficulties understanding the dynamics of complex systems only simple dynamical systems without feedback connections have been taught in secondary school physics. Consequently, students do not have opportunities to develop intuition of temporal development of systems, whose dynamics are conditioned by the influence of feedback processes.…

  15. Recent advances in the fundamental understanding of railway vehicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non-linear dy......The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non......-linear dynamical problem. The lowest speed at which there exist more critical speed in road tests. A couple of examples show applications of the method to various dynamical models of railway vehicles. Freight wagons are treated in the end of the article because the dry friction damping with stick-slip and end...

  16. Understanding water: Molecular dynamics simulations of solubilized and crystallized myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Gu; Garcia, A.E.; Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on CO myoglobin to evaluate the stability of the bound water molecules as determined in a neutron diffraction analysis. The myoglobin structure derived from the neutron analysis provided the starting coordinate set used in the simulations. The simulations show that only a few water molecules are tightly bound to protein atoms, while most solvent molecules are labile, breaking and reforming hydrogen bonds. Comparison between myoglobin in solution and in a single crystal highlighted some of the packing effects on the solvent structure and shows that water solvent plays an indispensable role in protein dynamics and structural stability. The described observations explain some of the differences in the experimental results of protein hydration as observed in NMR, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies.

  17. Understanding water: Molecular dynamics simulations of solubilized and crystallized myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gu; Garcia, A.E.; Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on CO myoglobin to evaluate the stability of the bound water molecules as determined in a neutron diffraction analysis. The myoglobin structure derived from the neutron analysis provided the starting coordinate set used in the simulations. The simulations show that only a few water molecules are tightly bound to protein atoms, while most solvent molecules are labile, breaking and reforming hydrogen bonds. Comparison between myoglobin in solution and in a single crystal highlighted some of the packing effects on the solvent structure and shows that water solvent plays an indispensable role in protein dynamics and structural stability. The described observations explain some of the differences in the experimental results of protein hydration as observed in NMR, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies

  18. Dynamic Diversity: Toward a Contextual Understanding of Critical Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.; Jayakumar, Uma M.

    2014-01-01

    Through an analysis of relevant social science evidence, this article provides a deeper understanding of critical mass, a concept that has become central in litigation efforts related to affirmative action admissions policies that seek to further the educational benefits of diversity. We demonstrate that the concept of critical mass requires an…

  19. Understanding the Dynamic System of Terrorist-Government Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Figure 62. Model 5D Equation Level Screen Shot 3 167 Bibliography Bajaracharya, Arun, Stephen Olu Ogunlana, and Nguyen Luong Bach...Understanding the New Security Environment Readings and Interpretations. Guilford, Connecticut: Mc- Graw -Hill/Dushkin 2002 Laqueur, Walter. “Postmodern

  20. Understanding the Offender/Environment Dynamic for Computer Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willison, Robert Andrew

    2005-01-01

    practices by possiblyhighlighting new areas for safeguard implementation. To help facilitate a greaterunderstanding of the offender/environment dynamic, this paper assesses the feasibilityof applying criminological theory to the IS security context. More specifically, threetheories are advanced, which focus...... on the offender's behaviour in a criminal setting. Drawing on an account of the Barings Bank collapse, events highlighted in the casestudy are used to assess whether concepts central to the theories are supported by thedata. It is noted that while one of the theories is to be found wanting in terms ofconceptual...

  1. Family Lifestyle Dynamics and Childhood Obesity: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, L.A.; Hernandez Alava, M.; Kelly, M.P.; Campbell, M.

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study, we investigate the dynamic relationship between underlying family lifestyle and childhood obesity during early childhood. We use a dynamic latent factor model, an approach that allows us to identify family lifestyle, its evolution over time and its influence on childhood obesity and other observable outcomes. We find that family lifestyle is persistent and has a significant influence on childhood weight status as well as other outcomes for all fami...

  2. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  3. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrera

    Full Text Available There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  4. Visualizing and Understanding Socio-Environmental Dynamics in Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Omeara, K.; Guikema, S.; Scott, A.; Bessho, A.; Logan, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Baltimore, like any city, is the sum of its component neighborhoods, institutions, businesses, cultures, and, ultimately, its people. It is also an organism in its own right, with distinct geography, history, infrastructure, and environments that shape its residents even as it is shaped by them. Sometimes these interactions are obvious but often they are not; while basic economic patterns are widely documented, the distribution of socio-spatial and environmental connections often hides below the surface, as does the potential that those connections hold. Here we present results of a collaborative initiative on the geography, design, and policy of socio-environmental dynamics of Baltimore. Geospatial data derived from satellite imagery, demographic databases, social media feeds, infrastructure plans, and in situ environmental networks, among other sources, are applied to generate an interactive portrait of Baltimore City's social, health, and well-being dynamics. The layering of data serves as a platform for visualizing the interconnectedness of the City and as a database for modeling risk interactions, vulnerabilities, and strengths within and between communities. This presentation will provide an overview of project findings and highlight linkages to education and policy.

  5. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  6. Influences of Family Structure Dynamics on Sexual Debut in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no research on the timing, sequencing and number of changes in family environment and their influences on sexual and reproductive health outcomes in Africa. Using a population-based survey with data on family structure at three points in the life course, this paper examines the influences of these family structure ...

  7. Evolution of Secondary Software Businesses: Understanding Industry Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrväinen, Pasi; Warsta, Juhani; Seppänen, Veikko

    Primary software industry originates from IBM's decision to unbundle software-related computer system development activities to external partners. This kind of outsourcing from an enterprise internal software development activity is a common means to start a new software business serving a vertical software market. It combines knowledge of the vertical market process with competence in software development. In this research, we present and analyze the key figures of the Finnish secondary software industry, in order to quantify its interaction with the primary software industry during the period of 2000-2003. On the basis of the empirical data, we present a model for evolution of a secondary software business, which makes explicit the industry dynamics. It represents the shift from internal software developed for competitive advantage to development of products supporting standard business processes on top of standardized technologies. We also discuss the implications for software business strategies in each phase.

  8. Molecular Modeling of Enzyme Dynamics Towards Understanding Solvent Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar

    This thesis describes the development of a molecular simulation methodology to study properties of enzymes in non-aqueous media at fixed thermodynamic water activities. The methodology is applied in a molecular dynamics study of the industrially important enzyme Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB...... of enzyme kinetics in non-aqueous media, it has been a fruitful approach to fix the enzyme hydration level by controlling the water activity of the medium. In this work, a protocol is therefore developed for determining the water activity in non-aqueous protein simulations. The method relies on determining...... integration, while for small systems, it seems to be even better. The method is applied to compute the excess Gibbs energy of the mixtures of water and organic solvents used in the simulations of CALB. This allows to determine the water activity of the simulated systems and thus to compare protein properties...

  9. Local understanding of forest conservation in land use change dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaleh, Muhammad Adha; Guth, Miriam Karen; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2016-01-01

    Forest (SEPPSF), Malaysia. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted with Orang Asli Jakun living in SEPPSF using open-ended questions. Local communities have positive perspectives toward the forest conservation program, despite massive environmental changes in their living landscape. This study suggests......The success of local forest conservation program depends on a critical appreciation of local communities. Based on this understanding, the present study aims to explore people’s perspective of forest conservation in a context of changes in their living landscape at South East Pahang Peat Swamp...

  10. Predictors of family strength: the integrated spiritual-religious/resilient perspective for understanding the healthy/strong family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Majid; Fatehizade, Maryam; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Vahid; Baghban, Iran

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of spiritual well-being and family protective factors on the family strength in a propositional structural model. The research population consisted of all the married people of the Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 with preschool-aged children and in the first decade of marriage with at least eight grades of educational level. Three hundred and ninety five voluntary and unpaid participants were selected randomly through multi-stage sampling from seven regions of the city. The instruments used were the Spiritual Well-being Scale, Inventory of Family Protective Factors, and Family Strength Scale. Descriptive statistics and a structural equation modeling analytic approach were used. The analytic model predicted 82% of the variance of the family strength. The total effect of the spiritual well-being on the family strength was higher compared to the family protective factors. Furthermore, spiritual well-being predicted 43% of the distribution of the family protective factors and had indirect effect on the family strength through the family protective factors (p spiritual well-being and family protective factors, and their simultaneous effects on family strength. Family counselors may employ an integrated spiritual-religious/resilient perspective to inform their strength-based work with individuals and their families. None.

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics in understanding hand—object interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Pietro; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Campi, Cristina; Pascarella, Annalisa; Barchiesi, Guido; Cattaneo, Luigi; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that visual perception results from the activation of a feed-forward hierarchy of areas, leading to increasingly complex representations. Here we present evidence for a fundamental role of backward projections to the occipito-temporal region for understanding conceptual object properties. The evidence is based on two studies. In the first study, using high-density EEG, we showed that during the observation of how objects are used there is an early activation of occipital and temporal areas, subsequently reaching the pole of the temporal lobe, and a late reactivation of the visual areas. In the second study, using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the occipital lobe, we showed a clear impairment in the accuracy of recognition of how objects are used during both early activation and, most importantly, late occipital reactivation. These findings represent strong neurophysiological evidence that a top-down mechanism is fundamental for understanding conceptual object properties, and suggest that a similar mechanism might be also present for other higher-order cognitive functions. PMID:24043805

  12. Dynamic systems for everyone understanding how our world works

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asish

    2015-01-01

    This book is a study of the interactions between different types of systems, their environment, and their subsystems.  The author explains how basic systems principles are applied in engineered (mechanical, electromechanical, etc.) systems and then guides the reader to understand how the same principles can be applied to social, political, economic systems, as well as in everyday life.  Readers from a variety of disciplines will benefit from the understanding of system behaviors and will be able to apply those principles in various contexts.  The book includes many examples covering various types of systems.  The treatment of the subject is non-mathematical, and the book considers some of the latest concepts in the systems discipline, such as agent-based systems, optimization, and discrete events and procedures.  ·         Shows how system knowledge may be applied in many different areas without the need for deep mathematical knowledge; ·         Demonstrates how to model and simulate s...

  13. Lab experiments in demographic fieldwork: Understanding gender dynamics in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropological literature has long linked bridewealth payments to decision-making about fertility. Recent research underscores the significance of men's preferences regarding women's reproductive behavior, and suggests that bridewealth payments place constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. Yet because survey data on bridewealth are rare, and the collection of new survey data on bridewealth presents serious challenges, this explanation could not be tested. Objective: Our objective in this paper is to highlight the potential utility of lab experiments (in particular, vignette experiments for improving our understanding of gender relations in Africa, using the hypothesized effect of bridewealth on normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy as an illustration. Methods: We discuss our reasons for turning to lab experiments, and to vignette experiments in particular. We also summarize a series of studies (Horne, Dodoo, and Dodoo 2013; Dodoo, Horne, and Biney 2014 which have implemented our experimental approach. Results: Our experimental evidence shows that bridewealth payments are associated with greater normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. We also find that these negative effects of bridewealth are consistent across participant ages, and do not appear to be ameliorated by female schooling. Conclusions: We conclude that lab experiments in general (and vignette experiments in particular are underutilized methodological tools that may be useful for helping us gain a better understanding of the cultural context of gender relations in Africa; and that demographic research more generally may benefit from taking advantage of the strengths of experimental methods.

  14. The nonlinear dynamics of family problem solving in adolescence: the predictive validity of a peaceful resolution attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Forgatch, Marion; Van Ryzin, Mark; Winter, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    In this study we examined the videotaped family interactions of a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Youths were assessed in early to late adolescence on their levels of antisocial behavior. At age 16-17, youths and their parents were videotaped interacting while completing a variety of tasks, including family problem solving. The interactions were coded and compared for three developmental patterns of antisocial behavior: early onset, persistent; adolescence onset; and typically developing. The mean duration of conflict bouts was the only interaction pattern that discriminated the 3 groups. In the prediction of future antisocial behavior, parent and youth reports of transition entropy and conflict resolution interacted to account for antisocial behavior at age 18-19. Families with low entropy and peaceful resolutions predicted low levels of youth antisocial behavior at age 18-19. These findings suggest the need to study both attractors and repellers to understand family dynamics associated with health and social and emotional development.

  15. Controlling food, controlling relationships: exploring the meanings and dynamics of family food practices through the diary-interview approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Sarah; Murphy, Simon; Elliott, Eva

    2018-04-06

    Potential merits of a social practice perspective for examining the meanings and dynamics of family food include moving beyond individual behaviour, and exploring how practices emerge, develop and change. However, researchers have struggled to encourage reflection on mundane practices, and how to understand associated meanings. Drawing on a study of families in South Wales, this article reflects on the value of the diary-interview approach in addressing these methodological challenges, and aims to explore and understand the dynamics of control across family contexts. Contemporary practice theories distinguish between practices as 'performances' and practices as 'entities' and the diary-interview method facilitated an examination of these dimensions. Detailed accounts of daily 'performances' (through diaries), alongside reflection on underlying contexts and 'entities' (through interviews), illustrated the entanglement of control, practices and context. The article adds further complexity to the concept of practice 'bundles' which facilitated an understanding of how food was interrelated with other practices - across family contexts and across generations. Sociological approaches with a practices perspective at the core, offer potential for developing public health interventions by acknowledging: the relational meaning of food; the embeddedness of food within everyday practices; and the need to consider interventions across a range of policy areas. © 2018 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. Family in Focus: On Design and Field Trial of the Dynamic Collage [DC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    René Bakker; Koen van Turnhout; Jasper Jeurens

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and field trial of the Dynamic Collage. The Dynamic Collage was designed to facilitate and to stimulate participation of family members in the informal care of an elderly person. The Dynamic Collage enabled relatives to update their current activity by sending a

  17. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Gordon J.; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions.

  18. A dynamical system perspective to understanding badminton singles game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jia Yi; Seifert, Ludovic; Hérault, Romain; Chia, Shannon Jing Yi; Lee, Miriam Chang Yi

    2014-02-01

    By altering the task constraints of cooperative and competitive game contexts in badminton, insights can be obtained from a dynamical systems perspective to investigate the underlying processes that results in either a gradual shift or transition of playing patterns. Positional data of three pairs of skilled female badminton players (average age 20.5±1.38years) were captured and analyzed. Local correlation coefficient, which provides information on the relationship of players' displacement data, between each pair of players was computed for angle and distance from base position. Speed scalar product was in turn established from speed vectors of the players. The results revealed two patterns of playing behaviors (i.e., in-phase and anti-phase patterns) for movement displacement. Anti-phase relation was the dominant coupling pattern for speed scalar relationships among the pairs of players. Speed scalar product, as a collective variable, was different between cooperative and competitive plays with a greater variability in amplitude seen in competitive plays leading to a winning point. The findings from this study provide evidence for increasing stroke variability to perturb existing stable patterns of play and highlights the potential for speed scalar product to be a collective variable to distinguish different patterns of play (e.g., cooperative and competitive). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Suffering in Silence: Impact of Tobacco Use on Communication Dynamics Within Vietnamese and Chinese Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Tsoh, Janice Y; Nguyen, Tung T; McPhee, Stephen J; Burke, Nancy J

    2015-12-29

    The goal of this project was to explore family communication dynamics and their implications for smoking cessation. We conducted 39 in-depth dyadic and individual qualitative interviews with 13 immigrant smoker-family member pairs of Vietnamese (n = 9 dyads, 18 individuals) and Chinese (n = 4 dyads, 8 individuals) descent, including seven current and six former smokers and 13 family members. All 13 dyadic and 26 individual interviews were analyzed using a collaborative crystallization process as well as grounded theory methods. We identified three interrelated pathways by which tobacco use in immigrant Vietnamese and Chinese families impacts family processes and communication dynamics. Using a two-dimensional model, we illustrate how the shared consequences of these pathways can contribute to a dynamic of avoidance and noncommunication, resulting in individual family members "suffering in silence" and ultimately smoking being reinforced. We discuss the implications of these findings for development of smoking cessation interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Couples' joint decision-making: the construction and validation of a key proxy for understanding gender relations in contemporary families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender relations have become a key dimension in family studies, and understanding gender relations as both determining and resulting from outcome of new family configurations requires the use of specific surveys aimed at the dynamics of couples. Unfortunately, nationally representative surveys of this type are not available for Latin American countries. Nonetheless, the most recent versions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS include a section called "Women's Status and Empowerment", which can provide information about gender relations as well. This study aims at assessing the construct of gender relations in terms of couples' joint decision-making for all five Brazilian geographical regions. To this end, a step-by-step multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA was applied in order to verify whether this concept can be compared across Brazilian regions. Results show that the DHS items can be used reliably for measuring couples' joint decision-making and that this construct can be meaningfully compared over the regions. These findings will contribute to further demographic and sociological research on gender relations which can use this concept and other indicators provided by the DHS to identify the causal processes related to it.

  1. Pediatric SCI/D caregiver mental health and family dynamics in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Sarah T; Perrin, Paul B; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Otálvaro, Nadezda Yulieth Méndez; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between family dynamics and the mental health of caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D) caregivers from Colombia, South America. It was hypothesized that lower family functioning would be associated with poorer caregiver mental health. A cross-sectional study of self-report data collected from caregivers through the Hospital Universatario Hernando Moncaleano Perdomo in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty caregivers of children with SCI/D from Nevia, Colombia who were a primary caregiver for ≥3 months, providing care for an individual who was ≥6 months post-injury/diagnosis, familiar with the patient's history, and without neurological or psychiatric conditions. Caregivers' average age was 41.30 years (SD = 10.98), and 90% were female. Caregivers completed Spanish versions of instruments assessing their own mental health and family dynamics. Family dynamics explained 43.2% of the variance in caregiver burden and 50.1% of the variance in satisfaction with life, although family dynamics were not significantly associated with caregiver depression in the overall analysis. Family satisfaction was the only family dynamics variable to yield a significant unique association with any index of caregiver mental health (satisfaction with life). If similar findings emerge in future intervention research, interventions for pediatric SCI/D caregivers in Colombia and other similar global regions could benefit from including techniques to improve family dynamics, especially family satisfaction, given the strong potentially reciprocal connection between these dynamics and caregiver mental health. The degree of disability resulting from SCI/D can vary greatly depending on the severity and level of the lesion, though permanent impairment is often present that profoundly impacts both physical and psychological functioning. Very little is known about the impact of pediatric SCI/D in developing countries, despite the high rates of

  2. "El Miedo y El Hambre": Understanding the Familial, Social, and Educational Realities of Undocumented Latino Families in North Central Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viramontez Anguiano, Ruben P.; Lopez, Anayeli

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how different ecological factors, within and outside the family, affected the educational success of the children of undocumented families. The sample consisted of 63 immigrant Latino parents (40 families) who resided in North Central Indiana. This study utilized an ethnographic research design. Findings demonstrated that…

  3. Family narratives and migration dynamics : Barbadians to Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Chamberlain

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Uses life-story interviews of Barbadian migrant families in both Barbados and the UK to study the family as the tool and the material which creates and shapes historical mentalities and identities. The author shows how the links between family and migration continue to play a role in the motivation of migrants. Also published in Immigrants & Minorities 14(2 1995, p. 153-169

  4. Dynamic systems for everyone understanding how our world works

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asish

    2017-01-01

    Systems are everywhere and we are surrounded by them. We are a complex amalgam of systems that enable us to interact with an endless array of external systems in our daily lives. They are electrical, mechanical, social, biological, and many other types that control our environment and our well-being. By appreciating how these systems function, will broaden our understanding of how our world works. Readers from a variety of disciplines will benefit from the knowledge of system behavior they will gain from this book and will be able to apply those principles in various contexts. The treatment of the subject is non-mathematical, and the book considers some of the latest concepts in the systems discipline, such as agent based systems, optimization, and discrete events and procedures. The diverse range of examples provided in this book, will allow readers to: Apply system knowledge at work and in daily life without deep mathematical knowledge; Build models and simulate system behaviors on a personal computer; Opti...

  5. Understanding How to Support Family Caregivers of Seniors with Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Lesley; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette; Parmar, Jasneet; Johnson, Melissa; Sacrey, Lori-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and challenges of supporting family caregivers of seniors with complex needs and to outline support strategies and research priorities aimed at supporting them. Design and Methods A CIHR-funded, two-day conference entitled “Supporting Family Caregivers of Seniors: Improving Care and Caregiver Outcomes” was held. An integrated knowledge translation approach guided this planning conference. Day 1 included presentations of research evidence, followed by participant engagement Qualitative data was collected regarding facilitators, barriers/gaps, and recommendations for the provision of caregiver supports. Day 2 focused on determination of research priorities. Results Identified facilitators to the provision of caregiver support included accessibility of health-care and community-based resources, availability of well-intended health-care providers, and recognition of caregivers by the system. Barriers/gaps related to challenges with communication, access to information, knowledge of what is needed, system navigation, access to financial resources, and current policies. Recommendations regarding caregiver services and research revolved around assisting caregivers to self-identify and seek support, formalizing caregiver supports, centralizing resources, making system navigation available, and preparing the next generation for caregiving. Implication A better understanding of the needs of family caregivers and ways to support them is critical to seniors’ health services redesign. PMID:28690707

  6. Hypertension: The understanding of bearer’s users, enrolled and monitored in the family health units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilara Maria Mesquita Mendes Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High Blood Pressure (HBP occupies a prominent position, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as a multifactorial disease and mostly asymptomatic, that fundamentally endangers the promote life’s quality. The study aimed to portray the understanding of bearer’s users enrolled and monitored by the HIPERDIA program, in Family Health Units, about their pathology and thus be able to establish strategies that may be closer to their reality to propose policies to encourage the promotion of health. The study with qualitative approach, conducted in the municipality of Jequié -Bahia, with 08 Family Health Teams, with 152 users with hypertension. We used the semi-structured interview and the collective subject speech technique, which enabled us to reconstruct 04 speeches: DSC 01: "To me it is a terrible disease", DSC 02 "do not eat salt, do not eat fat”, DSC 03 "it is to have headaches, vertigo, it causes heart attack, it causes stroke" DSC 04 "I do not know what it exactly is", they reflect the understanding of the study subjects about their pathology. This leads us to think of health actions aimed at health education emerging the need for change in the approach and use of a common language between professionals and service users, ensuring the promotion of life’s quality and, consequently, the co-responsibility in the treatment adherence.

  7. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jennifer J; Perlesz, Amaryll; Schofield, Margot J; Pitts, Marian K; Brown, Rhonda; McNair, Ruth; Barrett, Anna; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2010-03-09

    While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family relationships and social supports. Further

  8. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNair Ruth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time

  9. Understanding pyrotechnic shock dynamics and response attenuation over distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Richard J.

    Pyrotechnic shock events used during stage separation on rocket vehicles produce high amplitude short duration structural response that can lead to malfunction or degradation of electronic components, cracks and fractures in brittle materials, local plastic deformation, and can cause materials to experience accelerated fatigue life. These transient loads propagate as waves through the structural media losing energy as they travel outward from the source. This work assessed available test data in an effort to better understand attenuation characteristics associated with wave propagation and attempted to update a historical standard defined by the Martin Marietta Corporation in the late 1960's using out of date data acquisition systems. Two data sets were available for consideration. The first data set came from a test that used a flight like cylinder used in NASA's Ares I-X program, and the second from a test conducted with a flat plate. Both data sets suggested that the historical standard was not a conservative estimate of shock attenuation with distance, however, the variation in the test data did not lend to recommending an update to the standard. Beyond considering attenuation with distance an effort was made to model the flat plate configuration using finite element analysis. The available flat plate data consisted of three groups of tests, each with a unique charge density linear shape charge (LSC) used to cut an aluminum plate. The model was tuned to a representative test using the lowest charge density LSC as input. The correlated model was then used to predict the other two cases by linearly scaling the input load based on the relative difference in charge density. The resulting model predictions were then compared with available empirical data. Aside from differences in amplitude due to nonlinearities associated with scaling the charge density of the LSC, the model predictions matched the available test data reasonably well. Finally, modeling best

  10. Dynamic use of geoscience information to develop scientific understanding for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository. Scientific understanding dependent upon information from a number of geoscience disciplines is described. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. The authors point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure

  11. Family stress dynamics, domestic violence and their combined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized the classical ABCX family crisis model in identifying how families perceive, interpret and react to various sources of stress confronting them and their perceived impact on their health. The study is timely because of the recent upsurge in domestic violence cases in Ghana, which are mainly attributable to ...

  12. Modeling Family Dynamics in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Burns, David D.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of children with genetic disorders and their unaffected siblings on family functioning. In this study, the reciprocal causal links between problem behaviors and maternal distress were investigated in 150 families containing a child with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and an unaffected sibling. Both children's…

  13. Mothe-Diniz Asteroid Dynamical Families V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe-Diniz, T.; Roig, F.; Carvano, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    This dataset contains an updated compilation of asteroid families and clusters, resulting from the application of the Hierarchical Clustering Method (HCM) on a set of around 120,000 asteroids with available proper elements. Whenever available, the classification in the Bus taxonomy is provided for family members, based on spectra from the SMASS, SMASS2 and S3OS2 spectroscopic surveys.

  14. Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Veenstra, R.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family

  15. Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family

  16. Can Dynamic Visualizations Improve Middle School Students' Understanding of Energy in Photosynthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visualizations have the potential to make abstract scientific phenomena more accessible and visible to students, but they can also be confusing and difficult to comprehend. This research investigates how dynamic visualizations, compared to static illustrations, can support middle school students in developing an integrated understanding of…

  17. Family structure and dynamics in DePalma's horror films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, N G

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the familial relationships in Brian DePalma's five major horror films reveals a persistent unconscious fantasy formation involving the nuclear family. These single-parent, only-child families are all tragically destroyed because of an inability to adequately mourn the absent parent. Although the asexual young adults in the films are spared the completely disastrous effects of madness and violence, they are still psychologically traumatized. This hidden subtextual theme involving the family parallels DePalma's bleak view of authority figures outside the home, as well as American society in general. Adequate identity formation requires that people both inside and outside the family accept the adolescent as a separate person. The grim psychological truth threading its way throughout DePalma's horror films is that these young adults are psychically devastated by the effects of a primitive, fused symbiotic relationship in interaction with a society that does not provide an adequate role for the developing person. Consequently, their attempt to psychologically move outside the family, which includes the maturation of their sexuality, results in the destruction of the family itself.

  18. Genograms and Family Sculpting: An Aid to Cross-Cultural Understanding in the Training of Psychology Students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti-Mercer, Maria C.; Cleaver, Glenda

    2000-01-01

    Describes a specific training method developed in a family therapy course at the University of Pretoria in South Africa, where genograms and family sculpting were used to improve cross-cultural understanding among psychology masters students. Discusses the theoretical implications of the group training process for the training of psychologists in…

  19. Housing as a way of life: towards an understanding of middle-class families' preferences for an urban residential location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Paddison, R.; Ostendorf, W.

    2010-01-01

    Housing studies show an overwhelming preference by middle-class families for suburban living locations. In this paper an atypical category, middle-class families living in the city, is addressed. The aim is to understand why these households disconnect the seemingly natural relationship between

  20. System Dynamics Model and Simulation of Employee Work-Family Conflict in the Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangdong; Duan, Kaifeng; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Jianlin; Wen, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry is a demanding work environment where employees’ work-family conflict is particularly prominent. This conflict has a significant impact on job and family satisfaction and performance of employees. In order to analyze the dynamic evolution of construction industry employee’s work-family conflict between work and family domains, this paper constructs a bi-directional dynamic model framework of work-family conflict by referring to the relevant literature. Consequently, a system dynamics model of employee’s work-family conflict in the construction industry is established, and a simulation is conducted. The simulation results indicate that construction industry employees experience work interference with family conflict (WIFC) levels which are significantly greater than the family interference with work conflict (FIWC) levels. This study also revealed that improving work flexibility and organizational support can have a positive impact on the satisfaction and performance of construction industry employees from a work and family perspective. Furthermore, improving family support can only significantly improve employee job satisfaction. PMID:27801857

  1. System Dynamics Model and Simulation of Employee Work-Family Conflict in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a demanding work environment where employees’ work-family conflict is particularly prominent. This conflict has a significant impact on job and family satisfaction and performance of employees. In order to analyze the dynamic evolution of construction industry employee’s work-family conflict between work and family domains, this paper constructs a bi-directional dynamic model framework of work-family conflict by referring to the relevant literature. Consequently, a system dynamics model of employee’s work-family conflict in the construction industry is established, and a simulation is conducted. The simulation results indicate that construction industry employees experience work interference with family conflict (WIFC levels which are significantly greater than the family interference with work conflict (FIWC levels. This study also revealed that improving work flexibility and organizational support can have a positive impact on the satisfaction and performance of construction industry employees from a work and family perspective. Furthermore, improving family support can only significantly improve employee job satisfaction.

  2. System Dynamics Model and Simulation of Employee Work-Family Conflict in the Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangdong; Duan, Kaifeng; Zuo, Jian; Yang, Jianlin; Wen, Shiping

    2016-10-28

    The construction industry is a demanding work environment where employees' work-family conflict is particularly prominent. This conflict has a significant impact on job and family satisfaction and performance of employees. In order to analyze the dynamic evolution of construction industry employee's work-family conflict between work and family domains, this paper constructs a bi-directional dynamic model framework of work-family conflict by referring to the relevant literature. Consequently, a system dynamics model of employee's work-family conflict in the construction industry is established, and a simulation is conducted. The simulation results indicate that construction industry employees experience work interference with family conflict (WIFC) levels which are significantly greater than the family interference with work conflict (FIWC) levels. This study also revealed that improving work flexibility and organizational support can have a positive impact on the satisfaction and performance of construction industry employees from a work and family perspective. Furthermore, improving family support can only significantly improve employee job satisfaction.

  3. Markov Processes: Exploring the Use of Dynamic Visualizations to Enhance Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuch, Maxine; Budgett, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to enhance introductory students' understanding of probability ideas and theory is a goal of many first-year probability courses. In this article, we explore the potential of a prototype tool for Markov processes using dynamic visualizations to develop in students a deeper understanding of the equilibrium and hitting times…

  4. Dynamic Allostery Mediated by a Conserved Tryptophan in the Tec Family Kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Chopra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk is a Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in immune signaling and is associated with the immunological disorder X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA. Our previous findings showed that the Tec kinases are allosterically activated by the adjacent N-terminal linker. A single tryptophan residue in the N-terminal 17-residue linker mediates allosteric activation, and its mutation to alanine leads to the complete loss of activity. Guided by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results, we have employed Molecular Dynamics simulations, Principal Component Analysis, Community Analysis and measures of node centrality to understand the details of how a single tryptophan mediates allostery in Btk. A specific tryptophan side chain rotamer promotes the functional dynamic allostery by inducing coordinated motions that spread across the kinase domain. Either a shift in the rotamer population, or a loss of the tryptophan side chain by mutation, drastically changes the coordinated motions and dynamically isolates catalytically important regions of the kinase domain. This work also identifies a new set of residues in the Btk kinase domain with high node centrality values indicating their importance in transmission of dynamics essential for kinase activation. Structurally, these node residues appear in both lobes of the kinase domain. In the N-lobe, high centrality residues wrap around the ATP binding pocket connecting previously described Catalytic-spine residues. In the C-lobe, two high centrality node residues connect the base of the R- and C-spines on the αF-helix. We suggest that the bridging residues that connect the catalytic and regulatory architecture within the kinase domain may be a crucial element in transmitting information about regulatory spine assembly to the catalytic machinery of the catalytic spine and active site.

  5. Understanding Referral Patterns for Bone Mineral Density Testing among Family Physicians: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. P. Munce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Evidence of inappropriate bone mineral density (BMD testing has been identified in terms of overtesting in low risk women and undertesting among patients at high risk. In light of these phenomena, the objective of this study was to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing among Ontario’s family physicians (FPs. Methods. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Twenty-two FPs took part in a semi-structured interview lasting approximately 30 minutes. An inductive thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data in order to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing. Results. We identified a lack of clarity about screening for osteoporosis with a tendency for baseline BMD testing in healthy, postmenopausal women and a lack of clarity on the appropriate age for screening for men in particular. A lack of clarity on appropriate intervals for follow-up testing was also described. Conclusions. These findings lend support to what has been documented at the population level suggesting a tendency among FPs to refer menopausal women (at low risk. Emphasis on referral of high-risk groups as well as men and further clarification and education on the appropriate intervals for follow-up testing is warranted.

  6. Bringing migrant domestic work literature into family studies: the intricate dynamics of au pair families

    OpenAIRE

    Pelechova, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores families with live in au pairs. In particular, it investigates the changes that families go through as a result of the addition of an au pair, as well as the means by which the host parents and au pairs negotiate their new circumstances of living and working together. \\ud From a theoretical perspective, the thesis is positioned between two bodies of literature, namely, those of migrant domestic work and family studies. Up until now, research conducted in relation to au pa...

  7. Observable-preserving control of quantum dynamics over a family of related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, Adam; Ho, T.-S.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2005-01-01

    Quantum control aims at the manipulation of atomic- and molecular-scale dynamics phenomena. An important objective in this regard is the understanding of dynamical control within a family of related quantum systems. To explore this issue, diffeomorphic changes in the system Hamiltonian H(s,t) are introduced by scanning over a homotopy parameter s and then monitoring the control field response needed to maintain the value of a specified target observable. This operation is implemented through a procedure referred to as diffeomorphic modulation under observable-response-preserving homotopy (D-MORPH). The governing D-MORPH differential equation determining the control laser field E(s,t) is shown to explicitly allow for innumerable solutions, with each characterized by the choice of an arbitrary function f(s,t) of s and time t. The presence of f(s,t) in the D-MORPH differential equation makes clear the origin of multiple control fields that produce the same observable objective. A stable algorithm is presented for practical execution of D-MORPH with the only criterion that the Hamiltonian H(s,t) permit reaching the objective over the full domain of s being sampled. Both analytic and numerical examples are presented to illustrate the D-MORPH concept

  8. Was Your Glass Left Half Full? Family Dynamics and Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Students' levels of a frequently studied adaptive schema (optimism) as a function of parenting variables (parental authority, family intrusiveness, parental overprotection, parentification, parental psychological control, and parental nurturance) were investigated. Results revealed that positive parenting styles were positively related to the…

  9. Time and inequality in labor and family dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Cano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The social changes in last decades have modified the time use of individuals. However, how time is used varies according to the position occupied within the social structure. This paper argues that the social inequality in the power over the time use is increasing among different socioeconomic statuses, while social policies are failing in their equalizer potential. To do so, this essay critically synthetizes three recent published books covering the cases of United States, France and Spain. Three elements that shape the social organization of time are being discussed: (a the dependency among different social groups in time’s control and the endogeneity between family time and work time; (b the ambivalence of flexibility regarding its relation with gender and socioeconomic status; and (c the need for a new assessment of the social policies designated to protect the workers’ family time.

  10. Family dynamics and housing: Conceptual issues and empirical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mulder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this reflection I discuss my conceptual ideas and the latest empirical findings regarding the connections between leaving the parental home, marriage, parenthood, and separation on the one hand, and housing on the other. I also discuss the limitations of the research and directions for future research. CONCLUSIONS Parental housing of good quality keeps specific categories of potential nest-leavers in the parental home, but is also positively associated with the likelihood of young adults starting their housing careers as homeowners. The connections between housing and marriage and between housing and parenthood can be characterized using the concepts of housing space, quality, and safety or security - all three of which married couples and families need more than singles - and flexibility, which couples and families need less. These four needs are strongly subject to social norms. There is a strong tendency for married couples and prospective families to move into home ownership and higher quality homes. Separation tends to lead ex-partners with lower moving costs and fewer resources to move from the joint home, and tends to lead to a longer lasting decrease in housing quality, particularly for women. Future research could focus on the impact of housing on the transformation of dating partnerships into co-residential partnerships, the impact of housing quality and home ownership on the quality of partner relationships, partnership and housing histories rather than single events and short-term effects, unraveling the causal connections between family and housing, and incorporating the impact of the socio-spatial context in the research.

  11. Microscopic dynamics in simple liquids: a clue to understanding the basic thermodynamics of the liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillo, C; Bermejo, F J; Maira-Vidal, A; Fernandez-Perea, R; Bennington, S M; Martin, D

    2004-01-01

    The advent of inelastic x-ray scattering techniques has prompted a reawakened interest in the dynamics of simple liquids. Such studies are often carried out using simplified models to account for the stochastic dynamics that give rise to quasielastic scattering. The vibrational and diffusive dynamics of molten potassium are studied here by an experiment using neutron scattering and are shown to provide some clues to understand the basic thermodynamics of the liquid state. The findings reported here suggest ways in which the true complementarity of neutron and x-ray scattering may be profitably exploited

  12. Understanding exit from the founder’s business in family firms”

    OpenAIRE

    C. Salvato; F. Chirico; P. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the role of family-specific factors in facilitating or constraining business exit in family firms. Family business literature seems to have an implicit bias towards continuity and persistence in the founder’s business. This is explained by heavy emotional involvement and development of path-dependent core competences over generations. However, several long-lived family firms were able to successfully exit the founder’s business. Exit allowed them to free signifi...

  13. Understanding Dysfunctional and Functional Family Behaviors for the At-Risk Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2000-01-01

    At-risk adolescents and their impact on families and society, as well as characteristics of both healthy and maladaptive families, are discussed. Cognitive distortions of dysfunctional adolescents and their effect on family members, along with methods for intervention and creating more healthy environments, are delineated from a systemic…

  14. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  15. Understanding the relationship between family communication and the development of weight stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Asbury

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examined the relationship between family communication and weight stigma. The Family Communication Patterns Theory was used as a framework to explain the relationships between two dimensions of family communication (i.e., conversation orientation and conformity orientation and antifat attitudes (i.e., physical unattractiveness and weight blame. Participants and procedure A total of 585 college-aged participants completed an on-line questionnaire. We used the following instruments: body mass index (BMI, Antifat Attitudes Scale (AFAT, Revised Family Communication Patterns Scale (RFCP. Results Significant relationships were found between the two dimensions of family communication and antifat attitudes. Conversation orientation was negatively associated with antifat attitudes and conformity orientation was positively associated with antifat attitudes. In addition, pluralistic families were less likely to stigmatize the overweight and obese by demonstrating less discrimination with physical attraction and personal weight blame. Conclusions These findings highlight the important association between family communication and antifat attitudes. Families that endorse a pluralistic family type (i.e., high conversation orientation and low conformity orientation appear to engage in the least amount of discrimination with regard to weight stigma. These families are not only less discriminating of others, they perhaps bring about more awareness and information to family members as compared to other family types.

  16. Understanding Adoptive Families: An Integrative Review of Empirical Research and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen M.; Zamostny, Kathy P.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to societal stereotypes about adoption, this integrative review of published empirical research on adoptive families noted several positive and few negative out-comes with regard to satisfaction with the adoption, familial functioning, and parent-child communication. The critical analysis of 38 studies on adoptive families revealed a…

  17. Understanding Conflict Dynamics: A Comparative Analysis of Ethno-Separatist Conflicts in India and the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a comparative analysis of three contemporary separatist conflicts in Asia: The Naga Insurgency, the Punjab Crisis and the Moro Rebellion. The objective of this thesis is the understanding of conflict dynamics: how and why conflicts escalate or de-escalate over time. Previous research

  18. Computer Assisted Comprehension of Distant Worlds: Understanding Hunger Dynamics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a computer program called RiskMap. Explains that after completing an assignment on rural economics and hunger dynamics in Africa, students showed an increased level of understanding and felt that using RiskMap was helpful in learning the material. Includes references. (DAJ)

  19. Dynamic Graphics in Excel for Teaching Statistics: Understanding the Probability Density Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll-Serrano, Vicente; Blasco-Blasco, Olga; Alvarez-Jareno, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we show a dynamic graphic in Excel that is used to introduce an important concept in our subject, Statistics I: the probability density function. This interactive graphic seeks to facilitate conceptual understanding of the main aspects analysed by the learners.

  20. Biometrics Technology: Understanding Dynamics Influencing Adoption for Control of Identification Deception within Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwatu, Gideon U.

    2011-01-01

    One of the objectives of any government is the establishment of an effective solution to significantly control crime. Identity fraud in Nigeria has generated global attention and negative publicity toward its citizens. The research problem addressed in this study was the lack of understanding of the dynamics that influenced the adoption and…

  1. Family Dynamics of the Stay-at-Home Father and Working Mother Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Cassie; Powell, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    A phenomenological qualitative study was utilized to explore family dynamics in stay-at-home father and working mother households. A total of 20 working mothers were asked to describe family interactions and daily routines with regard to their stay-at-home father and working mother dynamic. All participants were married, heterosexual women with biological children ages 1 to 4 and who worked outside the home and the father stayed home as primary caretaker and did not contribute financially. The study indicated that the family dynamic of a working mother and stay-at-home father provided a positive parent-child relationship, enhanced parenting cohesion, and enhanced quality time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Understanding ethnic/racial health disparities in youth and families in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize, ethnic and social class disparities are evident across a spectrum of markers of psychological, behavioral, and physical health. Furthermore, the pattern is often complex such that disparities are sometimes found within ethnic/racial groups as well as across those groups. Indeed, it is likely that the causes of health disparities may be different across specific subgroups. Moreover, theoretical models are needed that examine biological, contextual, and person-level variables (including culture-specific variables) to account for health disparities. The scholars in the present volume provide exemplary research that moves us towards more comprehensive and integrative models of health disparities. A brief glance at the work summarized by these scholars yields some common elements of focus for future researchers regarding risk (e.g., poverty, lack of contextual diversity) and protective (e.g., family support, cultural identity) factors yet they also identify aspects (e.g., genetic vulnerabilities) that may be unique to specific ethnic/racial groups. In addition to employing more integrative and culturally sensitive models of health disparities, future research studies could expand the scope of investigation to include transnational studies of health disparities and the processes contributing to them. They might also consider culture-specific health problems and syndromes such as "nervios" in Latino cultures. Within nations, further attention might be directed to the community contexts in which ethnic minority and low SES families reside, not only urban areas but the much less studied rural areas. Finally, efforts to assess health disparities and the factors contributing to them across cultural and ethnic groups need to attend closely to the issue of measurement equivalence in order to ensure valid cross-group comparisons. We would add that future research on health disparities will need to examine markers of positive health outcomes and well being (e

  3. Real and complex dynamics of a family of birational maps of the plane: the golden mean subshift

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, Eric; Diller, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    We give a detailed description of the dynamics of a family of birational mappings of the plane. The organizing theme of our analysis is that this family is essentially conjugate to the golden mean subshift.

  4. What an understanding of the dynamics of gossip has to teach about group dynamics and group leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Jerome S

    2014-01-01

    Although what transpires in group therapy is not gossip per se-except perhaps when absent or former members are discussed-listening to group interaction through an understanding of the dynamics of gossip can contribute to a greater appreciation of group dynamics and group leadership as well as enlarge therapeutic space. After examining the interpersonal dynamics of gossip, this paper discusses six ways in which an understanding of these dynamics can inform group leadership and shed light on group psychotherapy. Central features of gossip that appear in group interactions are explored: These include projection, displacement, self-esteem regulation, clarification of motivation, unself-consciousness, social comparison and bonding, avoidance of psychic pain, and making the ego-syntonic dystonic. The lively use of imagination in the mature phase of group therapy is conceived of as the time when the darker side of human nature-imagined gossip harnessed for therapeutic purposes-can be welcomed in and processed in a kind, playful, and compassionate manner.

  5. Diurnal Salivary Alpha-amylase Dynamics among Dementia Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Granger, Douglas A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Klein, Laura C.; Almeida, David M.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study examined diurnal regulation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in association with daily stressors, adult day services (ADS) use, and other caregiving characteristics. Methods A sample of 165 family caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) completed an 8-day diary study. Caregivers provided 5 saliva samples across the 8 days. On some days, caregivers provided all or most of the care. On other days, their relative attended ADS for part of the day. A 3-level unconditional linear spline model was fit to describe the typical sAA diurnal rhythms. Predictors were then added to the unconditional model to test the hypotheses on ADS use and daily stressors. Results Daily ADS use did not have an effect on diurnal sAA regulation. However, controlling for daily ADS use, greater ADS use over the 8 days was associated with a more prominent rise between 30 minutes after wake-up and before lunch, and a more prominent decline between before lunch and late afternoon. Fewer ADS days were associated with a more flattened sAA diurnal rhythm. Additionally, greater daily care-related stressor exposures had a within-person association with lower sAA levels in the late afternoon. Care-related stressor exposures had significant within- and between-person associations with sAA diurnal slopes. Furthermore, daily positive experiences had a significant between-person association with sAA diurnal slopes. Conclusions Caring for a disabled family member may heighten the vulnerability to potential physiological conditions. Respite from care stressors from ADS use may have some biobehavioral benefits on sAA regulations. PMID:27786517

  6. Understanding the association between employee satisfaction and family perceptions of the quality of care in hospice service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Grady S; Jones, Janet L; Churchman, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Families often draw their conclusions about the quality of care received by a family member during the last months of life from their interactions with professional caregivers. A more comprehensive understanding of how these relationships influence the care experience should include an investigation of the association between employee job satisfaction and family perception of the quality of care. This cross-sectional study investigated the association at a regional hospice. Using the Kendall's tau correlation, employee satisfaction scores for care teams trended toward a positive correlation with family overall satisfaction scores from the Family Evaluation of Hospice Care (tau=0.47, P=0.10). A trend for differences in employee satisfaction between the care teams to associate with differences in overall family perceptions of the quality of care also was found using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (chi(2)(K-W)=9.236, P=0.075). Post hoc tests indicated that overall family perceptions of quality of care differed between the hospice's Residence Team and Non-Hospice Facilities Team. Finally, positive associations between employee satisfaction and the families' Intent to recommend hospice (tau=0.55, P=0.059) and Inform and communicate about patient (tau=0.55, P=0.059) were noted. Selected employee and family comments provide complementarity to further clarify or explain the respondent data. These results suggest that employee satisfaction is associated with family perceptions of the quality of hospice care. Opportunities for improving both employee job satisfaction and family perceptions of the quality of care are discussed.

  7. Dynamic use of geoscience information to develop scientific understanding for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository require a proper scientific understanding of the site response. Such scientific understanding depends on information from a number of geoscience disciplines, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics and hydrogeology. The information comes in four stages: (1) general regional survey data base, (2) surface-based testing, (3) exploratory shaft testing, and (4) repository construction and evaluation. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. We point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure. 2 figs

  8. Psychological Flexibility as a Framework for Understanding and Improving Family Reintegration Following Military Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Emily K; Moyer, Danielle N; Armelie, Aaron P

    2015-10-01

    Postdeployment reintegration may present an exceptional challenge to service members and their families; yet, overcoming this challenge seems to strengthen family relationships through a shared sense of purpose. Navigating family reintegration may be an important determinant of long-term psychological well-being. If the needs of military families are to be answered effectively, it is of critical importance to identify the skills that facilitate positive reintegration following deployment. This article proposes psychological flexibility as a group of interrelated skills that could be directly intervened on to facilitate not only resilience but also positive growth and development. This paper focuses on the conceptualization of family reintegration in terms of psychological flexibility, including common deficits observed in this population and potential goals of treatment. Video Abstract. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. Transformation of High School Students' Understanding about Household Work : Through Home Economics Lessons Focused on Relationships with One's Family

    OpenAIRE

    Kishi, Noriko; Suzuki, Akiko; Takahashi, Miyoko

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to clarify learners' understanding about household work and to see how the objectives of Home Economics lessons are achieved. Lessons about household work which were focused on relationships with one's family were given in a high school. 119 student descriptions on lesson worksheets were analyzed. From these data, the learners' understanding was categorized into four domains: feeling, utility, valuing, and social domains. These domains had a hierarchical stru...

  10. Children in Beardslee's family intervention: relieved by understanding of parental mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala, Heljä; Sandlund, Mikael; Cederström, Anita

    2012-11-01

    Beardslee's family intervention (FI), which is a family-based preventive method for children of mentally ill parents, has been implemented on a national level in Sweden. Fourteen children and parents from nine families were interviewed about how the FI was for the children. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. A central finding was children's sense of relief and release from worry because of more knowledge and openness about the parent's illness in the family. The results indicating relief for the children are encouraging.

  11. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Blake, L; Casey, P; Golombok, S

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  12. HIV sexual risk behavior and family dynamics in a Dominican tourism town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Padilla, Mark; Cedar, Anna Lindberg; Lee, Jane; Robles, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Expansion of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had far-reaching health consequences for the local population. Research suggests families with one or more members living in tourism areas experience heightened vulnerability to HIV/STIs due to exposure to tourism environments, which can promote behaviors such as commercial and transactional sex and elevated alcohol use. Nevertheless, little is known about how tourism contexts influence family dynamics, which, in turn, shape HIV risk. This qualitative study examined family relationships through in-depth interviews with 32 adults residing in Sosúa, an internationally known destination for sex tourism. Interviewees situated HIV risk within a context of limited employment opportunities, high rates of migration, heavy alcohol use, and separation from family. This study has implications for effective design of health interventions that make use of the role of the family to prevent HIV transmission in tourism environments.

  13. HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Family Dynamics in a Dominican Tourism Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Padilla, Mark; Cedar, Anna Lindberg; Lee, Jane; Robles, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had far-reaching health consequences for the local population. Research suggests families with one or more members living in tourism areas experience heightened vulnerability to HIV/STIs due to exposure to tourism environments, which can promote behaviors such as commercial and transactional sex and elevated alcohol use. Nevertheless, little is known about how tourism contexts influence family dynamics, which, in turn, shape HIV risk. This qualitative study examined family relationships through in-depth interviews with 32 adults residing in Sosúa, an internationally known destination for sex tourism. Interviewees situated HIV risk within a context of limited employment opportunities, high rates of migration, heavy alcohol use, and separation from family. This study has implications for effective design of health interventions that make use of the role of the family to prevent HIV transmission in tourism environments. PMID:23436038

  14. Two Daddy Tigers and a Baby Tiger: Promoting Understandings about Same Gender Parented Families Using Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janette

    2012-01-01

    There is a small body of work examining how picture books can be used with young children and their families to develop understandings of contemporary issues including diversity and practices towards inclusion. This article describes a study in one New Zealand kindergarten that explored teachers' interpretations of children's responses to a…

  15. Extending Face-to-Face Interactions: Understanding and Developing an Online Teacher and Family Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Du, Jianxia; Sun, Li; Ding, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Technology has been quickly changing human interactions, traditional practices, and almost every aspect of our lives. It is important to maintain effective face-to-face communication and interactions between teachers and families. Nonetheless, technology and its tools can also extend and enhance family-teacher relationships and partnerships. This…

  16. Understanding Children's Sedentary Behaviour: A Qualitative Study of the Family Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's…

  17. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  18. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence during Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…

  19. Understanding Campus and Community Relationships through Marriage and Family Metaphors: A Town-Gown Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Fox, Michael; Martin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that the scholarship on marriages and families provides invaluable insights into town-gown relationships. Marital typologies are used to generate insights into what happens between campus and community relationships over time, and a line of family scholarship provides some additional illumination about the ways in which…

  20. The Integration of a Family Systems Approach for Understanding Youth Obesity, Physical Activity, and Dietary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Wilson, Dawn K.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah; Segal, Michelle; Fairchild, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Rates of overweight in youth have reached epidemic proportions and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Family-based programs have been widely used to treat overweight in youth. However, few programs incorporate a theoretical framework for studying a family systems approach in relation to youth health behavior change. Therefore, this…

  1. Parent Perspectives: Understanding Support Systems for Kindergarteners with Special Needs and Their Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okraski, Ronni

    2017-01-01

    Having a child with special needs can be overwhelming, emotionally draining and extremely stressful for parents and their family members. Research identifies the support systems families need in order to have quality-of-life. The current study uses mixed methods to evaluate the degree to which parents and other primary caregivers in Arizona view…

  2. Fearing Fat: A Literature Review of Family Systems Understandings and Treatments of Anorexia and Bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Kyle D.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature examining family variables associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and family systems treatments for these eating disorders. Presents definitions of and diagnostic criteria for anorexia and bulimia, and discusses prevalence of these disorders. Reviews role played by psychopathological, sociological, and…

  3. The Family Life Cycle and Critical Transitions: Utilizing Cinematherapy to Facilitate Understanding and Increase Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning successfully from one stage of development to the next in the family life cycle requires the accomplishment of certain developmental tasks. Couples and families who fail to accomplish these tasks often become "stuck" and unable to move forward. This impasse frequently leads to heightened stress reactions and crippled channels of…

  4. Intergenerational Learning at a Nature Center: Families Using Prior Experiences and Participation Frameworks to Understand Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; McClain, Lucy Richardson

    2014-01-01

    Using a sociocultural framework to approach intergenerational learning, this inquiry examines learning processes used by families during visits to one nature center. Data were collected from videotaped observations of families participating in an environmental education program and a follow-up task to draw the habitat of raptors. Based on a…

  5. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  6. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  7. Family lifestyle dynamics and childhood obesity: evidence from the millennium cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura A; Hernandez Alava, Monica; Kelly, Michael P; Campbell, Michael J

    2018-04-16

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has been increasing but the causes are not fully understood. Recent public health interventions and guidance aiming to reduce childhood obesity have focused on the whole family, as opposed to just the child but there remains a lack of empirical evidence examining this relationship. Using data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we investigate the dynamic relationship between underlying family lifestyle and childhood obesity during early childhood. The MCS interviewed parents shortly after the birth of their child and follow up interviews were carried out when the child was 3, 5 and 7 years. We use a dynamic latent factor model, an approach that allows us to identify family lifestyle, its evolution over time (in this case between birth and 7 years) and its influence on childhood obesity and other observable outcomes. We find that family lifestyle is persistent, 87.43% of families which were above the 95th percentile on the lifestyle distribution, remained above the 95th percentile when the child was 7 years old. Family lifestyle has a significant influence on all outcomes in the study, including diet, exercise and parental weight status; family lifestyle accounts for 11.3% of the variation in child weight by age 7 years. The analysis suggests that interventions should therefore be prolonged and persuasive and target the underlying lifestyle of a family as early as possible during childhood in order to have the greatest cumulative influence. Our results suggest that children from advantaged backgrounds are more likely to be exposed to healthier lifestyles and that this leads to inequalities in the prevalence of obesity. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, policy makers should target disadvantaged families and design interventions specifically for these families.

  8. A Theoretical Approach to Understanding Population Dynamics with Seasonal Developmental Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yijun; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing body of biological investigations to understand impacts of seasonally changing environmental conditions on population dynamics in various research fields such as single population growth and disease transmission. On the other side, understanding the population dynamics subject to seasonally changing weather conditions plays a fundamental role in predicting the trends of population patterns and disease transmission risks under the scenarios of climate change. With the host-macroparasite interaction as a motivating example, we propose a synthesized approach for investigating the population dynamics subject to seasonal environmental variations from theoretical point of view, where the model development, basic reproduction ratio formulation and computation, and rigorous mathematical analysis are involved. The resultant model with periodic delay presents a novel term related to the rate of change of the developmental duration, bringing new challenges to dynamics analysis. By investigating a periodic semiflow on a suitably chosen phase space, the global dynamics of a threshold type is established: all solutions either go to zero when basic reproduction ratio is less than one, or stabilize at a positive periodic state when the reproduction ratio is greater than one. The synthesized approach developed here is applicable to broader contexts of investigating biological systems with seasonal developmental durations.

  9. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V.; Blake, L.; Casey, P.; Golombok, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. RESULTS Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P surrogate mother's egg was used to conceive the child). Most families reported harmonious relationships with their surrogate mother. At age 10 years, 19 (90%) children who had been informed of the nature of their conception had a good understanding of this and 13 of the 14 children who were in contact with their surrogate reported that they liked her. CONCLUSIONS Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22814484

  10. Signal integration: a framework for understanding the efficacy of therapeutics targeting the human EGFR family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, H. Michael; Brdlik, Cathleen M.; Schreiber, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The human EGFR (HER) family is essential for communication between many epithelial cancer cell types and the tumor microenvironment. Therapeutics targeting the HER family have demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of diverse epithelial cancers. Here we propose that the success of HER family–targeted monoclonal antibodies in cancer results from their ability to interfere with HER family consolidation of signals initiated by a multitude of other receptor systems. Ligand/receptor systems that initiate these signals include cytokine receptors, chemokine receptors, TLRs, GPCRs, and integrins. We further extrapolate that improvements in cancer therapeutics targeting the HER family are likely to incorporate mechanisms that block or reverse stromal support of malignant progression by isolating the HER family from autocrine and stromal influences. PMID:18982164

  11. Understanding Response Rates to Surveys About Family Members' Psychological Symptoms After Patients' Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ann C; Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Ciechanowski, Paul; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-07-01

    Achieving adequate response rates from family members of critically ill patients can be challenging, especially when assessing psychological symptoms. To identify factors associated with completion of surveys about psychological symptoms among family members of critically ill patients. Using data from a randomized trial of an intervention to improve communication between clinicians and families of critically ill patients, we examined patient-level and family-level predictors of the return of usable surveys at baseline, three months, and six months (n = 181, 171, and 155, respectively). Family-level predictors included baseline symptoms of psychological distress, decisional independence preference, and attachment style. We hypothesized that family with fewer symptoms of psychological distress, a preference for less decisional independence, and secure attachment style would be more likely to return questionnaires. We identified several predictors of the return of usable questionnaires. Better self-assessed family member health status was associated with a higher likelihood and stronger agreement with a support-seeking attachment style with a lower likelihood, of obtaining usable baseline surveys. At three months, family-level predictors of return of usable surveys included having usable baseline surveys, status as the patient's legal next of kin, and stronger agreement with a secure attachment style. The only predictor of receipt of surveys at six months was the presence of usable surveys at three months. We identified several predictors of the receipt of surveys assessing psychological symptoms in family of critically ill patients, including family member health status and attachment style. Using these characteristics to inform follow-up mailings and reminders may enhance response rates. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding the mental health consequences of family separation for refugees: Implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R

    2018-01-01

    Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Challenges in microbial ecology: Building predictive understanding of community function and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widder, Stefanie; Allen, Rosalind J.; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The importance of microbial communities (MCs) cannot be overstated. MCs underpin the biogeochemical cycles of the earth's soil, oceans and the atmosphere, and perform ecosystem functions that impact plants, animals and humans. Yet our ability to predict and manage the function of these highly...... complex, dynamically changing communities is limited. Building predictive models that link MC composition to function is a key emerging challenge in microbial ecology. Here, we argue that addressing this challenge requires close coordination of experimental data collection and method development...... is needed to achieve significant progress in our understanding of MC dynamics and function, and we make specific practical suggestions as to how this could be achieved....

  14. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  15. Dynamics of Semantic and Word-Formation Subsystems of the Russian Language: Historical Dynamics of the Word Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ivanovna Dmitrieva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides comprehensive justification of the principles and methods of the synchronic and diachronic research of word-formation subsystems of the Russian language. The authors also study the ways of analyzing historical dynamics of word family as the main macro-unit of word-formation system. In the field of analysis there is a family of words with the stem 'ход-' (the meaning of 'motion', word-formation of which is investigated in different periods of the Russian literary language. Significance of motion-verbs in the process of forming a language picture of the world determined the character and the structure of this word family as one of the biggest in the history of the Russian language. In the article a structural and semantic dynamics of the word family 'ход-' is depicted. The results of the study show that in the ancient period the prefixes of verbal derivatives were formed, which became the apex-branched derivational paradigms existing in modern Russian. The old Russian period of language development is characterized by the appearance of words with connotative meaning (with suffixes -ishk-, -ichn-, as well as the words with possessive semantics (with suffixes –ev-, -sk-. In this period the verbs with the postfix -cz also supplement the analyzed word family. The period of formation of the National Russian language was marked by the loss of a large number of abstract nouns and the appearance of neologisms from some old Russian abstract nouns. The studied family in the modern Russian language is characterized by the following processes: the appearance of terms, the active semantic derivation, the weakening of word-formation variability, the semantic differentiation of duplicate units, the development of subsystem of words with connotative meanings, and the preservation of derivatives in all functional styles.

  16. Family members' caregiving situations in palliative home care when sitting service is received: The understanding of multiple realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstedt, Birgitta; Andershed, Birgitta; Benzein, Eva

    2014-12-01

    To deepen the understanding of the variation of complexity in family members' caregiving situations, when the private home is the place for care, dying, and sitting service. Seven relatives to a deceased family member from four different families were interviewed twice. Data were analyzed by direct interpretation and categorical aggregation. Various patterns of becoming a caregiver were showed, but family members' willingness to become family caregivers was strongly related to fulfilling the dying persons' wishes to be cared for in their own homes. Important factors for coping with the caregiving situation were their needs of support, the possibility to prepare for death related to a need of communication and planning, the length and predictability of the illness trajectory, and experiences of losses and grief. Sitting service was experienced as supportive for family caregivers when they had possibility to hand over care responsibilities, but as non-supportive when expected help not was received. Family members' experiences of caregiving and their degree of vulnerability must be different, depending on whether it is a self-selected position or an imposed task. In general, family members in this study were willing to participate in caregiving for end-of life care, but subject to their own conditions. One way to decrease vulnerability is to assess the resources and competence in relation to the responsibility the person is expected to assume. The support and other efforts to help family caregivers must be related to their specific needs and reality, not only to what the care organization can offer as a standard solution.

  17. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from age 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower-income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower-income families. PMID:25345342

  18. Understanding and use of nicotine replacement therapy and nonpharmacologic smoking cessation strategies among Chinese and Vietnamese smokers and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Icarus K; Tsoh, Janice Y; Wong, Ching; Le, Khanh; Cheng, Joyce W; Nguyen, Anthony N; Nguyen, Tung T; McPhee, Stephen J; Burke, Nancy J

    2014-02-20

    Population-based studies have reported high rates of smoking prevalence among Chinese and Vietnamese American men. Although nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective, recommended, and accessible without prescription, these populations underuse NRT for smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to assess understanding and use of NRT and nonpharmacologic treatments among Chinese and Vietnamese American male smokers and their families. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 smoker-family pairs, followed by individual interviews with each participant. A total of 39 interviews were conducted in Vietnamese or Chinese, recorded, translated, and transcribed into English for analysis. Four themes were identified: use and understanding of NRT, nonpharmacologic strategies, familial and religious approaches, and willpower. Both smokers and their family members believed strongly in willpower and a sense of personal responsibility as the primary drivers for stopping smoking. Lack of these 2 qualities keeps many Chinese and Vietnamese men from using NRT to quit smoking. Those who do use NRT often use it incorrectly, following their own preferences rather than product instructions. Our findings indicate the importance of culturally appropriate patient education about NRT. It may be necessary to teach smokers and their families at an individual level about NRT as a complementary approach that can strengthen their resolve to quit smoking. At a community level, public health education on the indication and appropriate use of evidence-based smoking cessation resources, such as NRT, would be an important component of effective tobacco control.

  19. Using social marketing to understand the family dinner with working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; DeBate, Rita D; Walvoord, Ashley G; Melton, Stephanie T; Himmelgreen, David; Allen, Tammy D; McDermott, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8-11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing focus groups and Atlas-ti software for thematic analysis. Lack of time, cost, and exhaustion/lack of energy emerged as barriers. Working mothers indicated that a youth-based organization operating as a community partner could increase the frequency of the family dinner by helping with homework completion during after-school care, thereby providing mothers with the time necessary to prepare dinner. This research identified both community partners and working mothers as valued resources for prevention strategies. Interventions developed to increase family dinner frequency should emphasize the perceived value while decreasing the costs/barriers.

  20. Resilience as a concept for understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Francesca; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Kendall, Sally; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-04-01

    This paper was a report of the synthesis of evidence on examining the origins and definitions of the concept of resilience, investigating its application in chronic illness management and exploring its utility as a means of understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Resilience is a concept that is becoming relevant to understanding how individuals and families live with illness, especially long-term conditions. Caregivers of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease must be able to respond to exacerbations of the condition and may themselves experience cognitive imbalances. Yet, resilience as a way of understanding family caregiving of adults with COPD is little explored. Literature review - integrative review. CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCO were searched between 1989-2015. The principles of rapid evidence assessment were followed. We identified 376 relevant papers: 20 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in family caregivers of chronic diseases patients but only 12 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in caregivers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients and have been included in the synthesis. The term resilience in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease caregiving is most often understood using a deficit model of health.

  1. Geophysical fluid dynamics understanding (almost) everything with rotating shallow water models

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitlin, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The book explains the key notions and fundamental processes in the dynamics of the fluid envelopes of the Earth (transposable to other planets), and methods of their analysis, from the unifying viewpoint of rotating shallow-water model (RSW). The model, in its one- or two-layer versions, plays a distinguished role in geophysical fluid dynamics, having been used for around a century for conceptual understanding of various phenomena, for elaboration of approaches and methods, to be applied later in more complete models, for development and testing of numerical codes and schemes of data assimilations, and many other purposes. Principles of modelling of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows, and corresponding approximations, are explained and it is shown how single- and multi-layer versions of RSW arise from the primitive equations by vertical averaging, and how further time-averaging produces celebrated quasi-geostrophic reductions of the model. Key concepts of geophysical fluid dynamics are exposed and inte...

  2. Young children’s understanding of angles in a dynamic geometry environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-01-01

    Angle is an important topic in geometry. It is a concept that children find challenging to learn, in part because of its multifaceted nature. The purpose of this study is to understand how children’s thinking about angles evolves as they participate in a classroom setting featuring the use of a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) in which the concept of angle as turn was privileged, a concept that does not require a quantitative dimension. Three research questions were proposed for the study, ...

  3. Dynamic Analytical Capability to Better Understand and Anticipate Extremist Shifts Within Populations under Authoritarian Regimes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to create a generalizable data- and theory-supported capability to better understand and anticipate (with quantifiable uncertainty): 1) how the dynamics of allegiance formations between various groups and society are impacted by active conflict and by third-party interventions and 2) how/why extremist allegiances co-evolve over time due to changing geopolitical, sociocultural, and military conditions.

  4. The general dynamic model of island biogeography revisited on the level of major plant families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzner, Bernd; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Patrick, Weigelt

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The general dynamic model (GDM) proposed by Whittaker et al. (2008) is a widely accepted theoretical framework in island biogeography. In this study, we explore whether GDM predictions hold when overall plant diversity is deconstructed into major plant families. Location: 101 islands from 14...... oceanic archipelagos worldwide. Methods: Occurrence data for all species of nine large, cosmopolitan flowering plant families were used to test predictions derived from the GDM. We analyzed the effects of island area and age on species richness as well as number and percentage of single-island endemic...... species per family using mixed-effect models. Results: Total species and endemic richness as well as the percentage of endemic species showed a hump-shaped relationship with island age. The overall pattern was mainly driven by few species-rich plant families. Varying patterns were found for individual...

  5. Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

    2006-06-08

    This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

  6. Using chemistry and microfluidics to understand the spatial dynamics of complex biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Christian J; Runyon, Matthew K; Lucchetta, Elena M; Price, Jessica M; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the spatial dynamics of biochemical networks is both fundamentally important for understanding life at the systems level and also has practical implications for medicine, engineering, biology, and chemistry. Studies at the level of individual reactions provide essential information about the function, interactions, and localization of individual molecular species and reactions in a network. However, analyzing the spatial dynamics of complex biochemical networks at this level is difficult. Biochemical networks are nonequilibrium systems containing dozens to hundreds of reactions with nonlinear and time-dependent interactions, and these interactions are influenced by diffusion, flow, and the relative values of state-dependent kinetic parameters. To achieve an overall understanding of the spatial dynamics of a network and the global mechanisms that drive its function, networks must be analyzed as a whole, where all of the components and influential parameters of a network are simultaneously considered. Here, we describe chemical concepts and microfluidic tools developed for network-level investigations of the spatial dynamics of these networks. Modular approaches can be used to simplify these networks by separating them into modules, and simple experimental or computational models can be created by replacing each module with a single reaction. Microfluidics can be used to implement these models as well as to analyze and perturb the complex network itself with spatial control on the micrometer scale. We also describe the application of these network-level approaches to elucidate the mechanisms governing the spatial dynamics of two networkshemostasis (blood clotting) and early patterning of the Drosophila embryo. To investigate the dynamics of the complex network of hemostasis, we simplified the network by using a modular mechanism and created a chemical model based on this mechanism by using microfluidics. Then, we used the mechanism and the model to

  7. [Considerations on family dynamics and the malnutrition syndrome in Mexican children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; González-Rico, José Luis; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Sánchez-Talamantes, Eva; Navarro-Lozano, María Eugenia; Nápoles-Rodríguez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s we noted that family dysfunction was more common in children with severe primary malnutrition than in children admitted to the hospital without malnutrition. Defects on feeding habits during the first year of life, especially early weaning and inadequate complementary feeding were more common in dysfunctional families. We also observed that chronic malnutrition in preschool children, and overweight and obesity in schoolchildren were more common in children from dysfunctional families. Once the association between dysfunctional family dynamics and obesity in schoolchildren was demonstrated, it was observed that low education of fathers and mothers increased twofold the possibility of family dysfunction: OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.37-3.10 and OR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.57-3.89, respectively. In addition, the low-income and the lower purchasing power of foods were associated to family dysfunction (pdysfunction in composite, extended, single-parent families where there exist other persons vulnerable to the different entities of malnutrition syndrome and indeed depend on adults for their care, food and nutrition.

  8. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T V; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly (P ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated (P ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  9. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions

  10. Understanding the causes and consequences of work-family conflict: an exploratory study of Nigerian employees

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa, Toyin Ajibade; Osabutey, Ellis L. C.; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - An important theme for a 21st century employee is a desire for work and family balance which is devoid of conflict. Drawing on detailed empirical research, this article examines the multi-faceted causes and consequences of work-family conflict in a non-western context (Nigeria). \\ud \\ud Methodology - The paper uses qualitative data gleaned from the semi-structured interviews of 88 employees (44 university lecturers and 44 medical doctors) in cities in the six geo-political zones of ...

  11. Mediated intimacy in families: understanding the relation between children and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsggaard, Thomas; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2006-01-01

    interaction phenomena that unfold between children and their parents. We used cultural probes and contextual interviews to investigate the intimate acts between children and parents in three families. Our findings show that the intimate act between children and parents share a number of similarities......Mediating intimacy between children and their parents is still limited investigated and at the same time, we find that, emerging technologies are about to change and affect the way we interact with each other. In this paper, we report from an empirical study where we investigated the social...... in families....

  12. Computational Cellular Dynamics Based on the Chemical Master Equation: A Challenge for Understanding Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Qian, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Modern molecular biology has always been a great source of inspiration for computational science. Half a century ago, the challenge from understanding macromolecular dynamics has led the way for computations to be part of the tool set to study molecular biology. Twenty-five years ago, the demand from genome science has inspired an entire generation of computer scientists with an interest in discrete mathematics to join the field that is now called bioinformatics. In this paper, we shall lay out a new mathematical theory for dynamics of biochemical reaction systems in a small volume (i.e., mesoscopic) in terms of a stochastic, discrete-state continuous-time formulation, called the chemical master equation (CME). Similar to the wavefunction in quantum mechanics, the dynamically changing probability landscape associated with the state space provides a fundamental characterization of the biochemical reaction system. The stochastic trajectories of the dynamics are best known through the simulations using the Gillespie algorithm. In contrast to the Metropolis algorithm, this Monte Carlo sampling technique does not follow a process with detailed balance. We shall show several examples how CMEs are used to model cellular biochemical systems. We shall also illustrate the computational challenges involved: multiscale phenomena, the interplay between stochasticity and nonlinearity, and how macroscopic determinism arises from mesoscopic dynamics. We point out recent advances in computing solutions to the CME, including exact solution of the steady state landscape and stochastic differential equations that offer alternatives to the Gilespie algorithm. We argue that the CME is an ideal system from which one can learn to understand "complex behavior" and complexity theory, and from which important biological insight can be gained.

  13. F-BAR family proteins, emerging regulators for cell membrane dynamic changes-from structure to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suxuan; Xiong, Xinyu; Zhao, Xianxian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2015-05-09

    Eukaryotic cell membrane dynamics change in curvature during physiological and pathological processes. In the past ten years, a novel protein family, Fes/CIP4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain proteins, has been identified to be the most important coordinators in membrane curvature regulation. The F-BAR domain family is a member of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily that is associated with dynamic changes in cell membrane. However, the molecular basis in membrane structure regulation and the biological functions of F-BAR protein are unclear. The pathophysiological role of F-BAR protein is unknown. This review summarizes the current understanding of structure and function in the BAR domain superfamily, classifies F-BAR family proteins into nine subfamilies based on domain structure, and characterizes F-BAR protein structure, domain interaction, and functional relevance. In general, F-BAR protein binds to cell membrane via F-BAR domain association with membrane phospholipids and initiates membrane curvature and scission via Src homology-3 (SH3) domain interaction with its partner proteins. This process causes membrane dynamic changes and leads to seven important cellular biological functions, which include endocytosis, phagocytosis, filopodium, lamellipodium, cytokinesis, adhesion, and podosome formation, via distinct signaling pathways determined by specific domain-binding partners. These cellular functions play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. We further summarize F-BAR protein expression and mutation changes observed in various diseases and developmental disorders. Considering the structure feature and functional implication of F-BAR proteins, we anticipate that F-BAR proteins modulate physiological and pathophysiological processes via transferring extracellular materials, regulating cell trafficking and mobility, presenting antigens, mediating extracellular matrix degradation, and transmitting

  14. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  15. Understanding the Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents: Child, Family, and Community Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…

  16. Understanding Hong Kong Chinese Families' Experiences of an Autism/ASD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen; Fung, Francis; Hu, Aihua; Sweller, Naomi; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the experience of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) living in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Seventy-five parents of children (aged 6 months-18 years) with ASD diagnoses completed the Family Quality of Life Scale. Forty-five parents from the original surveyed cohort, also…

  17. Understanding children's sedentary behaviour: a qualitative study of the family home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's electronic-based SB. Focus groups and family interviews were conducted with 11- to 12-year old children (n = 54) and their parents (n = 38) using a semi-structured discussion guide. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic content approach. A brief self-completed questionnaire was also used to measure leisure behaviour and electronic devices at home. Children incorporated both sedentary and physical activities into their weekly routine. Factors influencing children's EM use included parent and sibling modelling and reinforcement, personal cognitions, the physical home environment and household EM use rules and restrictions. Participants were not concerned about the excessive time children spent with EM. This under-recognition emerged as a personal influencing factor and was viewed as a major barrier to modifying children's electronic-based SB. Efforts to reduce SB in children should focus on the influencing factors that reciprocally interact within the family home. An emphasis on increasing awareness about the risks associated with spending excessive time in screen-based activities should be a priority when developing intervention strategies aimed at modifying the time children spend in SB.

  18. Family Mathematics Nights: An Opportunity to Improve Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Parents' Roles and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofferding, Laura; Kastberg, Signe; Hoffman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Providing preservice teachers with opportunities to engage with parents and begin to see them as collaborators in their children's education is a persistent challenge in mathematics methods courses and teacher preparation programs more broadly. We describe the use of family mathematics nights as a model for engaging parents and preservice…

  19. Understanding and reaching family forest owners: lessons from social marketing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Mary Tyrrell; Geoff Feinberg; Scott VanManen; Larry Wiseman; Scott Wallinger

    2007-01-01

    Social marketing--the use of commercial marketing techniques to effect positive social change--is a promising means by which to develop more effective and efficient outreach, policies, and services for family forest owners. A hierarchical, multivariate analysis based on landowners' attitudes reveals four groups of owners to whom programs can be tailored: woodland...

  20. Toward Understanding the Dynamics of Microbial Communities in an Estuarine System

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng; Bougouffa, Salim; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Yang, Jiangke; Chan, Colin; Song, Xingyu; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Community assembly theories such as species sorting theory provide a framework for understanding the structures and dynamics of local communities. The effect of theoretical mechanisms can vary with the scales of observation and effects of specific environmental factors. Based on 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, different structures and temporal succession patterns were discovered between the surface sediments and bottom water microbial communities in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). The microbial communities in the surface sediment samples were more diverse than those in the bottom water samples, and several genera were specific for the water or sediment communities. Moreover, water temperature was identified as the main variable driving community dynamics and the microbial communities in the sediment showed a greater temporal change. We speculate that nutrient-based species sorting and bacterial plasticity to the temperature contribute to the variations observed between sediment and water communities in the PRE. This study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the microbial community structures in a highly dynamic estuarine system and sheds light on the applicability of ecological theoretical mechanisms.

  1. Energy landscape scheme for an intuitive understanding of complex domain dynamics in ferroelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heon; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Baek, Seung Hyub; Park, Woong-kyu; Yang, Sang Mo; Yup Jang, Seung; Min, Taeyuun; Chung, Jin-Seok; Eom, Chang-Beom; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-07-01

    Fundamental understanding of domain dynamics in ferroic materials has been a longstanding issue because of its relevance to many systems and to the design of nanoscale domain-wall devices. Despite many theoretical and experimental studies, a full understanding of domain dynamics still remains incomplete, partly due to complex interactions between domain-walls and disorder. We report domain-shape-preserving deterministic domain-wall motion, which directly confirms microscopic return point memory, by observing domain-wall breathing motion in ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin film using stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. Spatial energy landscape that provides new insights into domain dynamics is also mapped based on the breathing motion of domain walls. The evolution of complex domain structure can be understood by the process of occupying the lowest available energy states of polarization in the energy landscape which is determined by defect-induced internal fields. Our result highlights a pathway for the novel design of ferroelectric domain-wall devices through the engineering of energy landscape using defect-induced internal fields such as flexoelectric fields.

  2. Energy landscape scheme for an intuitive understanding of complex domain dynamics in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heon Kim, Tae; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Hyub Baek, Seung; Park, Woong-Kyu; Mo Yang, Sang; Yup Jang, Seung; Min, Taeyuun; Chung, Jin-Seok; Eom, Chang-Beom; Won Noh, Tae

    2015-07-01

    Fundamental understanding of domain dynamics in ferroic materials has been a longstanding issue because of its relevance to many systems and to the design of nanoscale domain-wall devices. Despite many theoretical and experimental studies, a full understanding of domain dynamics still remains incomplete, partly due to complex interactions between domain-walls and disorder. We report domain-shape-preserving deterministic domain-wall motion, which directly confirms microscopic return point memory, by observing domain-wall breathing motion in ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin film using stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. Spatial energy landscape that provides new insights into domain dynamics is also mapped based on the breathing motion of domain walls. The evolution of complex domain structure can be understood by the process of occupying the lowest available energy states of polarization in the energy landscape which is determined by defect-induced internal fields. Our result highlights a pathway for the novel design of ferroelectric domain-wall devices through the engineering of energy landscape using defect-induced internal fields such as flexoelectric fields.

  3. Toward understanding the dynamics of microbial communities in an estuarine system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Zhang

    Full Text Available Community assembly theories such as species sorting theory provide a framework for understanding the structures and dynamics of local communities. The effect of theoretical mechanisms can vary with the scales of observation and effects of specific environmental factors. Based on 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, different structures and temporal succession patterns were discovered between the surface sediments and bottom water microbial communities in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE. The microbial communities in the surface sediment samples were more diverse than those in the bottom water samples, and several genera were specific for the water or sediment communities. Moreover, water temperature was identified as the main variable driving community dynamics and the microbial communities in the sediment showed a greater temporal change. We speculate that nutrient-based species sorting and bacterial plasticity to the temperature contribute to the variations observed between sediment and water communities in the PRE. This study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the microbial community structures in a highly dynamic estuarine system and sheds light on the applicability of ecological theoretical mechanisms.

  4. Toward Understanding the Dynamics of Microbial Communities in an Estuarine System

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2014-04-14

    Community assembly theories such as species sorting theory provide a framework for understanding the structures and dynamics of local communities. The effect of theoretical mechanisms can vary with the scales of observation and effects of specific environmental factors. Based on 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, different structures and temporal succession patterns were discovered between the surface sediments and bottom water microbial communities in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). The microbial communities in the surface sediment samples were more diverse than those in the bottom water samples, and several genera were specific for the water or sediment communities. Moreover, water temperature was identified as the main variable driving community dynamics and the microbial communities in the sediment showed a greater temporal change. We speculate that nutrient-based species sorting and bacterial plasticity to the temperature contribute to the variations observed between sediment and water communities in the PRE. This study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the microbial community structures in a highly dynamic estuarine system and sheds light on the applicability of ecological theoretical mechanisms.

  5. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  6. Physiology in Medicine: Understanding dynamic alveolar physiology to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Gary F; Satalin, Josh; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Andrews, Penny; Aiash, Hani; Habashi, Nader M; Gatto, Louis A

    2017-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a serious clinical problem with the main treatment being supportive in the form of mechanical ventilation. However, mechanical ventilation can be a double-edged sword: if set improperly, it can exacerbate the tissue damage caused by ARDS; this is known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To minimize VILI, we must understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of tissue damage at the alveolar level. In this Physiology in Medicine paper, the dynamic physiology of alveolar inflation and deflation during mechanical ventilation will be reviewed. In addition, the pathophysiologic mechanisms of VILI will be reviewed, and this knowledge will be used to suggest an optimal mechanical breath profile (MB P : all airway pressures, volumes, flows, rates, and the duration that they are applied at both inspiration and expiration) necessary to minimize VILI. Our review suggests that the current protective ventilation strategy, known as the "open lung strategy," would be the optimal lung-protective approach. However, the viscoelastic behavior of dynamic alveolar inflation and deflation has not yet been incorporated into protective mechanical ventilation strategies. Using our knowledge of dynamic alveolar mechanics (i.e., the dynamic change in alveolar and alveolar duct size and shape during tidal ventilation) to modify the MB P so as to minimize VILI will reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. What shakes the FX tree? Understanding currency dominance, dependence, and dynamics (Keynote Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; McDonald, Mark; Suleman, Omer; Williams, Stacy; Howison, Sam

    2005-05-01

    There is intense interest in understanding the stochastic and dynamical properties of the global Foreign Exchange (FX) market, whose daily transactions exceed one trillion US dollars. This is a formidable task since the FX market is characterized by a web of fluctuating exchange rates, with subtle inter-dependencies which may change in time. In practice, traders talk of particular currencies being 'in play' during a particular period of time -- yet there is no established machinery for detecting such important information. Here we apply the construction of Minimum Spanning Trees (MSTs) to the FX market, and show that the MST can capture important features of the global FX dynamics. Moreover, we show that the MST can help identify momentarily dominant and dependent currencies.

  8. Understanding role of genome dynamics in host adaptation of gut commensal, L. reuteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus reuteri is a gram-positive gut commensal and exhibits noteworthy adaptation to its vertebrate hosts. Host adaptation is often driven by inter-strain genome dynamics like expansion of insertion sequences that lead to acquisition and loss of gene(s and creation of large dynamic regions. In this regard we carried in-house genome sequencing of large number of L. reuteri strains origination from human, chicken, pig and rodents. We further next generation sequence data in understanding invasion and expansion of an IS element in shaping genome of strains belonging to human associated lineage. Finally, we share our experience in high-throughput genomic library preparation and generating high quality sequence data of a very low GC bacterium like L. reuteri.

  9. Derecho u Obligacion?: Parents' and Youths' Understanding of Parental Legitimacy in a Mexican Origin Familial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leticia

    2007-01-01

    This study draws from a social domain framework to explore judgments of parental authority in a Mexican origin familial context. The sample included 277 ninth-grade youth (M = 14.53 years, SD = 0.61) and one of each of their parents. The average age of mothers was 39.88 years (SD = 5.85), and for fathers it was 41.65 years (SD = 5.51). As…

  10. Translation of an instrument. The US-Nordic Family Dynamics Nursing Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M; Elander, G

    1992-01-01

    Translation of a research instrument questionnaire from English to another language is analyzed in relation to principles involved, procedures followed, and problems confronted by nurse researchers from the US-Nordic Family Dynamics Nursing Research Project. Of paramount importance in translation are translation equivalency, congruent value orientation, and careful use of colloquialisms. It is important to recognize that copyright guidelines apply in the translation of an instrument. Approaches to solving instrument translation problems are discussed.

  11. Asymmetric Dynamic Attunement of Speech and Gestures in the Construction of Children's Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge-Hoekstra, Lisette; Van der Steen, Steffie; Van Geert, Paul; Cox, Ralf F A

    2016-01-01

    As children learn they use their speech to express words and their hands to gesture. This study investigates the interplay between real-time gestures and speech as children construct cognitive understanding during a hands-on science task. 12 children (M = 6, F = 6) from Kindergarten (n = 5) and first grade (n = 7) participated in this study. Each verbal utterance and gesture during the task were coded, on a complexity scale derived from dynamic skill theory. To explore the interplay between speech and gestures, we applied a cross recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) to the two coupled time series of the skill levels of verbalizations and gestures. The analysis focused on (1) the temporal relation between gestures and speech, (2) the relative strength and direction of the interaction between gestures and speech, (3) the relative strength and direction between gestures and speech for different levels of understanding, and (4) relations between CRQA measures and other child characteristics. The results show that older and younger children differ in the (temporal) asymmetry in the gestures-speech interaction. For younger children, the balance leans more toward gestures leading speech in time, while the balance leans more toward speech leading gestures for older children. Secondly, at the group level, speech attracts gestures in a more dynamically stable fashion than vice versa, and this asymmetry in gestures and speech extends to lower and higher understanding levels. Yet, for older children, the mutual coupling between gestures and speech is more dynamically stable regarding the higher understanding levels. Gestures and speech are more synchronized in time as children are older. A higher score on schools' language tests is related to speech attracting gestures more rigidly and more asymmetry between gestures and speech, only for the less difficult understanding levels. A higher score on math or past science tasks is related to less asymmetry between gestures and

  12. Asymmetric dynamic attunement of speech and gestures in the construction of children’s understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette eDe Jonge-Hoekstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As children learn they use their speech to express words and their hands to gesture. This study investigates the interplay between real-time gestures and speech as children construct cognitive understanding during a hands-on science task. 12 children (M = 6, F = 6 from Kindergarten (n = 5 and first grade (n = 7 participated in this study. Each verbal utterance and gesture during the task were coded, on a complexity scale derived from dynamic skill theory. To explore the interplay between speech and gestures, we applied a cross recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA to the two coupled time series of the skill levels of verbalizations and gestures. The analysis focused on 1 the temporal relation between gestures and speech, 2 the relative strength and direction of the interaction between gestures and speech, 3 the relative strength and direction between gestures and speech for different levels of understanding, and 4 relations between CRQA measures and other child characteristics. The results show that older and younger children differ in the (temporal asymmetry in the gestures-speech interaction. For younger children, the balance leans more towards gestures leading speech in time, while the balance leans more towards speech leading gestures for older children. Secondly, at the group level, speech attracts gestures in a more dynamically stable fashion than vice versa, and this asymmetry in gestures and speech extends to lower and higher understanding levels. Yet, for older children, the mutual coupling between gestures and speech is more dynamically stable regarding the higher understanding levels. Gestures and speech are more synchronized in time as children are older. A higher score on schools’ language tests is related to speech attracting gestures more rigidly and more asymmetry between gestures and speech, only for the less difficult understanding levels. A higher score on math or past science tasks is related to less asymmetry between

  13. Dynamics of a new family of iterative processes for quadratic polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Hernández, M. A.; Romero, N.

    2010-03-01

    In this work we show the presence of the well-known Catalan numbers in the study of the convergence and the dynamical behavior of a family of iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations. In fact, we introduce a family of methods, depending on a parameter . These methods reach the order of convergence m+2 when they are applied to quadratic polynomials with different roots. Newton's and Chebyshev's methods appear as particular choices of the family appear for m=0 and m=1, respectively. We make both analytical and graphical studies of these methods, which give rise to rational functions defined in the extended complex plane. Firstly, we prove that the coefficients of the aforementioned family of iterative processes can be written in terms of the Catalan numbers. Secondly, we make an incursion into its dynamical behavior. In fact, we show that the rational maps related to these methods can be written in terms of the entries of the Catalan triangle. Next we analyze its general convergence, by including some computer plots showing the intricate structure of the Universal Julia sets associated with the methods.

  14. Understanding Dynamic Model Validation of a Wind Turbine Generator and a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Zhang, Ying Chen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Kosterev, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    Regional reliability organizations require power plants to validate the dynamic models that represent them to ensure that power systems studies are performed to the best representation of the components installed. In the process of validating a wind power plant (WPP), one must be cognizant of the parameter settings of the wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the operational settings of the WPP. Validating the dynamic model of a WPP is required to be performed periodically. This is because the control parameters of the WTGs and the other supporting components within a WPP may be modified to comply with new grid codes or upgrades to the WTG controller with new capabilities developed by the turbine manufacturers or requested by the plant owners or operators. The diversity within a WPP affects the way we represent it in a model. Diversity within a WPP may be found in the way the WTGs are controlled, the wind resource, the layout of the WPP (electrical diversity), and the type of WTGs used. Each group of WTGs constitutes a significant portion of the output power of the WPP, and their unique and salient behaviors should be represented individually. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the process of dynamic model validations of WTGs and WPPs, the available data recorded that must be screened before it is used for the dynamic validations, and the assumptions made in the dynamic models of the WTG and WPP that must be understood. Without understanding the correct process, the validations may lead to the wrong representations of the WTG and WPP modeled.

  15. Dynamic Changes in Yeast Phosphatase Families Allow for Specialization in Phosphate and Thiamine Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, John V; Iosue, Christine L; Shaik, Noor F; Selhorst, Kathleen; He, Bin Z; Wykoff, Dennis D

    2018-05-10

    Convergent evolution is often due to selective pressures generating a similar phenotype. We observe relatively recent duplications in a spectrum of Saccharomycetaceae yeast species resulting in multiple phosphatases that are regulated by different nutrient conditions - thiamine and phosphate starvation. This specialization is both transcriptional and at the level of phosphatase substrate specificity. In Candida glabrata , loss of the ancestral phosphatase family was compensated by the co-option of a different histidine phosphatase family with three paralogs. Using RNA-seq and functional assays, we identify one of these paralogs, CgPMU3 , as a thiamine phosphatase. We further determine that the 81% identical paralog CgPMU2 does not encode thiamine phosphatase activity; however, both are capable of cleaving the phosphatase substrate, 1-napthyl-phosphate. We functionally demonstrate that members of this family evolved novel enzymatic functions for phosphate and thiamine starvation, and are regulated transcriptionally by either nutrient condition, and observe similar trends in other yeast species. This independent, parallel evolution involving two different families of histidine phosphatases suggests that there were likely similar selective pressures on multiple yeast species to recycle thiamine and phosphate. In this work, we focused on duplication and specialization, but there is also repeated loss of phosphatases, indicating that the expansion and contraction of the phosphatase family is dynamic in many Ascomycetes. The dynamic evolution of the phosphatase gene families is perhaps just one example of how gene duplication, co-option, and transcriptional and functional specialization together allow species to adapt to their environment with existing genetic resources. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  16. Modeling systems-level dynamics: Understanding without mechanistic explanation in integrative systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Miles; Nersessian, Nancy J

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we draw upon rich ethnographic data of two systems biology labs to explore the roles of explanation and understanding in large-scale systems modeling. We illustrate practices that depart from the goal of dynamic mechanistic explanation for the sake of more limited modeling goals. These processes use abstract mathematical formulations of bio-molecular interactions and data fitting techniques which we call top-down abstraction to trade away accurate mechanistic accounts of large-scale systems for specific information about aspects of those systems. We characterize these practices as pragmatic responses to the constraints many modelers of large-scale systems face, which in turn generate more limited pragmatic non-mechanistic forms of understanding of systems. These forms aim at knowledge of how to predict system responses in order to manipulate and control some aspects of them. We propose that this analysis of understanding provides a way to interpret what many systems biologists are aiming for in practice when they talk about the objective of a "systems-level understanding." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic hyperbolic geometry: building intuition and understanding mediated by a Euclidean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Armella, Luis; Brady, Corey; Elizondo-Ramirez, Rubén

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores a deep transformation in mathematical epistemology and its consequences for teaching and learning. With the advent of non-Euclidean geometries, direct, iconic correspondences between physical space and the deductive structures of mathematical inquiry were broken. For non-Euclidean ideas even to become thinkable the mathematical community needed to accumulate over twenty centuries of reflection and effort: a precious instance of distributed intelligence at the cultural level. In geometry education after this crisis, relations between intuitions and geometrical reasoning must be established philosophically, rather than taken for granted. One approach seeks intuitive supports only for Euclidean explorations, viewing non-Euclidean inquiry as fundamentally non-intuitive in nature. We argue for moving beyond such an impoverished approach, using dynamic geometry environments to develop new intuitions even in the extremely challenging setting of hyperbolic geometry. Our efforts reverse the typical direction, using formal structures as a source for a new family of intuitions that emerge from exploring a digital model of hyperbolic geometry. This digital model is elaborated within a Euclidean dynamic geometry environment, enabling a conceptual dance that re-configures Euclidean knowledge as a support for building intuitions in hyperbolic space-intuitions based not directly on physical experience but on analogies extending Euclidean concepts.

  18. Improved Understanding of Implosion Symmetry through New Experimental Techniques Connecting Hohlraum Dynamics with Laser Beam Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Joseph; Salmonson, Jay; Dewald, Eduard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Edwards, John; Graziani, Frank; Hurricane, Omar; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Masse, Laurent; MacLaren, Stephen; Meezan, Nathan; Moody, John; Parrilla, Nicholas; Pino, Jesse; Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Understanding what affects implosion symmetry has been a challenge for scientists designing indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). New experimental techniques and data analysis have been employed aimed at improving our understanding of the relationship between hohlraum dynamics and implosion symmetry. Thin wall imaging data allows for time-resolved imaging of 10 keV Au l-band x-rays providing for the first time on the NIF, a spatially resolved measurement of laser deposition with time. In the work described here, we combine measurements from the thin wall imaging with time resolved views of the interior of the hohlraum. The measurements presented are compared to hydrodynamic simulations as well as simplified physics models. The goal of this work is to form a physical picture that better explains the relationship of the hohlraum dynamics and capsule ablator on laser beam propagation and implosion symmetry. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. In Their Own Words: How Family Carers of People with Dementia Understand Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Moyle, Wendy; Taylor, Tara; Creese, Jennifer; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie

    2017-08-21

    There is a growing body of research on resilience in family carers of people with dementia, but carers' voices are noticeably absent from it. The aim of this study was to explore carers' definitions of resilience and their opinions on the factors associated with resilience. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted in Australia with people who were currently, or had previously been, caring for a family member with dementia. Transcripts were analysed thematically and three themes emerged: the presence of resilience, the path to resilience, and characteristics of the resilient carer. Although carers struggled to define resilience, the vast majority considered themselves resilient. Carers identified a range of traits, values, environments, resources, and behaviours associated with resilience, but there was no consensus on the relative importance or causal nature of these factors. Carers also considered resilience to be domain- and context-specific, but did not agree on whether resilience was a trait or a process. These findings highlight both the importance of including carers' voices in resilience research and the limitations of the extant literature. There is much to be done to develop a field of carer resilience research that is theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous, and reflects the lived experience of carers. A model is provided to prompt future research.

  20. Understanding Collectivism and Female Genital Cutting through a Family Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study is a test of the effectiveness of a classroom role-playing exercise used to increase the understanding of cultural practices with which many Midwestern college students are uncomfortable. I employed a pre-test/post-test comparison group design. Students enrolled in two sections of a general education global issues course (N = 56) were…

  1. Filling the Glass: Gender Perspectives on Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Myra Marx

    2010-01-01

    The challenge feminist scholarship posed to family studies has been largely met through the incorporation of research on gender dynamics within families and intersectional differences among them. Despite growing attention to gender as performance and power in more diverse families, the more difficult work of understanding the dynamics of change…

  2. Gender consistency and flexibility: using dynamics to understand the relationship between gender and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D; Martin, Carol L; Hessler, Eric E; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Hanish, Laura D; Fabes, Richard A

    2012-04-01

    Controversy surrounds questions regarding the influence of being gender consistent (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that are consistent with one's biological sex) versus being gender flexible (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that vary from masculine to feminine as circumstances arise) on children's adjustment outcomes, such as self-esteem, positive emotion, or behavior problems. Whereas evidence supporting the consistency hypothesis is abundant, little support exists for the flexibility hypothesis. To shed new light on the flexibility hypothesis, we explored children's gendered behavior from a dynamical perspective that highlighted variability and flexibility in addition to employing a conventional approach that emphasized stability and consistency. Conventional mean-level analyses supported the consistency hypothesis by revealing that gender atypical behavior was related to greater maladjustment, and dynamical analyses supported the flexibility hypothesis by showing that flexibility of gendered behavior over time was related to positive adjustment. Integrated analyses showed that gender typical behavior was related to the adjustment of children who were behaviorally inflexible, but not for those who were flexible. These results provided a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between gendered behavior and adjustment in young children and illustrated for the first time the feasibility of applying dynamical analyses to the study of gendered behavior.

  3. Applying non-linear dynamics to atrial appendage flow data to understand and characterize atrial arrhythmia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Grimm, R.A.; Katz, R.; Thomas, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand and characterize left atrial appendage flow in atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation and flutter are the most common cardiac arrhythmias affecting 15% of the older population. The pulsed Doppler velocity profile data was recorded from the left atrial appendage of patients using transesophageal echocardiography. The data was analyzed using Fourier analysis and nonlinear dynamical tools. Fourier analysis showed that appendage mechanical frequency (f f ) for patients in sinus rhythm was always lower (around1 Hz) than that in atrial fibrillation (5-8 Hz). Among patients with atrial fibrillation spectral power below f f was significantly different suggesting variability within this group of patients. Results that suggested the presence of nonlinear dynamics were: a) the existence of two arbitrary peak frequencies f 1 , f 2 , and other peak frequencies as linear combinations thereof (mf 1 ±nf 2 ), and b) the similarity between the spectrum of patient data and that obtained using the Lorenz equation. Nonlinear analysis tools, including Phase plots and differential radial plots, were also generated from the velocity data using a delay of 10. In the phase plots, some patients displayed a torus-like structure, while others had a more random-like pattern. In the differential radial plots, the first set of patients (with torus-like phase plots) showed fewer values crossing an arbitrary threshold of 10 than did the second set (8 vs. 27 in one typical example). The outcome of cardioversion was different for these two set of patients. Fourier analysis helped to: differentiate between sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation, understand the characteristics of the wide range of atrial fibrillation patients, and provide hints that atrial fibrillation could be a nonlinear process. Nonlinear dynamical tools helped to further characterize and sub-classify atrial fibrillation

  4. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for rigorous prediction of future conflicts, a critical requirement for effective conflict management in the context of increasing human-wildlife interactions. © 2015

  5. Socioeconomic dynamic in market practices of family farmers Chapecó (SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieda Maria Pagliosa Corona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the central objective is to understand the fair as a strategic space for the survival of family farming, going beyond the issue of market integration. Field research was conducted in two main fairs in the city of Chapeco/SC, divided into two stages: a study of the characteristics of the market traders, through the interview based on a form with open and closed questions 63 hawkers responsible posts; and interviews from semi-structured questions with 28 families, who met the exigencies of family farmers and are marketer Chapecó residents. The collected data are presented in tabular summaries and analysis followed the content analysis parameters. The results demonstrate the importance of local farmers market vendors not only as a space for marketing of products, but as a social construction of space that are current interconhecimento relations, reciprocity and the relative autonomy of the food hegemonic system.

  6. Using Game Theory to Understand Screening for Domestic Violence Under the TANF Family Violence Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonok An

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Universal screening for domestic violence in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF program is required by most states, but its implementation is questionable. This paper employs game theory to conceptualize interactions between TANF applicants and frontline eligibility caseworkers. The intended outcomes of universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV – granting of a good cause waiver to IPV victims – are valid only by the assumption that caseworkers perform their roles. To grant a good cause waiver, TANF applicants and caseworkers should exchange two types of information: 1 disclosure of abuse by IPV victims and 2 notification of the availability of good cause waivers by caseworkers. This paper illuminates that intended outcomes of universal screening for IPV are difficult to achieve and discusses the applicability and limitations of game theory for policy evaluation.

  7. Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of primary familial and congenital polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lily Jun-shen; Shen, Yu-Min; Bulut, Gamze B.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP) is an autosomal-dominant proliferative disorder characterized by erythrocytosis and hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to erythropoietin (Epo). Several lines of evidence suggest a causal role of truncated erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) in this disease. In this review, we discuss PFCP in the context of erythrocytosis and EpoR signaling. We focus on recent studies describing mechanisms underlying Epo-dependent EpoR down-regulation. One mechanism depends on internalization mediated through the p85 regulatory subunit of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, and the other utilizes ubiquitin-based proteasomal degradation. Truncated PFCP EpoRs are not properly down-regulated upon stimulation, underscoring the importance of these mechanisms in the pathogenesis of PFCP. PMID:20096014

  8. Effects of Structural Transparency in System Dynamics Simulators on Performance and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Kopainsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior exploration is an instructional strategy that has improved performance and understanding in system-dynamics-based simulators, but only to a limited degree. This study investigates whether model transparency, that is, showing users the internal structure of models, can extend the prior exploration strategy and improve learning even more. In an experimental study, participants in a web-based simulation learned about and managed a small developing nation. All participants were provided the prior exploration strategy but only half received prior exploration embedded in a structure-behavior diagram intended to make the underlying model’s structure more transparent. Participants provided with the more transparent strategy demonstrated better understanding of the underlying model. Their performance, however, was the equivalent to those in the less transparent condition. Combined with previous studies, our results suggest that while prior exploration is a beneficial strategy for both performance and understanding, making the model structure transparent with structure-behavior diagrams is more limited in its effect.

  9. Spin-charge-family theory is offering next step in understanding elementary particles and fields and correspondingly universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankoč Borštnik, Norma Susana

    2017-01-01

    More than 40 years ago the standard model made a successful new step in understanding properties of fermion and boson fields. Now the next step is needed, which would explain what the standard model and the cosmological models just assume: a. The origin of quantum numbers of massless one family members. b. The origin of families. c. The origin of the vector gauge fields. d. The origin of the Higgses and Yukawa couplings. e. The origin of the dark matter. f. The origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. g. The origin of the dark energy. h. And several other open problems. The spin-charge-family theory, a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories in ( d = (2 n − 1) + 1)-space-time, with d = (13 + 1) and the two kinds of the spin connection fields, which are the gauge fields of the two kinds of the Clifford algebra objects anti-commuting with one another, may provide this much needed next step. The talk presents: i. A short presentation of this theory. ii. The review over the achievements of this theory so far, with some not published yet achievements included. iii. Predictions for future experiments. (paper)

  10. Spin-charge-family theory is offering next step in understanding elementary particles and fields and correspondingly universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoč Borštnik, Norma Susana

    2017-05-01

    More than 40 years ago the standard model made a successful new step in understanding properties of fermion and boson fields. Now the next step is needed, which would explain what the standard model and the cosmological models just assume: a. The origin of quantum numbers of massless one family members. b. The origin of families. c. The origin of the vector gauge fields. d. The origin of the Higgses and Yukawa couplings. e. The origin of the dark matter. f. The origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. g. The origin of the dark energy. h. And several other open problems. The spin-charge-family theory, a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories in (d = (2n - 1) + 1)-space-time, with d = (13 + 1) and the two kinds of the spin connection fields, which are the gauge fields of the two kinds of the Clifford algebra objects anti-commuting with one another, may provide this much needed next step. The talk presents: i. A short presentation of this theory. ii. The review over the achievements of this theory so far, with some not published yet achievements included. iii. Predictions for future experiments.

  11. Understanding and Mastering Dynamics in Computing Grids Processing Moldable Tasks with User-Level Overlay

    CERN Document Server

    Moscicki, Jakub Tomasz

    Scientic communities are using a growing number of distributed systems, from lo- cal batch systems, community-specic services and supercomputers to general-purpose, global grid infrastructures. Increasing the research capabilities for science is the raison d'^etre of such infrastructures which provide access to diversied computational, storage and data resources at large scales. Grids are rather chaotic, highly heterogeneous, de- centralized systems where unpredictable workloads, component failures and variability of execution environments are commonplace. Understanding and mastering the hetero- geneity and dynamics of such distributed systems is prohibitive for end users if they are not supported by appropriate methods and tools. The time cost to learn and use the interfaces and idiosyncrasies of dierent distributed environments is another challenge. Obtaining more reliable application execution times and boosting parallel speedup are important to increase the research capabilities of scientic communities. L...

  12. CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING PROCESS IMBALANCES IN BIOGAS PLANTS. EMPHAS IS ON VFA DYNAMICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    environmental changes differ widely between the different groups. As a consequence of this, an unrestrained reactor operation can lead to disturbances in the balance between the different microbial groups, which might lead to reactor failure. Therefore, reliable parameters and tools for efficient process...... control and understanding are necessary. The work of present study was directed towards this challenge. Initially, the response of the anaerobic digestion process to various types of process imbalances was investigated with special focus on volatile fatty acid dynamics (VFA), methane production and pH...... of process imbalances in biogas plants. At Danish full-scale biogas plants the biogas production is normally the only continuously measured parameter. In order to examine the usability of propionate as control parameter a reactor experiment was constructed in which the reactor operation either was carried...

  13. Dire deadlines: coping with dysfunctional family dynamics in an end-of-life care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Lone; Lundgren, Maren; Olsen, Lutte; Ishøy, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Working in a hospice and being able to focus on individualized, specialized end-of-life care is a privilege for the hospice staff member. However, it also presents the hospice staff with unique challenges. This descriptive study is based upon two cases from an end-of-life care setting in Denmark, where dysfunctional family dynamics presented added challenges to the staff members in their efforts to provide optimal palliative care. The hospice triad--the patient, the staff member and the family member--forms the basis for communication and intervention in a hospice. Higher expectations and demands of younger, more well-informed patients and family members challenge hospice staff in terms of information and communication when planning for care. The inherent risk factors of working with patients in the terminal phase of life become a focal point in the prevention of the development of compassion fatigue among staff members. A series of coping strategies to more optimally manage dysfunctional families in a setting where time is of the essence are then presented in an effort to empower the hospice team, to prevent splitting among staff members, and to improve quality of care.

  14. Young women's dynamic family size preferences in the context of transitioning fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie; Culpepper, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Dynamic theories of family size preferences posit that they are not a fixed and stable goal but rather are akin to a moving target that changes within individuals over time. Nonetheless, in high-fertility contexts, changes in family size preferences tend to be attributed to low construct validity and measurement error instead of genuine revisions in preferences. To address the appropriateness of this incongruity, the present study examines evidence for the sequential model of fertility among a sample of young Malawian women living in a context of transitioning fertility. Using eight waves of closely spaced data and fixed-effects models, we find that these women frequently change their reported family size preferences and that these changes are often associated with changes in their relationship and reproductive circumstances. The predictability of change gives credence to the argument that ideal family size is a meaningful construct, even in this higher-fertility setting. Changes are not equally predictable across all women, however, and gamma regression results demonstrate that women for whom reproduction is a more distant goal change their fertility preferences in less-predictable ways.

  15. Young Women’s Dynamic Family Size Preferences in the Context of Transitioning Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie; Culpepper, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic theories of family size preferences posit that they are not a fixed and stable goal but rather are akin to a moving target that changes within individuals over time. Nonetheless, in high-fertility contexts, changes in family size preferences tend to be attributed to low construct validity and measurement error instead of genuine revisions in preferences. To address the appropriateness of this incongruity, the present study examines evidence for the sequential model of fertility among a sample of young Malawian women living in a context of transitioning fertility. Using eight waves of closely spaced data and fixed-effects models, we find that these women frequently change their reported family size preferences and that these changes are often associated with changes in their relationship and reproductive circumstances. The predictability of change gives credence to the argument that ideal family size is a meaningful construct, even in this higher-fertility setting. Changes are not equally predictable across all women, however, and gamma regression results demonstrate that women for whom reproduction is a more distant goal change their fertility preferences in less-predictable ways. PMID:23619999

  16. 'They have embraced a different behaviour': transactional sex and family dynamics in eastern Congo's conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Beth; Kelly, Jocelyn; Kabanga, Justin; VanRooyen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decades-long conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has resulted in major changes to local economies, strained social networks and insecurity. This environment forces many to pursue unconventional and, at times, socially stigmatised avenues for income. This paper explores the ways in which individuals in eastern DRC engage in, and are affected by, the commoditisation of sex within the context of decades of violent conflict. Focus group discussions conducted with men and women in 2009-2010 highlight how the war in the region has placed individuals, particularly women, in dire economic circumstances, while also changing their roles within families. In the face of severe poverty, women and girls may choose to engage in transactional sex in order to support themselves and their families. Discussants detailed how engaging in transactional sex due to an economic imperative has nonetheless damaged women's relationships with family members between spouses as well as parents and their children through breach of trust and failure to provide. These focus group discussions elucidate how transactional sex is both a symptom of, and a catalyst for, changes within family dynamics in eastern DRC.

  17. Understanding the enormous diversity of bacteriophages: the tailed phages that infect the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Julianne H.; Casjens, Sherwood R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the predominant biological entity on the planet. The recent explosion of sequence information has made estimates of their diversity possible. We describe the genomic comparison of 337 fully sequenced tailed phages isolated on 18 genera and 31 species of bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae. These phages were largely unambiguously grouped into 56 diverse clusters (32 lytic and 24 temperate) that have syntenic similarity over >50% of the genomes within each cluster, but substantially less sequence similarity between clusters. Most clusters naturally break into sets of more closely related subclusters, 78% of which are correlated with their host genera. The largest groups of related phages are superclusters united by genome synteny to lambda (81 phages) and T7 (51 phages). This study forms a robust framework for understanding diversity and evolutionary relationships of existing tailed phages, for relating newly discovered phages and for determining host/phage relationships. PMID:25240328

  18. Understanding Action and Adventure Sports Participation-An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Tuomas; Brymer, Eric; Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Feletti, Francesco; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has considered action and adventure sports using a variety of associated terms and definitions which has led to confusing discourse and contradictory research findings. Traditional narratives have typically considered participation exclusively as the pastime of young people with abnormal characteristics or personalities having unhealthy and pathological tendencies to take risks because of the need for thrill, excitement or an adrenaline 'rush'. Conversely, recent research has linked even the most extreme forms of action and adventure sports to positive physical and psychological health and well-being outcomes. Here, we argue that traditional frameworks have led to definitions, which, as currently used by researchers, ignore key elements constituting the essential merit of these sports. In this paper, we suggest that this lack of conceptual clarity in understanding cognitions, perception and action in action and adventure sports requires a comprehensive explanatory framework, ecological dynamics which considers person-environment interactions from a multidisciplinary perspective. Action and adventure sports can be fundamentally conceptualized as activities which flourish through creative exploration of novel movement experiences, continuously expanding and evolving beyond predetermined environmental, physical, psychological or sociocultural boundaries. The outcome is the emergence of a rich variety of participation styles and philosophical differences within and across activities. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to point out some limitations of existing research on action and adventure sports; (b) based on key ideas from emerging research and an ecological dynamics approach, to propose a holistic multidisciplinary model for defining and understanding action and adventure sports that may better guide future research and practical implications.

  19. CALCULATING ROTATING HYDRODYNAMIC AND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES TO UNDERSTAND MAGNETIC EFFECTS ON DYNAMICAL TIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing, E-mail: xing.wei@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Natural Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To understand magnetic effects on dynamical tides, we study the rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow driven by harmonic forcing. The linear responses are analytically derived in a periodic box under the local WKB approximation. Both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are calculated, and the various parameters are investigated. Although magnetic pressure may be negligible compared to thermal pressure, the magnetic field can be important for the first-order perturbation, e.g., dynamical tides. It is found that the magnetic field splits the resonant frequency, namely the rotating hydrodynamic flow has only one resonant frequency, but the rotating MHD flow has two, one positive and the other negative. In the weak field regime the dissipations are asymmetric around the two resonant frequencies and this asymmetry is more striking with a weaker magnetic field. It is also found that both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the Ekman number and the square of the wavenumber. The dissipation at the resonant frequency on small scales is almost equal to the dissipation at the non-resonant frequencies, namely the resonance takes its effect on the dissipation at intermediate length scales. Moreover, the waves with phase propagation that is perpendicular to the magnetic field are much more damped. It is also interesting to find that the frequency-averaged dissipation is constant. This result suggests that in compact objects, magnetic effects on tidal dissipation should be considered.

  20. Application of network methods for understanding evolutionary dynamics in discrete habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Gili; Fefferman, Nina H

    2017-06-01

    In populations occupying discrete habitat patches, gene flow between habitat patches may form an intricate population structure. In such structures, the evolutionary dynamics resulting from interaction of gene-flow patterns with other evolutionary forces may be exceedingly complex. Several models describing gene flow between discrete habitat patches have been presented in the population-genetics literature; however, these models have usually addressed relatively simple settings of habitable patches and have stopped short of providing general methodologies for addressing nontrivial gene-flow patterns. In the last decades, network theory - a branch of discrete mathematics concerned with complex interactions between discrete elements - has been applied to address several problems in population genetics by modelling gene flow between habitat patches using networks. Here, we present the idea and concepts of modelling complex gene flows in discrete habitats using networks. Our goal is to raise awareness to existing network theory applications in molecular ecology studies, as well as to outline the current and potential contribution of network methods to the understanding of evolutionary dynamics in discrete habitats. We review the main branches of network theory that have been, or that we believe potentially could be, applied to population genetics and molecular ecology research. We address applications to theoretical modelling and to empirical population-genetic studies, and we highlight future directions for extending the integration of network science with molecular ecology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Understanding the Dynamics of Socio-Hydrological Environment: a Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyessa, Y.; Welderufael, W.; Edossa, D.

    2011-12-01

    Human actions affect ecological systems and the services they provide through various activities, such as land use, water use, pollution and climate change. Climate change is perhaps one of the most important sustainable development challenges that threaten to undo many of the development efforts being made to reach the targets set for the Millennium Development Goals. Understanding the change of ecosystems under different scenarios of climate and biophysical conditions could assist in bringing the issue of ecosystem services into decision making process. Similarly, the impacts of land use change on ecosystems and biodiversity have received considerable attention from ecologists and hydrologists alike. Land use change in a catchment can impact on water supply by altering hydrological processes, such as infiltration, groundwater recharge, base flow and direct runoff. In the past a variety of models were used for predicting land-use changes. Recently the focus has shifted away from using mathematically oriented models to agent-based modelling (ABM) approach to simulate land use scenarios. A conceptual framework is being developed which integrates climate change scenarios and the human dimension of land use decision into a hydrological model in order to assess its impacts on the socio-hydrological dynamics of a river basin. The following figures present the framework for the analysis and modelling of the socio-hydrological dynamics. Keywords: climate change, land use, river basin

  2. Switching among graphic patterns is governed by oscillatory coordination dynamics: Implications for understanding handwriting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Giorgio eZanone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Revisiting an original idea by Hollerbach (1981, previous work has established that the production of graphic shapes, assumed to be the blueprint for handwriting, is governed by the dynamics of orthogonal non-linear coupled oscillators. Such dynamics determines few stable coordination patterns, giving rise to a limited set of preferred graphic shapes, namely, four lines and four ellipsoids independent of orientation. The present study investigates the rules of switching among such graphic coordination patterns. Seven participants were required to voluntarily switch within twelve pairs of shapes presented on a graphic tablet. In line with previous theoretical and experimental work on bimanual coordination, results corroborated our hypothesis that the relative stability of the produced coordination patterns determines the time needed for switching: the transition to a more stable pattern was shorter, and inversely. Moreover, switching between patterns with the same orientation but different eccentricities was faster than with a change in orientation. Nonetheless, the switching time covaried strictly with the change in relative phase effected by the transition between two shapes, whether this implied a change in eccentricity or in orientation. These findings suggest a new operational definition of what the (motor units or strokes of handwriting are and shed a novel light on how co-articulation and recruitment of degrees of freedom may occur in graphic skills. They also yield some leads for understanding the acquisition and the neural underpinnings of handwriting.

  3. Toward an improved understanding of the role of transpiration in critical zone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, B.; Papuga, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the total water balance across any ecosystem. In subalpine mixed-conifer ecosystems, transpiration (T) often dominates the total water flux and therefore improved understanding of T is critical for accurate assessment of catchment water balance and for understanding of the processes that governs the complex dynamics across critical zone (CZ). The interaction between T and plant vegetation not only modulates soil water balance but also influences water transit time and hydrochemical flux - key factors in our understanding of how the CZ evolves and responds. Unlike an eddy covariance system which provides only an integrated ET flux from an ecosystem, a sap flow system can provide an estimate of the T flux from the ecosystem. By isolating T, the ecohydrological drivers of this major water loss from the CZ can be identified. Still, the species composition of mixed-conifer ecosystems vary and the drivers of T associated with each species are expected to be different. Therefore, accurate quantification of T from a mixed-conifer requires knowledge of the unique transpiration dynamics of each of the tree species. Here, we installed a sap flow system within two mixed-conifer study sites of the Jemez River Basin - Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (JRB - SCM CZO). At both sites, we identified the dominant tree species and installed sap flow sensors on healthy representatives for each of those species. At the JRB CZO site, sap sensors were installed in fir (4) and spruce (4) trees; at the SCM CZO site, sap sensors were installed at white fir (4) and maple (4) and one dead tree. Meteorological data as well as soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (θ) at multiple depths were also collected from each of the two sites. Preliminary analysis of two years of sap flux rate at JRB - SCM CZO shows that the environmental drivers of fir, spruce, and maple are different and also vary throughout the year. For JRB fir

  4. Listening, sharing understanding and facilitating consumer, family and community empowerment through a priority driven partnership in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Reilly, Lyndon; Fagan, Ruth; Ypinazar, Valmae; Hunter, Ernest; Tsey, Komla; Gibson, Victor; Connolly, Brian; Laliberte, Arlene; Wargent, Rachael; Gibson, Teresa; Saunders, Vicki; McCalman, Janya; Kavanagh, David

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an example of a mental health research partnership underpinned by empowerment principles that seeks to foster strength among community organizations to support better outcomes for consumers, families and communities. It aims to raise awareness among researchers and service providers that empowerment approaches to assist communities to address mental health problems are not too difficult to be practical but require long-term commitment and appropriate support. A collaborative research strategy that has become known as the Priority Driven Research (PDR) Partnership emerged through literature review, consultations, Family Wellbeing Program delivery with community groups and activities in two discrete Indigenous communities. Progress to date on three of the four components of the strategy is described. The following key needs were identified in a pilot study and are now being addressed in a research-based implementation phase: (i) gaining two-way understanding of perspectives on mental health and promoting universal awareness; (ii) supporting the empowerment of carers, families, consumers and at-risk groups through existing community organizations to gain greater understanding and control of their situation; (iii) developing pathways of care at the primary health centre level to enable support of social and emotional wellbeing as well as more integrated mental health care; (iv) accessing data to enable an ongoing process of analysis/sharing/planning and monitoring to inform future activity. One of the key learnings to emerge in this project so far is that empowerment through partnership becomes possible when there is a concerted effort to strengthen grassroots community organizations. These include social health teams and men's and women's groups that can engage local people in an action orientation.

  5. An approach to understand incomplete fusion dynamics from recoil range distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, Suhail A.; Kumar, Harish; Afzal Ansari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Britt and Quinton initially pointed out the incomplete fusion (ICF) signatures in the break-up of projectiles like 12 C, 14 N, and 16 O into α-clusters at ≈10 MeV/nucleon energies. Additional information was provided by Inamura et al. by performing the particle gamma coincidence experiment which significantly contributed in the understanding of ICF study. The interest to understand the ICF reaction dynamics for low Z projectiles (Z≤10) at energies ≈ 4-7MeV/nucleon has recently become an active area of research because of lack of any appropriate theoretical aspect, which may reproduce the experimental ICF data. At projectile energies above the Coulomb barrier, CF and ICF are dominant and competing reaction modes. For the imparted angular momentum ℓ < ℓ crit , the attractive nuclear potential is dominant, which may lead to the complete amalgamation of projectile with the target nucleus. However, for angular momentum ℓ> L crit , the projectile breaks into two parts one of them may fuse with the target nucleus, while the remainder moves as a spectator in forward direction with nearly the same velocity as that of incident projectile. The less excited composite system thus formed carries lower Forward Linear Momentum Transfer (FLMT) due to partial mass transferring from projectiles to the target nucleus compared to the compound nucleus formed via CF process

  6. General description and understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of mode-locked fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huai; Li, Bin; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Xiushan; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-05-02

    As a type of nonlinear system with complexity, mode-locked fiber lasers are known for their complex behaviour. It is a challenging task to understand the fundamental physics behind such complex behaviour, and a unified description for the nonlinear behaviour and the systematic and quantitative analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these lasers have not been developed. Here, we present a complexity science-based theoretical framework for understanding the behaviour of mode-locked fiber lasers by going beyond reductionism. This hierarchically structured framework provides a model with variable dimensionality, resulting in a simple view that can be used to systematically describe complex states. Moreover, research into the attractors' basins reveals the origin of stochasticity, hysteresis and multistability in these systems and presents a new method for quantitative analysis of these nonlinear phenomena. These findings pave the way for dynamics analysis and system designs of mode-locked fiber lasers. We expect that this paradigm will also enable potential applications in diverse research fields related to complex nonlinear phenomena.

  7. Understanding Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics from 1976 to 2014 in Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term intensive land use/cover changes (LUCCs of the Yellow River Delta (YRD have been happening since the 1960s. The land use patterns of the LUCCs are crucial for bio-diversity conservation and/or sustainable development. This study quantified patterns of the LUCCs, explored the systematic transitions, and identified wetland change trajectory for the period 1976–2014 in the YRD. Landsat imageries of 1976, 1984, 1995, 2006, and 2014 were used to derive nine land use classes. Post classification change detection analysis based on enhanced transition matrix was applied to identify land use dynamics and trajectory of wetland change. The five cartographic outputs for changes in land use underlined major decreases in natural wetland areas and increases in artificial wetland and non-wetland, especially aquafarms, salt pans and construction lands. The systematic transitions in the YRD were wetland degradation, wetland artificialization, and urbanization. Wetland change trajectory results demonstrated that the main wetland changes were wetland degradation and wetland artificialization. Coastline change is the subordinate reason for natural wetland degradation in comparison with human activities. The results of this study allowed for an improvement in the understanding of the LUCC processes and enabled researchers and planners to focus on the most important signals of systematic landscape transitions while also allowing for a better understanding of the proximate causes of changes.

  8. Behaviour as a Lever of Ecological Transition? Understanding and Acting on Individual Behaviour and Collective Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2017-01-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  9. Understanding Lithium Solvation and Diffusion through Topological Analysis of First-Principles Molecular Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Harsh [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gyulassy, Attila [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ong, Mitchell [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lordi, Vincenzo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Draeger, Erik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pask, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bremer, Peer -Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-27

    The performance of lithium-ion batteries is strongly influenced by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, which depends on the speed at which Li ions migrate across the cell and relates to their solvation structure. The choice of solvent can greatly impact, both, the solvation and diffusivity of Li ions. In this work, we present our application of the topological techniques to extract and predict such behavior in the data generated by the first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of Li ions in an important organic solvent -ethylene carbonate. More specifically, we use the scalar topology of the electron charge density field to analyze the evolution of the solvation structures. This allows us to derive a parameter-free bond definition for lithium-oxygen bonds, to provide a quantitative measure for bond strength, and to understand the regions of influence of each atom in the simulation. This has provided new insights into how and under what conditions certain bonds may form and break. As a result, we can identify and, more importantly, predict, unstable configurations in solvation structures. This can be very useful in understanding when small changes to the atoms' movements can cause significantly different bond structures to evolve. Ultimately, this promises to allow scientists to explore lithium ion solvation and diffusion more systematically, with the aim of new insights and potentially accelerating the calculations themselves.

  10. Exploring personality clusters among parents of ED subjects. Relationship with parents' psychopathology, attachment, and family dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Bertorello, Antonella; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-10-01

    prototypical mothers and fathers of EDs. Parents not disturbed as regards personality traits are not exceptions. Since EDs are multifactor disorders family dynamics related to parents' personality may be very relevant or even marginal in their pathogenesis. Conversely, parenting may be negatively influenced by relatively marginal personality malfunctions of parents. The clustering approach to the complexity of personality-related dynamics of ED families improves the picture of ED parents. Psychoeducational, counseling and psychotherapeutic family interventions should consider the specific underlying personality of parents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular dynamics as a method to gain understanding in questions concerning montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, A.; Vaari, J.; Puhakka, E.; Tanhua-Tyrkkoe, M.; Olin, M.; Kasa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite is one of the main material components to be used in the KBS-3 concept for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The functional material in bentonite giving its beneficial properties is montmorillonite mineral. Montmorillonite consists of two completely different components: one nano-metre thick and approximately 200-400 nano-metres wide mineral layers carrying constant charge and charge compensating cations very near the mineral surfaces. The first component is more of a passive component while the second can absorb water molecules and change the cationic composition. In addition to montmorillonite bentonite usually contains some salts dissolved into water and accessory minerals. Any bulk bentonite is formed from these components via many scales of which structure is not yet fully known to science. Therefore the beneficial macroscopic properties of bentonite are assumed to follow from the nano-level structure and reactions. In safety studies of spent fuel disposal the time span to be considered extends beyond a hundred thousand years making any straightforward experimenting impossible. However, by modelling it is possible to study even very long periods of time. Unfortunately the model data and reactions are at least implicitly based on our short term experiments and may therefore be biased in some way. One possible solution to this may be the application of molecular chemistry or dynamics to construct the basis for our modelling studies. We have applied molecular chemistry on surface properties of kaolinite clay and biotite mineral but molecular dynamics is a new type of modelling for us. We believe that (during the coming ten years) molecular dynamics could make it easier to understand for example the following topics: How do charge compensating (exchanged) and aqueous cations interact? Why does water expand montmorillonite during wetting? Exact mechanism? How does water leave montmorillonite during

  12. The Himalia Satellite Group: A Case Study on the Dynamical Self-spreading of Families of Irregular Satellites and Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daohai; Christou, Apostolos A.

    2015-11-01

    Many of the outer planets' irregular satellites are grouped into families, thought to originate from collisional fragmentation (Nesvorný et al 2004, AJ). Interestingly, families associated with the largest irregulars are either more dispersed than expected (e.g. J6 Himalia; Nesvorný et al 2003, AJ), or do not exist at all (e.g. S9 Phoebe; Ćuk et al 2003, DDA meeting #34). Christou (2005, Icarus) found that gravitational scattering by Himalia of its own group could explain the large velocity dispersion found by Nesvorný et al (2003, AJ). At the same time, Christou identified a new type of dynamical mechanism that intermittently locks the node of the satellite J10 Lysithea to that of Himalia. The same mechanism, but due to Ceres, was recently found to operate within the Hoffmeister family, dispersing its members and allowing an estimate of its age (Novaković et al 2015, ApJ).Here we revisit the issue of family self-dispersion, aiming to better understand it by studying its effects on the Himalia group. For this we utilise (a) intensive test particle simulations on a larger scale than those by Christou (2005, Icarus) (b) a semi-analytical treatment of the new resonance based on the secular theory of coorbital motion by Namouni (1999, Icarus). This has allowed us to obtain firmer constraints on the rate of dispersion over time and on how the resonance affects the long-term evolution of the orbital elements. A principal result of this work is that particles near the resonance evolve differently than those away from it. During the meeting, we will present a new estimate of the family’s age as well as an analysis of the resonant structure and how it affects Himalia family members. We will also discuss the broader implications for the long-term evolution of orbital concentrations of small bodies in the solar system.Astronomical research at the Armagh Observatory is funded by the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL).

  13. Dynamic conformational change regulates the protein-DNA recognition: an investigation on binding of a Y-family polymerase to its target DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiakun Chu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-DNA recognition is a central biological process that governs the life of cells. A protein will often undergo a conformational transition to form the functional complex with its target DNA. The protein conformational dynamics are expected to contribute to the stability and specificity of DNA recognition and therefore may control the functional activity of the protein-DNA complex. Understanding how the conformational dynamics influences the protein-DNA recognition is still challenging. Here, we developed a two-basin structure-based model to explore functional dynamics in Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Y-family polymerase IV (DPO4 during its binding to DNA. With explicit consideration of non-specific and specific interactions between DPO4 and DNA, we found that DPO4-DNA recognition is comprised of first 3D diffusion, then a short-range adjustment sliding on DNA and finally specific binding. Interestingly, we found that DPO4 is under a conformational equilibrium between multiple states during the binding process and the distributions of the conformations vary at different binding stages. By modulating the strength of the electrostatic interactions, the flexibility of the linker, and the conformational dynamics in DPO4, we drew a clear picture on how DPO4 dynamically regulates the DNA recognition. We argue that the unique features of flexibility and conformational dynamics in DPO4-DNA recognition have direct implications for low-fidelity translesion DNA synthesis, most of which is found to be accomplished by the Y-family DNA polymerases. Our results help complete the description of the DNA synthesis process for the Y-family polymerases. Furthermore, the methods developed here can be widely applied for future investigations on how various proteins recognize and bind specific DNA substrates.

  14. Understanding the physical dynamics and ecological interactions in tidal stream energy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Shaun; Williamson, Benjamin J.; Nikora, Vladimir; Scott, Beth E.

    2017-04-01

    Tidal stream energy devices are intended to operate in energetic physical environments characterised by high flows and extreme turbulence. These environments are often of ecological importance to a range of marine species. Understanding the physical dynamics and ecological interactions at fine scales in such sites is essential for device/array design and to understand environmental impacts. However, investigating fine scale characteristics requires high resolution field measurements which are difficult to attain and interpret, with data often confounded by interference related to turbulence. Consequently, field observations in tidal stream energy environments are limited and require the development of specialised analysis methods and so significant knowledge gaps are still present. The seabed mounted FLOWBEC platform is addressing these knowledge gaps using upward facing instruments to collect information from around marine energy infrastructure. Multifrequency and multibeam echosounder data provide detailed information on the distribution and interactions of biological targets, such as fish and diving seabirds, while simultaneously recording the scales and intensity of turbulence. Novel processing methodologies and instrument integration techniques have been developed which combine different data types and successfully separates signal from noise to reveal new evidence about the behaviour of mobile species and the structure of turbulence at all speeds of the tide and throughout the water column. Multiple platform deployments in the presence and absence of marine energy infrastructure reveal the natural characteristics of high energy sites, and enable the interpretation of the physical and biological impacts of tidal stream devices. These methods and results are relevant to the design and consenting of marine renewable energy technologies, and provide novel information on the use of turbulence for foraging opportunities in high energy sites by mobile species.

  15. Understanding of coupled terrestrial carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics-an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baozhang; Coops, Nicholas C

    2009-01-01

    Coupled terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrological processes play a crucial role in the climate system, providing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate change. In this review we summarize published research results to gain an increased understanding of the dynamics between vegetation and atmosphere processes. A variety of methods, including monitoring (e.g., eddy covariance flux tower, remote sensing, etc.) and modeling (i.e., ecosystem, hydrology and atmospheric inversion modeling) the terrestrial carbon and water budgeting, are evaluated and compared. We highlight two major research areas where additional research could be focused: (i) Conceptually, the hydrological and biogeochemical processes are closely linked, however, the coupling processes between terrestrial C, N and hydrological processes are far from well understood; and (ii) there are significant uncertainties in estimates of the components of the C balance, especially at landscape and regional scales. To address these two questions, a synthetic research framework is needed which includes both bottom-up and top-down approaches integrating scalable (footprint and ecosystem) models and a spatially nested hierarchy of observations which include multispectral remote sensing, inventories, existing regional clusters of eddy-covariance flux towers and CO(2) mixing ratio towers and chambers.

  16. Dynamics of gas-surface interactions atomic-level understanding of scattering processes at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Díez Muniño, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a representative survey of the state of the art of research on gas-surface interactions. It provides an overview of the current understanding of gas surface dynamics and, in particular, of the reactive and non-reactive processes of atoms and small molecules at surfaces. Leading scientists in the field, both from the theoretical and the experimental sides, write in this book about their most recent advances. Surface science grew as an interdisciplinary research area over the last decades, mostly because of new experimental technologies (ultra-high vacuum, for instance), as well as because of a novel paradigm, the ‘surface science’ approach. The book describes the second transformation which is now taking place pushed by the availability of powerful quantum-mechanical theoretical methods implemented numerically. In the book, experiment and theory progress hand in hand with an unprecedented degree of accuracy and control. The book presents how modern surface science targets the atomic-level u...

  17. Understanding Particulate Matter Dynamics in the San Joaquin Valley during DISCOVER-AQ, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, G.; Zhang, X.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Pusede, S. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Zhang, Q.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Air quality in the California San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during winter continues to be the worst in the state, failing EPA's 24-hour standard for particulate matter. Despite our improved understanding of the sources of particulate matter (PM) in the valley, air-quality models are unable to predict PM concentrations accurately. We aim to characterize periods of high particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley based on ground and airborne measurements of aerosols and gaseous pollutants, during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign, 2013. A highly instrumented aircraft flew across the SJV making three transects in a repeatable pattern, with vertical spirals over select locations. The aircraft measurements were complemented by ground measurements at these locations, with extensive chemically-speciated measurements at a ground "supersite" at Fresno. Hence, the campaign provided a comprehensive three-dimensional view of the particulate and gaseous pollutants around the valley. The vertical profiles over the different sites indicate significant variability in the concentrations and vertical distribution of PM around the valley, which are most likely driven by differences in the combined effects of emissions, chemistry and boundary layer dynamics at each site. The observations suggest that nighttime PM is dominated by surface emissions of PM from residential fuel combustion, while early morning PM is strongly influenced by mixing of low-level, above-surface, nitrate-rich layers formed from dark chemistry overnight to the surface.

  18. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  19. Grand challenges in developing a predictive understanding of global fire dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Wiggins, E. B.; Andela, N.; Morton, D. C.; Veraverbeke, S.; van der Werf, G.

    2017-12-01

    High quality satellite observations of burned area and fire thermal anomalies over the past two decades have transformed our understanding of climate, ecosystem, and human controls on the spatial and temporal distribution of landscape fires. The satellite observations provide evidence for a rapid and widespread loss of fire from grassland and savanna ecosystems worldwide. Continued expansion of industrial agriculture suggests that observed declines in global burned area are likely to continue in future decades, with profound consequences for ecosystem function and the habitat of many endangered species. Satellite time series also highlight the importance of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes as drivers of interannual variability. In many regions, lead times between climate indices and fire activity are considerable, enabling the development of early warning prediction systems for fire season severity. With the recent availability of high-resolution observations from Suomi NPP, Landsat 8, and Sentinel 2, the field of global fire ecology is poised to make even more significant breakthroughs over the next decade. With these new observations, it may be possible to reduce uncertainties in the spatial pattern of burned area by several fold. It is difficult to overstate the importance of these new data constraints for improving our understanding of fire impacts on human health and radiative forcing of climate change. A key research challenge in this context is to understand how the loss of global burned area will affect magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink and trends in atmospheric composition. Advances in prognostic fire modeling will require new approaches linking agriculture with landscape fire dynamics. A critical need in this context is the development of predictive models of road networks and other drivers of land fragmentation, and a closer integration of fragmentation information with algorithms predicting fire spread. Concurrently, a better

  20. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  1. The Ties That Bind: Understanding Today's Families--What They Look Like, What They Do, How They Feel. Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossop, Robert

    Asserting the need for social scientists and policymakers to acknowledge that there is no single, standard image of the family, this report describes the mandate of the Vanier Institute of the Family and examines family relationships, focusing on families in Canada. The report identifies several reasons for the emergence of the dual wage-earning…

  2. Using Dynamic Tools to Develop an Understanding of the Fundamental Ideas of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzosa, Debbie; Guzon, Angela Fatima; De Las Peñas, Ma. Louise Antonette N.

    2014-01-01

    Although dynamic geometry software has been extensively used for teaching calculus concepts, few studies have documented how these dynamic tools may be used for teaching the rigorous foundations of the calculus. In this paper, we describe lesson sequences utilizing dynamic tools for teaching the epsilon-delta definition of the limit and the…

  3. Family Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  4. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  5. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of membrane remodeling by Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs family proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan; Haohua, Wen; Lanyuan, Lu; Jun, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Membrane curvature is no longer thought of as a passive property of the membrane; rather, it is considered as an active, regulated state that serves various purposes in the cell such as between cells and organelle definition. While transport is usually mediated by tiny membrane bubbles known as vesicles or membrane tubules, such communication requires complex interplay between the lipid bilayers and cytosolic proteins such as members of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) superfamily of proteins. With rapid developments in novel experimental techniques, membrane remodeling has become a rapidly emerging new field in recent years. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are important tools for obtaining atomistic information regarding the structural and dynamic aspects of biological systems and for understanding the physics-related aspects. The availability of more sophisticated experimental data poses challenges to the theoretical community for developing novel theoretical and computational techniques that can be used to better interpret the experimental results to obtain further functional insights. In this review, we summarize the general mechanisms underlying membrane remodeling controlled or mediated by proteins. While studies combining experiments and molecular dynamics simulations recall existing mechanistic models, concurrently, they extend the role of different BAR domain proteins during membrane remodeling processes. We review these recent findings, focusing on how multiscale molecular dynamics simulations aid in understanding the physical basis of BAR domain proteins, as a representative of membrane-remodeling proteins. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21403182) and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU 21300014).

  6. A Developmental Perspective on Reentry: Understanding the Causes and Consequences of Family Conflict and Peer Delinquency during Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Thomas J; Boman, John H

    2018-02-01

    Despite the uniqueness of an incarceration experience for adolescents, there remains a shortage of research on adolescents and emerging adults who have been recently released from detention centers and are returning home during the transitional time period of "reentry". Drawing from the developmental literature, the current study uses a diverse (54% Black, 20% White, 26% Other Race) longitudinal survey of 337 male adolescents living in the United States to examine the interrelationships among crime, substance use, family conflict, and peer delinquency. A series of cross-lagged dynamic panel data models using four waves of data demonstrate that while family conflict and peer delinquency relate to increased offending and substance use, conflict in the family is a major driving force behind both future family conflict and peer delinquency. Overall, findings suggest that family conflict is an overlooked, but absolutely critical, factor in explaining deviance and deviant peer associations alike for adolescents and emerging adults who have been recently incarcerated and released.

  7. Dynamical generalization of a solvable family of two-electron model atoms with general interparticle repulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, T A; Suhai, S; March, N H

    2008-01-01

    Holas, Howard and March (2003 Phys. Lett. A 310 451) have obtained analytic solutions for ground-state properties of a whole family of two-electron spin-compensated harmonically confined model atoms whose different members are characterized by a specific interparticle potential energy u(r 12 ). Here, we make a start on the dynamic generalization of the harmonic external potential, the motivation being the serious criticism levelled recently against the foundations of time-dependent density-functional theory (e.g., Schirmer and Dreuw 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 022513). In this context, we derive a simplified expression for the time-dependent electron density for arbitrary interparticle interaction, which is fully determined by a one-dimensional non-interacting Hamiltonian. Moreover, a closed solution for the momentum space density in the Moshinsky model is obtained

  8. Dynamics behind affinity maturation of an anti-HCMV antibody family influencing antigen binding

    KAUST Repository

    Di Palma, Francesco; Tramontano, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of antibody affinity maturation and its effects on antigen binding is important with respect to understanding the regulation of the immune response. To shed light on this crucial process, we analyzed two Igs neutralizing the human cytomegalovirus: the primary germline antibody M2J1 and its related mature antibody 8F9. Both antibodies target the AD-2S1 epitope of the gB envelope protein and are considered to establish similar interactions with the cognate antigen. We used molecular dynamics simulations to understand the effect of mutations on the antibody–antigen interactions. The results provide a qualitative explanation for the increased 8F9 peptide affinity compared with that of M2J1. The emerging atomistic-detailed description of these complexes reveals the molecular effects of the somatic hypermutations occurring during affinity maturation.

  9. Dynamics behind affinity maturation of an anti-HCMV antibody family influencing antigen binding

    KAUST Repository

    Di Palma, Francesco

    2017-08-03

    The investigation of antibody affinity maturation and its effects on antigen binding is important with respect to understanding the regulation of the immune response. To shed light on this crucial process, we analyzed two Igs neutralizing the human cytomegalovirus: the primary germline antibody M2J1 and its related mature antibody 8F9. Both antibodies target the AD-2S1 epitope of the gB envelope protein and are considered to establish similar interactions with the cognate antigen. We used molecular dynamics simulations to understand the effect of mutations on the antibody–antigen interactions. The results provide a qualitative explanation for the increased 8F9 peptide affinity compared with that of M2J1. The emerging atomistic-detailed description of these complexes reveals the molecular effects of the somatic hypermutations occurring during affinity maturation.

  10. On the need for system alignment in large water infrastructure. Understanding infrastructure dynamics in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Blomkvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we contribute to the discussion of infrastructural change in Africa, and explore how a new theoretical perspective may offer a different, more comprehensive and historically informed understanding of the trend towards large water infrastructure in Africa. We examine the socio-technical dynamics of large water infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya, in a longer historical perspective using two concepts that we call intra-systemic alignment and inter-level alignment. Our theoretical perspective is inspired by Large Technical Systems (LTS and Multi-Level Perspective (MLP. While inter-level alignment focuses on the process of aligning the technological system at the three levels of niche, regime and landscape, intra-systemic alignment deals with how components within the regime are harmonised and standardised to fit with each other. We pay special attention to intrasystemic alignment between the supply side and the demand side, or as we put it, upstream and downstream components of a system. In narrating the history of water supply in Nairobi, we look at both the upstream (largescale supply and downstream activities (distribution and payment, and compare the Nairobi case with European history of large infrastructures. We emphasise that regime actors in Nairobi have dealt with the issues of alignment mainly to facilitate and expand upstream activities, while concerning downstream activities they have remained incapable of expanding service and thus integrating the large segment of low-income consumers. We conclude that the present surge of large-scale water investment in Nairobi is the result of sector reforms that enabled the return to a long tradition – a 'Nairobi style' – of upstream investment mainly benefitting the highincome earners. Our proposition is that much more attention needs to be directed at inter-level alignment at the downstream end of the system, to allow the creation of niches aligned to the regime.

  11. Use of a dynamic simulation model to understand nitrogen cycling in the middle Rio Grande, NM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meixner, Tom (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Oelsner, Gretchen (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Brooks, Paul (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Roach, Jesse D.

    2008-08-01

    Water quality often limits the potential uses of scarce water resources in semiarid and arid regions. To best manage water quality one must understand the sources and sinks of both solutes and water to the river system. Nutrient concentration patterns can identify source and sink locations, but cannot always determine biotic processes that affect nutrient concentrations. Modeling tools can provide insight into these large-scale processes. To address questions about large-scale nitrogen removal in the Middle Rio Grande, NM, we created a system dynamics nitrate model using an existing integrated surface water--groundwater model of the region to evaluate our conceptual models of uptake and denitrification as potential nitrate removal mechanisms. We modeled denitrification in groundwater as a first-order process dependent only on concentration and used a 5% denitrification rate. Uptake was assumed to be proportional to transpiration and was modeled as a percentage of the evapotranspiration calculated within the model multiplied by the nitrate concentration in the water being transpired. We modeled riparian uptake as 90% and agricultural uptake as 50% of the respective evapotranspiration rates. Using these removal rates, our model results suggest that riparian uptake, agricultural uptake and denitrification in groundwater are all needed to produce the observed nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, conveyance channels, and river as well as the seasonal concentration patterns. The model results indicate that a total of 497 metric tons of nitrate-N are removed from the Middle Rio Grande annually. Where river nitrate concentrations are low and there are no large nitrate sources, nitrate behaves nearly conservatively and riparian and agricultural uptake are the most important removal mechanisms. Downstream of a large wastewater nitrate source, denitrification and agricultural uptake were responsible for approximately 90% of the nitrogen removal.

  12. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users

  13. Advances in the understanding of nutrient dynamics and management in UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungait, Jennifer A.J.; Cardenas, Laura M.; Blackwell, Martin S.A.; Wu, Lianhai; Withers, Paul J.A.; Chadwick, David R.; Bol, Roland; Murray, Philip J.; Macdonald, Andrew J.; Whitmore, Andrew P.; Goulding, Keith W.T.

    2012-01-01

    Current research on macronutrient cycling in UK agricultural systems aims to optimise soil and nutrient management for improved agricultural production and minimise effects on the environment and provision of ecosystem services. Nutrient use inefficiencies can cause environmental pollution through the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and of soluble and particulate forms of N, P and carbon (C) in leachate and run-off into watercourses. Improving nutrient use efficiencies in agriculture calls for the development of sustainable nutrient management strategies: more efficient use of mineral fertilisers, increased recovery and recycling of waste nutrients, and, better exploitation of the substantial inorganic and organic reserves of nutrients in the soil. Long-term field experimentation in the UK has provided key knowledge of the main nutrient transformations in agricultural soils. Emerging analytical technologies, especially stable isotope labelling, that better characterise macronutrient forms and bioavailability and improve the quantification of the complex relationships between the macronutrients in soils at the molecular scale, are augmenting this knowledge by revealing the underlying processes. The challenge for the future is to determine the relationships between the dynamics of N, P and C across scales, which will require both new modelling approaches and integrated approaches to macronutrient cycling. -- Highlights: ► Major advances in the knowledge of macronutrient cycling in agricultural soils are reviewed in the context of management. ► Novel analytical techniques and innovative modelling approaches that enhance understanding of nutrient cycling are explored. ► Knowledge gaps are identified, and the potential to improve comprehension of the integrated nutrient cycles is considered.

  14. Advances in the understanding of nutrient dynamics and management in UK agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dungait, Jennifer A.J., E-mail: jennifer.dungait@rothamsted.ac.uk [Department of Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon, EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Cardenas, Laura M.; Blackwell, Martin S.A.; Wu, Lianhai [Department of Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon, EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Withers, Paul J.A. [School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Chadwick, David R.; Bol, Roland; Murray, Philip J. [Department of Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon, EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Macdonald, Andrew J.; Whitmore, Andrew P. [Department of Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2LQ (United Kingdom); Goulding, Keith W.T. [Department of Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon, EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Department of Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2LQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    Current research on macronutrient cycling in UK agricultural systems aims to optimise soil and nutrient management for improved agricultural production and minimise effects on the environment and provision of ecosystem services. Nutrient use inefficiencies can cause environmental pollution through the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and of soluble and particulate forms of N, P and carbon (C) in leachate and run-off into watercourses. Improving nutrient use efficiencies in agriculture calls for the development of sustainable nutrient management strategies: more efficient use of mineral fertilisers, increased recovery and recycling of waste nutrients, and, better exploitation of the substantial inorganic and organic reserves of nutrients in the soil. Long-term field experimentation in the UK has provided key knowledge of the main nutrient transformations in agricultural soils. Emerging analytical technologies, especially stable isotope labelling, that better characterise macronutrient forms and bioavailability and improve the quantification of the complex relationships between the macronutrients in soils at the molecular scale, are augmenting this knowledge by revealing the underlying processes. The challenge for the future is to determine the relationships between the dynamics of N, P and C across scales, which will require both new modelling approaches and integrated approaches to macronutrient cycling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major advances in the knowledge of macronutrient cycling in agricultural soils are reviewed in the context of management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel analytical techniques and innovative modelling approaches that enhance understanding of nutrient cycling are explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knowledge gaps are identified, and the potential to improve comprehension of the integrated nutrient cycles is considered.

  15. [Association of family dynamic structure and parental rearing style with male larcenists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Liu, Xie-he

    2010-11-01

    To explore the association of parental rearing style and family dynamic structure with male larcenists. A questionnaire survey was undertaken in 280 male imprisoned larcenists and 420 healthy controls with a General Information Questionnaire and EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträlffande Uppfostran). Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the following items: 'only child in the family', 'not lived with father before age 5', 'father died', 'mother died', 'both parents died', 'parents divorced', 'lived with father only (mother absence) before age 5', 'adult with father alive (mother died)' and 'adult with mother alive (father died)'. The two groups also experienced significant differences in 'emotional warmth', 'severe punishment', 'over-intervention from both parents', 'favored child from mother', 'father rejection' and 'father over-protection'. Men with single father (mother absence) before age 5 and those who have experienced death of any parents, 'emotional warmth', 'severe punishment', 'over-intervention from both parents', 'favored child from mother', 'father rejection' and 'father over-protection' are more likely to commit theft crime.

  16. Global conformational dynamics of a Y-family DNA polymerase during catalysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling Xu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Replicative DNA polymerases are stalled by damaged DNA while the newly discovered Y-family DNA polymerases are recruited to rescue these stalled replication forks, thereby enhancing cell survival. The Y-family DNA polymerases, characterized by low fidelity and processivity, are able to bypass different classes of DNA lesions. A variety of kinetic and structural studies have established a minimal reaction pathway common to all DNA polymerases, although the conformational intermediates are not well defined. Furthermore, the identification of the rate-limiting step of nucleotide incorporation catalyzed by any DNA polymerase has been a matter of long debate. By monitoring time-dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET signal changes at multiple sites in each domain and DNA during catalysis, we present here a real-time picture of the global conformational transitions of a model Y-family enzyme: DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4 from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Our results provide evidence for a hypothetical DNA translocation event followed by a rapid protein conformational change prior to catalysis and a subsequent slow, post-chemistry protein conformational change. Surprisingly, the DNA translocation step was induced by the binding of a correct nucleotide. Moreover, we have determined the directions, rates, and activation energy barriers of the protein conformational transitions, which indicated that the four domains of Dpo4 moved in a synchronized manner. These results showed conclusively that a pre-chemistry conformational change associated with domain movements was too fast to be the rate-limiting step. Rather, the rearrangement of active site residues limited the rate of correct nucleotide incorporation. Collectively, the conformational dynamics of Dpo4 offer insights into how the inter-domain movements are related to enzymatic function and their concerted interactions with other proteins at the replication fork.

  17. The influence of discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics on the well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined whether discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics predict adolescent well-being over time. Self-report data from 972 adolescent-parent dyads collected at two time points separated by one year were analyzed. Both adolescents and parents rated a variety of family dynamics (e.g., cohesion), and adolescents reported on their levels of well-being (confidence, purpose in life, and positive relations with others). Significant discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning were found for all positive family dynamics, but not for family conflict. Furthermore, discrepancies increased over time and larger discrepancies were noted for older adolescents. Results from the residualized path model showed that discrepancies were bidirectionally related to adolescent well-being. In addition, age was found to moderate the predictive model. Specifically, 14-15 year olds (year 10) were found to be more stable in their well-being over time than younger adolescents. Also, results indicate that well-being is a significantly stronger negative predictor of discrepancies over time for the 14-15 year olds (year 10) than the for 10-11 year olds (year 6). The authors suggest that future research would benefit from investigations of the relationship between divergent perspectives of family members and adjustment outcomes of adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Appreciating the ties that bind technical communication to culture: A dynamic model to help us understand differences in discourse structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Kampf, Constance

    In order to support an explicit understanding of cultural patterns as both dynamic and structured, we will examine Hofstede?s model for stabilization of cultural patterns, and use this model to explore some cultural consequences for patterns of logic and signs that influence the effectiveness of ...

  19. Transnational Mexican-Origin Families' Ways of Knowing: A Framework toward Bridging Understandings in U.S. Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2016-01-01

    Transnational students and families are those who cross real and metaphoric borders, spanning countries, to engage family and community in meaningful ways. Based on a three-year, multi-sited ethnographic study, I show the distinct ways of knowing of four Mexican-origin, working class families and how the U.S. schools where the children from these…

  20. Understanding What an Individual Experiencing Work-Family Conflict Finds Helpful While in Counseling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Argent, Julie

    2014-01-01

    According to Aryee, Fields, and Luk (1999), work-family conflict has become a prevalent problem in society. Past research in this area has focused primarily on outcomes and predictors of work-family conflict. Although research found that work-family conflict often leads to mental health concerns, few studies have focused on the area of work-family…

  1. Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-05-01

    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households.

  2. Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, J J; Oldehinkel, A J; Veenstra, R; Verhulst, F C; Ormel, J

    2014-06-01

    Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family characteristics have an independent effect on problem development while accounting for stable family characteristics and comorbid problem development. This issue was addressed by studying problem development in a large community sample (N = 2,230; age 10-20) of adolescents using Linear Mixed models. Paternal and maternal warmth and rejection were assessed via the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran for Children (EMBU-C). Aggressive and depressive problems were assessed via subscales of the Youth/Adult Self-Report. Results showed that dynamic family characteristics independently affected the development of aggressive problems. Moreover, maternal rejection in preadolescence and increases in paternal rejection were associated with aggressive problems, whereas decreases in maternal rejection were associated with decreases in depressive problems over time. Paternal and maternal warmth in preadolescence was associated with fewer depressive problems during adolescence. Moreover, increases in paternal warmth were associated with fewer depressive problems over time. Aggressive problems were a stable predictor of depressive problems over time. Finally, those who increased in depressive problems became more aggressive during adolescence, whereas those who decreased in depressive problems became also less aggressive. Besides the effect of comorbid problems, problem development is to a large extent due to dynamic family characteristics, and in particular to changes in parental rejection, which leaves much room for parenting-based interventions.

  3. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics--dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking--focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The…

  4. A Novel Approach to Teaching and Understanding Transformations of Matter in Dynamic Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Scott K.; Sibley, Duncan F.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Heidemann, Merle

    2009-01-01

    The need to engage K-12 and post-secondary students in considering the Earth as a dynamic system requires explicit discussion of system characteristics. Fundamentally, dynamic systems involve the movement and change of matter, often through processes that are difficult to see and comprehend. We introduce a novel instructional method, termed…

  5. Understanding the Complexity of Temperature Dynamics in Xinjiang, China, from Multitemporal Scale and Spatial Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the observed data from 51 meteorological stations during the period from 1958 to 2012 in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the complexity of temperature dynamics from the temporal and spatial perspectives by using a comprehensive approach including the correlation dimension (CD, classical statistics, and geostatistics. The main conclusions are as follows (1 The integer CD values indicate that the temperature dynamics are a complex and chaotic system, which is sensitive to the initial conditions. (2 The complexity of temperature dynamics decreases along with the increase of temporal scale. To describe the temperature dynamics, at least 3 independent variables are needed at daily scale, whereas at least 2 independent variables are needed at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. (3 The spatial patterns of CD values at different temporal scales indicate that the complex temperature dynamics are derived from the complex landform.

  6. The Roles of Family Factors and Relationship Dynamics on Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Men and Women in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong; Markham, Christine

    2016-03-27

    Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the roles of early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics factors on physical aggression in dating among U.S. college students in emerging adulthood. The interaction effects between these three domains of interest (early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics) were explored to understand the underlying mechanisms that influenced victimization and perpetration in dating. In general, we found that family and relational variables associated with dating victimization and perpetration were fairly similar. Among the early socialization variables, experience of childhood neglect and having witnessed domestic violence were significantly related to victimization and perpetration. Living in a two-parent household appeared to exert a protective effect, although associations with parental education were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the participants were more likely to experience victimization or impose aggression in dating relationships which were characterized by conflicts, distress, dominance, or psychological aggression. Overall, for the participants who came from a two-parent household, dominance in dating was linked to less violence. When the participants faced higher levels of psychological aggression, adverse early socialization factors were associated with higher levels of dating violence victimization and perpetration. Research and practice implications were discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The roles of family factors and relationship dynamics on dating violence victimization and perpetration among college men and women in emerging adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong; Markham, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the roles of early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics factors on physical aggression in dating among U.S. college students in emerging adulthood. The interaction effects between these three domains of interest (early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics) were explored to understand the underlying mechanisms that influenced victimization and perpetration in dating. In general, we found that family and relational variables associated with dating victimization and perpetration were fairly similar. Among the early socialization variables, experience of childhood neglect and having witnessed domestic violence were significantly related to victimization and perpetration. Living in a two-parent household appeared to exert a protective effect, although associations with parental education were not statistically significant. Further, the participants were more likely to experience victimization or impose aggression in dating relationships which were characterized by conflicts, distress, dominance, or psychological aggression. Overall, for the participants who came from a two-parent household, dominance in dating was linked to less violence. When the participants faced higher levels of psychological aggression, adverse early socialization factors were associated with higher levels of dating violence victimization and perpetration. Research and practice implications were discussed. PMID:27021738

  8. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  9. Advanced computational multi-fluid dynamics: a new model for understanding electrokinetic phenomena in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulamali, M. Y.; Saunders, J. H.; Jackson, M. D.; Pain, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    We present results from a new computational multi-fluid dynamics code, designed to model the transport of heat, mass and chemical species during flow of single or multiple immiscible fluid phases through porous media, including gravitational effects and compressibility. The model also captures the electrical phenomena which may arise through electrokinetic, electrochemical and electrothermal coupling. Building on the advanced computational technology of the Imperial College Ocean Model, this new development leads the way towards a complex multiphase code using arbitrary unstructured and adaptive meshes, and domains decomposed to run in parallel over a cluster of workstations or a dedicated parallel computer. These facilities will allow efficient and accurate modelling of multiphase flows which capture large- and small-scale transport phenomena, while preserving the important geology and/or surface topology to make the results physically meaningful and realistic. Applications include modelling of contaminant transport in aquifers, multiphase flow during hydrocarbon production, migration of carbon dioxide during sequestration, and evaluation of the design and safety of nuclear reactors. Simulations of the streaming potential resulting from multiphase flow in laboratory- and field-scale models demonstrate that streaming potential signals originate at fluid fronts, and at geologic boundaries where fluid saturation changes. This suggests that downhole measurements of streaming potential may be used to inform production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. As water encroaches on an oil production well, the streaming-potential signal associated with the water front encompasses the well even when the front is up to 100 m away, so the potential measured at the well starts to change significantly relative to a distant reference electrode. Variations in the geometry of the encroaching water front could be characterized using an array of electrodes positioned along the well

  10. Understanding Keystroke Dynamics for Smartphone Users Authentication and Keystroke Dynamics on Smartphones Built-In Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal Identification Numbers (PINs and pattern drawing have been used as common authentication methods especially on smartphones. Such methods, however, are very vulnerable to the shoulder surfing attack. Thus, keystroke dynamics that authenticate legitimate users based on their typing manner have been studied for years. However, many of the studies have focused on PC keyboard keystrokes. More studies on mobile and smartphones keystroke dynamics are warranted; as smartphones make progress in both hardware and software, features from smartphones have been diversified. In this paper, using various features including keystroke data such as time interval and motion data such as accelerometers and rotation values, we evaluate features with motion data and without motion data. We also compare 5 formulas for motion data, respectively. We also demonstrate that opposite gender match between a legitimate user and impostors has influence on authenticating by our experiment results.

  11. Transnational Experience, Aspiration and Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu; Wei, Li

    2016-01-01

    Transnational and multilingual families have become commonplace in the twenty-first century. Yet relatively few attempts have been made from applied and socio-linguistic perspectives to understand what is going on "within" such families; how their transnational and multilingual experiences impact on the family dynamics and their everyday…

  12. MDESRAP: a model for understanding the dynamics of electricity supply, resources and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qudrat-Ullah, H.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent dynamic complexity of the energy policy design problem makes the conventional 'closed-form' solution impossible. This paper contributes a dynamic simulation model as a possible solution. The model captures the dynamics of underlying sectors of electricity demand, investment, capital, resource, production, environment and costs and pricing. The existing feedback loops, nonlinearity and time-lag characteristics present in the real world electricity systems are incorporated in the model. The model is calibrated to Pakistan's case data. How the model has been used in policy assessments and the design of the alternative energy policies subject to various environmental and resource constraints is also discussed. (author)

  13. Analysis of the Dynamics among Tutors in an After-School Tutoring Program in a Homeless Shelter for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Goode, Gretchen S.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers of after-school tutoring primarily focus on educational outcomes with little attention to the social dynamics of such programs. In our qualitative case study, we examined the nature of interactions among tutors in a tutoring program at a homeless shelter for families. Employing Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and…

  14. Family of Step-up DC/DC Converters with Fast Dynamic Response for Low Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Soltani, Mohsen; Mostaan, Ali; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a family of novel step-up DC/DC converters which do not have a right half plane zero in their transfer function resulting in faster dynamic behaviour of the converters under the load variation. In addition, the voltage stress on all the active switches and diodes is as low...

  15. Family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents: The mediating role of negative emotional symptoms and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Ángela; Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The literature indicates a close relationship between family dynamics and psychoactive substance use among adolescents, and multi-causality among substance use-related problems, including personal adolescent characteristics as potential influential aspects in this relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of emotional symptoms and sensation seeking as mediators in the relationship between family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. The sample consisted of 571 high school students with a mean age of 14.63, who completed the Communities That Care Youth Survey in its Spanish version. We propose and test a mediation-in-serial model to identify the relationships between the study variables. The results of the mediation models indicate that, in most cases, the relationship between family dynamics and the substance use variables is meaningfully carried through the proposed mediators, first through negative emotional symptoms, and then through sensation seeking. The meaning of the mediation varies as a function of the facet of family dynamics (conflict or attachment) and the use aspect (age of onset, frequency of use, and use intention). We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Understanding the dynamic effects of returning patients toward emergency department density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norazura; Zulkepli, Jafri; Ramli, Razamin; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Teo, Aik Howe

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the development of a dynamic hypothesis for the effect of returning patients to the emergency department (ED). A logical tree from the Theory of Constraint known as Current Reality Tree was used to identify the key variables. Then, a hypothetical framework portraying the interrelated variables and its influencing relationships was developed using causal loop diagrams (CLD). The conceptual framework was designed as the basis for the development of a system dynamics model.

  18. Understanding system dynamics of an adaptive enzyme network from globally profiled kinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Austin W T; Liu, Wei-Chung; Charusanti, Pep; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2014-01-15

    A major challenge in mathematical modeling of biological systems is to determine how model parameters contribute to systems dynamics. As biological processes are often complex in nature, it is desirable to address this issue using a systematic approach. Here, we propose a simple methodology that first performs an enrichment test to find patterns in the values of globally profiled kinetic parameters with which a model can produce the required system dynamics; this is then followed by a statistical test to elucidate the association between individual parameters and different parts of the system's dynamics. We demonstrate our methodology on a prototype biological system of perfect adaptation dynamics, namely the chemotaxis model for Escherichia coli. Our results agreed well with those derived from experimental data and theoretical studies in the literature. Using this model system, we showed that there are motifs in kinetic parameters and that these motifs are governed by constraints of the specified system dynamics. A systematic approach based on enrichment statistical tests has been developed to elucidate the relationships between model parameters and the roles they play in affecting system dynamics of a prototype biological network. The proposed approach is generally applicable and therefore can find wide use in systems biology modeling research.

  19. Virtual Laboratory in the Role of Dynamic Visualisation for Better Understanding of Chemistry in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herga, Nataša Rizman; Cagran, Branka; Dinevski, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding chemistry includes the ability to think on three levels: the macroscopic level, the symbolic level, and the level of particles--sub-microscopic level. Pupils have the most difficulty when trying to understand the sub-microscopic level because it is outside their range of experience. A virtual laboratory enables a simultaneous…

  20. Understanding the strategies employed to cope with increased numbers of AIDS-orphaned children in families in rural settings: a case of Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Mwakinyali, Silivano Edson; Putra, Sukma; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them. This study employed a qualitative method for data collection (one-on-one in-depth interviews). The respondents included 12 male and 8 female heads of families that provide essential care for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya Rural District in Tanzania. The framework approach was used to analyse the data that were collected from 15 July to 15 August 2010. The study findings revealed that adoptive families faced several challenges including financial constraints due to increased needs for basic essentials such as health care expenses, school fees and food. Further impacts on adoptive families included shortage of work opportunities and limited time to address these challenges. To mitigate these challenges, adoptive families employed a range of coping strategies including selling family assets and renting out parts of cultivable land for extra cash. Task reallocation which involved the AIDS-orphaned children entering the labour force was also employed as a strategy to mitigate challenges and involved de-enrolling of children from schools so they could take part in income-generating activities in order to earn supplementary family income. The creation of additional income-generating activities such as poultry farming were other coping mechanisms employed, and these received support from both non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governmental organisations, including the Isangati Agricultural Development Organization (local

  1. Understanding of amount and dynamics of radioactive cesium deposited on trees in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Izuki; Ohte, Nobuhito; Iseda, Kohei; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Natsuko I. [The University of Tokyo, 113-8657, 1-1-1 Yayoi Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba (Japan); Ohashi, Mizue [University of Hyogo, 670-0092, 1-1-12 Shinzaike-Honcho, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake and Tsunami in March 11, 2011 caused large amount of radioactive cesium ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs) deposition onto the forest in the surrounding areas. River water from the forest area is used for food production and also for drinking water in these regions. In order to predict how radioactive Cs diffuse and discharge from the forest catchments, it is important to understand the amount and dynamics of radioactive Cs deposited on the trees. In this report, we show our preliminary results of {sup 137}Cs deposition in forest. Study was conducted in the forest at the upstream of Kami-Oguni River catchment, northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Three plots (2 deciduous stands and 1 Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation) were set in the forest. Quercus serrata and C. japonica, a representative of deciduous and evergreen tree species in this region, were chosen from each plot. Sample trees were logged in October 2012. Stem samples were collected every 2 m from above the ground to tree top and separated into bark, sapwood and heartwood. Litter traps were set in each plot and collected every month. Leaf litter was classified among species. Also, soil samples were collected in the cylinder of 5 cm in diameter and maximum 30 cm in depth from the forest floor every month. {sup 137}Cs concentration of all samples were measured by germanium semiconductor detector or NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. Deposited {sup 137}Cs was attached strongly on the bark of Q. serrata at high concentration (9-18 kBq/kg) but there were no clear relationship with tree height. In C. japonica, {sup 137}Cs concentration was about half times lower than that of Q. serrata at 0-10 m part of the tree. {sup 137}Cs concentration in wood of C. japonica was higher than Q. serrata. {sup 137}Cs concentration of sapwood was as high as that of heartwood in C. japonica, but in Q. serrata, {sup 137}Cs concentration in sapwood was

  2. Received, Understanding and Satisfaction of National Health Insurance Premium Subsidy Scheme by Families of Children with Disabilities: A Census Study in Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Ya-Wen; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chwo, Miao-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to provide the first data on utilization, understanding and satisfaction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) premium subsidy for families of children with disabilities in Taipei. Data from the 2001 Taipei Early Intervention Utilization and Evaluation Survey for Aged 0-6 Children with Disabilities were…

  3. Dynamics of an Active-Site Flap Contributes to Catalysis in a JAMM Family Metallo Deubiquitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Amy N; Shrestha, Rashmi K; Ronau, Judith A; Babar, Aditya; Sheedlo, Michael J; Fuchs, Julian E; Paul, Lake N; Das, Chittaranjan

    2015-10-06

    The endosome-associated deubiquitinase (DUB) AMSH is a member of the JAMM family of zinc-dependent metallo isopeptidases with high selectivity for Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which play a key role in endosomal-lysosomal sorting of activated cell surface receptors. The catalytic domain of the enzyme features a flexible flap near the active site that opens and closes during its catalytic cycle. Structural analysis of its homologues, AMSH-LP (AMSH-like protein) and the fission yeast counterpart, Sst2, suggests that a conserved Phe residue in the flap may be critical for substrate binding and/or catalysis. To gain insight into the contribution of this flap in substrate recognition and catalysis, we generated mutants of Sst2 and characterized them using a combination of enzyme kinetics, X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Our analysis shows that the Phe residue in the flap contributes key interactions during the rate-limiting step but not to substrate binding, since mutants of Phe403 exhibit a defect only in kcat but not in KM. Moreover, ITC studies show Phe403 mutants have similar KD for ubiquitin compared to the wild-type enzyme. The X-ray structures of both Phe403Ala and the Phe403Trp, in both the free and ubiquitin bound form, reveal no appreciable structural change that might impair substrate or alter product binding. We observed that the side chain of the Trp residue is oriented identically with respect to the isopeptide moiety of the substrate as the Phe residue in the wild-type enzyme, so the loss of activity seen in this mutant cannot be explained by the absence of a group with the ability to provide van der Waals interactions that facilitate the hyrdolysis of the Lys63-linked diubiquitin. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the flap in the Trp mutant is quite flexible, allowing almost free rotation of the indole side chain. Therefore, it is possible that these different dynamic

  4. Making Sense of Dynamic Systems: How Our Understanding of Stocks and Flows Depends on a Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helen; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-03-01

    Stocks and flows (SF) are building blocks of dynamic systems: Stocks change through inflows and outflows, such as our bank balance changing with withdrawals and deposits, or atmospheric CO2 with absorptions and emissions. However, people make systematic errors when trying to infer the behavior of dynamic systems, termed SF failure, whose cognitive explanations are yet unknown. We argue that SF failure appears when people focus on specific system elements (local processing), rather than on the system structure and gestalt (global processing). Using a standard SF task (n = 148), SF failure decreased by (a) a global as opposed to local task format; (b) individual global as opposed to local processing styles; and (c) global as opposed to local perceptual priming. These results converge toward local processing as an explanation for SF failure. We discuss theoretical and practical implications on the connections between the scope of attention and understanding of dynamic systems. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Understanding the assistance dynamic of the psychiatric emergency service using the fourth generation assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Buriola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to comprehend the requests, concerns, and questions of professionals about the assistance dynamic of a psychiatric emergency service. We conducted a case study, using the Fourth Generation assessment method, with 15 participants. We collected data using documental analysis, semi-structured interview and observation and, we used the constant comparative method for analysis. Therefore, two thematic axes arose: a Comprehending the assistance dynamic of the Psychiatric emergency service and, b The disarticulation of the psychosocial attention network as a barrier to satisfaction with the assistance in the psychiatric emergency. We considered that the assistance dynamic in the Psychiatric Emergency extrapolated the simple, unique character of stabilizing patients with acute mental disorders, once it directs the user’s flow to the adequate treatment in the psychosocial attention network.

  6. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  7. The contribution of mathematical modeling to understanding the dynamic aspects of rumen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bannink

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available All rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interaction between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine. Adding representations of new functional classes of micro-organisms (i.e. with new characteristics from the perspective of whole rumen function in rumen models only delivers new insights if complemented by the dynamics of their interactions with other functional classes. Rumen fermentation conditions have to be represented due to their profound impact on the dynamics of substrate degradation and microbial metabolism. Although the importance of rumen acidity is generally acknowledged, more emphasis is needed on predicting its variation as well as variation in the processes that underlie rumen fluid dynamics. The rumen wall has an important role in adapting to rapid changes in the rumen environment, clearing of volatile fatty acids (VFA, and maintaining rumen pH within limits. Dynamics of rumen wall epithelia and its role in VFA absorption needs to be better represented in models which aim to predict rumen responses across nutritional or physiological states. For a detailed prediction of rumen N balance there is merit in a dynamic modeling approach compared to the static approaches adopted in current protein evaluation systems. Improvement is needed on previous attempts to predict rumen VFA profiles, and this should be pursued by introducing factors that relate more

  8. A correspondence between solution-state dynamics of an individual protein and the sequence and conformational diversity of its family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Friedland

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conformational ensembles are increasingly recognized as a useful representation to describe fundamental relationships between protein structure, dynamics and function. Here we present an ensemble of ubiquitin in solution that is created by sampling conformational space without experimental information using "Backrub" motions inspired by alternative conformations observed in sub-Angstrom resolution crystal structures. Backrub-generated structures are then selected to produce an ensemble that optimizes agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR Residual Dipolar Couplings (RDCs. Using this ensemble, we probe two proposed relationships between properties of protein ensembles: (i a link between native-state dynamics and the conformational heterogeneity observed in crystal structures, and (ii a relation between dynamics of an individual protein and the conformational variability explored by its natural family. We show that the Backrub motional mechanism can simultaneously explore protein native-state dynamics measured by RDCs, encompass the conformational variability present in ubiquitin complex structures and facilitate sampling of conformational and sequence variability matching those occurring in the ubiquitin protein family. Our results thus support an overall relation between protein dynamics and conformational changes enabling sequence changes in evolution. More practically, the presented method can be applied to improve protein design predictions by accounting for intrinsic native-state dynamics.

  9. Understanding the dynamics of gender equality and eHealth | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Unless these questions are addressed early on, people's experiences with ... Understanding how a person's gender, age, and class can influence ... It also promoted greater equity among workers in primary health centres ...

  10. Understanding hydration of Zn(2+) in hydrothermal fluids with ab initio molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Lu, X.; Wang, R.; Meijer, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    With ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the free-energy profiles of hydrated Zn2+ are calculated for both gaseous and aqueous systems from ambient to supercritical conditions, and from the derived free-energy information, the speciation of hydrated Zn2+ has been revealed. It is shown that the

  11. Mean-field modeling approach for understanding epidemic dynamics in interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Guanghu; Fu, Xinchu; Tang, Qinggan; Li, Kezan

    2015-01-01

    Modern systems (e.g., social, communicant, biological networks) are increasingly interconnected each other formed as ‘networks of networks’. Such complex systems usually possess inconsistent topologies and permit agents distributed in different subnetworks to interact directly/indirectly. Corresponding dynamics phenomena, such as the transmission of information, power, computer virus and disease, would exhibit complicated and heterogeneous tempo-spatial patterns. In this paper, we focus on the scenario of epidemic spreading in interconnected networks. We intend to provide a typical mean-field modeling framework to describe the time-evolution dynamics, and offer some mathematical skills to study the spreading threshold and the global stability of the model. Integrating the research with numerical analysis, we are able to quantify the effects of networks structure and epidemiology parameters on the transmission dynamics. Interestingly, we find that the diffusion transition in the whole network is governed by a unique threshold, which mainly depends on the most heterogenous connection patterns of network substructures. Further, the dynamics is highly sensitive to the critical values of cross infectivity with switchable phases.

  12. The knowledge dynamics of organizational innovation : understanding the implementation of decision support for planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjarbaini, Vivyane Larissa Ratna Nirma

    2009-01-01

    This thesis argues that a knowledge perspective on organizational innovation provides essential insights. A cognitive-semiotic model on knowledge dynamics is presented and used to perform an empirical study. We seek an answer to the question: What happens to the knowledge of planners during an

  13. Understanding the Online Informal Learning of English as a Complex Dynamic System: An Emic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockett, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Research into the online informal learning of English has already shown it to be a widespread phenomenon involving a range of comprehension and production activities such as viewing original version television series, listening to music on demand and social networking with other English users. Dynamic systems theory provides a suitable framework…

  14. Using Dynamic Geometry Software to Improve Eight Grade Students' Understanding of Transformation Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Bulent

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of dynamic geometry software (DGS) on students' learning of transformation geometry. A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used. Participants in the study were 68 eighth grade students (36 in the experimental group and 32 in the control group). While the experimental group students were studying the…

  15. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  16. Towards a better understanding of the role and dynamics of corporate R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, R. van; Montalvo Corral, C.; Tunzelmann, N. von

    2010-01-01

    New analytical approaches and empirical evidence continue to shed light on the issue of corporate R&D. The papers in this special issue, which were originally presented at the conference Role and Dynamics of Corporate R&D (Seville, 8-9 October 2007), offer a sample of such approaches and evidence.

  17. Understanding the core of RNA interference: The dynamic aspects of Argonaute-mediated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe; Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Cui, Xuefeng; Wang, Yanli; Gao, Xin; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    and its interaction with the nucleic acids, considerable progress has been made to reveal the dynamic aspects of various Ago-mediated processes. Here we review these novel insights into the guide-strand loading, duplex unwinding, and effects of seed

  18. The Role of Family Dynamics in Career Development of 5-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether, how, and to what extent young children's (N= 24) perceptions of themselves and their families related to their career development, career awareness, and work and family aspirations. Results suggest that young children cannot be clearly differentiated between those who are family-oriented and those who are career-oriented. (ABL)

  19. DMPD: Regulation of cytokine signaling by SOCS family molecules. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14644140 Regulation of cytokine signaling by SOCS family molecules. Fujimoto M, Nak...a T. Trends Immunol. 2003 Dec;24(12):659-66. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of cytokine signaling by SOCS family... molecules. PubmedID 14644140 Title Regulation of cytokine signaling by SOCS family molec

  20. DMPD: The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15541655 The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Latour S, Veillette A. Se...min Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):409-19. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The SAP family of adaptors in immune ...regulation. PubmedID 15541655 Title The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Authors Latour S, Veill

  1. A Typology of Communication Dynamics in Families Living a Slow-Motion Technological Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Cline, Rebecca J W; Hernandez, Tanis; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Schwartz, Ann G; Ruckdeschel, John C

    2012-10-01

    With increasing numbers of communities harmed by exposures to toxic substances, greater understanding of the psychosocial consequences of these technological disasters is needed. One community living the consequences of a slow-motion technological disaster is Libby, Montana, where, for nearly 70 years, amphibole asbestos-contaminated vermiculite was mined and processed. Former mine employees and Libby area residents continue to cope with the health consequences of occupational and environmental asbestos exposure and with the psychosocial challenges accompanying chronic and often fatal asbestos-related diseases (ARD). Nine focus groups were conducted with Libby area residents. Transcripts were analyzed to explore patterns of family communication about ARD. The following five patterns emerged: Open/Supportive, Silent/Supportive, Open/Conflictual, Silent/Conflictual, and Silent/Denial. Open/Supportive communication included encouragement to be screened for ARD, information about ARD and related disaster topics, and emotional support for people with ARD. In contrast, communication patterns characterized by silence or conflict have the potential to hinder health-promoting communication and increase psychological distress.

  2. Contribution of local knowledge to understand socio-hydrological dynamics. Examples from a study in Senegal river valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In developing countries many watersheds are low monitored. However, rivers and its floodplains provides ecosystem services to societies, especially for agriculture, grazing and fishing. This uses of rivers and floodplains offer to communities an important local knowledge about hydrological dynamics. This knowledge can be useful to researchers studying ecological or hydrological processes. This presentation aims to discuss and present the interest of using qualitative data from surveys and interviews to understand relations between society and hydrology in floodplain from developing countries, but also to understand changes in hydrological dynamics. This communication is based on a PhD thesis held on from 2012 and 2016, that analyzes socio-ecological changes in the floodplain of the Senegal river floodplain following thirty years of transboundary water management. The results of this work along Senegal river valley suggest that the use of social data and qualitative study are beneficial in understanding the hydrological dynamics in two dimensions. First, it established the importance of perception of hydrological dynamics, particularly floods, on local water management and socio-agricultural trajectories. This perception of people is strictly derived from ecosystems services provided by river and its floodplain. Second, surveys have enlightened new questions concerning the hydrology of the river that are often cited by people, like a decrease of flood water fertility. This type of socio-hydrological study, combining hydrological and qualitative data, has great potential for guiding water management policies. Using local knowledge in their analyzes, researchers also legitimize river users, who are for the most part forgotten by water policies.

  3. New Insight in Understanding the mechanical responses of polymer glasses using molecular dynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yexin; Wang, Shi-Qing; Tsige, Mesfin

    The Kremer-Grest bead-spring model has been the standard model in molecular dynamics simulation of polymer glasses. However, due to current computational limitations in accessing relevant time scales in polymer glasses in a reasonable amount of CPU time, simulation of mechanical response of polymer glasses in molecular dynamic simulations requires a much higher quenching rate and deformation rate than used in experiments. Despite several orders of magnitude difference in time scale between simulation and experiment, previous studies have shown that simulations can produce meaningful results that can be directly compared with experimental results. In this work we show that by tuning the quenching rate and deformation rate relative to the segmental relaxation times, a reasonable mechanical response shows up in the glassy state. Specifically, we show a younger glass prepared with a faster quenching rate shows glassy responses only when the imposed deformation rate is proportionally higher. the National Science Foundation (DMR-1444859 and DMR-1609977).

  4. Attachment and Jealousy: Understanding the Dynamic Experience of Jealousy Using the Response Escalation Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsnitz, Chloe O; Farrell, Allison K; Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Szepsenwol, Ohad

    2018-04-01

    Jealousy is a complex, dynamic experience that unfolds over time in relationship-threatening situations. Prior research has used retrospective reports that cannot disentangle initial levels and change in jealousy in response to escalating threat. In three studies, we examined responses to the Response Escalation Paradigm (REP)-a 5-stage hypothetical scenario in which individuals are exposed to increasing levels of relationship threat-as a function of attachment orientations. Highly anxious individuals exhibited hypervigilant, slow escalation response patterns, interfered earlier in the REP, felt more jealousy, sadness, and worry when they interfered, and wanted to engage in more vigilant, destructive, and passive behaviors aimed at their partner. Highly avoidant individuals felt more anger when they interfered in the REP and wanted to engage in more partner-focused, destructive behaviors. The REP offers a dynamic method for inducing and examining jealousy and introduces a novel approach to studying other emotional experiences.

  5. Motivation and flow: toward an understanding of the dynamics of the relation in architecture students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Maura J; Fullagar, Clive J

    2008-09-01

    The authors investigated the relation between motivation and flow in a sample of 327 architecture students. Specifically, they investigated the relation between flow and several levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as amotivation. They also assessed the need for autonomy in moderating the relation between intrinsic motivation and engagement. Results indicated a significant relation between flow experiences in academic activities and the more self-determined forms of intrinsic motivation, but not for extrinsic motivation. The need for autonomy moderated the relation between flow and intrinsic motivation. These results are discussed in the context of understanding flow as an intrinsically motivating state and a viable construct for understanding engagement.

  6. Critical realism in supply chain research: Understanding the dynamics of a seasonal goods supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Adamides, E. D.; Papachristos, G.; Pomonis, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how a critical realist paradigmatic stance and its associated research methodology can contribute to supply‐chain research by providing explanations for specific supply‐chain‐ and logistics‐related dynamic phenomena. / Design/methodology/approach – Initially, the case for a critical realist research paradigm is made, and then a retroductive pluralistic research methodology is used for demonstrating its application. Starting from an observation in...

  7. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-28

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  8. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  9. Projecting the effects of long-term care policy on the labor market participation of primary informal family caregivers of elderly with disability: insights from a dynamic simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, John P; Matchar, David B; Malhotra, Rahul; Love, Sean R; Liu, Chang; Do, Young

    2016-03-23

    Using Singapore as a case study, this paper aims to understand the effects of the current long-term care policy and various alternative policy options on the labor market participation of primary informal family caregivers of elderly with disability. A model of the long-term care system in Singapore was developed using System Dynamics methodology. Under the current long-term care policy, by 2030, 6.9 percent of primary informal family caregivers (0.34 percent of the domestic labor supply) are expected to withdraw from the labor market. Alternative policy options reduce primary informal family caregiver labor market withdrawal; however, the number of workers required to scale up long-term care services is greater than the number of caregivers who can be expected to return to the labor market. Policymakers may face a dilemma between admitting more foreign workers to provide long-term care services and depending on primary informal family caregivers.

  10. Students' Understanding of Equilibrium and Stability: The Case of Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Michaël; de Hosson, Cécile; Duque, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Engineering students in control courses have been observed to lack an understanding of equilibrium and stability, both of which are crucial concepts in this discipline. The introduction of these concepts is generally based on the study of classical examples from Newtonian mechanics supplemented with a control system. Equilibrium and stability are…

  11. Bridging the gap between theory and practice: dynamic systems theory as a framework for understanding and promoting recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; DeMatteo, Carol

    2009-11-01

    A theoretical framework can help physiotherapists understand and promote recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries (ABI). Physiotherapy interventions for this population have traditionally been based in hierarchical-maturational theories of motor development emphasizing the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in controlling motor behaviour. In contrast, Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) views movement as resulting from the interaction of many subsystems within the individual, features of the functional task to be accomplished, and the environmental context in which the movement takes place. DST is now a predominant theoretical framework in pediatric physiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to describe how DST can be used to understand and promote recovery of function after pediatric ABI. A DST-based approach for children and youth with ABI does not treat the impaired CNS in isolation but rather emphasizes the role of all subsystems, including the family and the environment, in influencing recovery. The emphasis is on exploration, problem solving, and practice of functional tasks. A case scenario provides practical recommendations for the use of DST to inform physiotherapy interventions and clinical decision making in the acute phase of recovery from ABI. Future research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based in this theoretical framework.

  12. Advanced Fluorescence Microscopy Approaches to Understand the Dynamic Organization of the Plasma Membrane in Eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziomkiewicz, Iwona

    signaling in plants. Furthermore, it was established that ENODL9 clustering affects the organization of the PM and distribution of other PM proteins. Analysis of the phenotype of mutant lines revealed that ENODL9 has an important role for plant development and the adaptation to osmotic stress. This resulted......The plasma membrane (PM) is a physical barrier that defines the boundaries of a cell. It not only isolates the cell interior from the environment, but also enables cell communication and a selective exchange of solutes. To serve those contrasting functions, the PM has a dynamic structure consisting...

  13. Understanding flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide for organic dyes from water: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flocculation treatment processes play an important role in water and wastewater pretreatment. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the possibility of using graphene oxide (GO as a flocculant to remove methylene blue (MB from water. Experimental results show that GO can remove almost all MB from aqueous solutions at its optimal dosages and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that MB cations quickly congregate around GO in water. Furthermore, PIXEL energy contribution analysis reveals that most of the strong interactions between GO and MB are of a van der Waals (London dispersion character. These results offer new insights for shedding light on the molecular mechanism of interaction between GO and organic pollutants.

  14. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of seagrass landscapes using time-series remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Mitchell B.; Roelfsema, Chris M.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-03-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of seagrasses have been well studied at the leaf to patch scales, however, the link to large spatial extent landscape and population dynamics is still unresolved in seagrass ecology. Traditional remote sensing approaches have lacked the temporal resolution and consistency to appropriately address this issue. This study uses two high temporal resolution time-series of thematic seagrass cover maps to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of seagrass at both an inter- and intra-annual time scales, one of the first globally to do so at this scale. Previous work by the authors developed an object-based approach to map seagrass cover level distribution from a long term archive of Landsat TM and ETM+ images on the Eastern Banks (≈200 km2), Moreton Bay, Australia. In this work a range of trend and time-series analysis methods are demonstrated for a time-series of 23 annual maps from 1988 to 2010 and a time-series of 16 monthly maps during 2008-2010. Significant new insight was presented regarding the inter- and intra-annual dynamics of seagrass persistence over time, seagrass cover level variability, seagrass cover level trajectory, and change in area of seagrass and cover levels over time. Overall we found that there was no significant decline in total seagrass area on the Eastern Banks, but there was a significant decline in seagrass cover level condition. A case study of two smaller communities within the Eastern Banks that experienced a decline in both overall seagrass area and condition are examined in detail, highlighting possible differences in environmental and process drivers. We demonstrate how trend and time-series analysis enabled seagrass distribution to be appropriately assessed in context of its spatial and temporal history and provides the ability to not only quantify change, but also describe the type of change. We also demonstrate the potential use of time-series analysis products to investigate seagrass growth and

  15. The collective construction of safety: a trade-off between "understanding" and "doing" in managing dynamic situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, L; Falzon, P

    2015-03-01

    This exploratory research aims to understand how teams organize themselves and collectively manage risky dynamic situations. The objective is to assess the plausibility of a model of a collective trade-off between "understanding" and "doing". The empirical study, conducted in the pediatric anesthesia service of a French university hospital, was supported by a "high fidelity" simulation with six teams. Data on the teams' behavior and on the verbal communications were collected through video recordings. The results highlight three modes for management of dynamic situations (determined management, cautious management, and overwhelmed management). These modes are related to the way in which teams manage their cognitive resources. More precisely, they are related to the teams' ability to collectively elaborate a trade-off between "understanding" and "doing". These results question existing perspectives on safety and suggest improvements in the design of crisis management training (concerning for example the recommendation of "calling for help"). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Communication dynamics in hospice teams: understanding the role of the chaplain in interdisciplinary team collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Baldwin, Paula; Regehr, Kelly

    2008-12-01

    Hospice chaplains provide a specific expertise to patient and family care, however, individual roles and responsibilities that facilitate the interdisciplinary team environment are less well known. The primary aim of this study was to investigate how hospice chaplains perceive their role in interdisciplinary team meetings and to what extent hospice chaplains share common experiences within the interdisciplinary team approach in hospice. Hospice chaplains within a 10-state region participated in a 39-item phone survey about professional roles, group roles, and structural characteristics that influence their ability to participate in interdisciplinary collaboration. Findings revealed that professional role conflict is experienced, primarily with social workers. Informal group task and maintenance roles included team spiritual care advisor and conflict manager, and structural characteristics consisted of extracurricular communication outside of the organization. Although chaplains foster interdisciplinary collaboration within the hospice team, future research needs to address improvements to the chaplain's role within the interdisciplinary team process.

  17. Risk, Rationality and Nudging in Late Modern Society: Understanding the dynamics of the climate crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Terne Sasha Thorn

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to explore and explain how nudge theory may contribute to the understanding of thedynamics of the climate crisis in a ‘world risk society’. It is based on Ulrich Beck’s theory of a worldrisk society and unfolds through the combination of theories about risk, rationality and behaviour thatare ultimately brought together in relation to the climate crisis. A critical realistic perspective andmethod is taken to explore three hypothetical premises: 1) That the climate crisis is a ...

  18. Increased understanding of the dynamics and transport in ITB plasmas from multi- machine comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents details on: (a) examination and compilation of experimental results on transport from the many machines worldwide to better understand the physics of ITB formation and sustainment; (b) the development of an international database on ITB experimental results to determine the requirements for the formation and sustainment of ITBs, especially for reactor relevant conditions; (c) determining and performing comprehensive tests of theory-based models and simulations using the experimental ITB database. This paper will further present the status of research on critical issues in ITB physics including barrier formation and access conditions, particle and impurity transport, fueling, core-edge integration, profile control and stability as well as issues of accessibility in reactor scale devices such as barriers with T e =T i , barriers with low toroidal rotation and flat density profiles. Results will be presented from many devices providing a clearer understanding of transport and ITB physics in present plasmas and how this understanding can be applied to increase the performance of plasmas in future devices. An ITB database is being developed. (author)

  19. Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Hussmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used cycloheximide (CHX to stabilize ribosomes before measuring their positions, and these studies all counterintuitively report a weak negative correlation between the translation rate of a codon and the abundance of its cognate tRNA. In contrast, some experiments performed without CHX report strong positive correlations. To explain this contradiction, we identify unexpected patterns in ribosome density downstream of each type of codon in experiments that use CHX. These patterns are evidence that elongation continues to occur in the presence of CHX but with dramatically altered codon-specific elongation rates. The measured positions of ribosomes in these experiments therefore do not reflect the amounts of time ribosomes spend at each position in vivo. These results suggest that conclusions from experiments in yeast using CHX may need reexamination. In particular, we show that in all such experiments, codons decoded by less abundant tRNAs were in fact being translated more slowly before the addition of CHX disrupted these dynamics.

  20. Towards a Molecular Understanding of the Link between Imatinib Resistance and Kinase Conformational Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lovera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its inhibition of the Abl kinase domain in the BCR-ABL fusion protein, imatinib is strikingly effective in the initial stage of chronic myeloid leukemia with more than 90% of the patients showing complete remission. However, as in the case of most targeted anti-cancer therapies, the emergence of drug resistance is a serious concern. Several drug-resistant mutations affecting the catalytic domain of Abl and other tyrosine kinases are now known. But, despite their importance and the adverse effect that they have on the prognosis of the cancer patients harboring them, the molecular mechanism of these mutations is still debated. Here by using long molecular dynamics simulations and large-scale free energy calculations complemented by in vitro mutagenesis and microcalorimetry experiments, we model the effect of several widespread drug-resistant mutations of Abl. By comparing the conformational free energy landscape of the mutants with those of the wild-type tyrosine kinases we clarify their mode of action. It involves significant and complex changes in the inactive-to-active dynamics and entropy/enthalpy balance of two functional elements: the activation-loop and the conserved DFG motif. What is more the T315I gatekeeper mutant has a significant impact on the binding mechanism itself and on the binding kinetics.

  1. Recent Insight into the Kinetic Mechanisms and Conformational Dynamics of Y-Family DNA Polymerases

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Brian A.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    The kinetic mechanisms by which DNA polymerases catalyze DNA replication and repair have long been areas of active research. Recently discovered Y-family DNA polymerases catalyze the bypass of damaged DNA bases that would otherwise block replicative DNA polymerases and stall replication forks. Unlike DNA polymerases from the five other families, the Y-family DNA polymerases have flexible, solvent-accessible active sites that are able to tolerate various types of damaged template bases and all...

  2. Interventions and Interactions: Understanding Coupled Human-Water Dynamics for Improved Water Resources Management in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crootof, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding coupled human-water dynamics offers valuable insights to address fundamental water resources challenges posed by environmental change. With hydropower reshaping human-water interactions in mountain river basins, there is a need for a socio-hydrology framework—which examines two-way feedback loops between human and water systems—to more effectively manage water resources. This paper explores the cross-scalar interactions and feedback loops between human and water systems in river basins affected by run-of-the-river hydropower and highlights the utility of a socio-hydrology perspectives to enhance water management in the face of environmental change. In the Himalayas, the rapid expansion of run-of-the-river hydropower—which diverts streamflow for energy generation—is reconfiguring the availability, location, and timing of water resources. This technological intervention in the river basin not only alters hydrologic dyanmics but also shapes social outcomes. Using hydropower development in the highlands of Uttarakhand, India as a case study, I first illustrate how run-of-the-river projects transform human-water dynamics by reshaping the social and physical landscape of a river basin. Second, I emphasize how examining cross-scalar feedbacks among structural dynamics, social outcomes, and values and norms in this coupled human-water system can inform water management. Third, I present hydrological and social literature, raised separately, to indicate collaborative research needs and knowledge gaps for coupled human-water systems affected by run-of-the-river hydropower. The results underscore the need to understand coupled human-water dynamics to improve water resources management in the face of environmental change.

  3. Understanding dynamics of large-scale atmospheric vortices with moist-convective shallow water model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, M.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric jets and vortices which, together with inertia-gravity waves, constitute the principal dynamical entities of large-scale atmospheric motions, are well described in the framework of one- or multi-layer rotating shallow water models, which are obtained by vertically averaging of full “primitive” equations. There is a simple and physically consistent way to include moist convection in these models by adding a relaxational parameterization of precipitation and coupling precipitation with convective fluxes with the help of moist enthalpy conservation. We recall the construction of moist-convective rotating shallow water model (mcRSW) model and give an example of application to upper-layer atmospheric vortices. (paper)

  4. Understanding strong-field coherent control: Measuring single-atom versus collective dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trallero-Herrero, Carlos; Weinacht, Thomas; Spanner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We compare the results of two strong field coherent control experiments: one which optimizes multi-photon population transfer in atomic sodium (from the 3s to the 4s state, measured by spontaneous emission from the 3p-3s transition) with one that optimizes stimulated emission on the 3p-3s transition in an ensemble of sodium atoms. Both experiments make use of intense, shaped ultrafast laser pulses discovered by a Genetic Algorithm inside a learning control loop. Optimization leads to improvements in the spontaneous and stimulated emission yields of about 4 and 10 4 , respectively, over an unshaped pulse. We interpret these results by modeling both the single atom dynamics as well as the stimulated emission buildup through numerical integration of Schroedinger's and Maxwell's equations. Our interpretation leads to the conclusion that modest yields for controlling single quantum systems can lead to dramatic effects whenever an ensemble of such systems acts collectively following controlled impulsive excitation

  5. Shifting Stakes: Understanding the Dynamic Roles of Individuals and Organizations in Social Media Protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Emma S; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine two protests characterized by substantial social media presence and distributed participation frameworks via two core questions: what roles did organizations and individuals play, and how did participants' social interactions change over the course of the protests? To answer these questions, we analyzed a large Twitter activity dataset for the #YoSoy132 student uprising in Mexico and Brazil's "bus rebellion." Results indicate that individuals initially took prominence at the protests but faded in importance as the movements dwindled and organizations took over. Regarding the dynamics and structure of the interactions, we found that key time points with unique social structures often map to exogenous events such as coordinated protests in physical locations. Our results have important consequences for the visibility of such social movements and their ability to attract continued participation by individuals and organizations.

  6. Genes, communities & invasive species: understanding the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, J J; Thrall, P H; Ericson, L

    2013-08-01

    Reciprocal interactions between hosts and pathogens drive ecological, epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories, resulting in complex patterns of diversity at population, species and community levels. Recent results confirm the importance of negative frequency-dependent rather than 'arms-race' processes in the evolution of individual host-pathogen associations. At the community level, complex relationships between species abundance and diversity dampen or alter pathogen impacts. Invasive pathogens challenge these controls reflecting the earliest stages of evolutionary associations (akin to arms-race) where disease effects may be so great that they overwhelm the host's and community's ability to respond. Viewing these different stabilization/destabilization phases as a continuum provides a valuable perspective to assessment of the role of genetics and ecology in the dynamics of both natural and invasive host-pathogen associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamical instabilities in hot expanding nuclear systems: a microscopic approach to the understanding of multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.

    1989-01-01

    We present a microscopic study of the quasi-fusion/explosion transition in the framework of Landau-Vlasov simulations and for intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions (beam energy from 10 to 100 MeV/A). After a short presentation of the results of schematic calculations, which furnish a guideline for microscopic investigations, we discuss the relevance of our approach for studying multifragmentation. Once the limitations of this kind of dynamical simulations exhibited, we perform a detailed analysis in terms of the equation of state of the system. In agreement with schematic models we find that the composite nuclear system formed in the collision actually explodes when it stays long enough in the mechanically unstable region (spinodal region). Quantitative estimates of the explosion threshold are given for central symmetric reactions (Ca + Ca and Ar + Ti). The link of the results with transport properties and the equation of state of nuclear matter are briefly discussed

  8. Contemporary Leadership Theories. Enhancing the Understanding of the Complexity, Subjectivity and Dynamic of Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of basic theoretical approaches of today's leadership research. These approaches conceive leadership as an interactive and complex process. They stress the significance of the individual perception for developing and forming leadership relations....... Leadership is understood as product of complex social relationships embedded in the logic and dynamic of the social system. The book discusses theoretical approaches from top leadership journals, but also addresses various alternatives that are suitable to challenge mainstream leadership research....... It includes attributional and psychodynamic approaches, charismatic leadership theories, and theoretical approaches that define leader-member relations in terms of exchange relations leadership under symbolic and political perspectives, in the light of role theory and as process of social learning....

  9. An understanding of human dynamics in urban subway traffic from the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Nuo; Ni, Shunjiang; Shen, Shifei; Ji, Xuewei

    2016-08-01

    We studied the distribution of entry time interval in Beijing subway traffic by analyzing the smart card transaction data, and then deduced the probability distribution function of entry time interval based on the Maximum Entropy Principle. Both theoretical derivation and data statistics indicated that the entry time interval obeys power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. In addition, we pointed out the constraint conditions for the distribution form and discussed how the constraints affect the distribution function. It is speculated that for bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics, when the fitted power exponent is less than 1.0, it cannot be a pure power-law distribution, but with an exponential cutoff, which may be ignored in the previous studies.

  10. Health care professionals' experience, understanding and perception of need of advanced cancer patients with cachexia and their families: The benefits of a dedicated clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Reid, Joanne; Hudson, Peter; Martin, Peter; Porter, Sam

    2016-12-30

    Cachexia is defined as the on-going loss of skeletal muscle mass that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support. It is found in up to 80% of patients with advanced cancer and has profound psycho-social consequences for patients and their families. Previous studies demonstrate that many healthcare professionals receive little formal education in cachexia management leading them to feel that they have limited understanding of the syndrome and cannot intervene effectively. This study aims to examine the value of a dedicated cachexia clinic and its influence on staff understanding and practice. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted. The study employed semi-structured interviews with a range of healthcare professionals responsible for designing and delivering cancer care in a large teaching hospital in Australia. This hospital had a dedicated cachexia clinic. In-depth interviews were conducted with 8 healthcare professionals and senior managers. Four themes were identified: formal and informal education; knowledge and understanding; truth telling in cachexia and palliative care; and, a multi-disciplinary approach. Findings show that improved knowledge and understanding across a staff body can lead to enhanced staff confidence and a willingness to address cancer cachexia and its consequences with patients and their families. Comparisons with similar previous research demonstrate the advantages of providing a structure for staff to gain knowledge about cachexia and how this can contribute to feelings of improved understanding and confidence necessary to respond to the challenge of cachexia.

  11. Dynamic localization and shear-induced hopping of particles: A way to understand the rheology of dense colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tianying; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, attempts have been made to understand the formation of colloidal glasses and gels by linking suspension mechanics to particle properties where details of size, shape, and spatial dependencies of pair potentials present a bewildering array of variables that can be manipulated to achieve observed properties. Despite the range of variables that control suspension properties, one consistent observation is the remarkably similarity of flow properties observed as particle properties are varied. Understanding the underlying origins of the commonality in those behaviors (e.g., shear-thinning with increasing stress, diverging zero shear rate viscosity with increasing volume fraction, development of a dynamic yield stress plateau with increases in volume faction or strength of attraction, development of two characteristic relaxation times probed in linear viscoelasticity, the creation of a rubbery plateau modulus at high strain frequencies, and shear-thickening) remains a challenge. Recently, naïve mode coupling and dynamic localization theories have been developed to capture collective behavior giving rise to formation of colloidal glasses and gels. This approach characterizes suspension mechanics of strongly interacting particles in terms of sluggish long-range particle diffusion modulated by varying particle interactions and volume fraction. These theories capture the scaling of the modulus with the volume fraction and strength of interparticle attraction, the frequency dependence of the moduli at the onset of the gel/glass transition, together with the divergence of the zero shear rate viscosity and cessation of diffusivity for hard sphere systems as close packing is approached. In this study, we explore the generality of the predictions of dynamic localization theory for systems of particles composed of bimodal particle size distributions experiencing weak interactions. We find that the mechanical properties of these suspensions are well captured within

  12. Dynamic localization and shear-induced hopping of particles: A way to understand the rheology of dense colloidal dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tianying; Zukoski, Charles F., E-mail: czukoski@illinois.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    For decades, attempts have been made to understand the formation of colloidal glasses and gels by linking suspension mechanics to particle properties where details of size, shape, and spatial dependencies of pair potentials present a bewildering array of variables that can be manipulated to achieve observed properties. Despite the range of variables that control suspension properties, one consistent observation is the remarkably similarity of flow properties observed as particle properties are varied. Understanding the underlying origins of the commonality in those behaviors (e.g., shear-thinning with increasing stress, diverging zero shear rate viscosity with increasing volume fraction, development of a dynamic yield stress plateau with increases in volume faction or strength of attraction, development of two characteristic relaxation times probed in linear viscoelasticity, the creation of a rubbery plateau modulus at high strain frequencies, and shear-thickening) remains a challenge. Recently, naïve mode coupling and dynamic localization theories have been developed to capture collective behavior giving rise to formation of colloidal glasses and gels. This approach characterizes suspension mechanics of strongly interacting particles in terms of sluggish long-range particle diffusion modulated by varying particle interactions and volume fraction. These theories capture the scaling of the modulus with the volume fraction and strength of interparticle attraction, the frequency dependence of the moduli at the onset of the gel/glass transition, together with the divergence of the zero shear rate viscosity and cessation of diffusivity for hard sphere systems as close packing is approached. In this study, we explore the generality of the predictions of dynamic localization theory for systems of particles composed of bimodal particle size distributions experiencing weak interactions. We find that the mechanical properties of these suspensions are well captured within

  13. Family Day Care Educators: An Exploration of Their Understanding and Experiences Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…

  14. Understanding Effective Delivery of Patient and Family Education in Pediatric Oncology: A Systematic Review from the Children's Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Cheryl C.; Laing, Catherine M.; Herring, Ruth Anne; Tena, Nancy; Leonardelli, Adrianne; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna

    2016-01-01

    A diagnosis of childhood cancer is a life-changing event for the entire family. Parents must not only deal with the cancer diagnosis but also acquire new knowledge and skills to safely care for their child at home. Best practices for delivery of patient/family education after a new diagnosis of childhood cancer are currently unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing body of evidence to determine the current state of knowledge regarding the delivery of education to newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients and families. Eighty-three articles regarding educational methods, content, influencing factors, and interventions for newly diagnosed pediatric patients with cancer or other chronic illnesses were systematically identified, summarized, and appraised according to the GRADE criteria. Based on the evidence, ten recommendations for practice were identified. These recommendations address delivery methods, content, influencing factors, and educational interventions for parents and siblings. Transferring these recommendations into practice may enhance the quality of education delivered by healthcare providers, and received by patients and families following a new diagnosis of childhood cancer. PMID:27450361

  15. Sexual Understanding and Development of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Mothers' Perspectives of Within-Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Jaycee D.; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard; Kerr, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The sexual development of young people with intellectual disabilities is a marker of their transition to adulthood and affects their sense of well being and identity. Cognitive impairments and a socially marginalized position increase dependence on their families to assist with sexual matters. In this study, the authors adopted a novel…

  16. Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: effects on family dynamics and children's delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H

    2010-12-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental incarceration on children. The present study examines an archival dataset, in which children aged 10-14 years and their parents/guardians reported children's risk experiences (e.g., exposure to poverty, parental substance use), family processes (e.g., level of family victimization, family conflict), and children's delinquent behaviors at two time points. Parents also reported their recent and past incarceration history. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that a history of parental incarceration predicted family victimization, delinquent behaviors of children's older siblings, and delinquent behaviors of the child participants, over and above children's demographic characteristics and other risk experiences. Recent parental incarceration predicted family conflict, family victimization, and parent-reports of children's delinquency after also controlling for previous parental incarceration. The role of family processes in research and intervention directions involving children of incarcerated parents is discussed.

  17. Understanding the Influence of Retention Basin on Tidal Dynamics in Tidal Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk; Roos, Pieter

    2014-05-01

    Both the tidal motion and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in tidal embayments and estuaries are influenced by anthropogenic (e.g. deepening ) and natural changes. An example of such an estuary is the Ems estuary, situated on the border of the Netherlands and Germany. The mean tidal range towards the end of the Ems estuary has increased from 1.5m in the 1950s to more than 3m in the 1990s while the suspended concentration has increased by a factor 10. To possibly reduce these negative effects, the construction of retention basin(s) (RB) is considered. In this contribution, the influence of location and geometry of RBs on tidal dynamics and SSC is investigated. For this purpose, a three-dimensional semi-analytic idealized model is developed. This model is an extension of the model proposed by Winant (2007) to arbitrary domain and realistic bathymetry with partial slip boundary condition at the bottom. The sea surface elevation (SSE) is calculated numerically using a finite element method. Next, the three-dimensional velocities are calculated by combining the analytically calculated vertical profiles and the gradients of the SSE which are obtained numerically. Firstly, the influence of a RB on the tidal dynamics in an infinitely long, rectangular, frictionless estuary is considered. The SSE decreases when the RB is located between a node and a landward antinode, consistent with the work of Alebregtse et al. (2013). Secondly, an estuary of finite length is connected to a sea. By varying the width of the sea, not only the effect of the distance of the RB to the landward end plays a role, but also the distance to the open sea becomes important. Finally, we discuss the influence of a RB on the tidal motion and initial sediment transport, considering the Ems estuary with realistic bathymetry. Results show that the SSE at the landward end of the Ems estuary decreases for all locations of the RBs. This decrease is most pronounced for the RB which is closest to the end

  18. Understanding and Supporting Dynamic Capabilities of Design Teams in Production of Technology-Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal

    Rapid adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival of incumbent companies, but the capabilities required to lead the disruption of a technological trajectory are generally challenged by the process management activities that make the company operate efficiently within its...... current environment. This study explores the practices of engineering designers that are executing disruptive innovation projects for DONG Energy, a Danish energy utilities company. The aim of the study was to understand the role of the designer in disruptive innovation and to create a tool for supporting...... multidisciplinary design teams, while creating disruptive innovations. The results from this study are presented in five research Papers that address the following themes: 1) the willingness of engineers to follow formal procedures, 2) critical knowledge domains in front-end technology decisions, 3) knowledge...

  19. A multifaceted approach to understanding dynamic urban processes: satellites, surveys, and censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Balk, D.; Montgomery, M.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization will arguably be the most significant demographic trend of the 21st century, particularly in fast-growing regions of the developing world. Characterizing urbanization in a spatial context, however, is a difficult task given only the moderate resolution data provided by traditional sources of demographic data (i.e., censuses and surveys). Using a sample of five world "mega-cities" we demonstrate how new satellite data products and new analysis of existing satellite data, when combined with new applications of census and survey microdata, can reveal more about cities and urbanization in combination than either data type can by itself. In addition to the partially modelled Global Urban-Rural Mapping Project (GRUMP) urban extents we consider four sources of remotely sensed data that can be used to estimate urban extents; the NOAA Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) intercallibrated nighttime lights time series data, the newer NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime lights data, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) radar satellite data, and Dense Sampling Method (DSM) analysis of the NASA scatterometer data. Demographic data come from national censuses and/or georeferenced survey data from the Demographic & Health Survey (DHS) program. We overlay demographic and remotely sensed data (e.g., Figs 1, 2) to address two questions; (1) how well do satellite derived measures of urban intensity correlate with demographic measures, and (2) how well are temporal changes in the data correlated. Using spatial regression techniques, we then estimate statistical relationships (controlling for influences such as elevation, coastal proximity, and economic development) between the remotely sensed and demographic data and test the ability of each to predict the other. Satellite derived imagery help us to better understand the evolution of the built environment and urban form, while the underlying demographic

  20. Do high school chemistry examinations inhibit deeper level understanding of dynamic reversible chemical reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, R.; Atkinson, R.; Dawes, A.; Levinson, R.

    2012-07-01

    Background and purpose : Chemistry examinations can favour the deployment of algorithmic procedures like Le Chatelier's Principle (LCP) rather than reasoning using chemical principles. This study investigated the explanatory resources which high school students use to answer equilibrium problems and whether the marks given for examination answers require students to use approaches beyond direct application of LCP. Sample : The questionnaire was administered to 162 students studying their first year of advanced chemistry (age 16/17) in three high achieving London high schools. Design and methods : The students' explanations of reversible chemical systems were inductively coded to identify the explanatory approaches used and interviews with 13 students were used to check for consistency. AS level examination questions on reversible reactions were analysed to identify the types of explanations sought and the students' performance in these examinations was compared to questionnaire answers. Results : 19% of students used a holistic explanatory approach: when the rates of forward and reverse reactions are correctly described, recognising their simultaneous and mutually dependent nature. 36% used a mirrored reactions approach when the connected nature of the forward and reverse reactions is identified, but not their mutual dependency. 42% failed to recognize the interdependence of forward and reverse reactions (reactions not connected approach). Only 4% of marks for AS examination questions on reversible chemical systems asked for responses which went beyond either direct application of LCP or recall of equilibrium knowledge. 37% of students attained an A grade in their AS national examinations. Conclusions : Examinations favour the application of LCP making it possible to obtain the highest grade with little understanding of reversible chemical systems beyond a direct application of this algorithm. Therefore students' understanding may be attenuated so that they are

  1. Advances in the understanding of nutrient dynamics and management in UK agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, Jennifer A J; Cardenas, Laura M; Blackwell, Martin S A; Wu, Lianhai; Withers, Paul J A; Chadwick, David R; Bol, Roland; Murray, Philip J; Macdonald, Andrew J; Whitmore, Andrew P; Goulding, Keith W T

    2012-09-15

    Current research on macronutrient cycling in UK agricultural systems aims to optimise soil and nutrient management for improved agricultural production and minimise effects on the environment and provision of ecosystem services. Nutrient use inefficiencies can cause environmental pollution through the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and of soluble and particulate forms of N, P and carbon (C) in leachate and run-off into watercourses. Improving nutrient use efficiencies in agriculture calls for the development of sustainable nutrient management strategies: more efficient use of mineral fertilisers, increased recovery and recycling of waste nutrients, and, better exploitation of the substantial inorganic and organic reserves of nutrients in the soil. Long-term field experimentation in the UK has provided key knowledge of the main nutrient transformations in agricultural soils. Emerging analytical technologies, especially stable isotope labelling, that better characterise macronutrient forms and bioavailability and improve the quantification of the complex relationships between the macronutrients in soils at the molecular scale, are augmenting this knowledge by revealing the underlying processes. The challenge for the future is to determine the relationships between the dynamics of N, P and C across scales, which will require both new modelling approaches and integrated approaches to macronutrient cycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel dynamic Bayesian networks for facial action element recognition and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Park, Jeong-Seon; Choi, Dong-You; Lee, Sang-Woong

    2011-12-01

    In daily life, language is an important tool of communication between people. Besides language, facial action can also provide a great amount of information. Therefore, facial action recognition has become a popular research topic in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). However, facial action recognition is quite a challenging task due to its complexity. In a literal sense, there are thousands of facial muscular movements, many of which have very subtle differences. Moreover, muscular movements always occur simultaneously when the pose is changed. To address this problem, we first build a fully automatic facial points detection system based on a local Gabor filter bank and principal component analysis. Then, novel dynamic Bayesian networks are proposed to perform facial action recognition using the junction tree algorithm over a limited number of feature points. In order to evaluate the proposed method, we have used the Korean face database for model training. For testing, we used the CUbiC FacePix, facial expressions and emotion database, Japanese female facial expression database, and our own database. Our experimental results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  3. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  4. How are topics born? Understanding the research dynamics preceding the emergence of new areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo A. Salatino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to promptly recognise new research trends is strategic for many stakeholders, including universities, institutional funding bodies, academic publishers and companies. While the literature describes several approaches which aim to identify the emergence of new research topics early in their lifecycle, these rely on the assumption that the topic in question is already associated with a number of publications and consistently referred to by a community of researchers. Hence, detecting the emergence of a new research area at an embryonic stage, i.e., before the topic has been consistently labelled by a community of researchers and associated with a number of publications, is still an open challenge. In this paper, we begin to address this challenge by performing a study of the dynamics preceding the creation of new topics. This study indicates that the emergence of a new topic is anticipated by a significant increase in the pace of collaboration between relevant research areas, which can be seen as the ‘parents’ of the new topic. These initial findings (i confirm our hypothesis that it is possible in principle to detect the emergence of a new topic at the embryonic stage, (ii provide new empirical evidence supporting relevant theories in Philosophy of Science, and also (iii suggest that new topics tend to emerge in an environment in which weakly interconnected research areas begin to cross-fertilise.

  5. Understanding the core of RNA interference: The dynamic aspects of Argonaute-mediated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe

    2016-10-05

    At the core of RNA interference, the Argonaute proteins (Ago) load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign nucleic acids in a sequence specific manner. In recent years, based on extensive structural studies of Ago and its interaction with the nucleic acids, considerable progress has been made to reveal the dynamic aspects of various Ago-mediated processes. Here we review these novel insights into the guide-strand loading, duplex unwinding, and effects of seed mismatch, with a focus on two representative Agos, the human Ago 2 (hAgo2) and the bacterial Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo). In particular, comprehensive molecular simulation studies revealed that although sharing similar overall structures, the two Agos have vastly different conformational landscapes and guide-strand loading mechanisms because of the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Given the central role of the PAZ motions in regulating the exposure of the nucleic acid binding channel, these findings exemplify the importance of protein motions in distinguishing the overlapping, yet distinct, mechanisms of Ago-mediated processes in different organisms.

  6. Understanding plume splitting of laser ablated plasma: A view from ion distribution dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Plume splitting in low-pressure ambient air was understood in view of ion distribution dynamics from the laser ablated Al plasma (1064 nm 0.57 J/mm{sup 2}) by combining fast photography and spatially resolved spectroscopy. In the beginning, the spectral lines were mainly from the Al III ion. Then, the Bragg peak in stopping power of the ambient gas to Al III could be the dominant reason for the enhanced emission from the fast moving part, and the recombination of Al III to Al I-II ions near the target surface was response to the radiations from the slow moving/stationary part. As the ambient gas pressure increased, stopping distances of the Al III decreased, and radiation from the air ions became pronounced. The laser shadowgraph image at 1100 Pa indicated that the shock wave front located between the fast moving and slow moving parts. Electron densities of the fast moving plasma, which peaked at the plasma front, were on the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}, and the electron temperatures were 2–3 eV.

  7. Assessing the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment history with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures. Methods: To address these concerns, the current study further investigated the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS in 1,782 persons assessed online. Results: Paired differences in means between item-rated descriptiveness of self, mothers, and fathers suggested that respondents’ relationship with their biological fathers was less positive and secure than their relationship with their biological mothers, and that biological fathers were more often the perpetrator of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse than biological mothers. However, results further suggested that ratings between self, mothers, and fathers were positively correlated such that, for example, reports of a mother's or a respondent's own abusive behavior were more likely in the presence of reports of a father's abusive behavior. In addition, analyses evaluating witnessing violence demonstrated that fathers were rated as more often violent toward mothers than the reverse, although intimate partner violence was also frequently bidirectional. Analyses of sibling ratings further demonstrated that older brothers were either as or more frequently abusive when compared with parents. Finally, results suggested that childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were much more often perpetrated by family members than extra-familial and non-family members. Conclusions: In so far as these findings are consistent with the prior childhood trauma and attachment literature

  8. Smooth School Transitions: Tips for Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Around Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of ...

  9. Understanding How Organized Youth Sport May Be Harming Individual Players within the Family Unit: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corliss N. Bean

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little thus far has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of studies on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest, SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost, Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI, SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier. Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. A model is proposed to explain under which circumstances sport leads to positive versus negative outcomes, ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health.

  10. Understanding How Organized Youth Sport May Be Harming Individual Players within the Family Unit: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Corliss N.; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

    2014-01-01

    Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little thus far has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of studies on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. A model is proposed to explain under which circumstances sport leads to positive versus negative outcomes, ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health. PMID:25275889

  11. The importance of the relationship between scale and process in understanding long-term DOC dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J M; Bottrell, S H; Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; Bartlett, R; Rose, R; Newton, R J; Chapman, P J

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon have increased in many, but not all, surface waters across acid impacted areas of Europe and North America over the last two decades. Over the last eight years several hypotheses have been put forward to explain these increases, but none are yet accepted universally. Research in this area appears to have reached a stalemate between those favouring declining atmospheric deposition, climate change or land management as the key driver of long-term DOC trends. While it is clear that many of these factors influence DOC dynamics in soil and stream waters, their effect varies over different temporal and spatial scales. We argue that regional differences in acid deposition loading may account for the apparent discrepancies between studies. DOC has shown strong monotonic increases in areas which have experienced strong downward trends in pollutant sulphur and/or seasalt deposition. Elsewhere climatic factors, that strongly influence seasonality, have also dominated inter-annual variability, and here long-term monotonic DOC trends are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, in areas receiving similar acid loadings, different catchment characteristics could have affected the site specific sensitivity to changes in acidity and therefore the magnitude of DOC release in response to changes in sulphur deposition. We suggest that confusion over these temporal and spatial scales of investigation has contributed unnecessarily to the disagreement over the main regional driver(s) of DOC trends, and that the data behind the majority of these studies is more compatible than is often conveyed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Health and demographic surveillance systems: contributing to an understanding of the dynamics in migration and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Annette; Bocquier, Philippe; White, Michael; Mbacké, Cheikh; Alam, Nurul; Beguy, Donatien; Odhiambo, Frank; Sacoor, Charfudin; Phuc, Ho Dang; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Collinson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration is difficult to measure because it is highly repeatable. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) provide a unique opportunity to study migration as multiple episodes of migration are captured over time. A conceptual framework is needed to show the public health implications of migration. Objective/design Research conducted in seven HDSS centres [International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) Network], published in a peer-reviewed volume in 2009, is summarised focussing on the age–sex profile of migrants, the relation between migration and livelihoods, and the impact of migration on health. This illustrates the conceptual structure of the implications of migration. The next phase is described, the Multi-centre Analysis of the Dynamics In Migration And Health (MADIMAH) project, consisting of workshops focussed on preparing data and conducting the analyses for comparative studies amongst HDSS centres in Africa and Asia. The focus here is on the (standardisation of) determinants of migration and the impact of migration on adult mortality. Results The findings in the volume showed a relatively regular age structure for migration among all HDSS centres. Furthermore, migration generally contributes to improved living conditions at the place of origin. However, there are potential negative consequences of migration on health. It was concluded that there is a need to compare results from multiple centres using uniform covariate definitions as well as longitudinal analysis techniques. This was the starting point for the on-going MADIMAH initiative, which has increased capacity at the participating HDSS centres to produce the required datasets and conduct the analyses. Conclusions HDSS centres brought together within INDEPTH Network have already provided strong evidence of the potential negative consequences of migration on health, which contrast with the beneficial impacts of migration on

  13. Investigation of the middle atmosphere of Venus as a key to understand its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, L. V.; Khatountsev, I. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.; Formisano, V.; Bellucci, G.

    2001-11-01

    Middle atmosphere of Venus (50 - 100km) is a very important part of the atmosphere. More than 70 % of the absorbed solar energy deposits there, providing an important source of energy to support thermal structure and dynamics. We investigate the thermal tides distribution, which is possibly responsible for the support of the superrotation. Temperature and aerosol vertical profiles were retrieved in a self consistent way from Venera-15 IR spectrometry data with vertical resolution of several kilometers. The temperature variation at the isobaric levels vs. solar longitude was presented as a superposition of the cosines with periods of 1, 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4 Venusian days with amplitude and phase depending on latitude and altitude. In particular, in the upper clouds, where most of the solar energy absorbs, all four tidal components have significant amplitudes. For the midlatitude jet the solar related periods were also found with maximal amplitude of 1/2 days period. It was also discovered that the jet changes its position in such a way that the laws of the conservation of momentum and flux are satisfied. The Fourier spectrometer on Venera-15 may be considered as a precursor of the instrument of this kind for the future missions. A functioning of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer, with spectral range 1-50 mkm, proposed for Venus Express mission together with UV (0.2-0.5 mm) mapping spectrometer, will be enable to get answers to the fundamental questions of the middle atmosphere: clouds formation, nature of the ``unknown" UV-absorber and the mechanism of support of the superrotation. This work was supported by the grant RFFI - 02-01-17841.

  14. Motor unit recruitment for dynamic tasks: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contains many muscle fibres that are functionally grouped into motor units. For any motor task there are many possible combinations of motor units that could be recruited and it has been proposed that a simple rule, the 'size principle', governs the selection of motor units recruited for different contractions. Motor units can be characterised by their different contractile, energetic and fatigue properties and it is important that the selection of motor units recruited for given movements allows units with the appropriate properties to be activated. Here we review what is currently understood about motor unit recruitment patterns, and assess how different recruitment patterns are more or less appropriate for different movement tasks. During natural movements the motor unit recruitment patterns vary (not always holding to the size principle) and it is proposed that motor unit recruitment is likely related to the mechanical function of the muscles. Many factors such as mechanics, sensory feedback, and central control influence recruitment patterns and consequently an integrative approach (rather than reductionist) is required to understand how recruitment is controlled during different movement tasks. Currently, the best way to achieve this is through in vivo studies that relate recruitment to mechanics and behaviour. Various methods for determining motor unit recruitment patterns are discussed, in particular the recent wavelet-analysis approaches that have allowed motor unit recruitment to be assessed during natural movements. Directions for future studies into motor recruitment within and between functional task groups and muscle compartments are suggested.

  15. Increased understanding of the dynamics and transport in ITB plasmas from multi-machine comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P.; Kinsey, J.; Parail, V.

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of the physics of internal transport barriers (ITBs) is being furthered by analysis and comparisons of experimental data from many different tokamaks worldwide. An international database consisting of scalar and 2-D profile data on ITB plasmas is being developed to determine the requirements for the formation and sustainment of ITBs and to perform tests of theory-based transport models in an effort to improve the predictive capability of the models. Tests of several transport models (JETTO, Weiland model) using the 2-D profile data indicate that there is only limited agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results for the range of plasma conditions examined for the different devices (DIII-D, JET, JT-60U). Gyrokinetic stability analysis of the ITB discharges from these devices indicates that the ITG/TEM growth rates decrease with increased negative magnetic shear and that the ExB shear rate is comparable to the linear growth rates at the location of the ITB. (author)

  16. Review: Animal model and the current understanding of molecule dynamics of adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, C F; Duarte, M S; Guimarães, S E F; Verardo, L L; Wei, S; Du, M; Jiang, Z; Bergen, W G; Hausman, G J; Fernyhough-Culver, M; Albrecht, E; Dodson, M V

    2016-06-01

    Among several potential animal models that can be used for adipogenic studies, Wagyu cattle is the one that presents unique molecular mechanisms underlying the deposit of substantial amounts of intramuscular fat. As such, this review is focused on current knowledge of such mechanisms related to adipose tissue deposition using Wagyu cattle as model. So abundant is the lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscles of these animals that in many cases, the muscle cross-sectional area appears more white (adipose tissue) than red (muscle fibers). This enhanced marbling accumulation is morphologically similar to that seen in numerous skeletal muscle dysfunctions, disease states and myopathies; this might indicate cross-similar mechanisms between such dysfunctions and fat deposition in Wagyu breed. Animal models can be used not only for a better understanding of fat deposition in livestock, but also as models to an increased comprehension on molecular mechanisms behind human conditions. This revision underlies some of the complex molecular processes of fat deposition in animals.

  17. A dinâmica familiar no contexto da crise suicida The family dynamics in the context of suicide crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liara Lopes Krüger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Famílias inseridas no contexto suicida organizam suas relações em torno de histórias opressoras construídas através das gerações, que impedem o desenvolvimento de autonomia e continuidade. Este artigo objetiva pensar sistemicamente sobre a dinâmica familiar da crise gerada pela tentativa de suicídio de um dos seus membros. Neste estudo, seis famílias participaram de uma intervenção breve, desenvolvida com base na teoria sistêmica. Os dados foram analisados com base no Método de Comparação Constante, identificando-se categorias e a construção de hipóteses a respeito da dinâmica familiar no contexto da crise suicida. Os resultados mostram que os participantes estão limitados em sua capacidade de apoiar o desenvolvimento de uma identidade autônoma, porque a dinâmica familiar identifica as novas oportunidades de narrar a si mesmo como ameaça ao sistema de lealdades que mantém a continuidade da família, impedindo a renegociação desses códigos. O sofrimento se apresenta como emoção que limita novas trocas, surgindo o comportamento suicida como alternativa.Families inserted in the suicide context tend to organize their relations around oppressive histories constructed over generations that hinder the development of autonomy and continuity. This paper aims at thinking systematically about the family dynamics of the crisis generated by the suicide attempt of one of its members. In this study, six families participated of a brief intervention developed on the basis of the systemic theory. The Grounded Theory analysis procedures made possible the identification of the categories and the construction of hypotheses regarding the family dynamics within the context of the suicide crisis. The result shows that participants are limited in their capacity of supporting the development of an independent identity because the family dynamics identifies new opportunities of narrating to oneself as a menace to the system of loyalties

  18. New GOES High-Resolution Magnetic Measurements and their Contribution to Understanding Magnetospheric Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R. J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Boudouridis, A.; Chi, P. J.; Singer, H. J.; Kress, B. T.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Abdelqader, A.; Tilton, M.

    2017-12-01

    studies, we find that the wave amplitude of poloidal oscillations is amplified at low altitudes but attenuated on the ground, confirming the theoretical predictions of wave propagation from the magnetosphere to the ground. We include examples of GOES-16 particle flux and magnetic field observations illustrating complex particle dynamics.

  19. Family-Specific Investments and Divorce: A Theory of Dynamically Inconsistent Household Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Anderberg, Dan; Rainer, Helmut; Roeder, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    This paper bridges two distinct areas of inquiry: the economic theory of the family and behavioral research on time-inconsistent preferences. In our model, hyperbolic discounting couples engage in household production activities, thereby accumulating family-specific capital over time. At any given point in time, the gains to continued marriage depend on the accumulated stock of this capital and a temporary random shock to match quality. Couples whose match quality deteriorates may choose to d...

  20. Understanding the decline and resilience loss of a long-lived social-ecological system: insights from system dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Tenza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Collapse of social-ecological systems (SESs is a common process in human history. Depletion of natural resources, scarcity of human capital, or both, is/are common pathways toward collapse. We use the system dynamics approach to better understand specific problems of small-scale, long-lived SESs. We present a qualitative (or conceptual model using the conceptualization process of the system dynamics approach to study the dynamics of an oasis in Mexico that has witnessed a dramatic transition to decline in recent decades. We used indepth interviews, participant observation, expert opinions, and official statistical data sets to define the boundaries, and structure in a causal loop diagram of our studied system. We described historical trends and showed the reference mode for the main system variables (observed data, and analyzed the expected system behavior according to the system structure. We identified the main drivers that changed the system structure, as well as structural changes, and the effects of these changes on the dynamics, resilience, and vulnerability of this SES. We found that the tendency of this SES toward collapse was triggered by exogenous factors (growth of modern agriculture in nearby valleys, and socio-political relocation, and was maintained by an endogenous structure. These structural changes weakened the resilience of this SES. One of these changes resulted in a long-term maladaptation of the SES, which increased its vulnerability to frequent system disturbances (hurricanes and droughts. The conceptual model developed provides an in-depth qualitative description of the system, with an important amount of qualitative and quantitative information, to establish the structural hypothesis of the observed behavior. Using this qualitative model, the next research steps are to develop a quantitative model to test the qualitative theories, and to explore future scenarios of system resilience for decision-making processes to

  1. Seeing the light: Applications of in situ optical measurements for understanding DOM dynamics in river systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Fleck, J.; Shanley, J. B.; Aiken, G.; Boss, E.; Fujii, R.

    2009-12-01

    A critical challenge for understanding the sources, character and cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is making measurements at the time scales in which changes occur in aquatic systems. Traditional approaches for data collection (daily to monthly discrete sampling) are often limited by analytical and field costs, site access and logistical challenges, particularly for long-term sampling at a large number of sites. The ability to make optical measurements of DOM in situ has been known for more than 50 years, but much of the work on in situ DOM absorbance and fluorescence using commercially-available instruments has taken place in the last few years. Here we present several recent examples that highlight the application of in situ measurements for understanding DOM dynamics in riverine systems at intervals of minutes to hours. Examples illustrate the utility of in situ optical sensors for studies of DOM over short-duration events of days to weeks (diurnal cycles, tidal cycles, storm events and snowmelt periods) as well as longer-term continuous monitoring for months to years. We also highlight the application of in situ optical DOM measurements as proxies for constituents that are significantly more difficult and expensive to measure at high frequencies (e.g. methylmercury, trihalomethanes). Relatively simple DOM absorbance and fluorescence measurements made in situ could be incorporated into short and long-term ecological research and monitoring programs, resulting in advanced understanding of organic matter sources, character and cycling in riverine systems.

  2. Caregiver roles in families affected by Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røthing, Merete; Malterud, Kirsti; Frich, Jan C

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The objective of this study was to explore family caregivers' experiences with the impact of Huntington's disease (HD) on the family structure and roles in the family. METHODOLOGY: We interviewed 15 family caregivers in families affected by HD, based on a semi-structured interview guide...... for impairments by taking on adult responsibilities, and in some families, a child had the role as main caregiver. The increasing need for care could cause conflicts between the role as family member and family caregiver. The burden of care within the family could fragment and isolate the family. CONCLUSIONS......: Huntington's disease has a major impact on family systems. Caregiver roles are shaped by impairments in the affected family member and corresponding dynamic adoption and change in roles within the family. Making assessments of the family structure and roles, professionals may understand more about how...

  3. Under the pile. Understanding subsurface dynamics of historical cities trough geophysical models interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Paulo; Pereira, Bruno; Alves, Mafalda; Fontes, Luís; Sousa, Andreia; Martins, Manuela; Magalhães, Fernanda; Pimenta, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Braga is one of the oldest cities of the Iberian NW and as of so, the research team's studying the city's historical core for the past 40 years is often confronted with the unpredictability factor laying beneath an urban site with such a long construction history. In fact, Braga keeps redesigning its urban structure over itself on for the past 2000 years, leaving us with a research object filled with an impressive set of construction footprints from the various planning decisions that were taken in the city along its historical path. Aiming for a predicting understanding of the subsoil, we have used near surface geophysics as an effort of minimizing the areas of intervention for traditional archaeological survey techniques. The Seminário de Santiago integrated geophysical survey is an example of the difficulties of interpreting geophysical models in very complex subsurface scenarios. This geophysical survey was planned in order to aid the requalification project being designed for this set of historical buildings, that are estimated to date back to the 16h century, and that were built over one of the main urban arteries of both roman and medieval layers of Braga. We have used both GPR as well as ERT methods for the geophysical survey, but for the purpose of this article, we will focus in the use of the ERT alone. For the interpretation of the geophysical models we've cross-referenced the dense knowledge existing over the building's construction phases with the complex geophysical data collected, using mathematical processing and volume-based visualization techniques, resorting to the use of Res2Inv©, Paraview© and Voxler® software's. At the same time we tried to pinpoint the noise caused by the past 30 year's infrastructural interventions regarding the replacement of the building's water and sanitation systems and for which we had no design plants, regardless of its recent occurring. The deep impact of this replacement actions revealed by the archaeological

  4. Roles within the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. ...

  5. Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics

  6. The spin-charge-family theory offers understanding of the triangle anomalies cancellation in the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankoc Borstnik, N.S. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nielsen, H.B.F. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-12-15

    The standard model has for massless quarks and leptons ''miraculously'' no triangle anomalies due to the fact that the sum of all possible traces T r[τ{sup Ai}τ{sup Bj}τ{sup Ck}] - where τ{sup Ai}, τ{sup Bi} and τ{sup Ck} are the generators of one, of two or of three of the groups SU(3), SU(2) and U(1) - over the representations of one family of the left handed fermions and anti-fermions (and separately of the right handed fermions and anti-fermions), contributing to the triangle currents, is equal to zero.{sup [1-4]} It is demonstrated in this paper that this cancellation of the standard model triangle anomaly follows straightforwardly if the SO(3, 1), SU(2), U(1) and SU(3) are the subgroups of the orthogonal group SO(13, 1), as it is in the spin-charge-family theory.{sup [5-22]} We comment on the SO(10) anomaly cancellation, which works if handedness and charges are related ''by hand''. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  8. DOES TRAINING IN THE CIRCLE OF SECURITY FRAMEWORK INCREASE RELATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN INFANT/CHILD AND FAMILY WORKERS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Catherine; Huber, Anna; Kohlhoff, Jane; Camberis, Anna-Lisa

    2017-09-01

    This article evaluated whether attendance at Circle of Security training workshops resulted in attendees showing greater empathy and attachment-related knowledge and understanding, and fewer judgmental responses to viewing a stressful parent-child interaction. Participants were 202 practitioners who attended and completed a 2-day (n = 70), 4-day (n = 105), or 10-day (n = 27) COS training workshop in Australia or New Zealand in 2015. In a pre/post design, participant reactions to a video clip of a challenging parent-child interaction were coded for empathic, judgmental, or attachment-focused language. Attachment understanding was coded in response to questions about the greatest challenge that the dyad faced. In all training conditions, participants provided significantly more attachment-focused descriptors and showed significantly greater attachment understanding after training, but significantly fewer empathic descriptors. While participants at the longer workshops provided significantly fewer judgmental/critical descriptors, there was no change for those attending the 2-day workshop. Irrespective of workshop duration or professional background, participants took a more relational perspective on the vignette after the training workshops. More detailed research is required to establish the extent to which this increased knowledge and understanding is retained and integrated into infant mental health practice with parents and young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Poverty and Family Structure - Phase II | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In developing countries, and in Sénégal in particular, the makeup of the family is constantly changing as new members arrive (through marriage, placement of children in the family's care, etc.) and others leave (through divorce, migration, placement of children with another family, etc.). Understanding the dynamics of ...

  10. How They Move Reveals What Is Happening: Understanding the Dynamics of Big Events from Human Mobility Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Damascène Mazimpaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The context in which a moving object moves contributes to the movement pattern observed. Likewise, the movement pattern reflects the properties of the movement context. In particular, big events influence human mobility depending on the dynamics of the events. However, this influence has not been explored to understand big events. In this paper, we propose a methodology for learning about big events from human mobility pattern. The methodology involves extracting and analysing the stopping, approaching, and moving-away interactions between public transportation vehicles and the geographic context. The analysis is carried out at two different temporal granularity levels to discover global and local patterns. The results of evaluating this methodology on bus trajectories demonstrate that it can discover occurrences of big events from mobility patterns, roughly estimate the event start and end time, and reveal the temporal patterns of arrival and departure of event attendees. This knowledge can be usefully applied in transportation and event planning and management.

  11. CRISPR families of the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus: bidirectional transcription and dynamic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillestøl, Reidun K; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Brügger, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Summary CRISPRs of Sulfolobus fall into three main families based on their repeats, leader regions, associated cas genes, and putative recognition sequences on viruses and plasmids. Spacer sequence matches to different viruses and plasmids of the Sulfolobales revealed some bias particularly...... for family III CRISPRs. Transcription occurs on both strands of the five repeat-clusters of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and a repeat-cluster of the conjugative plasmid pKEF9. Leader strand transcripts cover whole repeat-clusters and are processed mainly from the 3'-end, within repeats, yielding heterogeneous...

  12. The ties that bind: understanding the impact of sexual assault disclosure on survivors' relationships with friends, family, and partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Courtney E; Aldana, Erendira

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the type of social reactions sexual assault survivors receive from others can have a profound impact on their health and well-being. Far less is known about the impact of social reactions on the ensuing relationship between survivors and the people to whom they disclose. The current study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the impact of disclosure on survivors' relationships with friends, family members, and romantic partners. A total of 76 rape survivors described 153 different disclosures to informal support providers. Qualitative analysis suggested that most relationships either were strengthened or remained strong following the disclosure, but a substantial number of survivors described relationships that deteriorated or remained poor following the disclosure. These outcomes were related to the quality of the relationship prior to the disclosure and to survivors' perceptions of the reactions they received during the disclosure. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  13. Understanding carers' lived experience of stigma: the voice of families with a child on the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broady, Timothy R; Stoyles, Gerard J; Morse, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there are several unique challenges associated with caring for a child on the autism spectrum. Despite a growing evidence base regarding autism spectrum disorders and their increasing prevalence, children on the autism spectrum and their families continue to perceive stigmatisation from various sources throughout the community. These perceptions of stigma can profoundly impact the quality of life of these children and their carers alike. This exploratory study sought to investigate carers' perceptions of stigma in caring for a child with high functioning autism. Fifteen carers from Sydney and the South Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews regarding their caring experiences and any perceived encounters with stigma. Four domains of stigmatising experiences were identified: (i) lack of knowledge, (ii) judgement, (iii) rejection and (iv) lack of support. These domains were each reported to exist in four main contexts: (i) school, (ii) public, (iii) family and (iv) friends. These domains and contexts established a framework which provided a detailed account of how and where carers felt stigmatised, including the suggestion of a stigmatising pathway through the four domains. The main contexts in which stigma was perceived also appeared to be related, with those carers who experienced stigma in one context being more likely to report similar experiences in other contexts. Any attempts to empower carers in the face of stigmatisation should therefore consider each of these domains, the pathway that connects them and the relationship between different social contexts. Through identifying this pathway, supportive services can be acutely aware of how carers may perceive potentially stigmatising experiences and therefore provide appropriate interventions or support for the relevant stage of the pathway. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Functional hoarseness in children: short-term play therapy with family dynamic counseling as therapy of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollbrunner, Jürg; Seifert, Eberhard

    2013-09-01

    Children with nonorganic voice disorders (NVDs) are treated mainly using direct voice therapy techniques such as the accent method or glottal attack changes and indirect methods such as vocal hygiene and voice education. However, both approaches tackle only the symptoms and not etiological factors in the family dynamics and therefore often enjoy little success. The aim of the "Bernese Brief Dynamic Intervention" (BBDI) for children with NVD was to extend the effectiveness of pediatric voice therapies with a psychosomatic concept combining short-term play therapy with the child and family dynamic counseling of the parents. This study compares the therapeutic changes in three groups where different procedures were used, before intervention and 1 year afterward: counseling of parents (one to two consultations; n = 24), Brief Dynamic Intervention on the lines of the BBDI (three to five play therapy sessions with the child plus two to four sessions with the parents; n = 20), and traditional voice therapy (n = 22). A Voice Questionnaire for Parents developed by us with 59 questions to be answered on a four-point Likert scale was used to measure the change. According to the parents' assessment, a significant improvement in voice quality was achieved in all three methods. Counseling of parents (A) appears to have led parents to give their child more latitude, for example, they stopped nagging the child or demanding that he/she should behave strictly by the rules. After BBDI (B), the mothers were more responsive to their children's wishes and the children were more relaxed and their speech became livelier. At home, they called out to them less often at a distance, which probably improved parent-child dialog. Traditional voice therapy (C) seems to have had a positive effect on the children's social competence. BBDI seems to have the deepest, widest, and therefore probably the most enduring therapeutic effect on children with NVD. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation

  15. Finding the way out: a non-dichotomous understanding of violence and depression resilience of adolescents who are exposed to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Scambor, Christian; Scambor, Elli; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study on family violence and resilience in a random sample of 5,149 middle school students with a mean age of 14.5 years from four EU-countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) we examined the prevalence of exposure to family violence, and we worked from the premise that adolescent can be resilient to family violence. We expanded the definition of resilience to include the absence of both physical aggression and depression symptoms in adolescents who have been exposed to violence in their families and extended our understanding of resilience to include three levels which we describe as: "resilient", "near-resilient" and "non-resilient", thus responding to calls for a more fluid and paths-based understanding of resilience. Data were collected via self-administered surveys consisting of a number of subscales that investigate depression symptoms and physical aggression. The study was analyzed with a three-stage strategy using logistic regression procedures, in which regression analyses were conducted separately for girls and boys using seven steps for modeling the three resilience levels. More than 30% of our respondents reported experiencing family violence. Contrary to previous research findings, our data showed that structural characteristics like country, gender, socio-economic status and migration status were minimally predictive of violence and depression resilience at any level. Overall, for both sexes, despite some small but significant sex differences, resilience is strongly linked to personal and relational characteristics and the absence of experiences that involved exposure to and direct experiences with violence. Resilience supportive factors confirmed by this study are: higher emotional self-control, talking with parents or friends about violence, seeking help to avoid violence, and not endorsing aggression supportive beliefs. Also key to resilience are irrespective of country, gender, and SES are lower levels of experience

  16. Toward Understanding Dynamics in Shifting Biomes: An Individual Based Modeling Approach to Characterizing Drought and Mortality in Central Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Foster, A.; Rogers, B. M.; Hogg, T.; Michaelian, M.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Goetz, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal zone is known be warming at an accelerated rate relative to other biomes. Persistent warming has already affected the high northern latitudes, altering vegetation productivity, carbon sequestration, and many other ecosystem processes and services. The central-western Canadian boreal forests and aspen parkland are experiencing a decade long drought, and rainfall has been identified as a key factor controlling the location of the boundary between forest and prairie in this region. Shifting biome with related greening and browning trends are readily measureable with remote sensing, but the dynamics that create and result from them are not well understood. In this study, we use the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME), an individual-based forest model, to simulate the changes that are occurring across the southern boreal and parkland forests of west-central Canada. We present a parameterization of UVAFME for western central Canadian forests, validated with CIPHA data (Climate Change Impacts on the Productivity and Health of Aspen), and improved mortality. In order to gain a fine-scale understanding of how climate change and specifically drought will continue to affect the forests of this region, we simulated forest conditions following CMIP5 climate scenarios. UVAFME predictions were compared with statistical models and satellite observations of productivity across the landscape. Changes in forest cover, forest type, aboveground biomass, and mortality and recruitment dynamics are presented, highlighting the high vulnerability of this region to vegetation transitions associated with future droughts.

  17. Coupling environmental, social and economic models to understand land-use change dynamics in the Mekong Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eDrogoul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Vietnamese Mekong Delta has undergone in recent years a considerable transformation in agricultural land-use, fueled by a boom of the exportation, an increase of population, a focus on intensive crops, but also environmental factors like sea level rise or the progression of soil salinity. These transformations have been, however, largely misestimated by the ten-year agricultural plans designed at the provincial levels, on the predictions of which, though, most of the large-scale investments (irrigation infrastructures, protection against flooding or salinity intrusion, and so on are normally planned. This situation raises the question of how to explain the divergence between the predictions used as a basis for these plans and the actual situation. Answering it could, as a matter of fact, offer some insights on the dynamics at play and hopefully allow designing them more accurately.The dynamics of land-use change at a scale of a region results from the interactions between heterogeneous actors and factors at different scales, among them institutional policies, individual farming choices, land-cover and environmental changes, economic conditions, social dynamics, just to name a few. Understanding its evolution, for example, in this case, to better support agricultural planning, therefore requires the use of models that can represent the individual contributions of each actor or factor, and of course their interactions.We address this question through the design of an integrated hybrid model of land-use change in a specific and carefully chosen case study, which relies on the central hypothesis that the main force driving land-use change is actually the individual choices made by farmers at their local level. Farmers are the actors who decide (or not to switch from one culture to another and the shifts observed at more global levels (village, district, province, region are considered, in this model, as a consequence of the aggregation of these

  18. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T. Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  19. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  20. The Dynamics of Families Who Are Homeless: Implications for Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    Family homelessness has emerged as a serious global problem (Stronge, 2000). Over the past 25 years in the United States, the makeup of the homeless population has changed significantly. As De Angelis (1994) reports: The landscape of homelessness has changed since the early 1980s, when nearly all homeless people were men. Today,…

  1. Parental Incarceration and Multiple Risk Experiences: Effects on Family Dynamics and Children's Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2010-01-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental…

  2. Family Dynamics and the Teenage Immigrant: Creating the Self through the Parents' Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Fran

    1994-01-01

    Assessed role played by Soviet Jewish emigre family in exacerbating dual disjunctures of immigration and adolescents. Results, based on life history interviews with five women who came from United Soviet Socialist Republic to United States as teenagers in 1970s, challenge bipolar model of adolescent immigrants and raise questions about previous…

  3. Family lifestyle dynamics and childhood obesity: evidence from the millennium cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Laura A; Hernandez Alava, Monica; Kelly, Michael P; Campbell, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has been increasing but the causes are not fully understood. Recent public health interventions and guidance aiming to reduce childhood obesity have focused on the whole family, as opposed to just the child but there remains a lack of empirical evidence examining this relationship. Methods Using data from the ...

  4. Structural Dynamics Investigation of Human Family 1 & 2 Cystatin-Cathepsin L1 Interaction: A Comparison of Binding Modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kumar Nandy

    Full Text Available Cystatin superfamily is a large group of evolutionarily related proteins involved in numerous physiological activities through their inhibitory activity towards cysteine proteases. Despite sharing the same cystatin fold, and inhibiting cysteine proteases through the same tripartite edge involving highly conserved N-terminal region, L1 and L2 loop; cystatins differ widely in their inhibitory affinity towards C1 family of cysteine proteases and molecular details of these interactions are still elusive. In this study, inhibitory interactions of human family 1 & 2 cystatins with cathepsin L1 are predicted and their stability and viability are verified through protein docking & comparative molecular dynamics. An overall stabilization effect is observed in all cystatins on complex formation. Complexes are mostly dominated by van der Waals interaction but the relative participation of the conserved regions varied extensively. While van der Waals contacts prevail in L1 and L2 loop, N-terminal segment chiefly acts as electrostatic interaction site. In fact the comparative dynamics study points towards the instrumental role of L1 loop in directing the total interaction profile of the complex either towards electrostatic or van der Waals contacts. The key amino acid residues surfaced via interaction energy, hydrogen bonding and solvent accessible surface area analysis for each cystatin-cathepsin L1 complex influence the mode of binding and thus control the diverse inhibitory affinity of cystatins towards cysteine proteases.

  5. Understanding the dynamics of sustainable change: A 20-year case study of integrated health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinga, Charlotte; Hasson, Henna; Andreen Sachs, Magna; Hansson, Johan

    2018-06-04

    Change initiatives face many challenges, and only a few lead to long-term sustainability. One area in which the challenge of achieving long-term sustainability is particularly noticeable is integrated health and social care. Service integration is crucial for a wide range of patients including people with complex mental health and social care needs. However, previous research has focused on the initiation, resistance and implementation of change, while longitudinal studies remain sparse. The objective of this study was therefore to gain insight into the dynamics of sustainable changes in integrated health and social care through an analysis of local actions that were triggered by a national policy. A retrospective and qualitative case-study research design was used, and data from the model organisation's steering-committee minutes covering 1995-2015 were gathered and analysed. The analysis generated a narrative case description, which was mirrored to the key elements of the Dynamic Sustainability Framework (DSF). The development of inter-sectoral cooperation was characterized by a participatory approach in which a shared structure was created to support cooperation and on-going quality improvement and learning based on the needs of the service user. A key management principle was cooperation, not only on all organisational levels, but also with service users, stakeholder associations and other partner organisations. It was shown that all these parts were interrelated and collectively contributed to the creation of a structure and a culture which supported the development of a dynamic sustainable health and social care. This study provides valuable insights into the dynamics of organizational sustainability and understanding of key managerial actions taken to establish, develop and support integration of health and social care for people with complex mental health needs. The service user involvement and regular reviews of service users' needs were essential in order

  6. Study of a low-dose capsule filling process by dynamic and static tests for advanced process understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, S; Faulhammer, E; Scheibelhofer, O; Calzolari, V; Biserni, S; Paudel, A; Khinast, J G

    2018-04-05

    Precise filling of capsules with doses in the mg-range requires a good understanding of the filling process. Therefore, we investigated the various process steps of the filling process by dynamic and static mode tests. Dynamic tests refer to filling of capsules in a regular laboratory dosator filling machine. Static tests were conducted using a novel filling system developed by us. Three grades of lactose excipients were filled into size 3 capsules with different dosing chamber lengths, nozzle diameters and powder bed heights, and, in the dynamic mode, with two filling speeds (500, 3000 caps/h). The influence of the gap at the bottom of the powder container on the fill weight and variability was assessed. Different gaps resulted in a change in fill weight in all materials, although in different ways. In all cases, the fill weight of highly cohesive Lactohale 220 increased when decreasing the gap. Furthermore, experiments with the stand-alone static test tool indicated that this very challenging powder could successfully be filled without any pre-compression in the range of 5 mg-20 mg with acceptable RSDs. This finding is of great importance since for very fine lactose powders high compression ratios (dosing-chamber-length-to-powder-bed height compression ratios) may result in jamming of the piston. Moreover, it shows that the static mode setup is suitable for studying fill weight and variability. Since cohesive powders, such as Lactohale 220, are hard to fill, we investigated the impact of vibration on the process. Interestingly, we found no correlation between the reported fill weight changes in dynamic mode at 3000 cph and static mode using similar vibration. However, we could show that vibrations during sampling in the static mode dramatically reduced fill weight variability. Overall, our results indicate that by fine-tuning instrumental settings even very challenging powders can be filled with a low-dose dosator capsule filling machine. This study is a

  7. Toward a better understanding of the interaction between TGF-β family members and their ALK receptors

    KAUST Repository

    Romano, Valentina; Raimondo, Domenico; Calvanese, Luisa; D’ Auria, Gabriella; Tramontano, Anna; Falcigno, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) proteins are a family of structurally related extracellular proteins that trigger their signaling functions through interaction with the extracellular domains of their cognate serine/threonine kinase receptors. The specificity of TGF-β/receptor binding is complex and gives rise to multiple functional roles. Additionally, it is not completely understood at the atomic level. Here, we use the most reliable computational methods currently available to study systems involving activin-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4 and ALK7 and their multiple TGF-β ligands. We built models for all these proteins and their complexes for which experimental structures are not available. By analyzing the surfaces of interaction in six different TGF-β/ALK complexes we could infer which are the structural distinctive features of the ligand-receptor binding mode. Furthermore, this study allowed us to rationalize why binding of the growth factors GDF3 and Nodal to the ALK4 receptor requires the Cripto co-factor, whilst binding to the ALK7 receptor does not. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  8. Understanding U.S. fertility: continuity and change in the National Survey of Family Growth, 1988-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, W D; Bachrach, C A

    1996-01-01

    About 50 studies based on the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and a telephone reinterview conducted with the same women two years later provide continuing information about the fertility and health of American women. Among the findings of these studies are that black women have almost twice as many pregnancies as do white women (5.1 vs. 2.8), with nearly all of the difference being unintended pregnancies. Unwanted births increased between 1982 and 1988, particularly among less-educated, poor and minority women. This increase in the proportion of unwanted births may have prompted the increase in female sterilization among these groups. Concern with the AIDS epidemic led to increases in condom use between 1982 and 1990, especially among the partners of teenagers and college-educated women. Rates of teenage pregnancy were fairly stable during the period 1980-1988, as increases in the proportion of teenagers having intercourse were offset by increases in condom use. Rates of infertility did not change significantly in the 1980s, but because of delayed childbearing and the aging of the baby-boom cohort, the number of older childless women increased substantially. The 1995 NSFG was redesigned in a number of ways in order to answer a new generation of questions about fertility and women's health in the United States.

  9. Toward a better understanding of the interaction between TGF-β family members and their ALK receptors

    KAUST Repository

    Romano, Valentina

    2012-02-22

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) proteins are a family of structurally related extracellular proteins that trigger their signaling functions through interaction with the extracellular domains of their cognate serine/threonine kinase receptors. The specificity of TGF-β/receptor binding is complex and gives rise to multiple functional roles. Additionally, it is not completely understood at the atomic level. Here, we use the most reliable computational methods currently available to study systems involving activin-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4 and ALK7 and their multiple TGF-β ligands. We built models for all these proteins and their complexes for which experimental structures are not available. By analyzing the surfaces of interaction in six different TGF-β/ALK complexes we could infer which are the structural distinctive features of the ligand-receptor binding mode. Furthermore, this study allowed us to rationalize why binding of the growth factors GDF3 and Nodal to the ALK4 receptor requires the Cripto co-factor, whilst binding to the ALK7 receptor does not. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  10. Design of Dwellings and Interior Family Space in China: Understanding the History of Change and Opportunities for Improved Sustainability Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pitts

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews briefly the recent history of dwelling design in China. It notes the rapid changes that have taken place since the 1980s and identifies the way contemporary procurement processes leave out the final fit-out and decoration/refurbishment. A range of stakeholders were interviewed, and access was gained to drawings and other technical data that indicated how the secondary processes were carried out. These are largely ungoverned by regulation in the same way necessary for initial design. The key group is the occupants who drive the fit-out and decoration according to personal and cultural requirements, but often with less than perfect understanding of sustainability. The interior design industry has developed rapidly over the same period and was initially lacking in professional knowledge and understanding (something which can still be found. Advice provided to dwelling occupants was based more on appearance than function and efficiency. Over the same period, beneficial modifications to construction processes have been introduced in relation to structural design, and it should be possible to do the same for sustainability-related design issues. The paper advocates: more regulation; better assessment techniques; more information and guidance for home-owners; and a greater focus on energy issues.

  11. Application of Dynamic Systems Family for Synthesis of Fuzzy Control with Account of Non-linearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Lozynskyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic system with nonlinearities has been considered. This system has been divided into a set of linear subsystems. A fuzzy controller of the considered system has been synthesized. It takes into account nonlinearities of the system and provides smooth switching between controllers of the linear subsystems. An unstable subsystem has been utilized, which provides better dynamic characteristics of the considered system. Comparison with traditional controller has been conducted. Corresponding qualitative and quantitative estimates have been provided. They testify the expediency of the proposed approach.

  12. Nonstandard Work Schedules, Family Dynamics, and Mother-Child Interactions During Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C

    2018-03-01

    The rising number of parents who work nonstandard schedules has led to a growing body of research concerned with what this trend means for children. The negative outcomes for children of parents who work nonstandard schedules are thought to arise from the disruptions these schedules place on family life, and thus, the types of parenting that support their children's development, particularly when children are young. Using a nationally representative sample of two-parent families (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort, n = 3,650), this study examined whether mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' parenting when children were 2 and 4 years old. Structural equation models revealed that mothers' and their partners' nonstandard work schedules were associated with mothers' lower scores on measures of positive and involved parenting. These associations were mediated by fathers' lower levels of participation in cognitively supportive parenting and greater imbalance in cognitively supportive tasks conducted by mothers versus fathers.

  13. The Dynamics of Male Brooding, Mating Patterns, ad Sex Roles in Pipefishes and Seahorses (Family Syngnathidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Anthony Bruce; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C. J.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto speci...

  14. Dynamic evolution of toll-like receptor multigene families in echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Buckley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, was the first to be sequenced from a long-lived large invertebrate. Analysis of this genome uncovered a surprisingly complex immune system in which the moderately sized sets of pattern recognition receptors that form the core of vertebrate innate immunity are encoded in large multigene families. The sea urchin genome contains 253 Toll-like receptor (TLR genes, more than 200 Nod-like receptors and 1095 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains, a ten-fold expansion relative to vertebrates. Given their stereotypic structure and simple intron-exon architecture, the TLRs are the most tractable of these families for more detailed analysis. An immune defense role for these receptors is suggested by their sequence diversity and expression in immunologically active tissues, including phagocytes. This complexity of the sea urchin TLR multigene families largely derives from expansions that are independent of those in vertebrates and protostomes, although a small family of TLRs with structure similar to that of Drosophila Toll likely originated in an ancient eumetazoan ancestor. Several other invertebrate deuterostome genomes have been sequenced, including the cephalochordate, Branchiostoma floridae and the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, as well as partial sequences from two other sea urchin species. Here, we present an analysis of the invertebrate deuterostome TLRs with emphasis on the echinoderms. Representatives of most of the S. purpuratus TLR subfamilies and homologs of the protostome-like sequences are found in L. variegatus. The phylogeny of these genes within sea urchins highlights lineage-specific expansions at higher resolution than is evident at the phylum level. These analyses identify quickly evolving TLR subfamilies that are likely to have novel functions and other, more stable, subfamilies that may function similarly to those of vertebrates.

  15. Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Analysis of Sustainable Development in China Based on the Footprint Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Caihong; Zhao, Xiangui; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2018-01-01

    The existing index systems on sustainable evaluation are mostly based on a multi index comprehensive evaluation method. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the selection and assignment of evaluation indexes are greatly influenced by subjective factors, which can result in poor comparability of results. By contrast, the Footprint Family (including ecological footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint) is not affected by subjective factors. The Footprint Family also covers the basic tenets of sustainable development. This paper proposes use of a sustainable development evaluation index system based on the principle of the Footprint Family, and including the ecological pressure index (EPI), the ecological occupancy index (EOI), the ecological economic coordination index (EECI), the GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission index (CEI), the water resources stress index (WSI), and the sustainable development index (SDI). Furthermore, a standard for grading the evaluated results based on global benchmarks is formulated. The results of an empirical study in China were the following. The development situation deteriorated from 1990 to 2015. The results showed that the SDI decreased from a medium level (grade 5) to a lower-medium level (grade 4). The results of this empirical study also showed that the method of evaluation can avoid the influence of subjective factors and can be used in the evaluation of sustainable development for various temporal and spatial conditions. PMID:29389886

  16. Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Analysis of Sustainable Development in China Based on the Footprint Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ma, Caihong; Zhao, Xiangui; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The existing index systems on sustainable evaluation are mostly based on a multi index comprehensive evaluation method. The main disadvantage of this approach is that the selection and assignment of evaluation indexes are greatly influenced by subjective factors, which can result in poor comparability of results. By contrast, the Footprint Family (including ecological footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint) is not affected by subjective factors. The Footprint Family also covers the basic tenets of sustainable development. This paper proposes use of a sustainable development evaluation index system based on the principle of the Footprint Family, and including the ecological pressure index ( EPI ), the ecological occupancy index ( EOI ), the ecological economic coordination index ( EECI ), the GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission index ( CEI ), the water resources stress index ( WSI ), and the sustainable development index ( SDI ). Furthermore, a standard for grading the evaluated results based on global benchmarks is formulated. The results of an empirical study in China were the following. The development situation deteriorated from 1990 to 2015. The results showed that the SDI decreased from a medium level (grade 5) to a lower-medium level (grade 4). The results of this empirical study also showed that the method of evaluation can avoid the influence of subjective factors and can be used in the evaluation of sustainable development for various temporal and spatial conditions.

  17. Development and Examination of a Family Triadic Measure to Examine Quality of Life Family Congruence in Nursing Home Residents and Two Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalgaard Kelly, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The overall purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model and apply family analyses methods to understand quality of life family congruence in the nursing home setting. Method: Secondary data for this study were from a larger study, titled Measurement, Indicators and Improvement of the Quality of Life (QOL) in Nursing Homes . Research literature, family systems theory and human ecological assumptions, fostered the conceptual model empirically testing quality of life family congruence. Results: The study results supported a model examining nursing home residents and two family members on quality of life family congruence. Specifically, family intergenerational dynamic factors, resident personal and social-psychological factors, and nursing home family input factors were examined to identify differences in quality of life family congruence among triad families. Discussion: Formal family involvement and resident cognitive functioning were found as the two most influential factors to quality of life family congruence (QOLFC).

  18. Academic success across the transition from primary to secondary schooling among lower-income adolescents: understanding the effects of family resources and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Kingdon, Danielle

    2013-09-01

    Successful academic performance during adolescence is a key predictor of lifetime achievement, including occupational and social success. The present study investigated the important transition from primary to secondary schooling during early adolescence, when academic performance among youth often declines. The goal of the study was to understand how risk factors, specifically lower family resources and male gender, threaten academic success following this "critical transition" in schooling. The study involved a longitudinal examination of the predictors of academic performance in grades 7-8 among 127 (56 % girls) French-speaking Quebec (Canada) adolescents from lower-income backgrounds. As hypothesized based on transition theory, hierarchical regression analyses showed that supportive parenting and specific academic, social and behavioral competencies (including spelling ability, social skills, and lower levels of attention problems) predicted success across this transition among at-risk youth. Multiple-mediation procedures demonstrated that the set of compensatory factors fully mediated the negative impact of lower family resources on academic success in grades 7-8. Unique mediators (social skills, spelling ability, supportive parenting) also were identified. In addition, the "gender gap" in performance across the transition could be attributed statistically to differences between boys and girls in specific competencies observed prior to the transition, as well as differential parenting (i.e., support from mother) towards girls and boys. The present results contribute to our understanding of the processes by which established risk factors, such as low family income and gender impact development and academic performance during early adolescence. These "transitional" processes and subsequent academic performance may have consequences across adolescence and beyond, with an impact on lifetime patterns of achievement and occupational success.

  19. Poverty and Family Structure - Phase II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the dynamics of change in family structure is critical in poverty diagnosis, ... And, how could public social security be conceived to protect the most vulnerable? ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  20. A singing choir: Understanding the dynamics of hope, hopelessness, and despair in palliative care patients. A longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsman, Erik; Leget, Carlo; Duggleby, Wendy; Willems, Dick

    2015-12-01

    Hope, despair, and hopelessness are dynamic in nature; however, they have not been explored over time. The objective of the present study was to describe hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, as experienced by palliative care patients. We employed a qualitative longitudinal method based on narrative theories. Semistructured interviews with palliative care patients were prospectively conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Data on hope, hopelessness and despair were thematically analyzed, which led to similarities and differences between these concepts. The concepts were then analyzed over time in each case. During all stages, the researchers took a reflexive stance, wrote memos, and did member checking with participants. A total of 29 palliative care patients (mean age, 65.9 years; standard deviation, 14.7; 14 females) were included, 11 of whom suffered from incurable cancer, 10 from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 8 from severe heart failure. They were interviewed a maximum of three times. Participants associated hope with gains in the past or future, such as physical improvement or spending time with significant others. They associated hopelessness with past losses, like loss of health, income, or significant others, and despair with future losses, which included the possibility of losing the future itself. Over time, the nature of their hope, hopelessness, and despair changed when their condition changed. These dynamics could be understood as voices in a singing choir that can sing together, alternate with each other, or sing their own melody. Our findings offer insight into hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, and the metaphor of a choir helps to understand the coexistence of these concepts. The findings also help healthcare professionals to address hope, hopelessness, and despair during encounters with patients, which is particularly important when the patients' physical condition has changed.

  1. Understanding the dynamics of the Seguro Popular de Salud policy implementation in Mexico from a complex adaptive systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo; González-Robledo, Luz María; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Adam, Taghreed

    2016-05-13

    In 2003, Mexico's Seguro Popular de Salud (SPS), was launched as an innovative financial mechanism implemented to channel new funds to provide health insurance to 50 million Mexicans and to reduce systemic financial inequities. The objective of this article is to understand the complexity and dynamics that contributed to the adaptation of the policy in the implementation stage, how these changes occurred, and why, from a complex and adaptive systems perspective. A complex adaptive systems (CAS) framework was used to carry out a secondary analysis of data obtained from four SPS's implementation evaluations. We first identified key actors, their roles, incentives and power, and their responses to the policy and guidelines. We then developed a causal loop diagram to disentangle the feedback dynamics associated with the modifications of the policy implementation which we then analyzed using a CAS perspective. Implementation variations were identified in seven core design features during the first 10 years of implementation period, and in each case, the SPS's central coordination introduced modifications in response to the reactions of the different actors. We identified several CAS phenomena associated with these changes including phase transitions, network emergence, resistance to change, history dependence, and feedback loops. Our findings generate valuable lessons to policy implementation processes, especially those involving a monetary component, where the emergence of coping mechanisms and other CAS phenomena inevitably lead to modifications of policies and their interpretation by those who implement them. These include the difficulty of implementing strategies that aim to pool funds through solidarity among beneficiaries where the rich support the poor when there are no incentives for the rich to do so. Also, how resistance to change and history dependence can pose significant challenges to implementing changes, where the local actors use their significant power

  2. Dynamic shear-lag model for understanding the role of matrix in energy dissipation in fiber-reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Wenqing; Yu, Zhongliang; Wei, Xiaoding

    2018-07-01

    surprisingly with "low-grade" matrix materials, and discontinuities (often regarded as "defects") may play an important role in energy dissipation. Counter-intuitive as it may seem, our work helps understanding the secrets of the outstanding dynamic properties of some biological materials, and inspire novel ideas for man-made composites. Copyright © 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MMAS vs. Population-based EA on a family of dynamic fitness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior of a population-based EA and the Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) on a family of deterministically-changing fitness functions, where, in order to find the global optimum, the algorithms have to find specific local optima within each of a series of phases. In particular, we prove...... a Maze function extended over a finite alphabet of μ symbols, whereas population size μ-1 is not sufficient. Furthermore, we show that MMAS does not require additional modifications to track the optimum of the finite-alphabet Maze functions, and, using a novel drift statement to simplify the analysis...

  4. MMAS Versus Population-Based EA on a Family of Dynamic Fitness Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the behavior of a population-based EA and the Max–Min Ant System (MMAS) on a family of deterministically-changing fitness functions, where, in order to find the global optimum, the algorithms have to find specific local optima within each of a series of phases. In particular, we prove...... function extended over a finite alphabet of μ symbols, whereas population size μ−1 is not sufficient. Furthermore, we show that MMAS does not require additional modifications to track the optimum of the finite-alphabet Maze functions, and, using a novel drift statement to simplify the analysis, reduce...

  5. Quasi-periodic motions in families of dynamical systems order amidst chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Broer, Hendrik W; Sevryuk, Mikhail B

    1996-01-01

    This book is on Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser theory for quasi-periodic tori in dynamical systems. It gives an up-to-date report on the role parameters play for persis- tence of such tori, typically occuring on Cantor sets of positive Hausdorff measure inside phase and parameter space. The cases with preservation of symplectic or volume forms or time-reversal symmetries are included. The concepts of Whitney-smoothness and Diophantine approximation of Cantor sets on submanifolds of Euclidean space are treated, as well as Bruno's theory on analytic continuation of tori. Partly this material is new to Western mathematicians. The reader should be familiar with dynamical systems theory, differen- tial equations and some analysis. The book is directed to researchers, but its entrance level is introductory.

  6. What the Dynamic Systems Approach Can Offer for Understanding Development: An Example of Mid-childhood Reaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenia, Laura; Schoemaker, Marina M; Otten, Egbert; Mouton, Leonora J; Bongers, Raoul M

    2017-01-01

    The Dynamic Systems Approach (DSA) to development has been shown to be a promising theory to understand developmental changes. In this perspective, we use the example of mid-childhood (6- to 10-years of age) reaching to show how using the DSA can advance the understanding of development. Mid-childhood is an important developmental period that has often been overshadowed by the focus on the acquisition of reaching during infancy. This underrepresentation of mid-childhood studies is unjustified, as earlier studies showed that important developmental changes in mid-childhood reaching occur that refine the skill of reaching. We review these studies here for the first time and show that different studies revealed different developmental trends, such as non-monotonic and linear trends, for variables such as movement time and accuracy at target. Unfortunately, proposed explanations for these developmental changes have been tailored to individual studies, limiting their scope. Also, explanations were focused on a single component or process in the system that supposedly causes developmental changes. Here, we propose that the DSA can offer an overarching explanation for developmental changes in this research field. According to the DSA, motor behavior emerges from interactions of multiple components entailed by the person, environment, and task. Changes in all these components can potentially contribute to the emerging behavior. We show how the principles of change of the DSA can be used as an overarching framework by applying these principles not only to development, but also the behavior itself. This underlines its applicability to other fields of development.

  7. Radioisotope tracer approach for understanding the impacts of global change-induced pedoturbation on soil C dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Blanc-Betes, E.; Taneva, L.; Poghosyan, A.; Norby, R. J.; Filley, T. R.; Guilderson, T. P.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Biogeochemical carbon-cycle feedbacks to climate are apparent but uncertain, primarily because of gaps in mechanistic understanding on the ecosystem processes that drive carbon cycling and storage in terrestrial ecosystems, particularly in soils. Recent findings are increasingly recognizing the interaction between soil biota and the soil physical environment. Soil carbon turnover is partly determined by burial of organic matter and its physical and chemical protection. These factors are potentially affected by changes in climate (freezing-thawing or wet-drying cycles) or ecosystem structure including biological invasions. A major impediment to understanding dynamics of soil C in terrestrial systems is our inability to measure soil physical processes such as soil mixing rates or turnover of soil structures, including aggregates. Here we present a multiple radioisotope tracer approach (naturally occurring and man-made) to measure soil mixing rates in response to global change. We will present evidence of soil mixing rate changes in a temperate forest exposed to increased levels of atmospheric CO2 and in a tundra ecosystem exposed to increased thermal insulation. In both cases, radioisotope tracers proved to be an effective way to measure effects of global change on pedoturbation. Results also provided insights into the specific mechanisms involved in the responses. Elevated CO2 resulted in deeper soil mixing cells (increased by about 5cm on average) when compared to control soils as a consequence of changes in biota (increased root growth, higher earthworm density). In the tundra, soil warming induced higher rates of cryoturbation, resulting in what appears to be a net uplift of organic matter to the surface thereby exposing deeper C to decomposers. In both cases, global change factors affected the vertical distribution of C and changed the amount of bulk soil actively involved in soil processes. As a consequence, comparisons of C budgets to a given soil depth in

  8. Evolutionary history of chordate PAX genes: dynamics of change in a complex gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes

    Full Text Available Paired box (PAX genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory.

  9. Commentary 2: Sibling Power Dynamics: The Role of Family and Sociocultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2017-01-01

    The balance of power and control is an understudied, yet important, aspect of the sibling relationship that is theorized to shift over the course of development from early childhood to young adulthood. The investigations in this issue offer support for this overall progression, but extend prior research by providing a nuanced understanding of…

  10. The Dynamics of Pheromone Gland Synthesis and Release: a Paradigm Shift for Understanding Sex Pheromone Quantity in Female Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Casas, Jérôme

    2018-05-10

    Moths are exemplars of chemical communication, especially with regard to specificity and the minute amounts they use. Yet, little is known about how females manage synthesis and storage of pheromone to maintain release rates attractive to conspecific males and why such small amounts are used. We developed, for the first time, a quantitative model, based on an extensive empirical data set, describing the dynamical relationship among synthesis, storage (titer) and release of pheromone over time in a moth (Heliothis virescens). The model is compartmental, with one major state variable (titer), one time-varying (synthesis), and two constant (catabolism and release) rates. The model was a good fit, suggesting it accounted for the major processes. Overall, we found the relatively small amounts of pheromone stored and released were largely a function of high catabolism rather than a low rate of synthesis. A paradigm shift may be necessary to understand the low amounts released by female moths, away from the small quantities synthesized to the (relatively) large amounts catabolized. Future research on pheromone quantity should focus on structural and physicochemical processes that limit storage and release rate quantities. To our knowledge, this is the first time that pheromone gland function has been modeled for any animal.

  11. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tolokh, Igor S. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Drozdetski, Aleksander [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Onufriev, Alexey V. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however, the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively characterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight into understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  12. Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for improving freeze-dryers design and process understanding. Part 1: Modelling the lyophilisation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Antonello A; Rasetto, Valeria; Marchisio, Daniele L

    2018-05-15

    This manuscript shows how computational models, mainly based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), can be used to simulate different parts of an industrial freeze-drying equipment and to properly design them; in particular, the freeze-dryer chamber and the duct connecting the chamber with the condenser, with the valves and vanes eventually present are analysed in this work. In Part 1, it will be shown how CFD can be employed to improve specific designs, to perform geometry optimization, to evaluate different design choices and how it is useful to evaluate the effect on product drying and batch variance. Such an approach allows an in-depth process understanding and assessment of the critical aspects of lyophilisation. This can be done by running either steady-state or transient simulations with imposed sublimation rates or with multi-scale approaches. This methodology will be demonstrated on freeze-drying equipment of different sizes, investigating the influence of the equipment geometry and shelf inter-distance. The effect of valve type (butterfly and mushroom) and shape on duct conductance and critical flow conditions will be instead investigated in Part 2. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Adolescent arsonists--psychodynamics, family dynamics and attempt at framing a typology based on 40 expert opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, G; Bertsch, S L

    2001-02-01

    Psychiatric, psychological and medical data of 40 adolescent firesetters are obtained from a retrospective analysis of expert opinions which have been drawn up by the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Tübingen over a period of 16 years (1981-1997). This analysis mainly focusses on the patients' physical and psychosexual development, their social integration and competence and their family dynamics. It further concentrates on the psychic situation at the time of the offense, the reasons and motives given for firesetting (by the patient and by the expert) and specific psychological test results. According to the results three different characteristic groups can be found: 1st a group of offenders who have set fires to their parents' house, 2nd firesetters being member of the firebrigade, and 3rd an unspecific inhomogeneous group of firesetters.

  14. The Innisfree meteorite: Dynamical history of the orbit - Possible family of meteor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galibina, I. V.; Terent'eva, A. K.

    1987-09-01

    Evolution of the Innisfree meteorite orbit caused by secular perturbations is studied over the time interval of 500000 yrs (from the current epoch backwards). Calculations are made by the Gauss-Halphen-Gorjatschew method taking into account perturbations from the four outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In the above mentioned time interval the meteorite orbit has undergone no essential transformations. The Innisfree orbit intersected in 91 cases the Earth orbit and in 94 - the Mars orbit. A system of small and large meteor bodies (producing ordinary meteors and fireballs) which may be genetically related to the Innisfree meteorite has been found, i.e. there probably exists an Innisfree family of meteor bodies.

  15. Structural insight into dynamic bypass of the major cisplatin-DNA adduct by Y-family polymerase Dpo4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jimson H.Y.; Brown, Jessica A.; Suo, Zucai; Blum, Paul; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ling, Hong (OSU); (NINA-Japan); (UNL); (UWO)

    2010-08-23

    Y-family DNA polymerases bypass Pt-GG, the cisplatin-DNA double-base lesion, contributing to the cisplatin resistance in tumour cells. To reveal the mechanism, we determined three structures of the Y-family DNA polymerase, Dpo4, in complex with Pt-GG DNA. The crystallographic snapshots show three stages of lesion bypass: the nucleotide insertions opposite the 3{prime}G (first insertion) and 5{prime}G (second insertion) of Pt-GG, and the primer extension beyond the lesion site. We observed a dynamic process, in which the lesion was converted from an open and angular conformation at the first insertion to a depressed and nearly parallel conformation at the subsequent reaction stages to fit into the active site of Dpo4. The DNA translocation-coupled conformational change may account for additional inhibition on the second insertion reaction. The structures illustrate that Pt-GG disturbs the replicating base pair in the active site, which reduces the catalytic efficiency and fidelity. The in vivo relevance of Dpo4-mediated Pt-GG bypass was addressed by a dpo-4 knockout strain of Sulfolobus solfataricus, which exhibits enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and proteomic alterations consistent with genomic stress.

  16. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  17. Understand and Advocate for Communities First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Muhammad; Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon; Newcomb, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    Culturally responsive parent-school relationships require educators to consider the cultural practices and understandings of families as a necessary condition of greater academic achievement. The establishment of healthy parent-school relationships is a complex and dynamic process. A school-community overlap, with a priority given to community…

  18. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  19. Improving Family Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  20. Neutron Scattering of Residual Hydrogen in 1,4-Dioxane-D8 Liquid. Understanding Measurements with Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Hongjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kidder, Michelle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-25

    understand measurements or calibrate/validate molecular dynamics models.

  1. Understanding groundwater dynamics on barrier islands using geochronological data: An example from North Stradbroke Island, South-east Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Newborn, Dean; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater lenses underneath barrier islands are dynamic systems affected by changing sea levels and groundwater use. They are vulnerable to contamination and over-abstraction. Residence times of fresh groundwater in barrier islands are poorly understood and have mostly been assessed by modelling approaches and estimates without fundamental validation with geochronological data. Assessing residence time and recharge rates will improve significantly our understanding of hydrological processes of coastal environments that will in turn allow us to make informed decisions on groundwater use and environmental protection. This project focused on groundwater recharge rates and residence times of the fresh water aquifer system of North Stradbroke Island, south-east Queensland, Australia. Groundwater bores, wetlands and submarine groundwater discharge points in the tidal areas (wonky holes) were sampled along a transect across the island and were analysed for major ion chemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C) in combination with 3H and 14C analysis. Calculated 3H using a 95% exponential-piston flow model and 14C ages range from 12 to >100 years and modern to 3770 years, respectively, indicating a highly heterogeneous aquifer system with mixing from low and high conductive areas. The major ion chemistry in combination with stable and radiogenic isotopes suggests that a significant groundwater component derives from the fractured rock basement and older sedimentary formations underlying the sand dunes of the island. The results help refining the conceptual and numerical groundwater flow model for North Stradbroke island in this particular case but also demonstrate the possible complexity of barrier island hydrogeology.

  2. Comparison of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Dynamics in Model-Based Scientific Inquiry and Scientific Inquiry Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan Buyruk, Arzu; Ogan Bekiroglu, Feral

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate the impact of model-based inquiry on pre-service physics teachers' conceptual understanding of dynamics. Theoretical framework of this research was based on models-of-data theory. True-experimental design using quantitative and qualitative research methods was carried out for this research. Participants of…

  3. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments. (topical review)

  4. Chromophore photophysics and dynamics in fluorescent proteins of the GFP family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are indispensable for fluorescence imaging experiments in the life sciences, particularly of living specimens. Their essential role as genetically encoded fluorescence markers has motivated many researchers over the last 20 years to further advance and optimize these proteins by using protein engineering. Amino acids can be exchanged by site-specific mutagenesis, starting with naturally occurring proteins as templates. Optical properties of the fluorescent chromophore are strongly tuned by the surrounding protein environment, and a targeted modification of chromophore-protein interactions requires a profound knowledge of the underlying photophysics and photochemistry, which has by now been well established from a large number of structural and spectroscopic experiments and molecular-mechanical and quantum-mechanical computations on many variants of fluorescent proteins. Nevertheless, such rational engineering often does not meet with success and thus is complemented by random mutagenesis and selection based on the optical properties. In this topical review, we present an overview of the key structural and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent proteins. We address protein-chromophore interactions that govern ground state optical properties as well as processes occurring in the electronically excited state. Special emphasis is placed on photoactivation of fluorescent proteins. These light-induced reactions result in large structural changes that drastically alter the fluorescence properties of the protein, which enables some of the most exciting applications, including single particle tracking, pulse chase imaging and super-resolution imaging. We also present a few examples of fluorescent protein application in live-cell imaging experiments.

  5. The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony B; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Vincent, Amanda C J; Meyer, Axel

    2003-06-01

    Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating, the female transfers eggs into or onto specialized egg-brooding structures that are located on either the male's abdomen or its tail, where they are osmoregulated, aerated, and nourished by specially adapted structures. All syngnathid males exhibit this form of parental care but the brooding structures vary, ranging from the simple ventral gluing areas of some pipefishes to the completely enclosed pouches found in seahorses. We present a molecular phylogeny that indicates that the diversification of pouch types is positively correlated with the major evolutionary radiation of the group, suggesting that this extreme development and diversification of paternal care may have been an important evolutionary innovation of the Syngnathidae. Based on recent studies that show that the complexity of brooding structures reflects the degree of paternal investment in several syngnathid species, we predicted sex-role reversals to be more common among species with more complex brooding structures. In contrast to this prediction, however, both parsimony- and likelihood-based reconstructions of the evolution of sex-role reversal in pipefishes and seahorses suggest multiple shifts in sex roles in the group, independent from the degree of brood pouch development. At the same time, our data demonstrate that sex-role reversal is positively associated with polygamous mating patterns, whereas most nonreversed species mate monogamously, suggesting that selection for polygamy or monogamy in pipefishes and seahorses may strongly influence sex

  6. Family problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1984-01-01

    Even Grand Unified Theories may not explain the repetitive pattern of fermions in the Standard Model. The abysmal absence of dynamical information about these ''families'' is emphasized. The evidence that family quantum numbers exist, and are not conserved, is reviewed. It is argued that rare kaon decays may be the best means to obtain more information on this important question

  7. Family problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1984-01-01

    Even Grand Unified Theories may not explain the repetitive pattern of fermions in the Standard Model. The abysmal absence of dynamical information about these families is emphasized. The evidence that family quantum numbers exist, and are not conserved, is reviewed. It is argued that rare kaon decays may be the best means to obtain more information on this important question

  8. Vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses are found across three insect families and have dynamic interactions with their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Day, Jonathan P; Schulz, Nora; Leftwich, Philip T; de Jong, Maaike A; Breuker, Casper J; Gibbs, Melanie; Obbard, Darren J; Wilfert, Lena; Smith, Sophia C L; McGonigle, John E; Houslay, Thomas M; Wright, Lucy I; Livraghi, Luca; Evans, Luke C; Friend, Lucy A; Chapman, Tracey; Vontas, John; Kambouraki, Natasa; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-01-25

    A small number of free-living viruses have been found to be obligately vertically transmitted, but it remains uncertain how widespread vertically transmitted viruses are and how quickly they can spread through host populations. Recent metagenomic studies have found several insects to be infected with sigma viruses (Rhabdoviridae). Here, we report that sigma viruses that infect Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), Drosophila immigrans, and speckled wood butterflies (Pararge aegeria) are all vertically transmitted. We find patterns of vertical transmission that are consistent with those seen in Drosophila sigma viruses, with high rates of maternal transmission, and lower rates of paternal transmission. This mode of transmission allows them to spread rapidly in populations, and using viral sequence data we found the viruses in D. immigrans and C. capitata had both recently swept through host populations. The viruses were common in nature, with mean prevalences of 12% in C. capitata, 38% in D. immigrans and 74% in P. aegeria We conclude that vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses may be widespread in a broad range of insect taxa, and that these viruses can have dynamic interactions with their hosts. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses are found across three insect families and have dynamic interactions with their hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jonathan P.; Schulz, Nora; Leftwich, Philip T.; de Jong, Maaike A.; Wilfert, Lena; Smith, Sophia C. L.; McGonigle, John E.; Houslay, Thomas M.; Livraghi, Luca; Evans, Luke C.; Friend, Lucy A.; Vontas, John; Kambouraki, Natasa

    2017-01-01

    A small number of free-living viruses have been found to be obligately vertically transmitted, but it remains uncertain how widespread vertically transmitted viruses are and how quickly they can spread through host populations. Recent metagenomic studies have found several insects to be infected with sigma viruses (Rhabdoviridae). Here, we report that sigma viruses that infect Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), Drosophila immigrans, and speckled wood butterflies (Pararge aegeria) are all vertically transmitted. We find patterns of vertical transmission that are consistent with those seen in Drosophila sigma viruses, with high rates of maternal transmission, and lower rates of paternal transmission. This mode of transmission allows them to spread rapidly in populations, and using viral sequence data we found the viruses in D. immigrans and C. capitata had both recently swept through host populations. The viruses were common in nature, with mean prevalences of 12% in C. capitata, 38% in D. immigrans and 74% in P. aegeria. We conclude that vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses may be widespread in a broad range of insect taxa, and that these viruses can have dynamic interactions with their hosts. PMID:28100819

  10. S-Nitrosylation Induces Structural and Dynamical Changes in a Rhodanese Family Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Cédric; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Choe, Senyon; Lipton, Stuart A; Riek, Roland

    2016-09-25

    S-Nitrosylation is well established as an important post-translational regulator in protein function and signaling. However, relatively little is known about its structural and dynamical consequences. We have investigated the effects of S-nitrosylation on the rhodanese domain of the Escherichia coli integral membrane protein YgaP by NMR, X-ray crystallography, and mass spectrometry. The results show that the active cysteine in the rhodanese domain of YgaP is subjected to two competing modifications: S-nitrosylation and S-sulfhydration, which are naturally occurring in vivo. It has been observed that in addition to inhibition of the sulfur transfer activity, S-nitrosylation of the active site residue Cys63 causes an increase in slow motion and a displacement of helix 5 due to a weakening of the interaction between the active site and the helix dipole. These findings provide an example of how nitrosative stress can exert action at the atomic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Revisiting Urban Dynamics through Social Urban Data : Methods and tools for data integration, visualization, and exploratory analysis to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of human activity in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study of dynamic spatial and social phenomena in cities has evolved rapidly in the recent years, yielding new insights into urban dynamics. This evolution is strongly related to the emergence of new sources of data for cities (e.g. sensors, mobile phones, online social media etc.), which have

  12. Making Sense of Dynamic Systems: How Our Understanding of Stocks and Flows Depends on a Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helen; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    Stocks and flows (SF) are building blocks of dynamic systems: Stocks change through inflows and outflows, such as our bank balance changing with withdrawals and deposits, or atmospheric CO[subscript 2] with absorptions and emissions. However, people make systematic errors when trying to infer the behavior of dynamic systems, termed SF failure,…

  13. Effect of orientation dynamics on the growth of a passive vector in a family of model flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M

    2014-01-01

    The stretching properties of a parameterized model flow used to study the fast dynamo (Tanner and Hughes 2003 Astrophys. J. 586 685–91) are analyzed by paying special attention to the dependence of the growth rate of a passive vector on its orientation with respect to strain principal axes. More specifically, the study brings out that, rather than strain intensity, it is the dynamics of orientation resulting from the alternating tilting of the strain principal axes that explains the evolution of the passive vector mean growth rate in this class of flows. On a more general level, this view of stretching may bring an alternative understanding of the growth mechanisms of vectors such as the magnetic field vector. (paper)

  14. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  15. Dynamical symmetry as a tool to understanding properties of supersymmetric partner potentials. Example of so(2,1) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrhahn, R.F.; Cooper, I.L.

    1992-05-01

    Analysis of the dynamical symmetry of a system is used to predict properties arising from its supersymmetric quantum mechanical treatment. Two applications of the so(2,1) algebra, the Coulomb potential and Morse oscillator potential which display different structure with respect to the dynamical symmetry, are studied. This difference is shown to be responsible for the behaviour of the respective supersymmetric partner potentials. (orig.)

  16. A dynamical approach toward understanding mechanisms of team science: change, kinship, tension, and heritage in a transdisciplinary team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R

    2013-08-01

    Since the concept of team science gained recognition among biomedical researchers, social scientists have been challenged with investigating evidence of team mechanisms and functional dynamics within transdisciplinary teams. Identification of these mechanisms has lacked substantial research using grounded theory models to adequately describe their dynamical qualities. Research trends continue to favor the measurement of teams by isolating occurrences of production over relational mechanistic team tendencies. This study uses a social constructionist-grounded multilevel mixed methods approach to identify social dynamics and mechanisms within a transdisciplinary team. A National Institutes of Health-funded research team served as a sample. Data from observations, interviews, and focus groups were qualitatively coded to generate micro/meso level analyses. Social mechanisms operative within this biomedical scientific team were identified. Dynamics that support such mechanisms were documented and explored. Through theoretical and emergent coding, four social mechanisms dominated in the analysis-change, kinship, tension, and heritage. Each contains relational social dynamics. This micro/meso level study suggests such mechanisms and dynamics are key features of team science and as such can inform problems of integration, praxis, and engagement in teams. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Four Essays on Family Life Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    . In addition, the present thesis underlines the need for an improved understanding of the role of health and caregiving as fundamental aspects of family life, and in doing so allocates increased attention to how children’s characteristics are central to family-level outcomes. Just as the lives of family......As demographic and social trends continue to change the institution of the family, a need to reconsider the study family life events as they unfold over the life course has emerged. To advance current knowledge of social dynamics associated with this new complexity, the point of departure...... of the present thesis is the way in which individual, social, and institutional contexts shape family life events. The main objective of the present thesis is twofold: to highlight the importance of how family life events are theoretically understood and methodologically approached, and to examine why social...

  18. DMPD: The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17502370 The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of acti....html) (.csml) Show The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. PubmedID 1...7502370 Title The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism

  19. DMPD: Regulation of phagocyte migration and recruitment by Src-family kinases. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18385944 Regulation of phagocyte migration and recruitment by Src-family kinases. B...how Regulation of phagocyte migration and recruitment by Src-family kinases. PubmedID 18385944 Title Regulat...ion of phagocyte migration and recruitment by Src-family kinases. Authors Baruzzi

  20. Supporting Dynamic Development of Youth with Disabilities during Transition: A Guide for Families. Information Brief. Volume 3, Issue 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kris

    2004-01-01

    Family support is key to healthy adolescence. A family enables children to experience attachment, belonging, competence, and self-esteem, and at the same time allows them to experience success and failure, adventure and retreat, independence and interdependence. For families who have teens with disabilities, adolescence can be especially…