WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding evolving user

  1. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  2. Modeling and clustering users with evolving profiles in usage streams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Today, there is an increasing need of data stream mining technology to discover important patterns on the fly. Existing data stream models and algorithms commonly assume that users\\' records or profiles in data streams will not be updated or revised once they arrive. Nevertheless, in various applications such asWeb usage, the records/profiles of the users can evolve along time. This kind of streaming data evolves in two forms, the streaming of tuples or transactions as in the case of traditional data streams, and more importantly, the evolving of user records/profiles inside the streams. Such data streams bring difficulties on modeling and clustering for exploring users\\' behaviors. In this paper, we propose three models to summarize this kind of data streams, which are the batch model, the Evolving Objects (EO) model and the Dynamic Data Stream (DDS) model. Through creating, updating and deleting user profiles, these models summarize the behaviors of each user as a profile object. Based upon these models, clustering algorithms are employed to discover interesting user groups from the profile objects. We have evaluated all the proposed models on a large real-world data set, showing that the DDS model summarizes the data streams with evolving tuples more efficiently and effectively, and provides better basis for clustering users than the other two models. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Understanding users in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    , the guideline contain a step by step process to develop easy‐to‐open packaging. The guideline is constructed in a way that allows the enterprise to pick and choose in respect to the enterprise´s needs and competences. The main focus in the development of the guidelines has been to produce a tool that function...... observations is a tool for user understanding and that the first step towards better packaging, goes through consensus in the organization regarding the need for more easy‐opening packaging....

  4. Modeling and Understanding Time-Evolving Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Melen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of modeling application scenarios characterized by variability over time and involving heterogeneous kinds of knowledge. The evolution of distributed technologies creates new and challenging possibilities of integrating different kinds of problem solving methods, obtaining many benefits from the user point of view. In particular, we propose here a multilayer modeling system and adopt the Knowledge Artifact concept to tie together statistical and Artificial Intelligence rule-based methods to tackle problems in ubiquitous and distributed scenarios.

  5. Users' Understanding of Search Engine Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a large-scale study on users' understanding of search-based advertising is presented. It is based on (1 a survey, (2 a task-based user study, and (3 an online experiment. Data were collected from 1,000 users representative of the German online population. Findings show that users generally lack an understanding of Google's business model and the workings of search-based advertising. 42% of users self-report that they either do not know that it is possible to pay Google for preferred listings for one's company on the SERPs or do not know how to distinguish between organic results and ads. In the task-based user study, we found that only 1.3 percent of participants were able to mark all areas correctly. 9.6 percent had all their identifications correct but did not mark all results they were required to mark. For none of the screenshots given were more than 35% of users able to mark all areas correctly. In the experiment, we found that users who are not able to distinguish between the two results types choose ads around twice as often as users who can recognize the ads. The implications are that models of search engine advertising and of information seeking need to be amended, and that there is a severe need for regulating search-based advertising.

  6. Non-professional user`s understanding of Geographic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Public participation in the planning process requires well developed communication between the authorities and the public; communication in wich various types of geographic information (GI) plays an important role. With the growth of the Internet this communication has been enriched with the assets......-based online services and comprehend the information contents? Using the Gi-based online services qualitatively in the participatory process obviously requires knowledge of the non-professional user`s understanding and use of GI. This paper discusses the needs for research into this field as well as relevant...

  7. Understanding dynamic friction through spontaneously evolving laboratory earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, V; Rosakis, A J; Lapusta, N

    2017-06-29

    Friction plays a key role in how ruptures unzip faults in the Earth's crust and release waves that cause destructive shaking. Yet dynamic friction evolution is one of the biggest uncertainties in earthquake science. Here we report on novel measurements of evolving local friction during spontaneously developing mini-earthquakes in the laboratory, enabled by our ultrahigh speed full-field imaging technique. The technique captures the evolution of displacements, velocities and stresses of dynamic ruptures, whose rupture speed range from sub-Rayleigh to supershear. The observed friction has complex evolution, featuring initial velocity strengthening followed by substantial velocity weakening. Our measurements are consistent with rate-and-state friction formulations supplemented with flash heating but not with widely used slip-weakening friction laws. This study develops a new approach for measuring local evolution of dynamic friction and has important implications for understanding earthquake hazard since laws governing frictional resistance of faults are vital ingredients in physically-based predictive models of the earthquake source.

  8. Understanding Types of Users on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Muhammad Moeen; Imran, Muhammad; Sajjad, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    People use microblogging platforms like Twitter to involve with other users for a wide range of interests and practices. Twitter profiles run by different types of users such as humans, bots, spammers, businesses and professionals. This research work identifies six broad classes of Twitter users, and employs a supervised machine learning approach which uses a comprehensive set of features to classify users into the identified classes. For this purpose, we exploit users' profile and tweeting b...

  9. EVOLVE

    CERN Document Server

    Deutz, André; Schütze, Oliver; Legrand, Pierrick; Tantar, Emilia; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises nine selected works on numerical and computational methods for solving multiobjective optimization, game theory, and machine learning problems. It provides extended versions of selected papers from various fields of science such as computer science, mathematics and engineering that were presented at EVOLVE 2013 held in July 2013 at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The internationally peer-reviewed papers include original work on important topics in both theory and applications, such as the role of diversity in optimization, statistical approaches to combinatorial optimization, computational game theory, and cell mapping techniques for numerical landscape exploration. Applications focus on aspects including robustness, handling multiple objectives, and complex search spaces in engineering design and computational biology.

  10. Understanding University Library Users' Mistreatment of Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Carmen; Cuadrado, Manuel; Cervera, Amparo

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses university library users' attitudes towards book vandalism in order to develop a basis for intervention. Using a customer oriented approach data was collected from users who attended an academic library exhibition on vandalized books at a University campus. Respondents were asked both for their reactions to the vandalism as…

  11. Understanding the Social Navigation User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecks, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…

  12. The lucid interval associated with epidural bleeding: evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to elucidate the evolution of our understanding of the term "lucid interval." A number of texts were reviewed to assess their suitability for analysis. The primary requirement was that the text contain detailed descriptions of a series of patients. Details of the clinical course, the findings and timing of surgery, and, when relevant, the time of death and postmortem findings were required. Books written by Henri-François Le Dran, Percival Pott, and James Hill fulfilled these criteria. Surgical findings included the presence and type of fractures, changes in the bone, separation of periosteum, malodorous or purulent material, tense brain, and hematoma. Postmortem findings supplemented and/or complemented the surgical findings. The courses of the patients were then tabulated, and the correlation between different clinical and operative findings was thereby determined. Our understanding of a lucid interval began in the early 18th century with the work of Henri-François Le Dran and Percival Pott in London. They did not, however, demonstrate an interval without symptoms between trauma and deterioration in patients with epidural hematomas (EDHs). The interval they described was longer than usually expected with EDHs and occurred exclusively in patients who had a posttraumatic infection. In 1751, James Hill, from Dumfries, Scotland, described the first hematoma-related lucid interval in a patient with a subdural hematoma. The first case of a lucid interval associated with an EDH was described by John Abernethy. In the 19th century, Jonathan Hutchinson and Walter Jacobson described the interval as it is known today, in cases of EDH. The most recent work on the topic came from studies in Cincinnati and Oslo, where it was demonstrated that bleeding can separate dura mater and that hemorrhage into the epidural space can be shunted out via the veins. This shunting could delay the accumulation of a hematoma and thus the rise in intracranial pressure

  13. How Information Visualization Systems Change Users' Understandings of Complex Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendoerfer, Kenneth Robert

    2009-01-01

    User-centered evaluations of information systems often focus on the usability of the system rather its usefulness. This study examined how a using an interactive knowledge-domain visualization (KDV) system affected users' understanding of a domain. Interactive KDVs allow users to create graphical representations of domains that depict important…

  14. Sepsis: Multiple Abnormalities, Heterogeneous Responses, and Evolving Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Kendra N.; Osuchowski, Marcin F.; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Stepien, David; Valentine, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis represents the host's systemic inflammatory response to a severe infection. It causes substantial human morbidity resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Despite decades of intense research, the basic mechanisms still remain elusive. In either experimental animal models of sepsis or human patients, there are substantial physiological changes, many of which may result in subsequent organ injury. Variations in age, gender, and medical comorbidities including diabetes and renal failure create additional complexity that influence the outcomes in septic patients. Specific system-based alterations, such as the coagulopathy observed in sepsis, offer both potential insight and possible therapeutic targets. Intracellular stress induces changes in the endoplasmic reticulum yielding misfolded proteins that contribute to the underlying pathophysiological changes. With these multiple changes it is difficult to precisely classify an individual's response in sepsis as proinflammatory or immunosuppressed. This heterogeneity also may explain why most therapeutic interventions have not improved survival. Given the complexity of sepsis, biomarkers and mathematical models offer potential guidance once they have been carefully validated. This review discusses each of these important factors to provide a framework for understanding the complex and current challenges of managing the septic patient. Clinical trial failures and the therapeutic interventions that have proven successful are also discussed. PMID:23899564

  15. An evolving user-oriented model of Internet health information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaie, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an evolving user-oriented model of Internet health information seeking (IS) based on qualitative data collected from 22 lung cancer (LC) patients and caregivers. This evolving model represents information search behavior as more highly individualized, complex, and dynamic than previous models, including pre-search psychological activity, use of multiple heuristics throughout the process, and cost-benefit evaluation of search results. This study's findings suggest that IS occurs in four distinct phases: search initiation/continuation, selective exposure, message processing, and message evaluation. The identification of these phases and the heuristics used within them suggests a higher order of complexity in the decision-making processes that underlie IS, which could lead to the development of a conceptual framework that more closely reflects the complex nature of contextualized IS. It also illustrates the advantages of using qualitative methods to extract more subtle details of the IS process and fill in the gaps in existing models.

  16. Understanding and Targeting Indonesian Young Adult Internet Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Chang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia. 

  17. Understanding the Demographics of Twitter Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mislove, Alan; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Every second, the thoughts and feelings of millions of people across the world are recorded in the form of 140-character tweets using Twitter. However, despite the enormous potential presented by this remarkable data source, we still do not have an understanding of the Twitter population itself: ...... population to the U.S. population along three axes (geography, gender, and race/ethnicity), and find that the Twitter population is a highly non-uniform sample of the population....

  18. Understanding and Targeting Indonesian Young Adult Internet Users

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    As the number of global internet users increases, companies' online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. ...

  19. [Understanding the elderly user of auditory prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Karina Mary; Maciel, Paulete Maria Ambrósio; Cintra, Letícia Guedes

    2011-06-01

    The main goal was to identify the factors involved in the application for and use of auditory prostheses by the elderly as well as their awareness of the Policy of Care to Auditory Health. 25 elderly people of both sexes using auditory prostheses in Vitória (Espírito Santo, Brazil) were selected. They were contacted by telephone to participate in the research by answering a questionnaire. The results demonstrated that most of the elderly people interviewed (52%) use the device all day which suggests good adaptation to the process. Thirteen elderly people reported that they contacted the prosthesis company of their own accord. The advantages involved better communication and listening to TV (64%) while the difficulties were due to noisy environments; 56% were unable to understand what was being said at lectures, in church, and on the telephone, 72% reported no improvement with the prosthesis. 88% of the elderly participants are unaware of donation policies for auditory devices and 100% are unaware of this kind of service. Research and practices in health services about auditory issues still have far to go. There is a need for a change in management with the objective of putting into action policies which define the responsibilities of the State.

  20. Understanding your users a practical guide to user requirements methods, tools, and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Today many companies are employing a user-centered design (UCD) process, but for most companies, usability begins and ends with the usability test. Although usability testing is a critical part of an effective user-centered life cycle, it is only one component of the UCD process. This book is focused on the requirements gathering stage, which often receives less attention than usability testing, but is equally as important. Understanding user requirements is critical to the development of a successful product. Understanding Your Users is an easy to read, easy to implement, how-to guide on

  1. Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and impacts on land type changes in Madagascar. ... explore and understand decisions and management strategies. We finally report on first outcomes of the game including land use decisions, reaction to market fluctuation and landscape change. RÉSUMÉ

  2. An Evolving Assessment Strategy: Sustaining Interactions with Users to Inform Planning and Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Research indicates that in addition to reports, decision makers need to access climate science through a range of products such as scenarios, observed data, maps, technical guidelines, and other materials. This presentation will describe an evolving strategy for leveraging climate research and assessments conducted by the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to provide usable climate information to build society's capacity to manage climate variability and change. The approach is called "sustained assessment" and is intended to be more interactive and to empower individuals and organizations to participate more fully and in an ongoing basis to evaluate the implications of climate change using state of the art scientific information. The speaker will describe the necessary conditions for sustained assessment, including mechanisms to facilitate ongoing communication between users and the climate science community in co-design and implementation of assessment activities. It will also review some of the needed scientific foundations for sustained assessment. The speaker is chair of the recently established Federal Advisory Committee. He has been involved in previous US National Climate Assessments (NCAs), including as a lead author of a special advisory report on establishing a sustained US national assessment process. He will speak in his personal capacity and provide publicly-available information on the role of the new Advisory Committee and steps towards establishing a sustained assessment process.

  3. Understanding active and passive users: the effects of an active user using normal, hard and unreliable technologies on user assessment of trust in technology and co-user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Enid; Xu, Jie

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how passive users perceive the trustworthiness of active users and technologies under varying technological conditions. An experimental study was designed to vary the functioning of technologies that active users interacted with, while passive users observed these interactions. Active and passive user ratings of technology and partner were collected. Exploratory data analysis suggests that passive users developed perceptions of technologies based on the functioning of the technology and how the active user interacted with the technology. Findings from this research have implications for the design of technologies in environments where active and passive users interact with technologies in different ways. Future work in this area should explore interventions that lead to enhanced affective engagement and trust calibration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Understanding Active and Passive Users: The Effects of an Active User Using Normal, Hard and Unreliable Technologies on User Assessment of Trust in Technology and Co-User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Enid; JieXu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how passive users perceive the trustworthiness of active users and technologies under varying technological conditions. An experimental study was designed to vary the functioning of technologies that active users interacted with, while passive users observed these interactions. Active and passive user ratings of technology and partner were collected. Exploratory data analysis suggests that passive users developed perceptions of technologies based on the functioning of the technology and how the active user interacted with the technologies. Findings from this research have implications for the design of technologies in environments where active and passive users interact with technologies in different ways. Future work in this area should explore interventions that lead to enhanced affective engagement and trust calibration. PMID:22192788

  5. Evolved Control of Natural Plants: Crossing the Reality Gap for User-Defined Steering of Growth and Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstadler, Daniel Nicolas; Wahby, Mostafa; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2017-01-01

    of light sources to trigger phototropic response, steering the plant to user-defined targets. An evolutionary robotic approach is used to design a controller for the setup. Initially, preliminary experiments are performed with a simple predetermined controller and a growing bean plant. The plant behavior...... in response to the simple controller is captured by image processing, and a model of the plant tip dynamics is developed. The model is used in simulation to evolve a robot controller that steers the plant tip such that it follows a number of randomly generated target points. Finally, we test the simulation-evolved...

  6. HYPERTENSION: THE UNDERSTANDING OF BEARER’S USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilara Maria Mesquita Mendes Pires1

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High Blood Pressure (HBP occupies a prominent position, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as a multifactorial disease and mostly asymptomatic, that fundamentally endangers the promote life’s quality. The study aimed to portray the understanding of bearer’s users enrolled and monitored by the HIPERDIA program, in Family Health Units, about their pathology and thus be able to establish strategies that may be closer to their reality to propose policies to encourage the promotion of health. The study with qualitative approach, conducted in the municipality of Jequié - Bahia, with 08 Family Health Teams, with 152 users with hypertension. We used the semi-structured interview and the collective subject speech technique, which enabled us to reconstruct 04 speeches: DSC 01: "To me it is a terrible disease", DSC 02 "do not eat salt, do not eat fat”, DSC 03 "it is to have Representação da hipertensão arterial sistêmica headaches, vertigo, it causes heart attack, it causes stroke" DSC 04 "I do not know what it exactly is", they reflect the understanding of the study subjects about their pathology. This leads us to think of health actions aimed at health education emerging the need for change in the approach and use of a common language between professionals and service users, ensuring the promotion of life’s quality and, consequently, the co-responsibility in the treatment adherence.

  7. An Alternative Method for Understanding User-Chosen Passwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiong Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper an alternative method for understanding user-chosen passwords. In password research, much attention has been given to increasing the security and usability of individual passwords for common users. Few of them focus on the relationships between passwords; therefore we explore the relationships between passwords: modification-based, similarity-based, and probability-based. By regarding passwords as vertices, we shed light on how to transform a dataset of passwords into a password graph. Subsequently, we introduce some novel notions from graph theory and report on a number of inner properties of passwords from the perspective of graph. With the assistance of Python Graph-tool, we are able to visualize our password graph to deliver an intuitive grasp of user-chosen passwords. Five real-world password datasets are used in our experiments to fulfill our thorough experiments. We discover that (1 some passwords in a dataset are tightly connected with each other; (2 they have the tendency to gather together as a cluster like they are in a social network; (3 password graph has logarithmic distribution for its degrees. Top clusters in password graph could be exploited to obtain the effective mangling rules for cracking passwords. Also, password graph can be utilized for a new kind of password strength meter.

  8. Does the type of event influence how user interactions evolve on Twitter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena del Val

    Full Text Available The number of people using on-line social networks as a new way of communication is continually increasing. The messages that a user writes in these networks and his/her interactions with other users leave a digital trace that is recorded. Thanks to this fact and the use of network theory, the analysis of messages, user interactions, and the complex structures that emerge is greatly facilitated. In addition, information generated in on-line social networks is labeled temporarily, which makes it possible to go a step further analyzing the dynamics of the interaction patterns. In this article, we present an analysis of the evolution of user interactions that take place in television, socio-political, conference, and keynote events on Twitter. Interactions have been modeled as networks that are annotated with the time markers. We study changes in the structural properties at both the network level and the node level. As a result of this analysis, we have detected patterns of network evolution and common structural features as well as differences among the events.

  9. The Notion of Truth and Our Evolving Understanding of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2018-03-01

    The notion of truth and its determination in legal proceedings is contingent on the cultural setting in which a claim is argued or disputed. Recent years have demonstrated a dramatic shift in the public dialogue concerning sexual harassment. This shift reflects changing cultural mores and standards in the workplace and society as a whole, particularly with respect to the validity of women's voices. The subjective reality experienced by victims of sexual harassment is inherently tied to the legal system's treatment of women throughout history. In determinations of truth, our understanding of which information and perspectives are relevant, and our expectations regarding the credibility of complainants and the accused, are undergoing a period of rapid change. The discourse surrounding the #MeToo movement suggests that the "reasonable-person" standard so often applied by courts is poorly suited to sexual-harassment litigation. As our understanding of what constitutes "severe," "pervasive," and "unwelcome" conduct continues to evolve, forensic psychiatrists must strive to uphold the values of respect for persons in the search for the truth. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Designing Privacy Notices: Supporting User Understanding and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patrick Gage

    2013-01-01

    Users are increasingly expected to manage complex privacy settings in their normal online interactions. From shopping to social networks, users make decisions about sharing their personal information with corporations and contacts, frequently with little assistance. Current solutions require consumers to read long documents or go out of their way…

  11. Understanding User Behavioral Patterns in Open Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianmin; Song, Shuqiang; Zhao, Xinshuo; Yu, Shengquan

    2018-01-01

    Open knowledge communities (OKCs) have become popular in the era of knowledge economy. This study aimed to explore how users collaboratively create and share knowledge in OKCs. In particular, this research identified the behavior distribution and behavioral patterns of users by conducting frequency distribution and lag sequential analyses. Some…

  12. Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: A survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, E.L.C.; Roto, V.; Hassenzahl, M.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Kort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in user experience (UX), it has been hard to gain a common agreement on the nature and scope of UX. In this paper, we report a survey that gathered the views on UX of 275 researchers and practitioners from academia and industry. Most respondents agree that UX is dynamic,

  13. Practical web analytics for user experience how analytics can help you understand your users

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Practical Web Analytics for User Experience teaches you how to use web analytics to help answer the complicated questions facing UX professionals. Within this book, you'll find a quantitative approach for measuring a website's effectiveness and the methods for posing and answering specific questions about how users navigate a website. The book is organized according to the concerns UX practitioners face. Chapters are devoted to traffic, clickpath, and content use analysis, measuring the effectiveness of design changes, including A/B testing, building user profiles based on search hab

  14. Contesting the Canon: Understanding the History of the Evolving Discipline of Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrynn, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    How do we remember the past in the discipline of kinesiology? What is the connection between memory and history? The conjunction between these two topics has in the past decade become a focus of increasing interest in the broader field of historiography. How do we locate our past in a field that has evolved in a number of ways in the past century?…

  15. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo, P; Cruz, TB; Tsai, K-Y; Allem, J-P; Soto, DW; Kirkpatrick, MG; Pattarroyo, M; Unger, JB

    2017-01-01

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites.This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco produ...

  16. Understanding key factors of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items in social virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungsoo

    2012-10-01

    Given to the remarkable profitability of digital items in social virtual worlds (SVWs), such as SecondLife, Cyworld, and Habbo Hotel, it has become crucial to understand SVW users' postadoption behaviors toward digital items. This study develops a theoretical framework to examine key antecedents of users' intentions to repurchase and recommend digital items. Data collected from 256 users of digital items were empirically tested against the research model. The analysis results indicate that both user satisfaction and a perceived value play an important role in establishing users' postadoption intentions about digital items. Moreover, the results clearly show what roles perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived fee play in SVW environments.

  17. User-oriented Understanding of Descriptive, Proscriptive and Prescriptive Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2003-01-01

    is required. Prescriptive relates to the genuine purpose of the dictionary; the dictionary is meant to help with problems concerning text production and will thus affect usage. This asym-metrical understanding would imply prescriptive and descriptive in practice being false contrasts. In this article, a more......There is much uncertainty and confusion as to the real differences between prescrip-tive and descriptive dictionaries. In general, the majority of existing accounts can be summarised as follows: Descriptive relates to the empirical basis; accordance between the empirical data and the dictionary...

  18. Genetic predisposition of stroke: understanding the evolving landscape through meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Dong; Yang, Chun-Min; Shu, Hai-Feng; Kuang, Yong-Qin; Yang, Tao; He, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Kai; Xia, Xun; Cheng, Jing-Min; Ma, Yuan; Gu, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, is the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Identifying the risk factors is a prerequisite step for stroke prevention and treatment. It is believed that a major portion of the currently unidentified risk factors is of genetic origin. Consistent with this idea, numerous potential risk alleles for stroke have been reported, however, the genetic evidence so far is not conclusive. The major goal of this review is to update the current knowledge about the genetic predisposition to the common multifactorial stroke, and to provide a bird's-eye view of this fast moving field. We selectively review and meta-analyze the related English literatures in public domain (PubMed) from 2000 onward, including the original reports and meta-analyses, to evaluate the genetic risk factors of common multifactorial stroke. The results indicated that we reviewed and meta-analyzed original reports and existing meta-analyses that studied the genetic predisposition to the common multifactorial stroke. Some original reports and meta-analyses were specific for ischemic stroke and others were for hemorrhagic stroke only. We also evaluated the major evolving issues in this field and discussed the future directions. In conclusion, strong evidences suggest that genetic risk factors contribute to common multifactorial stroke, and many genetic risk genes have been implicated in the literatures. However, not a single risk allele has been conclusively approved.

  19. Resilience: ecological and socio-spatial models evolve while understanding the equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to review the main models used in systems ecology, and applied to urban and territorial development, in tight connection with the developing understanding of equilibrium and stability. Initially, resilience was perceived as a component of stability (along with resistance, persistence, and variability, and later as a self-standing concept. As the understanding of equilibrium moves from homeostasis to homeoerhesis and practically to the carrying capacity, and stability finds different interpretations, ranging from constancy to dynamic equilibrium, the dynamics of ecological systems is modeled using adaptive instead of succession cycles. The new model is currently applied to other sciences, and also adapted to the man-dominated systems, including the urban ones. In this case, the understanding of resilience is even more divided among specialists, with particular interpretations resulting from partial or sectoral viewpoints. The analysis shows that more research is not a promising solution, but conceptual refinement is required instead.

  20. The evolving role of science in wilderness to our understanding of ecosystems and landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman L. Christensen

    2000-01-01

    Research in wilderness areas (areas with minimal human activity and of large spatial extent) formed the foundation for ecological models and theories that continue to shape our understanding how ecosystems change through time, how ecological communities are structured and how ecosystems function. By the middle of this century, large expanses of wilderness had become...

  1. Evolved Control of Natural Plants: Crossing the Reality Gap for User-Defined Steering of Growth and Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstadler, Daniel Nicolas; Wahby, Mostafa; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2017-01-01

    in response to the simple controller is captured by image processing, and a model of the plant tip dynamics is developed. The model is used in simulation to evolve a robot controller that steers the plant tip such that it follows a number of randomly generated target points. Finally, we test the simulation-evolved...

  2. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Cruz, Tess Boley; Tsai, Kai-Ya; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Pattarroyo, Monica; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-09-11

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites. This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco product category and data from all website visits (n = 699) were analyzed. Adult smokers (n=32) coded websites during a one-year period, indicating whether or not they observed any of 53 marketing themes, seven interactive activities, or five external links to social media sites. Most (58%) websites required online registration before entering, however e-cigarette websites used click-through age verification. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature themes related to "party" lifestyle, and e-cigarette websites were much more likely to feature themes related to harm reduction. Cigarette sites featured greater levels of interactive content compared to other tobacco products. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature activities related to events and music. Compared to cigarette sites, both cigar and e-cigarette sites were more likely to direct visitors to external social media sites. Marketing methods and strategies normalize tobacco use by providing website visitors with positive themes combined with interactive content, and is an area of future research. Moreover, all tobacco products under federal regulatory authority should be required to use more stringent age verification gates. Findings indicate the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require brand websites of all tobacco products under its regulatory authority use more stringent age verification gates by requiring all visitors be at least 18 years

  3. Understanding Motivations and User Interests as Antecedents for Different Interaction Forms in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  4. Understanding the needs of hand control users, driver rehabilitation specialists, and dealers/installers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Evan; Drouin, Nathalie; Venhovens, Paul J; Brooks, Johnell O

    2014-10-01

    Understanding unique perspectives from key stakeholder groups involved in the hand control (HC) industry, including driver rehabilitation specialists (DRSs) who train users how to use their HCs, dealers/installers, and users, may become increasingly important in the United States due to increases in elderly, diabetic, and wounded warrior amputee driving populations. In this exploratory study, phone interviews were conducted with 20 DRSs, 20 dealers/installers, and 20 users regarding their perspectives about HC training, maintenance and operation, and design improvements. Results revealed common views and differences in perspectives about whether HC users should receive training and for how long, when and how often users should receive maintenance on their HCs, and what DRSs, dealers/installers, and users would like to see in the future.

  5. Evolving social responsibility understandings, motivations, and career goals of undergraduate students initially pursuing engineering degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulifson, Gregory A.

    Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social

  6. Our evolving understanding of aeolian bedforms, based on observation of dunes on different worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniega, Serina; Kreslavsky, Mikhail; Radebaugh, Jani; Silvestro, Simone; Telfer, Matt; Tirsch, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Dunes, dune fields, and ripples are unique and useful records of the interaction between wind and granular materials - finding such features on a planetary surface immediately suggests certain information about climate and surface conditions (at least during the dunes' formation and evolution). Additionally, studies of dune characteristics under non-Earth conditions allow for ;tests; of aeolian process models based primarily on observations of terrestrial features and dynamics, and refinement of the models to include consideration of a wider range of environmental and planetary conditions. To-date, the planetary aeolian community has found and studied dune fields on Mars, Venus, and the Saturnian moon Titan. Additionally, we have observed candidate ;aeolian bedforms; on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Jovian moon Io, and - most recently - Pluto. In this paper, we hypothesize that the progression of investigations of aeolian bedforms and processes on a particular planetary body follows a consistent sequence - primarily set by the acquisition of data of particular types and resolutions, and by the maturation of knowledge about that planetary body. We define that sequence of generated knowledge and new questions (within seven investigation phases) and discuss examples from all of the studied bodies. The aim of such a sequence is to better define our past and current state of understanding about the aeolian bedforms of a particular body, to highlight the related assumptions that require re-analysis with data acquired during later investigations, and to use lessons learned from planetary and terrestrial aeolian studies to predict what types of investigations could be most fruitful in the future.

  7. Scientific Highlights of INDEPTH: Our Still-Evolving Understanding of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Science Teams, I.

    2011-12-01

    areal arrays, including the ASCENT component of INDEPTH 4, our simple understanding of Tibet achieved by extrapolation from the 2D INDEPTH transect is giving way to greater complexity. In the crust, in contrast to regional observations that average spatial properties, our seismic observations show that the most reflective/lowest-velocity magma chambers are isolated from each other; and our MT observations show the strongest conductors cut-off from one another by resistive regions: how laterally persistent is the magma-rich mid-crustal layer at any one time, and is lateral flow possible in this laterally heterogeneous crust? In the mantle, improved spatial resolution is showing that subducting Indian lithosphere has a surprising heterogeneity, perhaps as large as the long-known change in average properties from southern to northern Tibet, and is also casting doubt on the previous interpretations of a coherent subduction of Asia from the north. These newest results are not yet assimilated by the community, and it remains to be seen whether they will require as large changes in our future thinking as the older INDEPTH results required in earlier models.

  8. Towards a comprehensive understanding of lead userness – the search for individual creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faullant, Rita; Schwarz, Erich; Krajger, Ines

    2012-01-01

    which is rooted in creativity psychology in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of who leading‐edge users are. It will allow for a systematic investigation and detection of innovative users. We conducted an empirical study in the field of small kitchen appliances in co......‐operation with Philips Consumer Lifestyle, a field which lacks some of the typical characteristics that have been emphasized in markets traditionally studied in lead user research. With our research we show that (1) lead userness is fundamentally linked to individual creativity; (2) particularly creativity‐ and domain......‐relevant skills (cognitive style, product knowledge and use experience) are related to lead userness; (3) creativity‐relevant skills can be explained by personal characteristics, such as education, gender and openness to experience....

  9. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchen Wu

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  10. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongchen; Wang, Xinjun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP) model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  11. Designing with the mind in mind simple guide to understanding user interface design guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this completely updated and revised edition of Designing with the Mind in Mind, Jeff Johnson provides you with just enough background in perceptual and cognitive psychology that user interface (UI) design guidelines make intuitive sense rather than being just a list or rules to follow. Early UI practitioners were trained in cognitive psychology, and developed UI design rules based on it. But as the field has evolved since the first edition of this book, designers enter the field from many disciplines. Practitioners today have enough experience in UI design that they have been exposed to

  12. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS' EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians' experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians' frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take.

  13. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS’ EXPERIENCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A.

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians’ experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians’ frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take. PMID:26958238

  14. Hypertension: The understanding of bearer’s users, enrolled and monitored in the family health units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilara Maria Mesquita Mendes Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High Blood Pressure (HBP occupies a prominent position, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as a multifactorial disease and mostly asymptomatic, that fundamentally endangers the promote life’s quality. The study aimed to portray the understanding of bearer’s users enrolled and monitored by the HIPERDIA program, in Family Health Units, about their pathology and thus be able to establish strategies that may be closer to their reality to propose policies to encourage the promotion of health. The study with qualitative approach, conducted in the municipality of Jequié -Bahia, with 08 Family Health Teams, with 152 users with hypertension. We used the semi-structured interview and the collective subject speech technique, which enabled us to reconstruct 04 speeches: DSC 01: "To me it is a terrible disease", DSC 02 "do not eat salt, do not eat fat”, DSC 03 "it is to have headaches, vertigo, it causes heart attack, it causes stroke" DSC 04 "I do not know what it exactly is", they reflect the understanding of the study subjects about their pathology. This leads us to think of health actions aimed at health education emerging the need for change in the approach and use of a common language between professionals and service users, ensuring the promotion of life’s quality and, consequently, the co-responsibility in the treatment adherence.

  15. Smartphone users: Understanding how security mechanisms are perceived and new persuasive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Mansour; Alomar, Noura; Alarifi, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Protecting smartphones against security threats is a multidimensional problem involving human and technological factors. This study investigates how smartphone users' security- and privacy-related decisions are influenced by their attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of various security threats. In this work, we seek to provide quantified insights into smartphone users' behavior toward multiple key security features including locking mechanisms, application repositories, mobile instant messaging, and smartphone location services. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals often unforeseen correlations and dependencies between various privacy- and security-related behaviors. Our work also provides evidence that making correct security decisions might not necessarily correlate with individuals' awareness of the consequences of security threats. By comparing participants' behavior and their motives for adopting or ignoring certain security practices, we suggest implementing additional persuasive approaches that focus on addressing social and technological aspects of the problem. On the basis of our findings and the results presented in the literature, we identify the factors that might influence smartphone users' security behaviors. We then use our understanding of what might drive and influence significant behavioral changes to propose several platform design modifications that we believe could improve the security levels of smartphones.

  16. Smartphone users: Understanding how security mechanisms are perceived and new persuasive methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Alsaleh

    Full Text Available Protecting smartphones against security threats is a multidimensional problem involving human and technological factors. This study investigates how smartphone users' security- and privacy-related decisions are influenced by their attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of various security threats. In this work, we seek to provide quantified insights into smartphone users' behavior toward multiple key security features including locking mechanisms, application repositories, mobile instant messaging, and smartphone location services. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals often unforeseen correlations and dependencies between various privacy- and security-related behaviors. Our work also provides evidence that making correct security decisions might not necessarily correlate with individuals' awareness of the consequences of security threats. By comparing participants' behavior and their motives for adopting or ignoring certain security practices, we suggest implementing additional persuasive approaches that focus on addressing social and technological aspects of the problem. On the basis of our findings and the results presented in the literature, we identify the factors that might influence smartphone users' security behaviors. We then use our understanding of what might drive and influence significant behavioral changes to propose several platform design modifications that we believe could improve the security levels of smartphones.

  17. Contribution of auditory working memory to speech understanding in mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Duoduo; Deng, Rui; Jiang, Ye; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how auditory working memory relates to speech perception performance by Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users. Auditory working memory and speech perception was measured in Mandarin-speaking CI and normal-hearing (NH) participants. Working memory capacity was measured using forward digit span and backward digit span; working memory efficiency was measured using articulation rate. Speech perception was assessed with: (a) word-in-sentence recognition in quiet, (b) word-in-sentence recognition in speech-shaped steady noise at +5 dB signal-to-noise ratio, (c) Chinese disyllable recognition in quiet, (d) Chinese lexical tone recognition in quiet. Self-reported school rank was also collected regarding performance in schoolwork. There was large inter-subject variability in auditory working memory and speech performance for CI participants. Working memory and speech performance were significantly poorer for CI than for NH participants. All three working memory measures were strongly correlated with each other for both CI and NH participants. Partial correlation analyses were performed on the CI data while controlling for demographic variables. Working memory efficiency was significantly correlated only with sentence recognition in quiet when working memory capacity was partialled out. Working memory capacity was correlated with disyllable recognition and school rank when efficiency was partialled out. There was no correlation between working memory and lexical tone recognition in the present CI participants. Mandarin-speaking CI users experience significant deficits in auditory working memory and speech performance compared with NH listeners. The present data suggest that auditory working memory may contribute to CI users' difficulties in speech understanding. The present pattern of results with Mandarin-speaking CI users is consistent with previous auditory working memory studies with English-speaking CI users, suggesting that the lexical importance

  18. The reality of myoelectric prostheses: Understanding what makes these devices difficult for some users to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Chadwell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Users of myoelectric prostheses can often find them difficult to control. This can lead to passive-use of the device or total rejection, which can have detrimental effects on the contralateral limb due to overuse.Current clinically available prostheses are ‘open loop’ systems, and although considerable effort has been focused on developing biofeedback to close the loop, there is evidence from laboratory-based studies that other factors, notably improving predictability of response, may be as, if not more, important. Interestingly, despite a large volume of research aimed at improving myoelectric prostheses, it is not currently known which aspect of clinically available systems has the greatest impact on overall functionality and everyday usage. A protocol has therefore been designed to assess EMG skill of the user and predictability of the prosthesis response as significant parts of the control chain, and to relate these to functionality and everyday usage. Here we present the protocol and results from early pilot work.A set of experiments has been developed. Firstly to characterize user skill in generating the required level of EMG signal, as well as the speed with which users are able to make the decision to activate the appropriate muscles. Secondly, to measure unpredictability introduced at the skin-electrode interface, in order to understand the effects of the socket mounted electrode fit under different loads on the variability of time taken for the prosthetic hand to respond.To evaluate prosthesis user functionality, four different outcome measures are assessed. Using a simple upper limb functional task prosthesis users are assessed for (1 success of task completion, (2 task duration, (3 quality of movement, and (4 gaze behavior. To evaluate everyday usage away from the clinic, the symmetricity of their real-world arm use is assessed using activity monitoring.These methods will later be used to assess a prosthesis user cohort, to

  19. Virtualized healthcare delivery: understanding users and their usage patterns of online medical consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Changmi; Padman, Rema

    2014-12-01

    Virtualization of healthcare delivery via patient portals has facilitated the increasing interest in online medical consultations due to its benefits such as improved convenience and flexibility, lower cost, and time savings. Despite this growing interest, adoption by both consumers and providers has been slow, and little is known about users and their usage and adoption patterns. To learn characteristics of online healthcare consumers and understand their patterns of adoption and usage of online clinical consultation services (or eVisits delivered via the portal) such as adoption time for portal users, whether adoption hazard changes over time, and what factors influence patients to become early/late adopters. Using online medical consultation records between April 1, 2009 and May 31, 2010 from four ambulatory practices affiliated with a major healthcare provider, we conduct simple descriptive analysis to understand the users of online clinical consults and their usage patterns. Multilevel Logit regression is employed to measure the effect of patient and primary care provider characteristics on the likelihood of eVisit adoption by the patient, and survival analysis and Ordered Logit regression are applied to study eVisit adoption patterns that delineate elements describing early or late adopters. On average, eVisit adopters are younger and predominantly female. Their primary care providers participate in the eVisit service, highlighting the importance of physician's role in encouraging patients to utilize the service. Patients who are familiar with the patient portal are more likely to use the service, as are patients with more complex health issues. Younger and female patients have higher adoption hazard, but gender does not affect the decision of adopting early vs. late. These adopters also access the patient portal more frequently before adoption, indicating that they are potentially more involved in managing their health. The majority of eVisits are submitted

  20. The impact of an automated dose-dispensing scheme on user compliance, medication understanding, and medication stockpiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Bira; Haugbølle, Lotte Stig

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that a new health technology, automated dose-dispensing (ADD), would result in benefits for medication users, including increased compliance, enhanced medication understanding, and improved safety. However, it was legislators and health professionals who pinpointed...... the assumed user benefits. Neither Danish nor international studies dealt with users' perspective on ADD in general or with respect to the pinpointed benefits, and thus exploration was needed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to respond to the following research question: How does ADD affect users...

  1. Supporting Multi-view User Ontology to Understand Company Value Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Landong; Salvadores, Manuel; Imtiaz, Sm Hazzaz; Darlington, John; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel R.; Dobree, James

    The objective of the Market Blended Insight (MBI) project is to develop web based techniques to improve the performance of UK Business to Business (B2B) marketing activities. The analysis of company value chains is a fundamental task within MBI because it is an important model for understanding the market place and the company interactions within it. The project has aggregated rich data profiles of 3.7 million companies that form the active UK business community. The profiles are augmented by Web extractions from heterogeneous sources to provide unparalleled business insight. Advances by the Semantic Web in knowledge representation and logic reasoning allow flexible integration of data from heterogeneous sources, transformation between different representations and reasoning about their meaning. The MBI project has identified that the market insight and analysis interests of different types of users are difficult to maintain using a single domain ontology. Therefore, the project has developed a technique to undertake a plurality of analyses of value chains by deploying a distributed multi-view ontology to capture different user views over the classification of companies and their various relationships.

  2. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  3. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN PERCEPTION OF BUILDING CATEGORIES IN VIRTUAL 3D CITIES - A USER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tutzauer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human’s cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc. from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  4. Understanding and Mastering Dynamics in Computing Grids Processing Moldable Tasks with User-Level Overlay

    CERN Document Server

    Moscicki, Jakub Tomasz

    Scientic communities are using a growing number of distributed systems, from lo- cal batch systems, community-specic services and supercomputers to general-purpose, global grid infrastructures. Increasing the research capabilities for science is the raison d'^etre of such infrastructures which provide access to diversied computational, storage and data resources at large scales. Grids are rather chaotic, highly heterogeneous, de- centralized systems where unpredictable workloads, component failures and variability of execution environments are commonplace. Understanding and mastering the hetero- geneity and dynamics of such distributed systems is prohibitive for end users if they are not supported by appropriate methods and tools. The time cost to learn and use the interfaces and idiosyncrasies of dierent distributed environments is another challenge. Obtaining more reliable application execution times and boosting parallel speedup are important to increase the research capabilities of scientic communities. L...

  5. Understanding Chinese-Speaking Open Courseware Users: A Case Study on User Engagement in an Open Courseware Portal in Taiwan (Opensource Opencourse Prototype System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hao David; Lin, Meng-Fen Grace; Shen, Wendi

    2012-01-01

    The open educational resource (OER) movement has reached a critical mass due to recent technology advancements. In Taiwan, to overcome the language barrier, the Opensource Opencourse Prototype System (OOPS) plays a significant role in enabling Chinese-speaking users to benefit from this global education movement. However, our understanding about…

  6. Understanding persistence in the use of online fitness communities : comparing novice and experienced users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stragier, Jeroen; Vanden Abeele, Mariek; Mechant, Peter; De Marez, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Mobile and wearable technologies facilitate physiological data collection for health and wellness purposes. Users typically access these data via Online Fitness Community (OFC) platforms (e.g., Fitbit, Strava, RunKeeper). These platforms present users with functionalities centered on

  7. Understanding mechanisms of vitiligo development in Smyth line of chickens by transcriptomic microarray analysis of evolving autoimmune lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Fengying

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Smyth line (SL of chicken is an excellent avian model for human autoimmune vitiligo. The etiology of vitiligo is complicated and far from clear. In order to better understand critical components leading to vitiligo development, cDNA microarray technology was used to compare gene expression profiles in the target tissue (the growing feather of SL chickens at different vitiligo (SLV states. Results Compared to the reference sample, which was from Brown line chickens (the parental control, 395, 522, 524 and 526 out of the 44 k genes were differentially expressed (DE (P ≤ 0.05 in feather samples collected from SL chickens that never developed SLV (NV, from SLV chickens prior to SLV onset (EV, during active loss of pigmentation (AV, and after complete loss of melanocytes (CV. Comparisons of gene expression levels within SL samples (NV, EV, AV and CV revealed 206 DE genes, which could be categorized into immune system-, melanocyte-, stress-, and apoptosis-related genes based on the biological functions of their corresponding proteins. The autoimmune nature of SLV was supported by predominant presence of immune system related DE genes and their remarkably elevated expression in AV samples compared to NV, EV and/or CV samples. Melanocyte loss was confirmed by decreased expression of genes for melanocyte related proteins in AV and CV samples compared to NV and EV samples. In addition, SLV development was also accompanied by altered expression of genes associated with disturbed redox status and apoptosis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of DE genes provided functional interpretations involving but not limited to innate and adaptive immune response, oxidative stress and cell death. Conclusions The microarray results provided comprehensive information at the transcriptome level supporting the multifactorial etiology of vitiligo, where together with apparent inflammatory/innate immune activity and oxidative stress, the adaptive immune

  8. The Ever-Evolving Concept of the Gene: The Use of RNA/Protein Experimental Techniques to Understand Genome Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cipriano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence together with advances in sequencing technologies have shifted the paradigm of the genome, as composed of discrete and hereditable coding entities, and have shown the abundance of functional noncoding DNA. This part of the genome, previously dismissed as “junk” DNA, increases proportionally with organismal complexity and contributes to gene regulation beyond the boundaries of known protein-coding genes. Different classes of functionally relevant nonprotein-coding RNAs are transcribed from noncoding DNA sequences. Among them are the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, which are thought to participate in the basal regulation of protein-coding genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Although knowledge of this field is still limited, the ability of lncRNAs to localize in different cellular compartments, to fold into specific secondary structures and to interact with different molecules (RNA or proteins endows them with multiple regulatory mechanisms. It is becoming evident that lncRNAs may play a crucial role in most biological processes such as the control of development, differentiation and cell growth. This review places the evolution of the concept of the gene in its historical context, from Darwin's hypothetical mechanism of heredity to the post-genomic era. We discuss how the original idea of protein-coding genes as unique determinants of phenotypic traits has been reconsidered in light of the existence of noncoding RNAs. We summarize the technological developments which have been made in the genome-wide identification and study of lncRNAs and emphasize the methodologies that have aided our understanding of the complexity of lncRNA-protein interactions in recent years.

  9. Design for Well-Being : An Approach for Understanding Users' Lives in Design for Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the Design for Development outcomes which are unsuited to the users and their environment are based on poorly defined needs and preferences. Product designers are trained to take the user perspective into account, but they are not specifically trained to conduct ethnographic research.

  10. Soft systems methodology as a potential approach to understanding non-motorised transport users in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, CE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available of this paper is to show the potential of using systems thinking and more particularly Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) as a practical and beneficial instrument that will guide BEPDPs with the ongoing learning process of understanding NMT users and their specific...

  11. Learning from the private sector: towards a keener understanding of the end-user for microbicide introduction planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy H; Breger, Tiffany L; Barnhart, Matthew; Kim, Ann; Vangsgaard, Charlotte; Harris, Emily

    2014-01-01

    In planning for the introduction of vaginal microbicides and other new antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention products for women, an in-depth understanding of potential end-users will be critically important to inform strategies to optimize uptake and long-term adherence. User-centred private sector companies have contributed to the successful launch of many different types of products, employing methods drawn from behavioural and social sciences to shape product designs, marketing messages and communication channels. Examples of how the private sector has adapted and applied these techniques to make decisions around product messaging and targeting may be instructive for adaptation to microbicide introduction. In preparing to introduce a product, user-centred private sector companies employ diverse methods to understand the target population and their lifestyles, values and motivations. ReD Associates' observational research on user behaviours in the packaged food and diabetes fields illustrates how 'tag along' or 'shadowing' techniques can identify sources of non-adherence. Another open-ended method is self-documentation, and IDEO's mammography research utilized this to uncover user motivations that extended beyond health. Mapping the user journey is a quantitative approach for outlining critical decision-making stages, and Monitor Inclusive Markets applied this framework to identify toilet design opportunities for the rural poor. Through an iterative process, these various techniques can generate hypotheses on user drop-off points, quantify where drop-off is highest and prioritize areas of further research to uncover usage barriers. Although research constraints exist, these types of user-centred techniques have helped create effective messaging, product positioning and packaging of health products as well as family planning information. These methods can be applied to microbicide acceptability testing outside of clinical trials to design microbicide marketing

  12. Insecure Network, Unknown Connection: Understanding Wi-Fi Privacy Assumptions of Mobile Device Users

    OpenAIRE

    Bonné, Bram; Rovelo Ruiz, Gustavo; Quax, Peter; Lamotte, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones and other mobile devices have proliferated in the past five years. The expectation of mobile device users to always be online has led to Wi-Fi networks being offered by a variety of providers. Using these networks introduces multiple security risks. In this work, we assess to what extent the privacy stance of mobile device users corresponds with their actual behavior by conducting a study with 108 participants. Our methodology consists of monitoring Wi-Fi networks that the partici...

  13. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  14. Using Digital Libraries Non-Visually: Understanding the Help-Seeking Situations of Blind Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…

  15. An Empirical Study towards Understanding User Acceptance of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary; Guan, Yuanyuan; Chau, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research study investigating user acceptance of bring your own device (BYOD) practice to support teaching and learning in a Hong Kong university. Forty-four undergraduate students and two teachers participated in the study. To collect their ratings of agreement with respect to several BYOD-related issues,…

  16. Understanding Instructional Support Needs of Emerging Internet Users for Web-Based Information Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Naman K.; Penstein Rosé, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    As the wealth of information available on the Web increases, Web-based information seeking becomes a more and more important skill for supporting both formal education and lifelong learning. However, Web-based information access poses hurdles that must be overcome by certain student populations, such as low English competency users, low literacy…

  17. Understanding User Preferences and Awareness: Privacy Mechanisms in Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Thorben; Buchmann, Erik; Müller, Jens; Böhm, Klemens

    Location based services (LBS) let people retrieve and share information related to their current position. Examples are Google Latitude or Panoramio. Since LBS share user-related content, location information etc., they put user privacy at risk. Literature has proposed various privacy mechanisms for LBS. However, it is unclear which mechanisms humans really find useful, and how they make use of them. We present a user study that addresses these issues. To obtain realistic results, we have implemented a geotagging application on the web and on GPS cellphones, and our study participants use this application in their daily lives. We test five privacy mechanisms that differ in the awareness, mental effort and degree of informedness required from the users. Among other findings, we have observed that in situations where a single simple mechanism does not meet all privacy needs, people want to use simple and sophisticated mechanisms in combination. Further, individuals are concerned about the privacy of others, even when they do not value privacy for themselves.

  18. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  19. Understanding Usefulness in Human-Computer Interaction to Enhance User Experience Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Craig Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The concept of usefulness has implicitly played a pivotal role in evaluation research, but the meaning of usefulness has changed over time from system reliability to user performance and learnability/ease of use for non-experts. Despite massive technical and social changes, usability remains the "gold standard" for system evaluation.…

  20. Resource Discovery and Universal Access: Understanding Enablers and Barriers from the User Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Wondwossen

    2016-01-01

    Resource discovery tools are keys to explore, find , and retrieve resources from multitudes of collections hosted by library and information systems. Modern resource discovery tools provide facet - rich interfaces that provide multiple alternatives to ex pose resources for their potential users and help them navigate to the resources they need. This paper examines one of those tools from the perspective of universal access, ...

  1. The impact of usability reports and user test observations on developers understanding of usability data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Nielsen, Christian Monrad; Pedersen, Michael Bach

    2006-01-01

    of the system. This article presents results from an exploratory study of 2 ways of providing feedback from a usability evaluation: observation of user tests and reading usability reports. A case study and a field experiment were used to explore how observation and usability reports impact developers...

  2. Understanding social acceptability of arsenic-safe technologies in rural Bangladesh: A user-oriented analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kundu, D.K.; Gupta, A.; Mol, A.P.J.; Nasreen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of shallow tube well drinking water by naturally occurring arsenic is a severe societal and human health challenge in Bangladesh. Multiple technological interventions seeking to ameliorate the problem face hurdles in securing social acceptance, i.e. a willingness of users to receive

  3. Mapping, Learning, Visualization, Classification, and Understanding of fMRI Data in the NeuCube Evolving Spatiotemporal Data Machine of Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasabov, Nikola K; Doborjeh, Maryam Gholami; Doborjeh, Zohreh Gholami

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces a new methodology for dynamic learning, visualization, and classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as spatiotemporal brain data. The method is based on an evolving spatiotemporal data machine of evolving spiking neural networks (SNNs) exemplified by the NeuCube architecture [1]. The method consists of several steps: mapping spatial coordinates of fMRI data into a 3-D SNN cube (SNNc) that represents a brain template; input data transformation into trains of spikes; deep, unsupervised learning in the 3-D SNNc of spatiotemporal patterns from data; supervised learning in an evolving SNN classifier; parameter optimization; and 3-D visualization and model interpretation. Two benchmark case study problems and data are used to illustrate the proposed methodology-fMRI data collected from subjects when reading affirmative or negative sentences and another one-on reading a sentence or seeing a picture. The learned connections in the SNNc represent dynamic spatiotemporal relationships derived from the fMRI data. They can reveal new information about the brain functions under different conditions. The proposed methodology allows for the first time to analyze dynamic functional and structural connectivity of a learned SNN model from fMRI data. This can be used for a better understanding of brain activities and also for online generation of appropriate neurofeedback to subjects for improved brain functions. For example, in this paper, tracing the 3-D SNN model connectivity enabled us for the first time to capture prominent brain functional pathways evoked in language comprehension. We found stronger spatiotemporal interaction between left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left temporal while reading a negated sentence. This observation is obviously distinguishable from the patterns generated by either reading affirmative sentences or seeing pictures. The proposed NeuCube-based methodology offers also a superior classification accuracy

  4. Few Things About Idioms: Understanding Idioms and Its Users in the Twitter Online Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    clubs Liverpool and Chelsea) is accompanied by the hashtag #Torres which indicates a player who is a part of the match. On the other hand, Twitter...faves friend sports wwe game 5sos band show news social iphone love ily people football wrestling season justin album music tech media ios fun luke hobby...school soccer cricket football luke idols album software business apple trends(sports, entertainment, technology) are very popular users, which includes

  5. Understanding the Service Quality Perception Gaps between Judicial Servants and Judiciary Users

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Murillo

    2014-01-01

    Judiciary service user expectations are usually not the same as ideas harbored in the minds of civil servants delivering such services. This discrepancy matches the definition of the service delivery GAP 1, as identified and assessed by SERVQUAL (Service Quality), a tool that for almost three decades has been employed worldwide in measuring service quality in many different industries and countries, in both private and public organizations. Through participant observation, semi-structured int...

  6. Insecure Network, Unknown Connection: Understanding Wi-Fi Privacy Assumptions of Mobile Device Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Bonné

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones and other mobile devices have proliferated in the past five years. The expectation of mobile device users to always be online has led to Wi-Fi networks being offered by a variety of providers. Using these networks introduces multiple security risks. In this work, we assess to what extent the privacy stance of mobile device users corresponds with their actual behavior by conducting a study with 108 participants. Our methodology consists of monitoring Wi-Fi networks that the participants’ devices connect to and the connections made by apps on these devices, for a period of 30 days. Afterwards, participants are surveyed about their awareness and privacy sensitiveness. We show that while a higher expertise in computer networks corresponds to more awareness about the connections made by apps, neither this expertise nor the actual privacy stance of the participant translates to better security habits. Moreover, participants in general were unaware about a significant part of connections made by apps on their devices, a matter that is worsened by the fact that one third of Wi-Fi networks that participants connect to do not have any security enabled. Based on our results, we provide recommendations to network providers, developers and users on how to improve Wi-Fi security for mobile devices.

  7. Understanding Users' Meaning Constructions of IS Adoption and Use - A Cognitive Mapping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette

    As the use of information systems in organizations increases, it becomes essential to investigate the users' perceptions of and reactions to new technology. In this research study, we wish explore how healthcare professionals create meaning of technology and how their sensemaking influence post...... adoptive use behavior. We study the post-adoption process of a larger Electronic Patient Record (EPR) project, focusing specifically on how two different professional groups, doctors and nurses, make sense of the technology as it becomes integrated into their work processes. We use cognitive mapping...... for studying post-adoption processes as dynamic, on-going sensemaking processes....

  8. Understanding the Service Quality Perception Gaps between Judicial Servants and Judiciary Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Murillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judiciary service user expectations are usually not the same as ideas harbored in the minds of civil servants delivering such services. This discrepancy matches the definition of the service delivery GAP 1, as identified and assessed by SERVQUAL (Service Quality, a tool that for almost three decades has been employed worldwide in measuring service quality in many different industries and countries, in both private and public organizations. Through participant observation, semi-structured interviews and empirical data collected by SERVQUAL, this paper focuses on assessing this service delivery GAP 1 for the Second Court of Appeal within Costa Rica’s Judicial Branch.

  9. Young adult Ecstasy users and multiple sexual partners: understanding the factors underlying this HIV risk practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2008-09-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent users of the drug, Ecstasy. Study participants were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and August 2004 using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Nearly one-third of the study participants had more than one sex partner during the preceding month, and sexual protection rates tended to be low. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed seven predictors associated with an increased likelihood of having multiple sex partners: (1) being nonwhite, (2) knowing someone who was HIV-positive, (3) younger age of first sexual experience, (4) using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, (5) higher self-esteem, (6) handling disagreements more dysfunctionally, and (7) not being involved in a romantic relationship. The HIV prevention- and intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Designed around your brain : Human-perception research for understanding the user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Hurk, P.

    2006-01-01

    Philips’ brand promise ‘Sense and Simplicity’ underlines its aim of delivering advanced products and applications that are meaningful and easy-to-use. Designing products around people is a vital prerequisite for making this ambition come true: we need to fully understand how people experience

  11. Designing with the mind in mind simple guide to understanding user interface design rules

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    "Take fundamental principles of psychology. Illustrate. Combine with Fundamental Principles of Design. Stir gently until fully blended.  Read daily until finished. Caution: The mixture is addictive."-- Don Norman, Nielsen Norman group, Author of Design of Future Things."This book is a primer to understand the why of the larger human action principles at work-a sort of cognitive science for designers in a hurry. Above all, this is a book of profound insight into the human mind for practical people who want to get something done."-- Stuart Card, Senior Research Fellow and the manager of the

  12. Smartphone users: Understanding how security mechanisms are perceived and new persuasive methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Mansour; Alomar, Noura; Alarifi, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Protecting smartphones against security threats is a multidimensional problem involving human and technological factors. This study investigates how smartphone users’ security- and privacy-related decisions are influenced by their attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of various security threats. In this work, we seek to provide quantified insights into smartphone users’ behavior toward multiple key security features including locking mechanisms, application repositories, mobile instant messaging, and smartphone location services. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals often unforeseen correlations and dependencies between various privacy- and security-related behaviors. Our work also provides evidence that making correct security decisions might not necessarily correlate with individuals’ awareness of the consequences of security threats. By comparing participants’ behavior and their motives for adopting or ignoring certain security practices, we suggest implementing additional persuasive approaches that focus on addressing social and technological aspects of the problem. On the basis of our findings and the results presented in the literature, we identify the factors that might influence smartphone users’ security behaviors. We then use our understanding of what might drive and influence significant behavioral changes to propose several platform design modifications that we believe could improve the security levels of smartphones. PMID:28297719

  13. Disgust: Evolved function and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.; Kurzban, R.; DeScioli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and

  14. The Role of Social Media User Experience as a Mediator for Understanding Social Media User Behavior in Indonesia’s Museum Industry: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundjaja, A. M.; LumanGaol, F.; Budiarti, T.; Abbas, B. S.; Abdinagoro, S. B.; Ongowarsito, H.

    2017-01-01

    Social media has changed the interaction between the customer and the business, social media has proven to provide new opportunities in facilitating access to information, efficiency and ease of interaction between customers and businesses that are distributed geographically dispersed. Ease of interaction to improve access to information about products, services, and prices have proven to have a positive impact for consumers. The purpose of this article is to develop a conceptual model to test the effect of user motivation, user expectations, and online community involvement to the intention of behavior that is mediated by the use of social media museum experience. This article is a literature study on exploration of social media user experiences museum in Indonesia. Authors searched and examined 85 articles from google scholar with the following keywords: motivation, expectations, online communities, user experience, social media, Technology Acceptance Model, Experiential Marketing, Uses and Gratification Theory. Proposed data collection techniques are literature study, survey and observation. The sample used in this research is 400 respondents of social media users that follow the social media managed by Indonesia’s museum. The sampling technique are systematic sampling. We use Structural Equation Model with AMOS for analyze the data.

  15. Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education (USAGE): an internet-based survey of 10,138 current and former statin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jerome D; Brinton, Eliot A; Ito, Matthew K; Jacobson, Terry A

    2012-01-01

    Statins substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and are generally well-tolerated. Despite this, many patients discontinue therapy. A better understanding of the characteristics of current and former statin users may be helpful for formulating strategies to improve long-term adherence. The Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Education (USAGE) survey assessed the attitudes, beliefs, practices, and behavior of current and former statin users. Individuals 18 years or older who reported a history of high cholesterol and current or former statin use were identified within a registered consumer panel cohort in the United States and invited to participate in an Internet survey. Of the 10,138 respondents, 8918 (88%) were current statin users and 1220 (12%) were former users. Participants (mean age 61 years) were predominantly white (92%), female (61%), of middle income (median $44,504/yr), and had health insurance (93%). Among current users, 95% took a statin alone, and 70% had not missed a dose in the past month. Although ∼70% reported that their physicians had explained the importance of cholesterol levels for their heart health former users were less satisfied with the discussions (65% vs. 83%, P users, respectively (P users was cost (32%) and the primary reason for discontinuation was side effects (62%). This survey provides important insights into behavior and attitudes among current and former statin users and the results suggest that more effective dialogue between healthcare providers and patients may increase persistence of statin use, particularly when the patient has concerns about side effects and drug costs. Copyright © 2012 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Providers' Interaction with Graphical User Interface Pertaining to Clinical Document Usage in an Electronic Health Record System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Rubina Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Despite high Electronic Health Record (EHR) system adoption rates by hospital and office-based practices, many users remain highly dissatisfied with the current state of EHRs. Sub-optimal EHR usability as a result of insufficient incorporation of User-Centered Design (UCD) approach during System Development Life Cycle process (SDLC) is considered…

  17. What's in a virus? Folk understandings of hepatitis C infection and infectiousness among injecting drug users in Kings Cross, Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Carolyn

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore folk understandings of blood borne virus infection and infectiousness among injecting drug users in Kings Cross, Sydney. Methods Observational fieldwork was conducted in Kings Cross over a four month period. In-depth interviews with 24 current injectors and 4 key informants recruited from King Cross were undertaken. Results Hepatitis C (HCV generated different meanings from HIV. HIV was considered "the dreaded" and generated fear of infection and dire disease progression. Whereas HCV was considered non-desirable but less threatening than HIV. The risks of transmitting HCV through sharing injecting paraphernalia was poorly understood. Some believed HCV infection was linked to poor hygiene and dirty water. Jaundice was mistakenly thought to indicate HCV infection and was used to gauge infectiousness. Many were confused about their current hepatitis C serostatus. Some participants thought they had a "dormant antibody" or that they had a "mild case" of infection. Participants were unsure what this meant for their own health or for their potential to infect others. Conclusion Participants displayed confusion about transmission risks for hepatitis C, conflating blood awareness and hygiene health promotion messages. Participants' reliance on the symptom of jaundice to gauge serostatus places them at risk of transmitting and contracting HCV. Participants were confused about what a positive HCV diagnosis meant for their own health and their ability to infect others. Education is needed to debunk misconceptions about jaundice and clarify medical terms such as 'antibody' at the time of diagnosis. Further clarification of messages about injecting hygiene and blood awareness are also required.

  18. "Like a Distant Cousin": Bi-Cultural Negotiation as Key Perspective in Understanding the Evolving Relationship of Future Reform Rabbis with Israel and the Jewish People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszkat-Barkan, Michal; Grant, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the impact of a year studying in Israel on Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR) rabbinical students' emotional connection toward and knowledge about the State of Israel and the Jewish People. We want to better understand the students' beliefs, ideas, and behaviors that emerge from their experience…

  19. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Consumer-Focused Health Information Technology Systems Through eHealth Literacy: A Framework for Understanding Users' Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Lars; Kushniruk, Andre; Osborne, Richard H; Norgaard, Ole; Turner, Paul

    2015-05-20

    eHealth systems and applications are increasingly focused on supporting consumers to directly engage with and use health care services. Involving end users in the design of these systems is critical to ensure a generation of usable and effective eHealth products and systems. Often the end users engaged for these participatory design processes are not actual representatives of the general population, and developers may have limited understanding about how well they might represent the full range of intended users of the eHealth products. As a consequence, resulting information technology (IT) designs may not accommodate the needs, skills, cognitive capacities, and/or contexts of use of the intended broader population of health consumers. This may result in challenges for consumers who use the health IT systems, and could lead to limitations in adoption if the diversity of user attributes has not been adequately considered by health IT designers. The objective of this paper is to propose how users' needs and competences can be taken into account when designing new information and communications technology solutions in health care by expanding the user-task-context matrix model with the domains of a new concept of eHealth literacy. This approach expands an existing method for supporting health IT system development, which advocates use of a three-dimensional user-task-context matrix to comprehensively identify the users of health IT systems, and what their needs and requirements are under differing contexts of use. The extension of this model involved including knowledge about users' competences within the seven domains of eHealth literacy, which had been identified based on systematic engagement with computer scientists, academics, health professionals, and patients recruited from various patient organizations and primary care. A concept map was constructed based on a structured brainstorm procedure, card sorting, and computational analysis. The new eHealth literacy

  20. Towards a better understanding of the e-health user: comparing USE IT and Requirements study for an Electronic Patient Record.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, Antonius A.M.; Schuring, R.W.; Stegwee, R.A.; Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares a traditional requirements study with 22 interviews for the design of an electronic patient record (EPR) and a USE IT analysis with 17 interviews trying to understand the end- user of an EPR. Developing, implementing and using information technology in organizations is a complex

  1. Understanding reactions to an internet-delivered health-care intervention: accommodating user preferences for information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Morrison, Leanne G; Andreou, Panayiota; Joseph, Judith; Little, Paul

    2010-09-17

    It is recognised as good practice to use qualitative methods to elicit users' views of internet-delivered health-care interventions during their development. This paper seeks to illustrate the advantages of combining usability testing with 'theoretical modelling', i.e. analyses that relate the findings of qualitative studies during intervention development to social science theory, in order to gain deeper insights into the reasons and context for how people respond to the intervention. This paper illustrates how usability testing may be enriched by theoretical modelling by means of two qualitative studies of users' views of the delivery of information in an internet-delivered intervention to help users decide whether they needed to seek medical care for their cold or flu symptoms. In Study 1, 21 participants recruited from a city in southern England were asked to 'think aloud' while viewing draft web-pages presented in paper format. In Study 2, views of our prototype website were elicited, again using think aloud methods, in a sample of 26 participants purposively sampled for diversity in education levels. Both data-sets were analysed by thematic analysis. Study 1 revealed that although the information provided by the draft web-pages had many of the intended empowering benefits, users often felt overwhelmed by the quantity of information. Relating these findings to theory and research on factors influencing preferences for information-seeking we hypothesised that to meet the needs of different users (especially those with lower literacy levels) our website should be designed to provide only essential personalised advice, but with options to access further information. Study 2 showed that our website design did prove accessible to users with different literacy levels. However, some users seemed to want still greater control over how information was accessed. Educational level need not be an insuperable barrier to appreciating web-based access to detailed health

  2. Understanding reactions to an internet-delivered health-care intervention: accommodating user preferences for information provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardley Lucy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recognised as good practice to use qualitative methods to elicit users' views of internet-delivered health-care interventions during their development. This paper seeks to illustrate the advantages of combining usability testing with 'theoretical modelling', i.e. analyses that relate the findings of qualitative studies during intervention development to social science theory, in order to gain deeper insights into the reasons and context for how people respond to the intervention. This paper illustrates how usability testing may be enriched by theoretical modelling by means of two qualitative studies of users' views of the delivery of information in an internet-delivered intervention to help users decide whether they needed to seek medical care for their cold or flu symptoms. Methods In Study 1, 21 participants recruited from a city in southern England were asked to 'think aloud' while viewing draft web-pages presented in paper format. In Study 2, views of our prototype website were elicited, again using think aloud methods, in a sample of 26 participants purposively sampled for diversity in education levels. Both data-sets were analysed by thematic analysis. Results Study 1 revealed that although the information provided by the draft web-pages had many of the intended empowering benefits, users often felt overwhelmed by the quantity of information. Relating these findings to theory and research on factors influencing preferences for information-seeking we hypothesised that to meet the needs of different users (especially those with lower literacy levels our website should be designed to provide only essential personalised advice, but with options to access further information. Study 2 showed that our website design did prove accessible to users with different literacy levels. However, some users seemed to want still greater control over how information was accessed. Conclusions Educational level need not be an

  3. Understanding experiences of and preferences for service user and carer involvement in physical health care discussions within mental health care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Nicola; Brooks, Helen; Grundy, Andrew; Pedley, Rebecca; Gibbons, Chris; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny

    2017-04-13

    People with severe mental illness suffer more physical comorbidity than the general population, which can require a tailored approach to physical health care discussions within mental health care planning. Although evidence pertaining to service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning is accumulating, current understanding of how physical health is prioritised within this framework is limited. Understanding stakeholder experiences of physical health discussions within mental health care planning, and the key domains that underpin this phenomena is essential to improve quality of care. Our study aimed to explore service user, carer and professional experiences of and preferences for service user and carer involvement in physical health discussions within mental health care planning, and develop a conceptual framework of effective user-led involvement in this aspect of service provision. Six focus groups and four telephone interviews were carried out with twelve service users, nine carers, three service users with a dual service user and carer role, and ten mental health professionals recruited from one mental health Trust in the United Kingdom. Data was analysed utilising a thematic approach, analysed separately for each stakeholder group, and combined to aid comparisons. No service users or carers recalled being explicitly involved in physical health discussions within mental health care planning. Six prerequisites for effective service user and carer involvement in physical care planning were identified. Three themes confirmed general mental health care planning requirements: tailoring a collaborative working relationship, maintaining a trusting relationship with a professional, and having access to and being able to edit a living document. Three themes were novel to feeling involved in physical health care planning discussions: valuing physical health equally with mental health; experiencing coordination of care between physical-mental health

  4. Points of Transition: Understanding the Constructed Identities of L2 Learners/Users across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawu, Anthony; Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Using sociocultural and poststructuralist theoretical lenses, this study examines the narrative construction of language-learner identity across time and space. We applied cross-narrative methodologies to analyze language-learning autobiographies and interview data from three English users who had recently transitioned to a U.S. context for…

  5. Understandings of the 'natural' body: a comparison of the views of users and providers of emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A

    2005-01-01

    'Natural' is a pervasive discourse with mixed meanings in contemporary society. I was interested in how users and providers of emergency contraception conceptualised the 'natural' body in contraceptive decision making. Thirty-two users and 19 providers of emergency contraception from three sites in metropolitan Melbourne were interviewed, or participated in focus groups, about emergency contraceptive use, contraceptive decision making and perceptions of risk. The qualitative data were transcribed and coded to identify the key ways that both users and providers perceived the 'natural' body. Providers and users adopted different frameworks for interpreting the discourse of the 'natural' body. Thirteen of the 32 users identified the 'natural' body as a factor in their decision making. They identified a 'natural' body as a body experiencing no interruption with ovulation, and/or free from unwanted side effects. Six of the 13 women who discussed the 'natural' body used a contraceptive that allowed them to preserve their natural body (e.g. condoms). The remaining seven women identified it as an ideal that they could not achieve. Providers in general discredited the idea of a 'natural' body and instead conceptualised contraceptive decision making as a 'simple' risk-benefit analysis. The differences between the two groups can be understood in a number of different ways. The important conclusion however, is that the different perspectives present a potential barrier to effective communication in the contraceptive consultation, and may be able to be resolved through the development of an embodied risk-benefit analysis that may be meaningful to both groups.

  6. Understanding Keystroke Dynamics for Smartphone Users Authentication and Keystroke Dynamics on Smartphones Built-In Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal Identification Numbers (PINs and pattern drawing have been used as common authentication methods especially on smartphones. Such methods, however, are very vulnerable to the shoulder surfing attack. Thus, keystroke dynamics that authenticate legitimate users based on their typing manner have been studied for years. However, many of the studies have focused on PC keyboard keystrokes. More studies on mobile and smartphones keystroke dynamics are warranted; as smartphones make progress in both hardware and software, features from smartphones have been diversified. In this paper, using various features including keystroke data such as time interval and motion data such as accelerometers and rotation values, we evaluate features with motion data and without motion data. We also compare 5 formulas for motion data, respectively. We also demonstrate that opposite gender match between a legitimate user and impostors has influence on authenticating by our experiment results.

  7. Is all co-production created equal? Understanding drivers and outcomes across different users and forms of engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K.; Lemos, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite a growing recognition of the importance of coproduced information in networks of decision-makers facing climate change, relatively little attention has been paid to how different types of users and forms of engagement (e.g. brokering and bridging of climate information) may yield different coproduction outcomes. In this study, we compare drivers and outcomes of co-production of a large network (twenty-five cases) of users within the scope of the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments (GLISA), a boundary organization whose mission is to disseminate climate information in the Great Lakes Region. We focus especially on drivers of co-production within boundary organizations (e.g. embeddness, complementarity, financial and human resources and trust building and legitimacy) to explore different forms of engagement and models of brokering and bridging information. Our case studies span a wide range of users, including cities, businesses, academic and professional organizations and governmental agencies. We find that different kinds of resources and engagement matter in terms of desirable outcomes. In addition, while the supply of resources by boundary organizations is necessary to foster co-production, effective use and stable networks are often not achieved in the absence of sustained engagement and support.

  8. How Users Search the Mobile Web: A Model for Understanding the Impact of Motivation and Context on Search Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores how search motivation and context influence mobile Web search behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: We studied 30 experienced mobile Web users via questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and an online diary tool that participants used to record their daily search activities. SQLite Developer was used to extract data from the users' phone logs for correlation analysis in Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS. Findings: One quarter of mobile search sessions were driven by two or more search motivations. It was especially difficult to distinguish curiosity from time killing in particular user reporting. Multi-dimensional contexts and motivations influenced mobile search behaviors, and among the context dimensions, gender, place, activities they engaged in while searching, task importance, portal, and interpersonal relations (whether accompanied or alone when searching correlated with each other. Research limitations: The sample was comprised entirely of college students, so our findings may not generalize to other populations. More participants and longer experimental duration will improve the accuracy and objectivity of the research. Practical implications: Motivation analysis and search context recognition can help mobile service providers design applications and services for particular mobile contexts and usages. Originality/value: Most current research focuses on specific contexts, such as studies on place, or other contextual influences on mobile search, and lacks a systematic analysis of mobile search context. Based on analysis of the impact of mobile search motivations and search context on search behaviors, we built a multi-dimensional model of mobile search behaviors.

  9. 'Workers', 'clients' and the struggle over needs: understanding encounters between service providers and injecting drug users in an Australian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David

    2009-03-01

    A feature of contemporary Western, neo-liberal democracies is the frequent interaction between representatives of health and social services and the members of stigmatised and 'unruly' populations, such as injecting drug users. Previous research on drugs has tended to ignore the power relations and cultural dynamics at work in these encounters, and the ways in which they are framed by the wider neo-liberal context. Drawing on an ethnography of street-based heroin use in Melbourne, Australia's second largest city, I show how the discourses of both service providers and injecting drug users draw on wider neo-liberal values of independence, autonomy, rationality and responsibility. Service providers negotiate a framework of needs interpretation that creates and reproduces professional identities, and maintains boundaries between 'workers' and 'clients'. It also includes tensions around the definition of injecting drug users as 'chaotic' (i.e., failed neo-liberal) subjects, and slippage between service philosophies that emphasise a social model of health and forms of service delivery that emphasise the production of responsibilised subjects. For their part, street-based injectors construct an alternative framework of needs interpretation that emphasises their self-reliance, autonomy and independence, attributes and capacities largely denied them in service-provider discourse. In encounters with service providers, street-based injectors respond in various ways that include elements of resistance, strategic accommodation and the incorporation of therapeutic discourse. I conclude by considering the implications of my analysis for the future development of drug policy and practice.

  10. Recommendation in evolving online networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recommender system is an effective tool to find the most relevant information for online users. By analyzing the historical selection records of users, recommender system predicts the most likely future links in the user-item network and accordingly constructs a personalized recommendation list for each user. So far, the recommendation process is mostly investigated in static user-item networks. In this paper, we propose a model which allows us to examine the performance of the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in evolving networks. We find that the recommendation accuracy in general decreases with time if the evolution of the online network fully depends on the recommendation. Interestingly, some randomness in users' choice can significantly improve the long-term accuracy of the recommendation algorithm. When a hybrid recommendation algorithm is applied, we find that the optimal parameter gradually shifts towards the diversity-favoring recommendation algorithm, indicating that recommendation diversity is essential to keep a high long-term recommendation accuracy. Finally, we confirm our conclusions by studying the recommendation on networks with the real evolution data.

  11. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... putting the structural elements in focus is derived from the analysis of two case companies, which extends the existing literature and opens new avenues for future research. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on procurement organization, understanding the internal...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies and their relation to specific structural dimensions that can be chosen...

  12. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  13. Choice, Inclusion, and Access to Information: Understanding Female Farmers’ Participation in Kyrgyzstan’s Water-User Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nixon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory processes have been widely promoted within the field of natural resource management as a method of supporting efficient resource use and, within these processes, much emphasis has been placed on gendered participation. In Kyrgyzstan, participation in irrigation management is organized through water-user associations (WUAs, a decentralized system of management commonly prescribed to increase equity and efficiency in water distribution. Women in Kyrgyzstan are active in irrigated agriculture particularly in light of changing demographics due to labor migration, yet they make up a small percentage of the members and leaders in these WUAs. This study draws upon interviews with WUA officials, village leaders, and female farmers in five communities in southern Kyrgyzstan to examine the determinants of female farmers’ participation in WUAs. We argue that female farmers are strategic in how they choose to irrigate outside of the WUAs as users or participate in WUAs as members or leaders, however their gender, age, and class limits their access to information about WUAs and inclusion in WUA activities. These findings suggest the need to reassess participatory processes in WUAs in order to increase female farmers’ inclusion in WUAs and demonstrates the complexity of gendered participation in natural resource management.

  14. User 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    determined by the era in which they were born. This is due to the fact that digital natives, born in an already “fully” digitalized world with a plethora of ICT services, have a much closer relationship to these solutions than generations before them. This has also shaped the users perspectives and had......The User 2020 vision is of the changing needs and habits of a user in the future digital world. In order to understand the needs of the future users, we need to look at how users and technology have changed during recent years. The different generations of users are products of their own time...... this evolutionary process. The basis of this Outlook lies in studies of user generations. Although it’s controversial to do so, users have been divided into generations based on their ability and willingness to use ICT solutions. Whether the users are digital ‘tourists’, ‘immigrants’ or ‘natives’ is mainly...

  15. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  16. An Evolving Worldview: Making Open Source Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Z.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Worldview is an interactive interface for browsing full-resolution, global satellite imagery. Worldview supports an open data policy so that academia, private industries and the general public can use NASA's satellite data to address Earth science related issues. Worldview was open sourced in 2014. By shifting to an open source approach, the Worldview application has evolved to better serve end-users. Project developers are able to have discussions with end-users and community developers to understand issues and develop new features. Community developers are able to track upcoming features, collaborate on them and make their own contributions. Developers who discover issues are able to address those issues and submit a fix. This reduces the time it takes for a project developer to reproduce an issue or develop a new feature. Getting new developers to contribute to the project has been one of the most important and difficult aspects of open sourcing Worldview. After witnessing potential outside contributors struggle, a focus has been made on making the installation of Worldview simple to reduce the initial learning curve and make contributing code easy. One way we have addressed this is through a simplified setup process. Our setup documentation includes a set of prerequisites and a set of straightforward commands to clone, configure, install and run. This presentation will emphasize our focus to simplify and standardize Worldview's open source code so that more people are able to contribute. The more people who contribute, the better the application will become over time.

  17. Why did heterospory evolve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kurt B; Burd, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The primitive land plant life cycle featured the production of spores of unimodal size, a condition called homospory. The evolution of bimodal size distributions with small male spores and large female spores, known as heterospory, was an innovation that occurred repeatedly in the history of land plants. The importance of desiccation-resistant spores for colonization of the land is well known, but the adaptive value of heterospory has never been well established. It was an addition to a sexual life cycle that already involved male and female gametes. Its role as a precursor to the evolution of seeds has received much attention, but this is an evolutionary consequence of heterospory that cannot explain the transition from homospory to heterospory (and the lack of evolutionary reversal from heterospory to homospory). Enforced outcrossing of gametophytes has often been mentioned in connection to heterospory, but we review the shortcomings of this argument as an explanation of the selective advantage of heterospory. Few alternative arguments concerning the selective forces favouring heterospory have been proposed, a paucity of attention that is surprising given the importance of this innovation in land plant evolution. In this review we highlight two ideas that may lead us to a better understanding of why heterospory evolved. First, models of optimal resource allocation - an approach that has been used for decades in evolutionary ecology to help understand parental investment and other life-history patterns - suggest that an evolutionary increase in spore size could reach a threshold at which small spores yielding small, sperm-producing gametophytes would return greater fitness per unit of resource investment than would large spores and bisexual gametophytes. With the advent of such microspores, megaspores would evolve under frequency-dependent selection. This argument can account for the appearance of heterospory in the Devonian, when increasingly tall and complex

  18. Understanding urban green space as a health resource: a qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine N; Warber, Sara L; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-22

    With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users' own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users' responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  19. A case for understanding user experience challenges confronting indigenous knowledge recorders in rural communities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khalala, G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available is to provide an analysis and in- depth understanding of the context. Yin in [25] defines a case study as “an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon... and context are not clearly evident”. The following table depicts the characteristics of a case study and shows why it is suitable for the study. Table 1: Characteristics of a case study (adapted from Yin 2009) Characteristics In-depth detailed data...

  20. Challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resource in the evolving energy enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastler, Dan

    The primary market challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resources in evolving energy markets are reviewed. Fuel cell power systems have significant barriers to overcome in their anticipated role as decentralized energy power systems. Market segments for fuel cells include combined heat and power; low-cost energy, premium power; peak shaving; and load management and grid support. Understanding the role and fit of fuel cell systems in evolving energy markets and the highest value applications are a major challenge for developers and government funding organizations. The most likely adopters of fuel cell systems and the challenges facing each adopter in the target market segment are reviewed. Adopters include generation companies, utility distribution companies, retail energy service providers and end-users. Key challenges include: overcoming technology risk; achieving retail competitiveness; understanding high value markets and end-user needs; distribution and service channels; regulatory policy issues; and the integration of these decentralized resources within the electrical distribution system.

  1. Compreendendo o idoso usuário de próteses auditivas Understanding the elderly user of auditory prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mary de Paiva

    2011-06-01

    advantages involved better communication and listening to TV (64% while the difficulties were due to noisy environments; 56% were unable to understand what was being said at lectures, in church, and on the telephone, 72% reported no improvement with the prosthesis. 88% of the elderly participants are unaware of donation policies for auditory devices and 100% are unaware of this kind of service. Research and practices in health services about auditory issues still have far to go. There is a need for a change in management with the objective of putting into action policies which define the responsibilities of the State.

  2. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  3. Understanding users in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The consumers expect the packaging to be functional and to fulfil their specific needs in every way. A Danish survey showed that at least 40 per cent experience difficulties, when handling and opening packaging at least once a month, and as a consequence, 16 per cent of the consumers......, the guideline contain a step by step process to develop easy‐to‐open packaging. The guideline is constructed in a way that allows the enterprise to pick and choose in respect to the enterprise´s needs and competences. The main focus in the development of the guidelines has been to produce a tool that function...

  4. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  5. Mentoring: An Evolving Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michelle; Florczak, Kristine L

    2017-04-01

    The column concerns itself with mentoring as an evolving relationship between mentor and mentee. The collegiate mentoring model, the transformational transcendence model, and the humanbecoming mentoring model are considered in light of a dialogue with mentors at a Midwest university and conclusions are drawn.

  6. How Genes Evolve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which they are found e.g. the evolution of the gene coding for the protein cytochrome-C which is part ofthe respiratory apparatus. On the contrary, paralogous genes are descendants of a duplicated gene. Paralogous genes therefore evolve within the same species as well as in different species e.g. genes coding for alpha ...

  7. Evolving Capabilities for Virtual Globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, A.

    2006-12-01

    Though thin-client spatial visualization software like Google Earth and NASA World Wind enjoy widespread popularity, a common criticism is their general lack of analytical functionality. This concern, however, is rapidly being addressed; standard and advanced geographic information system (GIS) capabilities are being developed for virtual globes--though not centralized into a single implementation or software package. The innovation is mostly originating from the user community. Three such capabilities relevant to the earth science, education, and emergency management communities are modeling dynamic spatial phenomena, real-time data collection and visualization, and multi-input collaborative databases. Modeling dynamic spatial phenomena has been facilitated through joining virtual globe geometry definitions--like KML--to relational databases. Real-time data collection uses short scripts to transform user-contributed data into a format usable by virtual globe software. Similarly, collaborative data collection for virtual globes has become possible by dynamically referencing online, multi-person spreadsheets. Examples of these functions include mapping flows within a karst watershed, real-time disaster assessment and visualization, and a collaborative geyser eruption spatial decision support system. Virtual globe applications will continue to evolve further analytical capabilities, more temporal data handling, and from nano to intergalactic scales. This progression opens education and research avenues in all scientific disciplines.

  8. PERFORMANCE - AN EVOLVING CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Assist. Mirela-Oana Pintea Ph.D Student; Lect. Monica-Violeta Achim

    2010-01-01

    The concept of performance is a problematic concept and will remain so as long as the definition of company performance varies depending on the interests of users of information. On this consideration, no consensus was reached regarding the definition, methodology and performance models used. Defining this concept is realized in accordance with its objectives of users of information, while the methodology and models used are influenced by legal regulations and management policies. The approac...

  9. Understanding Urban Green Space as a Health Resource: A Qualitative Comparison of Visit Motivation and Derived Effects among Park Users in Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Gaston

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users’ own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users’ responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  10. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  11. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  12. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  13. Educating the Music User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  14. A First Step toward the Understanding of Implicit Learning of Hazard Anticipation in Inexperienced Road Users Through a Moped-Riding Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Tagliabue

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hazard perception is considered one of the most important abilities in road safety. Several efforts have been devoted to investigating how it improves with experience and can be trained. Recently, research has focused on the implicit aspects of hazard detection, reaction, and anticipation. In the present study, we attempted to understand how the ability to anticipate hazards develops during training with a moped-riding simulator: the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT. Several studies have already validated the HRT as a tool to enhance adolescents’ hazard perception and riding abilities. In the present study, as an index of hazard anticipation, we used skin conductance response (SCR, which has been demonstrated to be linked to affective/implicit appraisal of risk. We administered to a group of inexperienced road users five road courses two times a week apart. In each course, participants had to deal with eight hazard scenes (except one course that included only seven hazard scenes. Participants had to ride along the HRT courses, facing the potentially hazardous situations, following traffic rules, and trying to avoid accidents. During the task, we measured SCR and monitored driving performance. The main results show that learning to ride the simulator leads to both a reduction in the number of accidents and anticipation of the somatic response related to hazard detection, as proven by the reduction of SCR onset recorded in the second session. The finding that the SCR signaling the impending hazard appears earlier when the already encountered hazard situations are faced anew suggests that training with the simulator acts on the somatic activation associated with the experience of risky situations, improving its effectiveness in detecting hazards in advance so as to avoid accidents. This represents the starting point for future investigations into the process of generalization of learning acquired in new virtual situations and in real-road situations.

  15. Measurably evolving populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... time has been most apparent in the disciplines of RNA viral evolution and ancient DNA, where they enable us to estimate divergence times without paleontological calibrations, and to analyze temporal changes in population size, population structure and substitution rates. Thus, MEPs could increase our...

  16. Areas of interest of potential users for naturalistic observation studies. PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe PROLOGUE, Deliverable D1.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Craen, S. de Nes, N. van & Eenink, R.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of the interests of potential users is crucial for setting up a useful and broadly supported large-scale naturalistic driving (ND) study. This report describes the results of a survey amongst 72 road transport professionals in Europe from different organisation types that aimed at

  17. Supporting the planning for the evolution of the EOSDIS through an in-depth understanding of user requirements for NASA's world-class Earth science data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, V. L.; Behnke, J.; Maiden, M.; Fontaine, K.

    2004-12-01

    NASA is planning for the evolution of the Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. A critical underpinning for the evolution planning is developing thorough knowledge of the EOSDIS users and how they use the EOSDIS products in their research and or applications endeavors. This paper provides charts and tables of results from NASA studies that characterized our users, data and techniques. Using these metrics, other projects can apply NASA's 'lessons learned' to the development and operations of their data systems. In 2004, NASA undertook an intensive study of the users and usage of EOSDIS data. The study considered trends in the types and levels of EOS data products being ordered, the expanding number of users requesting products, and the "domains" of those users. The study showed that increasing numbers of users are using the validated, geophysical products produced from the radiance measurements recorded by the EOS instruments; while there remains a steady demand for the radiance products themselves. In 2003, over 2.1 million individuals contacted EOSDIS (as identified by unique email and/or URL) with just over 10% requesting a product or service. The users came from all sectors including 40% from more than 125 countries outside the U.S. University researchers and students (.edu) received over 40% of the some 29 million data and information products disseminated by EOSDIS. The trend in method of delivery for EOSDIS data has been away from receiving data on hard media (tapes, CD-ROM, etc.) to receiving the data over the network. Over 75% of the EOSDIS data products were disseminated via electronic means in 2003 contrasted with just under 30% in 2000. To plan for system-wide evolution you need to know whether the system is meeting the users' needs and expectations. Thus, in 2004 NASA

  18. Modeling Users' Experiences with Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karapanos, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the field of Human-Computer Interaction has evolved from the study of the usability of interactive products towards a more holistic understanding of how they may mediate desired human experiences.  This book identifies the notion of diversity in usersʼ experiences with interactive products and proposes methods and tools for modeling this along two levels: (a) interpersonal diversity in usersʽ responses to early conceptual designs, and (b) the dynamics of usersʼ experiences over time. The Repertory Grid Technique is proposed as an alternative to standardized psychometric scales for modeling interpersonal diversity in usersʼ responses to early concepts in the design process, and new Multi-Dimensional Scaling procedures are introduced for modeling such complex quantitative data. iScale, a tool for the retrospective assessment of usersʼ experiences over time is proposed as an alternative to longitudinal field studies, and a semi-automated technique for the analysis of the elicited exper...

  19. Understanding the Heterogeneity of BPD Symptoms through Latent Class Analysis: Initial Results and Clinical Correlates among Inner-City Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Levy, Roy; Gratz, Kim L.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the heterogeneity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a sample of 382 inner-city, predominantly African American male substance users through the use of latent class analysis. A 4-class model was statistically preferred, with 1 class interpreted to be a baseline class, 1 class interpreted to be a…

  20. The becoming of user-generated reviews: Looking at the past to understand the future of managing reputation in the travel sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baka, Vasiliki

    2015-01-01

    conclusions about products and services. This paper explores how UGC reviews and ratings have intensified the contingency of organizational reputation in the travel sector. The findings are based upon a corpus of data including: a field study at the offices of the largest travel user-generated website, Trip...

  1. Toward Understanding Music Therapy as a Recovery-Oriented Practice within Mental Health Care: A Meta-Synthesis of Service Users' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hans Petter; Rolvsjord, Randi; Borg, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The perspective of mental health recovery is increasingly shaping mental health care policies. Current texts in music therapy identify the importance of this critical and user-oriented perspective, but the relevance and implications for music therapy need to be outlined. This study explores service users' experiences of music therapy in mental health care, and the potential role of music therapy in the development of recovery-oriented service provision. We conducted a qualitative meta-synthesis of studies examining service users' experiences in music therapy; included were 14 studies with a total of 113 participants. Both first-hand account of participants and the researchers' representations of such statements were taken into account in the analysis. A taxonomy of four areas of users' experiences was identified: "having a good time;" "being together;" "feeling;" and "being someone." These core categories point towards music therapy as an arena that can be used by persons with mental health problems in their personal and social recovery process. Music therapy can contribute to the quality of mental health care by providing an arena for stimulation and development of strengths and resources that may contribute to growth of positive identity and hope for people with mental illness. The findings from this meta-synthesis indicate that the provision of music therapy closely resembles recognized benefits of a recovery-oriented practice. Awareness of users' self-determination and the development of a strength-based and contextual approach to music therapy that fosters mutual empowering relationships are recommended. © 2013 by the American Music Therapy Association.

  2. The OSIRIS user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Telling, M T F

    2003-01-01

    This user guide contains all the information necessary to perform a successful neutron scattering experiment on the OSIRIS spectrometer at ISIS, RAL, UK. Since OSIRIS is a continually evolving and improving instrument some information contained within this manual may become redundant. However, the basic instrument operating procedures should remain essentially unchanged. While updated manuals will be produced when appropriate, the most comprehensive source of information concerning OSIRIS is the Instrument Scientist/Local Contact. It would be appreciated, however, if this user guide were the first point of call should problems arise

  3. Antecedents and Outcomes of End User Computing Competence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Case, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The end user has had to evolve and will continue evolving as well; from someone with low level technical skills to someone with a high level of technical knowledge and information managerial skills...

  4. Evolved atmospheric entry corridor with safety factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.

  5. Who are your users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Salminen, joni; Jung, Soon-Gyo

    2017-01-01

    One of the reasons for using personas is to align user understandings across project teams and sites. As part of a larger persona study, at Al Jazeera English (AJE), we conducted 16 qualitative interviews with media producers, the end users of persona descriptions. We asked the participants about...

  6. Demarcating User eXperience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roto, Virpi

    This panel discusses the scoping of user experience as a research field. User experience is a crossing point of several disciplines, each of which tends to define user experience from their own perspective. The distinguished panelists from academia and industry represent the different perspectives to user experience: Traditional human-computer interaction, Psychology, Cognitive psychology, and Design. The goal of the panel is to get one step closer to a shared understanding of the concept of user experience.

  7. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  8. Evolving meningococcal immunization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio; Bettinger, Julie A; Maturana, Gabriela Moreno; Enwere, Godwin; Borrow, Ray

    2015-04-01

    Meningococcal disease is a major public health problem and immunization is considered the best strategy for prevention. The introduction of meningococcal C conjugate immunization schedules that targeted adolescents, with catch-up programs in several European countries, Australia and Canada proved to be highly effective, with dramatic reduction in the incidence of serogroup C disease, not only in vaccinated, but also in unvaccinated individuals. Meningococcal quadrivalent (A, C, W, Y) conjugate vaccines are now licensed and are being used in adolescent programs in North America and to control serogroup W disease in South America. In the African meningitis belt, a mass immunization campaign against serogroup A disease using a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is now controlling the devastating epidemics of meningococcal disease. After introducing new immunization programs, it is of importance to maintain enhanced surveillance for a better understanding of the changing nature of disease epidemiology. This information is crucial for identifying optimal immunization policies.

  9. Evolving NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J.; Behnke, J.; Murphy, K. J.; Lowe, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is charged with managing, maintaining, and evolving NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is responsible for processing, archiving, and distributing NASA Earth science data. The system supports a multitude of missions and serves diverse science research and other user communities. Keeping up with ever-changing information technology and figuring out how to leverage those changes across such a large system in order to continuously improve and meet the needs of a diverse user community is a significant challenge. Maintaining and evolving the system architecture and infrastructure is a continuous and multi-layered effort. It requires a balance between a "top down" management paradigm that provides a coherent system view and maintaining the managerial, technological, and functional independence of the individual system elements. This presentation will describe some of the key elements of the current system architecture, some of the strategies and processes we employ to meet these challenges, current and future challenges, and some ideas for meeting those challenges.

  10. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.

  11. Development and the evolvability of human limbs

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Nathan M.; Wagner, Günter P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primate...

  12. Medicine an evolving profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyez Jiwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of medical practitioners in the developed world has increased but in relative terms their incomes have decreased. Published comments suggest that some doctors are dissatisfied with what they earn. However doctors are still perceived as having a high status in society. Publicly available data suggests that doctors chose to live and work in affluent suburbs where arguably the need for their skills is less than that in neighbouring deprived areas. The gender balance in medicine is also changing with more women entering the workforce and a greater acceptance of parttime working arrangements. In some countries doctors have relinquished the responsibility for emergency out of hours care in general practice and personal continuity of care is no longer on offer. The profession is also challenged by policy makers’ enthusiasm for guidelines while the focus on multidisciplinary teamwork makes it more likely that patients will routinely be able to consult professionals other than medical practitioners. At the same time the internet has changed patient expectations so that health care providers will be expected to deploy information technology to satisfy patients. Medicine still has a great deal to offer. Information may be readily available on the internet, but it is not an independently sufficient, prerequisite for people to contend with the physical and psychological distress associated with disease and disability. We need to understand and promote the crucial role doctors play in society at a time of tremendous change in the attitudes to, and within, the profession.

  13. Reusable and disposable insulin pens for the treatment of diabetes: understanding the global differences in user preference and an evaluation of inpatient insulin pen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Riccardo

    2010-06-01

    Insulin is essential for the management of type 1 diabetes and is more commonly being used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Insulin pen devices were first introduced over 20 years ago and have evolved to provide significant practical advantages compared with the vial and syringe. Pen devices are now used by patients with diabetes worldwide, but there are marked geographical variations in the use of reusable and disposable pens. In some countries the vial and syringe is still the most popular method of administering insulin, whereas in other countries the use of reusable or disposable pens is more prevalent. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the factors that seem to be involved in these differences, which include patient access to insulin, cost, and physician/patient awareness and preference. Inpatient use of insulin is also common, and the use of insulin pens could offer substantial benefits in this patient population, not only during the admission period but also after discharge from the hospital. However, the evidence base for inpatient use is still weak, and more studies are needed to investigate the use of insulin pens in this patient population.

  14. DrawCompileEvolve: Sparking interactive evolutionary art with human creations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jinhong; Taarnby, Rasmus; Liapis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DrawCompileEvolve, a web-based drawing tool which allows users to draw simple primitive shapes, group them together or define patterns in their groupings (e.g. symmetry, repetition). The user’s vector drawing is then compiled into an indirectly encoded genetic representation......, which can be evolved interactively, allowing the user to change the image’s colors, patterns and ultimately transform it. The human artist has direct control while drawing the initial seed of an evolutionary run and indirect control while interactively evolving it, thus making DrawCompileEvolve a mixed...

  15. Information filtering in evolving online networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Lun; Li, Fen-Fen; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Ma, Jia-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Recommender systems use the records of users' activities and profiles of both users and products to predict users' preferences in the future. Considerable works towards recommendation algorithms have been published to solve the problems such as accuracy, diversity, congestion, cold-start, novelty, coverage and so on. However, most of these research did not consider the temporal effects of the information included in the users' historical data. For example, the segmentation of the training set and test set was completely random, which was entirely different from the real scenario in recommender systems. More seriously, all the objects are treated as the same, regardless of the new, the popular or obsoleted products, so do the users. These data processing methods always lose useful information and mislead the understanding of the system's state. In this paper, we detailed analyzed the difference of the network structure between the traditional random division method and the temporal division method on two benchmark data sets, Netflix and MovieLens. Then three classical recommendation algorithms, Global Ranking method, Collaborative Filtering and Mass Diffusion method, were employed. The results show that all these algorithms became worse in all four key indicators, ranking score, precision, popularity and diversity, in the temporal scenario. Finally, we design a new recommendation algorithm based on both users' and objects' first appearance time in the system. Experimental results showed that the new algorithm can greatly improve the accuracy and other metrics.

  16. Observing the user experience a practitioner's guide to user research

    CERN Document Server

    Kuniavsky, Mike; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The gap between who designers and developers imagine their users are, and who those users really are can be the biggest problem with product development. Observing the User Experience will help you bridge that gap to understand what your users want and need from your product, and whether they'll be able to use what you've created. Filled with real-world experience and a wealth of practical information, this book presents a complete toolbox of techniques to help designers and developers see through the eyes of their users. It provides in-depth coverage of 13 user experience research techniques

  17. Metabolic memory: Evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2018-03-01

    HbA1c at the time of diagnosis simply reflect a brief period of glycemic exposure, so that it would not be expected to be of consequence? The ratio of undiagnosed to diagnosed diabetes in National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) carried out from 1999 to 2010, and from 2011 to 2012, is roughly 1: 2, suggesting that at the time of initial diagnosis diabetes often may be present for a substantial period, implying that prediagnosis exposure to elevated glucose levels has a bearing on subsequent outcome. Bianchi and del Prato suggest an interesting interpretation of "bad glycemic legacy" based on the Veterans Administration Diabetes Trial (VADT). In that study, 1791 military veterans with a mean diabetes duration of 11.5 years and poor diabetes control, with baseline HbA1c 9.4%, and assigned to intensive or standard treatment arms showed no overall differences in macrovascular or microvascular endpoints after a median follow-up of 5.6 years. Perhaps, then, uncontrolled glycemia of long duration may not be offset by subsequent intensive control, but intensive treatment from the time of diagnosis, even with "bad glycemic legacy" (but of short duration), will be effective in decreasing risk of later complications. Does the retrospective study by Pantalone et al. hint at a different aspect of metabolic memory, namely that poor control of glycemia at baseline does not affect the development of complications later if it is effectively managed subsequently? That effects of initial hyperglycemia could be dispelled with excellent glycemic control? Such an interpretation gives cause for optimism and can be used in empowering people developing diabetes to participate in their care. Analysis of more datasets with serial measures of HbA1c may allow us to further understand these relationships, and certainly the underlying molecular mechanisms of metabolic memory deserve further investigation. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley

  18. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  19. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes

  20. Designing for User Engagment Aesthetic and Attractive User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sutcliffe, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the design process for user experience and engagement, which expands the traditional concept of usability and utility in design to include aesthetics, fun and excitement. User experience has evolved as a new area of Human Computer Interaction research, motivated by non-work oriented applications such as games, education and emerging interactive Web 2.0. The chapter starts by examining the phenomena of user engagement and experience and setting them in the perspective of cognitive psychology, in particular motivation, emotion and mood. The perspective of aesthetics is expande

  1. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need......Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff...

  2. Robustness to Faults Promotes Evolvability: Insights from Evolving Digital Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Nicola; Nolfi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the need to cope with operational faults enables evolving circuits to find more fit solutions. The analysis of the results obtained in different experimental conditions indicates that, in absence of faults, evolution tends to select circuits that are small and have low phenotypic variability and evolvability. The need to face operation faults, instead, drives evolution toward the selection of larger circuits that are truly robust with respect to genetic variations and that have a greater level of phenotypic variability and evolvability. Overall our results indicate that the need to cope with operation faults leads to the selection of circuits that have a greater probability to generate better circuits as a result of genetic variation with respect to a control condition in which circuits are not subjected to faults.

  3. Game user experience evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhaupt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi

  4. Genome-nutrition divergence: evolving understanding of the malnutrition spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jacob C; Iannotti, Lora L

    2017-11-01

    Humans adapted over a period of 2.3 million years to a diet high in quality and diversity. Genome-nutrition divergence describes the misalignment between modern global diets and the genome formed through evolution. A survey of hominin diets over time shows that humans have thrived on a broad range of foods. Earlier diets were highly diverse and nutrient dense, in contrast to modern food systems in which monotonous diets of staple cereals and ultraprocessed foods play a more prominent role. Applying the lens of genome-nutrition divergence to malnutrition reveals shared risk factors for undernutrition and overnutrition at nutrient, food, and environmental levels. Mechanisms for food system shifts, such as crop-neutral agricultural policy, agroecology, and social policy, are explored as a means to realign modern diets with the nutritional patterns to which humans may be better adapted to thrive. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A neighbourhood evolving network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.J.; Wang, G.Z.; Jiang, Q.Y.; Han, Z.X.

    2006-01-01

    Many social, technological, biological and economical systems are best described by evolved network models. In this short Letter, we propose and study a new evolving network model. The model is based on the new concept of neighbourhood connectivity, which exists in many physical complex networks. The statistical properties and dynamics of the proposed model is analytically studied and compared with those of Barabasi-Albert scale-free model. Numerical simulations indicate that this network model yields a transition between power-law and exponential scaling, while the Barabasi-Albert scale-free model is only one of its special (limiting) cases. Particularly, this model can be used to enhance the evolving mechanism of complex networks in the real world, such as some social networks development

  6. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous......) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  7. A User-Centered Approach: Understanding Client and Caregiver Needs and Preferences in the Development of mHealth Apps for Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Roxanna M; Fairman, Andrea D; Karavolis, Meredith; Sullivan, Carly; Parmanto, Bambang

    2017-09-26

    Many adolescents and young adults with chronic illness or disability often fail to develop the self-management skills necessary to independently handle medical and self-management routines. In light of these needs, we are developing iMHere 2.0 (Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation), a mobile health (mHealth) system to support a self-management program. Our objective was to gather data from persons with brain and spinal cord anomalies (BSA) and their caregivers to better understand how mHealth would be most helpful in supporting them to proactively manage daily self-care routines and to access medical care as needed. The specific purpose was not only to gather feedback and to gain increased insight into the design of the new version of iMHere, but also to gather perspectives of new groups, namely adolescents as young as 12 years and their parents and/or caregivers. Our project employed focus group sessions and surveys to collect data from participants with BSA, as well as their caregivers. A total of six focus group sessions were conducted on four separate occasions until the data gathered reached saturation. The objectives of our focus group sessions were to better understand ways to develop mHealth systems to support self-management, to promote independence, to motivate long-term system use, and to prevent medical problems that lead to hospitalizations and emergency room visits for youth and young adults with BSA. A total of 16 youth and young adults with BSA and 11 caregivers participated in the sessions. Within and among our groups, the following five overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) make it easy, (2) engage, (3) educate and prepare, (4) motivate and support, and (5) personalize. Participants shared their perspectives and detailed information about mHealth apps that would be important for independence in self-care and self-management. Our findings suggest that most individuals keep their mobile phones with them at all times and typically use

  8. Present weather and climate: evolving conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerling, Martin P; Dettinger, Michael; Wolter, Klaus; Lukas, Jeff; Eischeid, Jon K.; Nemani, Rama; Liebmann, Brant; Kunkel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter assesses weather and climate variability and trends in the Southwest, using observed climate and paleoclimate records. It analyzes the last 100 years of climate variability in comparison to the last 1,000 years, and links the important features of evolving climate conditions to river flow variability in four of the region’s major drainage basins. The chapter closes with an assessment of the monitoring and scientific research needed to increase confidence in understanding when climate episodes, events, and phenomena are attributable to human-caused climate change.

  9. Imbalanced evolving self organizing learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Selection Ranked Fitness Mutation Reinsertion Initialization Optimal Solution Convergence YN Fig. 2. The evolving learning procedure. Q. Cai et al...Neurocomputing 133 (2014) 258–270260 6 offsprings will be reinserted into the original population set. The recombined individuals are used to calculate

  10. Evolving through Transitions: Mitigating Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubble, Sharon L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Montessori method. Evolves a new vision of the school based on Montessori principles and addresses the anxieties felt during times of transition as part of the natural growth process. Claims that these transitions are cyclical, and affect more than just the children--they also create concern for teachers, parents, and administrators.…

  11. Service user involvement in mental health care: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Samantha L; Chambers, Mary; Giles, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    The concept of service user involvement is an evolving concept in the mental health-care literature. This study sought to explore and analyse the concept of service user involvement as used in within the field of mental health care. An evolutionary concept analysis was conducted using a literature-based sample extracted from an electronic database search. One hundred and thirty-four papers met the inclusion criteria and were analysed to discover key attributes, antecedents and consequences of service user involvement and to produce a definition of the concept. Five key attributes of service user involvement within the context of mental health care were identified: a person-centred approach, informed decision making, advocacy, obtaining service user views and feedback and working in partnership. Clarity of the attributes and definition of the concept of service user involvement aims to promote understanding of the concept among key stakeholders including mental health professionals, service users and community and voluntary organizations. The findings of the research have utility in the areas of theory and policy development, research on service user involvement in mental health care and service user involvement in mental health practice. Directions for further research regarding the concept are identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The power and the pain: Mammographic compression research from the service-users' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Leslie; Hogg, Peter; Newton-Hughes, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: to explore the value service-users can add to our understanding of inter-practitioner compression variability in mammography. Imaging of the breast for the screening and detection of breast carcinoma is generally carried out by mammographic examination the technique for which includes compression of the breast. Evolving research calls into question compression practice in terms of practitioner consistency thus raising the possibility that strong compression may not be required. We were interested to know whether this was important to service-users and if such knowledge might influence their behaviour. Methods: and sample: A qualitative study involving 3 focus groups interviews (n = 4, 6 and 5). Participants were first asked to reflect on their own experiences of breast compression within the context of a breast screening examination, then interpret the results of the evolving research detailed above. We then explored whether these participants might behave differently during future mammography in light being appraised of these research findings. Results: A grounded approach was used to analyse the data into themes. The two overarching themes were i) Service-User Empowerment, which illustrates the difficulties participants believe women would encounter in exercising power in the breast screening mammographic examination; and ii) Service User Experience of Mammography, which unearthed unanticipated aspects of the examination, other than compression, that contribute to pain and discomfort and which therefore need investigation. Conclusion: Involving service-users more collaboratively in research can help investigators understand the impact of their work and highlight patient-relevant areas for further investigation

  13. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  14. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  15. Hospital information system user acceptance factors: User group perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, P W; Hidayanto, A N; Pinem, A A; Sandhyaduhita, P I; Budi, I

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and rank user acceptance factors regarding the implementation of hospital information systems (HIS) based on the views of the following user groups: doctors, nurses, hospital management, and administrative staff (operators). The results should provide guidance for hospital management and HIS developers on meeting user requirements. The study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The authors conducted interviews and distributed questionnaires to doctors, nurses, hospital management, and administrative staff in a government-owned Indonesian public hospital. Entropy measurements were used to analyze the questionnaire data. The study identified 15 important HIS user acceptance factors, which were ranked differently by each user group. The results show that non-technological dimensions, such as human and organizational dimensions, influence HIS user acceptance to a greater extent than technological dimensions. More work should be carried out to gain a better understanding of the relationship between user acceptance factors in order to increase the success of HIS implementations.

  16. How is cyber threat evolving and what do organisations need to consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrett, Martin; Carter, Roger; Wespi, Andreas

    Organisations and members of the public are becoming accustomed to the increasing velocity, frequency and variety of cyber-attacks that they have been facing over the last few years. In response to this challenge, it is important to explore what can be done to offer commercial and private users a reliable and functioning environment. This paper discusses how cyber threats might evolve in the future and seeks to explore these threats more fully. Attention is paid to the changing nature of cyber-attackers and their motivations and what this means for organisations. Finally, useful and actionable steps are provided, which practitioners can use to understand how they can start to address the future challenges of cyber security.

  17. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  18. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  19. Novel cooperation experimentally evolved between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcombe, William

    2010-07-01

    Cooperation violates the view of "nature red in tooth and claw" that prevails in our understanding of evolution, yet examples of cooperation abound. Most work has focused on maintenance of cooperation within a single species through mechanisms such as kin selection. The factors necessary for the evolutionary origin of aiding unrelated individuals such as members of another species have not been experimentally tested. Here, I demonstrate that cooperation between species can be evolved in the laboratory if (1) there is preexisting reciprocation or feedback for cooperation, and (2) reciprocation is preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. I used a two species system involving Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and an Escherichia coli mutant unable to synthesize an essential amino acid. In lactose media Salmonella consumes metabolic waste from E. coli, thus creating a mechanism of reciprocation for cooperation. Growth in a spatially structured environment assured that the benefits of cooperation were preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. Salmonella evolved to aid E. coli by excreting a costly amino acid, however this novel cooperation disappeared if the waste consumption or spatial structure were removed. This study builds on previous work to demonstrate an experimental origin of interspecific cooperation, and to test the factors necessary for such interactions to arise.

  20. A User-Centric View of Intelligent Environments: User Expectations, User Experience and User Role in Building Intelligent Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Kaasinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Our everyday environments are gradually becoming intelligent, facilitated both by technological development and user activities. Although large-scale intelligent environments are still rare in actual everyday use, they have been studied for quite a long time, and several user studies have been carried out. In this paper, we present a user-centric view of intelligent environments based on published research results and our own experiences from user studies with concepts and prototypes. We analyze user acceptance and users’ expectations that affect users’ willingness to start using intelligent environments and to continue using them. We discuss user experience of interacting with intelligent environments where physical and virtual elements are intertwined. Finally, we touch on the role of users in shaping their own intelligent environments instead of just using ready-made environments. People are not merely “using” the intelligent environments but they live in them, and they experience the environments via embedded services and new interaction tools as well as the physical and social environment. Intelligent environments should provide emotional as well as instrumental value to the people who live in them, and the environments should be trustworthy and controllable both by regular users and occasional visitors. Understanding user expectations and user experience in intelligent environments, and providing users with tools to influence the environments can help to shape the vision of intelligent environments into meaningful, acceptable and appealing service entities for all those who live and act in them.

  1. Development and the evolvability of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Wagner, Günter P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-02-23

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primates and demonstrate that both humans and apes exhibit significantly reduced integration between limbs when compared to quadrupedal monkeys. This result indicates that fossil hominins likely escaped constraints on independent limb variation via reductions to genetic pleiotropy in an ape-like last common ancestor (LCA). This critical change in integration among hominoids, which is reflected in macroevolutionary differences in the disparity between limb lengths, facilitated selection for modern human limb proportions and demonstrates how development helps shape evolutionary change.

  2. Microbial communities evolve faster in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Jin; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Huang, Li-Nan; Li, Jie; Shi, Su-Hua; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2014-08-27

    Evolutionary analysis of microbes at the community level represents a new research avenue linking ecological patterns to evolutionary processes, but remains insufficiently studied. Here we report a relative evolutionary rates (rERs) analysis of microbial communities from six diverse natural environments based on 40 metagenomic samples. We show that the rERs of microbial communities are mainly shaped by environmental conditions, and the microbes inhabiting extreme habitats (acid mine drainage, saline lake and hot spring) evolve faster than those populating benign environments (surface ocean, fresh water and soil). These findings were supported by the observation of more relaxed purifying selection and potentially frequent horizontal gene transfers in communities from extreme habitats. The mechanism of high rERs was proposed as high mutation rates imposed by stressful conditions during the evolutionary processes. This study brings us one stage closer to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation of microbes to extreme environments.

  3. The Evolving Theory of Evolutionary Radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, M; Breitkreuz, L; Alvarado, M; Baca, S; Cooper, J C; Heins, L; Herzog, K; Lieberman, B S

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations have intrigued biologists for more than 100 years, and our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with these radiations continues to grow and evolve. Recently it has been recognized that there are many different types of evolutionary radiation beyond the well-studied adaptive radiations. We focus here on multifarious types of evolutionary radiations, paying special attention to the abiotic factors that might trigger diversification in clades. We integrate concepts such as exaptation, species selection, coevolution, and the turnover-pulse hypothesis (TPH) into the theoretical framework of evolutionary radiations. We also discuss other phenomena that are related to, but distinct from, evolutionary radiations that have relevance for evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diversity Generation in Evolving Microbial Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Trine

    as each subpopulation colonized separate geographical niches. This highly complex population diversity was observed to be stably maintained during long-term evolution. Before diversification of the DK1 clone, a regulatory mutation was found to be fixed in the population causing alteration of multiple......Organisms have evolved and diversified since the beginning of life. Although, generation and maintenance of diversity within ecosystems has been a central concern in ecology and evolutionary biology, little is known of the evolutionary processes driving diversification. Especially, diversification...... in relation to chronic infection is a major concern as high population diversity has been predicted to result in survival and persistence of the infecting microbe. Therefore, understanding within-host dynamics and population diversification is necessary for optimal diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. Chronic...

  5. Peripartum hysterectomy: an evolving picture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Peripartum hysterectomy (PH) is one of the obstetric catastrophes. Evidence is emerging that the role of PH in modern obstetrics is evolving. Improving management of postpartum hemorrhage and newer surgical techniques should decrease PH for uterine atony. Rising levels of repeat elective cesarean deliveries should decrease PH following uterine scar rupture in labor. Increasing cesarean rates, however, have led to an increase in the number of PHs for morbidly adherent placenta. In the case of uterine atony or rupture where PH is required, a subtotal PH is often sufficient. In the case of pathological placental localization involving the cervix, however, a total hysterectomy is required. Furthermore, the involvement of other pelvic structures may prospectively make the diagnosis difficult and the surgery challenging. If resources permit, PH for pathological placental localization merits a multidisciplinary approach. Despite advances in clinical practice, it is likely that peripartum hysterectomy will be more challenging for obstetricians in the future.

  6. Mental models and user training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of the reference service is user training which means teaching users how to use the library and it's information sorces (nowadays mainly computerized systems. While the scientific understanding of teaching/learning process is shifting, changes also affect the methods of user training in libraries.Human-computer interaction (HCI is an interdisciplinary and a very active research area which studies how humans use computers - their mental and behavioral characteristics. The application of psychological theories to HCI are especially great on three areas: psychological (mental, conceptual models, individual differences, and error behavior.The mental models theory is powerful tool for understanding the ways in which users interact with an information system. Claims, based on this theory can affect the methods (conceptualization of user training and the overall design of information systems.

  7. Danish User-Centered Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    2007-01-01

    provides valuable information for scholars, managers and policy makers. The DUCI lab team consists of a number of academics, six major Danish companies and representatives from Danish Government. The efforts of the DUCI team focuses on the identification of best practice user innovation inside leading edge......Danish User-centered Innovation Lab (DUCI lab) is a collaboration between faculty at Copenhagen Business School, Aarhus School of Business and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, based at Copenhagen Business School. DUCI lab is a unique effort to understand the issues involved in user innovation...... processes, with particular emphasis on managing user driven innovation. The project takes advantage of CBS location in Denmark. Denmark has been at the forefront in creating policies that favor user driven innovation. CBS's location at the heart of one of the world's most vibrant user driven regions...

  8. Give the people what they want: studying end-user needs for enhancing the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yeon Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available End-user programming (EUP is a common approach for helping ordinary people create small programs for their professional or daily tasks. Since end-users may not have programming skills or strong motivation for learning them, tools should provide what end-users want with minimal costs of learning –i.e., they must decrease the barriers to entry. However, it is often hard to address these needs, especially for fast-evolving domains such as the Web. To better understand these existing and ongoing challenges, we conducted two formative studies with Web users –a semi-structured interview study, and a Wizard-of-Oz study. The interview study identifies challenges that participants have with their daily experiences on the Web. The Wizard-of-Oz study investigates how participants would naturally explain three computational tasks to an interviewer acting as a hypothetical computer agent. These studies demonstrate a disconnect between what end-users want and what existing EUP systems support, and thus open the door for a path towards better support for end user needs. In particular, our findings include: (1 analysis of challenges that end-users experience on the Web with solutions; (2 seven core functionalities of EUP for addressing these challenges; (3 characteristics of non-programmers describing three common computation tasks; (4 design implications for future EUP systems.

  9. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  10. Eye tracking in user experience design

    CERN Document Server

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  11. Do You Know Your Music Users' Needs? A Library User Survey that Helps Enhance a User-Centered Music Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Katie; Chan, Kylie

    2010-01-01

    While many surveys aim primarily at measuring general user satisfaction, this survey is dedicated to understanding music users' needs, usage patterns, and preferences towards various collections. Findings showed dissimilar use behavior and perceived importance of materials between academic- and performance-oriented music users. Needs for different…

  12. The Evolving Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshat, Michelle; Boroumand, Nahal

    2017-05-01

    - An explosion of information on pulmonary hypertension has occurred during the past few decades. The perception of this disease has shifted from purely clinical to incorporate new knowledge of the underlying pathology. This transfer has occurred in light of advancements in pathophysiology, histology, and molecular medical diagnostics. - To update readers about the evolving understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and to demonstrate how pathology has shaped the current classification. - Information presented at the 5 World Symposia on pulmonary hypertension held since 1973, with the last meeting occurring in 2013, was used in this review. - Pulmonary hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of disorders that are differentiated based on differences in clinical, hemodynamic, and histopathologic features. Early concepts of pulmonary hypertension were largely influenced by pharmacotherapy, hemodynamic function, and clinical presentation of the disease. The initial nomenclature for pulmonary hypertension segregated the clinical classifications from pathologic subtypes. Major restructuring of this disease classification occurred between the first and second symposia, which was the first to unite clinical and pathologic information in the categorization scheme. Additional changes were introduced in subsequent meetings, particularly between the third and fourth World Symposia meetings, when additional pathophysiologic information was gained. Discoveries in molecular diagnostics significantly progressed the understanding of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Continued advancements in imaging modalities, mechanistic pathogenicity, and molecular biomarkers will enable physicians to define pulmonary hypertension phenotypes based on the pathobiology and allow for treatment customization.

  13. CERN internal communication is evolving

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CERN news will now be regularly updated on the CERN People page (see here).      Dear readers, All over the world, communication is becoming increasingly instantaneous, with news published in real time on websites and social networks. In order to keep pace with these changes, CERN's internal communication is evolving too. From now on, you will be informed of what’s happening at CERN more often via the “CERN people” page, which will frequently be updated with news. The Bulletin is following this trend too: twice a month, we will compile the most important articles published on the CERN site, with a brand-new layout. You will receive an e-mail every two weeks as soon as this new form of the Bulletin is available. If you have interesting news or stories to share, tell us about them through the form at: https://communications.web.cern.ch/got-story-cern-website​. You can also find out about news from CERN in real time...

  14. Brain-Based Indices for User System Symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veltman, J.A.; Grootjen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The future generation user system interfaces need to be user-centric which goes beyond user-friendly and includes understanding and anticipating user intentions. We introduce the concept of operator models, their role in implementing user-system symbiosis, and the usefulness of brain-based indices

  15. Cosmic Biology How Life Could Evolve on Other Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Louis Neil

    2011-01-01

    It is very unlikely that little green humanoids are living on Mars. But what are the possible life forms that might exist in our Solar System and how might they have evolved? This uniquely authoritative and imaginative book on the possibilties for alien life addresses the intrinsic interest that we have about life on other worlds - reinforcing some of our assumptions and reshaping others. It introduces new possibilties that will enlarge our understanding of the issue overall, in particular the enormous range of environments and planetary conditions within which life might evolve. Cosmic Biology -discusses a broad range of possible environments where alien life might have evolved; -explains why carbon-based, water-borne life is more likely that its alternatives, but is not the only possiblity; -applies the principles of planetary science and modern biology to evolutionary scenarios on other worlds; -looks at the future fates of living systems, including those on Earth.

  16. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater

  17. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  18. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Sapunov, M

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  19. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  20. Attack resilience of the evolving scientific collaboration network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fan Liu

    Full Text Available Stationary complex networks have been extensively studied in the last ten years. However, many natural systems are known to be continuously evolving at the local ("microscopic" level. Understanding the response to targeted attacks of an evolving network may shed light on both how to design robust systems and finding effective attack strategies. In this paper we study empirically the response to targeted attacks of the scientific collaboration networks. First we show that scientific collaboration network is a complex system which evolves intensively at the local level--fewer than 20% of scientific collaborations last more than one year. Then, we investigate the impact of the sudden death of eminent scientists on the evolution of the collaboration networks of their former collaborators. We observe in particular that the sudden death, which is equivalent to the removal of the center of the egocentric network of the eminent scientist, does not affect the topological evolution of the residual network. Nonetheless, removal of the eminent hub node is exactly the strategy one would adopt for an effective targeted attack on a stationary network. Hence, we use this evolving collaboration network as an experimental model for attack on an evolving complex network. We find that such attacks are ineffectual, and infer that the scientific collaboration network is the trace of knowledge propagation on a larger underlying social network. The redundancy of the underlying structure in fact acts as a protection mechanism against such network attacks.

  1. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    How can we understand why a bank teller has different needs for a user interface than those of casual users of a machine teller, or why a graphic designer needs a different user interface than a secretary? This article presents a framework for the design of user interfaces that originates from...... organized practice of the users and the material conditions for the activity, including the object of the activity). The standard view in these situations is to deduce an ultimate set of operations from an abstract use activity and apply these to design and analysis. This article argues that the user...

  2. Justine user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  3. Personalizing Web Search based on User Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Utage, Sharyu; Ahire, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Web Search engine is most widely used for information retrieval from World Wide Web. These Web Search engines help user to find most useful information. When different users Searches for same information, search engine provide same result without understanding who is submitted that query. Personalized web search it is search technique for proving useful result. This paper models preference of users as hierarchical user profiles. a framework is proposed called UPS. It generalizes profile and m...

  4. IT Department User Survey PDF Usage Report

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Pete

    2017-01-01

    During 2016 the IT-CDA group carried out a study of IT users and their working environments and habits with the aim of understanding the user community better. This project involved interviews with users from different working backgrounds and an online survey containing questions of user devices and software preferences. A section of the questions was aimed at understanding how people handle PDF documents and this note analyses the responses to these. This analysis will help IT-CDA to better understand the PDF requirements and so help us to improve the services that rely on these documents.

  5. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  6. CSTEM User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, M.; McKnight, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    This manual is a combination of a user manual, theory manual, and programmer manual. The reader is assumed to have some previous exposure to the finite element method. This manual is written with the idea that the CSTEM (Coupled Structural Thermal Electromagnetic-Computer Code) user needs to have a basic understanding of what the code is actually doing in order to properly use the code. For that reason, the underlying theory and methods used in the code are described to a basic level of detail. The manual gives an overview of the CSTEM code: how the code came into existence, a basic description of what the code does, and the order in which it happens (a flowchart). Appendices provide a listing and very brief description of every file used by the CSTEM code, including the type of file it is, what routine regularly accesses the file, and what routine opens the file, as well as special features included in CSTEM.

  7. SHARP User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rahaman, Ronald O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  8. Evolving Complexity, Cognition, and Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljenström, H.

    2012-12-01

    All through the history of the universe there is an apparent tendency for increasing complexity, with the organization of matter in evermore elaborate and interactive systems. The living world in general, and the human brain in particular, provides the highest complexity known. It seems obvious that all of this complexity must be the result of physical, chemical and biological evolution, but it was only with Darwin that we began to get a scientific understanding of biological evolution. Darwinian principles are guiding in our understanding of such complex systems as the nervous system, but also for the evolution of human society and technology. Living organisms have to survive in a complex and changing environment. This implies response and adaption to environmental events and changes at several time scales. The interaction with the environment depends on the present state of the organism, as well as on previous experiences stored in its molecular and cellular structures. At a longer time scale, organisms can adapt to slow environmental changes, by storing information in the genetic material carried over from generation to generation. This phylogenetic learning is complemented by ontogenetic learning, which is adaptation at a shorter time scale, occuring in non-genetic structures. The evolution of a nervous system is a major transition in biological evolution and allows for an increasing capacity for information storage and processing, increasing chances of survival. Such neural knowledge processing, cognition, shows the same principal features as nonneural adaptive processes. Similarly, consciousness might appear, to different degrees, at different stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depends critically on the organization and complexity of the organism. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss general principles for evolution of complexity, focussing on the evolution of the nervous system, which provides organisms with ever increasing

  9. Evolving trends in enteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsky, J L

    1986-01-01

    Nutrition has become a cornerstone of surgical patient care. With better understanding of metabolic and compositional requirements, great advances have been made in the area of total parenteral nutrition. Recent attention to full utilization of alimentary tract function has prompted a resurgence of interest in dietary formulas and methods of delivery. Three new approaches to the alimentary tract provide better access for feeding. Needle catheter jejunostomy allows early alimentary tract utilization following operations, while percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and jejunostomy provide long-term solutions to the provision of enteral alimentation. Future utilization of these techniques will certainly lead to better patient care.

  10. Evolving Purchasing and Supply Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    2018-01-01

    this challenge, a comprehensive contingency framework of PSO structures is presented. The framework is based on existing literature on PSO contingency factors as well as analysis of two case companies. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective for understanding the PSO....... From a theoretical perspective, the contingency framework opens up insights that can be leveraged in future studies in the fields of hybrid PSOs, global sourcing organizations, and International Purchasing Offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies...

  11. Quantum mechanics in an evolving Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho, Emilio; O'Regan, David D.

    2017-03-01

    Many basis sets for electronic structure calculations evolve with varying external parameters, such as moving atoms in dynamic simulations, giving rise to extra derivative terms in the dynamical equations. Here we revisit these derivatives in the context of differential geometry, thereby obtaining a more transparent formalization, and a geometrical perspective for better understanding the resulting equations. The effect of the evolution of the basis set within the spanned Hilbert space separates explicitly from the effect of the turning of the space itself when moving in parameter space, as the tangent space turns when moving in a curved space. New insights are obtained using familiar concepts in that context such as the Riemann curvature. The differential geometry is not strictly that for curved spaces as in general relativity, a more adequate mathematical framework being provided by fiber bundles. The language used here, however, will be restricted to tensors and basic quantum mechanics. The local gauge implied by a smoothly varying basis set readily connects with Berry's formalism for geometric phases. Generalized expressions for the Berry connection and curvature are obtained for a parameter-dependent occupied Hilbert space spanned by nonorthogonal Wannier functions. The formalism is applicable to basis sets made of atomic-like orbitals and also more adaptative moving basis functions (such as in methods using Wannier functions as intermediate or support bases), but should also apply to other situations in which nonorthogonal functions or related projectors should arise. The formalism is applied to the time-dependent quantum evolution of electrons for moving atoms. The geometric insights provided here allow us to propose new finite-difference time integrators, and also better understand those already proposed.

  12. Are modern humans (Homo sapiens) still evolving?

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    Keeping in view the basic meaning of organic evolution, that evolution is a change in the genetic make-up of a population, human populations have been evolving but not speciating, because of their restlessly migratory habit, and the human technology, which helps them in facing different environmental conditions without evolving any bodily adaptations.

  13. DNA evolved to minimize frameshift mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Agoni, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Point mutations can surely be dangerous but what is worst than to lose the reading frame?! Does DNA evolved a strategy to try to limit frameshift mutations?! Here we investigate if DNA sequences effectively evolved a system to minimize frameshift mutations analyzing the transcripts of proteins with high molecular weights.

  14. Evolved Representation and Computational Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fouad Hafez Ismail

    2001-01-01

    or design methods, but each individual computational design system has only one or very few different representations available.Whatever the choice of the representation, it is likely to influence the outcome of the design process. In any representation, some designs may be more difficult to represent than others, and some designs may not be representable at all.The same applies if the design process is implemented in a computer program. If a design cannot be represented with a given representation, it cannot be the outcome of a design process using this representation. As is the case for human designers, it is also possible that the representation influences a computational design process such that it is easier for the program to find some designs than others. Depending on the design process used, this might make those designs a more likely outcome of the design process. This is for example the case with stochastic optimization processes, like evolutionary systems and simulated annealing. In these cases, the representation is likely to introduce a bias into the design process.The selection of the representation is therefore of high importance in the development of a computational design system. Obviously, while choosing the representation the programmer has to ensure that all or as many as possible potentially ‘interesting’ designs can be represented. But it is also generally desirable to minimize the bias introduced by the representation. In contrast to the user-provided design criteria, the bias caused by the representation influences the outcome of the design process in an implicit way which is not obvious to the user, and is difficult to predict and control.The idea developed in this research is that it is possible to turn the bias caused by the representation into a virtue, by deliberately choosing or modifying the representation to influence the design process in a certain desired way. The resulting ‘focusing’ of the search process is connected to the

  15. The Exploitation of Evolving Resources

    CERN Document Server

    McGlade, Jacqueline; Law, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The impact of man on the biosphere is profound. Quite apart from our capacity to destroy natural ecosystems and to drive species to extinction, we mould the evolution of the survivors by the selection pressures we apply to them. This has implications for the continued health of our natural biological resources and for the way in which we seek to optimise yield from those resources. Of these biological resources, fish stocks are particularly important to mankind as a source of protein. On a global basis, fish stocks provide the major source of protein for human consumption from natural ecosystems, amounting to some seventy million tonnes in 1970. Although fisheries management has been extensively developed over the last century, it has not hitherto considered the evolutionary consequences of fishing activity. While this omission may not have been serious in the past, the ever increasing intensity of exploitation and the deteriorating health of fish stocks has generated an urgent need for a better understanding...

  16. Guidance for Science Data Centers through Understanding Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    NASA has built a multi-year set of transaction and user satisfaction information about the evolving, broad collection of earth science products from a diverse set of users of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The transaction and satisfaction trends provide corroborative information to support perception and intuition, and can often be the basis for understanding the results of cross-cutting initiatives and for management decisions about future strategies. The information is available through two fundamental complementary methods, product and user transaction data collected regularly from the major science data centers, and user satisfaction information collected through the American Customer Satisfaction Index survey. The combination provides the fundamental data needed to understand utilization trends in the research community. This paper will update trends based on 2006 metrics from the NASA earth science data centers and results from the 2006 EOSDIS ACSI survey. Principle concepts are explored that lead to sound guidance for data center managers and strategists over the next year.

  17. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  18. Evolvability Search: Directly Selecting for Evolvability in order to Study and Produce It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengistu, Henok; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    of evolvable digital phenotypes. Although some types of selection in evolutionary computation indirectly encourage evolvability, one unexplored possibility is to directly select for evolvability. To do so, we estimate an individual's future potential for diversity by calculating the behavioral diversity of its...... immediate offspring, and select organisms with increased offspring variation. While the technique is computationally expensive, we hypothesized that direct selection would better encourage evolvability than indirect methods. Experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains confirm this hypothesis: in both...... domains, such Evolvability Search produces solutions with higher evolvability than those produced with Novelty Search or traditional objective-based search algorithms. Further experiments demonstrate that the higher evolvability produced by Evolvability Search in a training environment also generalizes...

  19. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  20. From Idea Crowdsourcing to Managing User Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Rajala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how technology companies can benefit from user knowledge in product and service innovation beyond mere idea generation through crowdsourcing. We investigate a case from the telecommunications sector to discover the ways a company can overcome the challenges of motivating users to participate in innovation activity and gaining from their knowledge in the innovation process. In particular, we seek to learn how the company has created understanding about the future uses of technology and the developments of the market with the lead users. In addition, we analyze the key means of capturing value from the knowledge gathered from the users, including the essential organizational practices that support user innovation and the ways the company makes sense of the vast volume and variety of user knowledge. Our empirical inquiry increases the understanding of how technology companies can complement and use crowdsourcing to effectively utilize knowledge resident in user communities.

  1. Star clusters in evolving galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Florent

    2018-04-01

    Their ubiquity and extreme densities make star clusters probes of prime importance of galaxy evolution. Old globular clusters keep imprints of the physical conditions of their assembly in the early Universe, and younger stellar objects, observationally resolved, tell us about the mechanisms at stake in their formation. Yet, we still do not understand the diversity involved: why is star cluster formation limited to 105M⊙ objects in the Milky Way, while some dwarf galaxies like NGC 1705 are able to produce clusters 10 times more massive? Why do dwarfs generally host a higher specific frequency of clusters than larger galaxies? How to connect the present-day, often resolved, stellar systems to the formation of globular clusters at high redshift? And how do these links depend on the galactic and cosmological environments of these clusters? In this review, I present recent advances on star cluster formation and evolution, in galactic and cosmological context. The emphasis is put on the theory, formation scenarios and the effects of the environment on the evolution of the global properties of clusters. A few open questions are identified.

  2. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane; Tarter, Jill; Devore, Edna; Pendleton, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Burke, Meg

    2004-06-01

    The SETI Institute, the California Academy of Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, and San Francisco State University have developed standards-based curriculum materials for a one-year high school integrated science course centered on the unifying theme of evolution. Scientists, teachers, curriculum writers, and media specialists are currently finalizing six modules that integrate astronomical, geological, and biological sciences as well as the history of science and technology. The sequence of lessons in each module is designed to promote students' understanding and skills as defined by the National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. The modules cover: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and the Evolution of Technology. The core lessons for all six modules are provided via CD-ROM, including instructional guidelines, science background information, and additional resources (print, audiovisual, software, WWW sites, and databases). These products will be published as a complete set for use as a yearlong science course and will also be available as individual modules for use in discipline-based courses. Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time.

  3. Evolving society and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Bhagabati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.

  4. Identifying online user reputation of user-object bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Kai; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti

    2017-02-01

    Identifying online user reputation based on the rating information of the user-object bipartite networks is important for understanding online user collective behaviors. Based on the Bayesian analysis, we present a parameter-free algorithm for ranking online user reputation, where the user reputation is calculated based on the probability that their ratings are consistent with the main part of all user opinions. The experimental results show that the AUC values of the presented algorithm could reach 0.8929 and 0.8483 for the MovieLens and Netflix data sets, respectively, which is better than the results generated by the CR and IARR methods. Furthermore, the experimental results for different user groups indicate that the presented algorithm outperforms the iterative ranking methods in both ranking accuracy and computation complexity. Moreover, the results for the synthetic networks show that the computation complexity of the presented algorithm is a linear function of the network size, which suggests that the presented algorithm is very effective and efficient for the large scale dynamic online systems.

  5. A user's manual to the PMBOK guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stackpole Snyder, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The must-have manual to understand and use the latest edition of the Fifth Edition The professional standard in the field of project management, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide-Fifth Edition) published by the Project Management Institute (PMI) serves as the ultimate resource for professionals and as a valuable studying and training device for students taking the PMP® Exam. A User''s Manual to the PMBOK® Guide takes the next logical step to act as a true user''s manual. With an accessible format and easy-to-understand language, it helps to not only distill es

  6. Acquisition: Acquisition of the Evolved SEASPARROW Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...

  7. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  8. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. SIFT will...

  9. Satcom access in the Evolved Packet Core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano Soveri, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is

  10. Satcom access in the evolved packet core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is

  11. Evolvability Characterization in the Context of SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniegas H., Jose L.; Dueñas L., Juan C.

    Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architectural style which promotes reuse of self-contained services. These self-contained services allow a better consideration of software quality characteristics as they can be independently analyzed. In our work, the evolvability quality characteristic has been considered, due to its impact in the stages of Maintenance and Evolution (M&E) for the software enterprises. Three goals are underlined in this paper: first, the relationship between SOA and quality characteristics focusing on a precise definition of evolvability of a software product from the SOA perspective, second a M&E model for SOA, and finally, some experiences are presented in order to assess evolvability in real software products. Two case studies have been executed: the first one analyzing the evolvability of the OSGi framework. And in the second case, the model is used in local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), where an improvement process has been executed.

  12. WSC-07: Evolving the Web Services Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, M. Brian; Cheung, William K.W.; Jaeger, Michael C.; Wombacher, Andreas

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an evolving architectural paradigm where businesses can expose their capabilities as modular, network-accessible software services. By decomposing capabilities into modular services, organizations can share their offerings at multiple levels of granularity

  13. Modeling user navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, E.; Brusilovsky, Peter; Corbett, Albert; de Rosis, Fiorella

    2003-01-01

    For providing users with navigation aids that best serve their needs, user models for adaptive hypermedia should include user navigation patterns. This paper describes elements needed and how these elements can be gathered.

  14. Evolving effective incremental SAT solvers with GP

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Mohamed; Poli, R.

    2008-01-01

    Hyper-Heuristics could simply be defined as heuristics to choose other heuristics, and it is a way of combining existing heuristics to generate new ones. In a Hyper-Heuristic framework, the framework is used for evolving effective incremental (Inc*) solvers for SAT. We test the evolved heuristics (IncHH) against other known local search heuristics on a variety of benchmark SAT problems.

  15. Research Notes - Openness and Evolvability - Standards Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    and Processes developed to assess system level Openness and Evolvability. The Research Notes within this report focus on Standards Assessment. 2...the standard available without an unreasonable financial burden to any vendor that wishes to access the standard ? If a cost is charged at all, the...Notes – Openness and Evolvability – Standards Assessment 3. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION (FOR UNCLASSIFIED REPORTS THAT ARE LIMITED RELEASE USE (U/L

  16. Information users and usability in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, G G

    2013-01-01

    Gives an overview of the necessary issues relating to information users and the usability of information services in the digital world, including user-centred design, and the characteristics and behaviour of information users. This book helps readers understand why information users and the usability of information services are important.

  17. Evolved stars at high angular resolution: present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    The late evolutionary stages of stellar evolution are a key ingredient for our understanding in many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution and the enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) via stellar yields. Already the first interferometric campaigns identified evolved stars as the primary targets because of their extended and partially optically thin atmospheres, and the brightness in the infrared. Interferometric studies spanning different wavelength ranges, from visual to mid-infrared, have greatly increased our knowledge of the complex atmospheres of these objects where different dynamic processes are at play. In less than two decades this technique went from measuring simple diameters to produce the first images of stellar surfaces. By scanning the extended atmospheres we constrained theoretical models, learnt about molecular stratification, dust formation, and stellar winds, and there is still a lot to be done. In this contribution I will review the recent results that optical/infrared interferometry has made on our current understanding of cool evolved stars. The presentation will focus on asymptotic giant branch stars, and red supergiants. I will discuss the challenges of image reconstruction, and highlight how this field of research will benefit from the synergy of the current interferometric instrument(s) with the second generation VLTI facilities GRAVITY and MATISSE. Finally I will conclude with a short introspection on applications of a visible interferometer and of the the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) to the field of evolved stars.

  18. Characterizing Data Discovery and End-User Computing Needs in Clinical Translational Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilana, Parmit K; Fishman, Elishema; Geraghty, Estella M; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wolf, Fredric M; Anderson, Nick R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of a qualitative case-study seeking to characterize data discovery needs and barriers of principal investigators and research support staff in clinical translational science. Several implications for designing and implementing translational research systems have emerged through the authors' analysis. The results also illustrate the benefits of forming early partnerships with scientists to better understand their workflow processes and end-user computing practices in accessing data for research. The authors use this user-centered, iterative development approach to guide the implementation and extension of i2b2, a system they have adapted to support cross-institutional aggregate anonymized clinical data querying. With ongoing evaluation, the goal is to maximize the utility and extension of this system and develop an interface that appropriately fits the swiftly evolving needs of clinical translational scientists.

  19. Family health program user: knowledge and satisfaction about user embracement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Lacerda Borges de Sá

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge and satisfaction of users of a Basic Health Unit about the strategy of embracement. Methods: Descriptive study with qualitative approach, carried out in a Basic Health Unit, Fortaleza, Brazil, where practical activities of the Education Program of Work for Health of the University of Fortaleza were performed. Fifty eight service users were involved, following inclusion criteria: being present during the data collection, age over 18, regardless of sex, and voluntary participation. Data collection occurred in December 2009, through semi-structured interview. The data associated with the identification of users were processed in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, being organizedstatistically in table. Data related to qualitative aspects were analyzed according to the technique of content analysis. Results: 56 (97% were women, with ages ranging between 21 and 40 years, 34 (59% were married and 53 (91% are literate. On family income, 55 (95%received less than two minimum salaries per month. In order to facilitate understanding the speech of users, these were evaluated from the perspective of two categories: knowledge about embracement and satisfaction with embracement. Conclusion: Users have a limited view of the significance and magnitude of the embracement to provide the care. Although satisfied with the service, respondents report as negative aspects: the shortage of professionals, the professional relationship with user impaired due to constant delays of the professional, and the dehumanization of care.

  20. The Ethics of User Experience Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa

    2013-01-01

    that the chosen point-of-view corresponds with the users, and thus ensures that the designed user experience actually is preferable for the user (Schauer & Merholz 2009). However, there has been a lack of discussions surrounding the ethical dimension of creating and maintaining an empathic point......-centered design process. Exemplifying the differences and ethical implications for the designer in the interaction with the user through the design of interactive digital systems. Finally the article discusses the need to understand design as a development of empathy for a given user or group of users by giving...... a cased-based overview of how empathy can be achieved during the design process, and become the catalyst of a more ethical approach to designing the user experience of ICT....

  1. Evolving Random Forest for Preference Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2015-01-01

    of 1560 sessions with detail information about user behaviour and their self-reported preferences while interacting with a game is used for training and evaluation. The method demonstrates ability to construct accurate models of user experience from preferences, behavioural and context data. The results...

  2. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  3. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  4. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  5. Lazy User Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Collan, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    In this position paper we suggest that a user will most often choose the solution (device) that will fulfill her (information) needs with the least effort. We call this “lazy user behavior”. We suggest that the principle components responsible for solution selection are the user need and the user state. User need is the user’s detailed (information) need (urgency, type, depth, etc.) and user state is the situation, in which the user is at the moment of the need (location, time, etc.); the use...

  6. Evolving R Coronae Borealis Stars with MESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Lauer, Amber; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Frank, Juhan

    2018-01-01

    being a WD. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  7. Quantifying evolvability in small biological networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mugler, Andrew [COLUMBIA UNIV; Ziv, Etay [COLUMBIA UNIV; Wiggins, Chris H [COLUMBIA UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a quantitative measure of the capacity of a small biological network to evolve. The measure is applied to a stochastic description of the experimental setup of Guet et al. (Science 2002, 296, pp. 1466), treating chemical inducers as functional inputs to biochemical networks and the expression of a reporter gene as the functional output. The authors take an information-theoretic approach, allowing the system to set parameters that optimise signal processing ability, thus enumerating each network's highest-fidelity functions. All networks studied are highly evolvable by the measure, meaning that change in function has little dependence on change in parameters. Moreover, each network's functions are connected by paths in the parameter space along which information is not significantly lowered, meaning a network may continuously change its functionality without completely losing it along the way. This property further underscores the evolvability of the networks.

  8. User Experience Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from...... the observation that experiences apparently have become especially valuable phenomena in Western societies. The 10 dimensions are tried out in a field study at the Center for Art and Media (ZKM) in Germany with the purpose to study their applicability in the evaluation of interactive sound archives. 29 walk......-alongs were carried out with 58 museums visitors. Our analysis showed that it was possible to identify the 10 experience dimensions in the study material. Some dimensions were expressed more frequently than others. The distribution of expressed dimensions and the content of the user comments provided a clear...

  9. Evolution of evolvability in gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Crombach

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks are perhaps the most important organizational level in the cell where signals from the cell state and the outside environment are integrated in terms of activation and inhibition of genes. For the last decade, the study of such networks has been fueled by large-scale experiments and renewed attention from the theoretical field. Different models have been proposed to, for instance, investigate expression dynamics, explain the network topology we observe in bacteria and yeast, and for the analysis of evolvability and robustness of such networks. Yet how these gene regulatory networks evolve and become evolvable remains an open question. An individual-oriented evolutionary model is used to shed light on this matter. Each individual has a genome from which its gene regulatory network is derived. Mutations, such as gene duplications and deletions, alter the genome, while the resulting network determines the gene expression pattern and hence fitness. With this protocol we let a population of individuals evolve under Darwinian selection in an environment that changes through time. Our work demonstrates that long-term evolution of complex gene regulatory networks in a changing environment can lead to a striking increase in the efficiency of generating beneficial mutations. We show that the population evolves towards genotype-phenotype mappings that allow for an orchestrated network-wide change in the gene expression pattern, requiring only a few specific gene indels. The genes involved are hubs of the networks, or directly influencing the hubs. Moreover, throughout the evolutionary trajectory the networks maintain their mutational robustness. In other words, evolution in an alternating environment leads to a network that is sensitive to a small class of beneficial mutations, while the majority of mutations remain neutral: an example of evolution of evolvability.

  10. Trust and privacy in the context of user-generated health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Ostherr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and explores evolving concepts of trust and privacy in the context of user-generated health data. We define “user-generated health data” as data captured through devices or software (whether purpose built or commercially available and used outside of traditional clinical settings for tracking personal health data. The investigators conducted qualitative research through semistructured interviews (n = 32 with researchers, health technology start-up companies, and members of the general public to inquire why and how they interact with and understand the value of user-generated health data. We found significant results concerning new attitudes toward trust, privacy, and sharing of health data outside of clinical settings that conflict with regulations governing health data within clinical settings. Members of the general public expressed little concern about sharing health data with the companies that sold the devices or apps they used, and indicated that they rarely read the “terms and conditions” detailing how their data may be exploited by the company or third-party affiliates before consenting to them. In contrast, interviews with researchers revealed significant resistance among potential research participants to sharing their user-generated health data for purposes of scientific study. The widespread rhetoric of personalization and social sharing in “user-generated culture” appears to facilitate an understanding of user-generated health data that deemphasizes the risk of exploitation in favor of loosely defined benefits to individual and social well-being. We recommend clarification and greater transparency of regulations governing data sharing related to health.

  11. Evolving Intelligent Systems Methodology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, Plamen; Kasabov, Nik

    2010-01-01

    From theory to techniques, the first all-in-one resource for EIS. There is a clear demand in advanced process industries, defense, and Internet and communication (VoIP) applications for intelligent yet adaptive/evolving systems. Evolving Intelligent Systems is the first self- contained volume that covers this newly established concept in its entirety, from a systematic methodology to case studies to industrial applications. Featuring chapters written by leading world experts, it addresses the progress, trends, and major achievements in this emerging research field, with a strong emphasis on th

  12. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved...... the space of potential sounds that can be generated through such compositional sound synthesis networks (CSSNs). To study the effect of evolution on subjective appreciation, participants in a listener study ranked evolved timbres by personal preference, resulting in preferences skewed toward the first...

  13. Measuring Spreadsheet Formula Understandability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.F.J.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spreadsheets are widely used in industry, because they are flexible and easy to use. Often they are used for business-critical applications. It is however difficult for spreadsheet users to correctly assess the quality of spreadsheets, especially with respect to the understandability.

  14. InterMap3D: predicting and visualizing co-evolving protein residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Roque, francisco jose sousa simôes almeida; Wernersson, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    InterMap3D predicts co-evolving protein residues and plots them on the 3D protein structure. Starting with a single protein sequence, InterMap3D automatically finds a set of homologous sequences, generates an alignment and fetches the most similar 3D structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB......). It can also accept a user-generated alignment. Based on the alignment, co-evolving residues are then predicted using three different methods: Row and Column Weighing of Mutual Information, Mutual Information/Entropy and Dependency. Finally, InterMap3D generates high-quality images of the protein...

  15. Biomimetic molecular design tools that learn, evolve, and adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known “S curve”, with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine. PMID:28694872

  16. Biomimetic molecular design tools that learn, evolve, and adapt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Winkler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known “S curve”, with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine.

  17. Biomimetic molecular design tools that learn, evolve, and adapt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, David A

    2017-01-01

    A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known "S curve", with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine.

  18. Pilot users in agile development processes: motivational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Liv Karen; Gammon, Deede

    2010-01-01

    Despite a wealth of research on user participation, few studies offer insights into how to involve multi-organizational users in agile development methods. This paper is a case study of user involvement in developing a system for electronic laboratory requisitions using agile methodologies in a multi-organizational context. Building on an interpretive approach, we illuminate questions such as: How does collaboration between users and developers evolve and how might it be improved? What key motivational aspects are at play when users volunteer and continue contributing in the face of considerable added burdens? The study highlights how agile methods in themselves appear to facilitate mutually motivating collaboration between user groups and developers. Lessons learned for leveraging the advantages of agile development processes include acknowledging the substantial and ongoing contributions of users and their roles as co-designers of the system.

  19. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides: an evolving phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitas, Osmel; Agbale, Caleb M; Franco, Octavio L

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is currently a real problem all over the world, making novel antimicrobial compounds a real research priority. Some of the most promising compounds found to date are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The benefits of these drugs include their broad spectrum of activity that affects several microbial processes, making the emergence of resistance less likely. However, bacterial resistance to AMPs is an evolving phenomenon that compromises the therapeutic potential of these compounds. Therefore, it is mandatory to understand bacterial mechanisms of resistance to AMPs in depth, in order to develop more powerful AMPs that overcome the bacterial resistance response.

  20. Gravity Effects on Information Filtering and Network Evolving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Lingjiao; Liu, Chuang; Yang, Chengcheng; Wang, Xueqi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the gravity principle of classical physics, we propose a tunable gravity-based model, which considers tag usage pattern to weigh both the mass and distance of network nodes. We then apply this model in solving the problems of information filtering and network evolving. Experimental results on two real-world data sets, Del.icio.us and MovieLens, show that it can not only enhance the algorithmic performance, but can also better characterize the properties of real networks. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the effect of gravity model. PMID:24622162

  1. Preface: evolving rotifers, evolving science: Proceedings of the XIV International Rotifer Symposium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Fontaneto, D.; Jersabek, Ch.D.; Welch, D.B.M.; May, L.; Walsh, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 796, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : evolving rotifers * 14th International Rotifer Symposium * evolving science Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES The evolving management of Burkitt's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolving management of Burkitt's lymphoma at Red ... Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and University of Cape Town ..... includes social support in the form of psychiatrists, nurses and social workers. Challenges in the transition period include overcoming the fear of an unknown hospital, adjusting to a ...

  3. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry....

  4. Continual Learning through Evolvable Neural Turing Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüders, Benno; Schläger, Mikkel; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Continual learning, i.e. the ability to sequentially learn tasks without catastrophic forgetting of previously learned ones, is an important open challenge in machine learning. In this paper we take a step in this direction by showing that the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENTM...

  5. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Evolving chromosomes and gene regulatory networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aswin

    Gene expression level unilateral. Other genes epistatic. Collateral damage. Page 25. ok.. is there a phenotype? $ % #. Page 26. Can the regulatory network of. E. coli lacking the xenogene silencing system evolve towards greater fitness? Page 27. Many mutations emerge in a dynamic genome. Inactivation of the global ...

  7. A Course Evolves-Physical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an online physical anthropology course at Palomar College (California) that evolved from online tutorials. Discusses the ability to update materials on the Web more quickly than in traditional textbooks; creating Web pages that are readable by most Web browsers; test security issues; and clarifying ownership of online…

  8. Accelerator facilities users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, H.C.; Adrion, L.; Frosch, R.; Salzmann, M.

    1994-07-01

    In 1981 the ''Green Book'' of SIN was distributed, a User Handbook serving the needs of people already working at SIN as well as informing new users about our installations. An update of the Green Book is necessary because many beams have disappeared, been modified or added, and the installation has been upgraded in intensity and versatility quite considerably. The spectrum of users has shifted away from nuclear and particle physics; applications in medicine, solid state physics and materials science have gained in importance. This Users' Guide is intended to inform our users about the changes, and to interest potential new users in coming to PSI. (author) figs., tabs

  9. Improving Naive Bayes with Online Feature Selection for Quick Adaptation to Evolving Feature Usefulness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-19

    The definition of what makes an article interesting varies from user to user and continually evolves even for a single user. As a result, for news recommendation systems, useless document features can not be determined a priori and all features are usually considered for interestingness classification. Consequently, the presence of currently useless features degrades classification performance [1], particularly over the initial set of news articles being classified. The initial set of document is critical for a user when considering which particular news recommendation system to adopt. To address these problems, we introduce an improved version of the naive Bayes classifier with online feature selection. We use correlation to determine the utility of each feature and take advantage of the conditional independence assumption used by naive Bayes for online feature selection and classification. The augmented naive Bayes classifier performs 28% better than the traditional naive Bayes classifier in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! RSS feeds.

  10. How the user views visual displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the psychophysiological level, the result can be ineffective use of a system leading to an inherently error- and failure-prone system. Therefore, to minimize failures in a human-interactive system, it is essential that designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affect how the user gathers and processes information. By understanding the significant processing characteristics of the user, designers can implement practical and effective visual displays (or any other type of system) that are more desirable to all users. The material presented in this paper is based on a general study that involved users` perspective views of how visual displays should be designed for effective use. The methodology used was Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), because of its applicability in expanding design choices from the users` ``model of the world.`` The findings of the study have provided a beginning in the development of user comfort parameters and visual displays.

  11. User experience of lower-limb orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Wan; Tong, Ji-Rou

    2017-06-09

    If an assistive device is not acceptable to the user, it will not achieve efficacy and would be resource-wasting. This study employed in-depth interviews to understand what users' individual activities of daily living, problems of using orthoses, and considerations for selecting orthoses are. We conducted qualitative interviews with 35 lower-limb orthosis users, and semi-structured interviews were applied in this study. We analyzed the interview data from transcripts, through coding and concepts, to theories based on grounded theory. The results showed that problems of using orthoses are mostly related to activities of daily living of the user and user's expectation. Therefore, in order to enhance its efficacy and use intention, the design and prescribing process of orthoses need to address the problems in the light of activities of daily living and user education.

  12. Spectrometer user interface to computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.; Davies, M.; Fry, F.A.; Venn, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    A computer system for use in radiation spectrometry should be designed around the needs and comprehension of the user and his operating environment. To this end, the functions of the system should be built in a modular and independent fashion such that they can be joined to the back end of an appropriate user interface. The point that this interface should be designed rather than just allowed to evolve is illustrated by reference to four related computer systems of differing complexity and function. The physical user interfaces in all cases are keyboard terminals, and the virtues and otherwise of these devices are discussed and compared with others. The language interface needs to satisfy a number of requirements, often conflicting. Among these, simplicity and speed of operation compete with flexibility and scope. Both experienced and novice users need to be considered, and any individual's needs may vary from naive to complex. To be efficient and resilient, the implementation must use an operating system, but the user needs to be protected from its complex and unfamiliar syntax. At the same time the interface must allow the user access to all services appropriate to his needs. The user must also receive an image of privacy in a multi-user system. The interface itself must be stable and exhibit continuity between implementations. Some of these conflicting needs have been overcome by the SABRE interface with languages operating at several levels. The foundation is a simple semimnemonic command language that activates indididual and independent functions. The commands can be used with positional parameters or in an interactive dialogue the precise nature of which depends upon the operating environment and the user's experience. A command procedure or macrolanguage allows combinations of commands with conditional branching and arithmetic features. Thus complex but repetitive operations are easily performed

  13. User Registration Systems for Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.; Mitchell, A.

    2010-12-01

    As NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) systems have evolved over the years, most of the EOSDIS data are now available to users via anonymous on-line access. Although the changes have improved the dissemination efficiency of earth science data, the anonymous access has made it difficult to characterize users, capture metrics on the value of EOSDIS and provide customized services that benefit users. As the number of web-based applications continues to grow, data centers and application providers have implemented their own user registration systems and provided new tools and interfaces for their registered users. This has led to the creation of independent registration systems for accessing data and interacting with online tools and services. The user profile information maintained at each of these registration systems is not consistent and the registration enforcement varies by system as well. This problem is in no way unique to EOSDIS and represents a general challenge to the distributed computing community. In a study done in 2007(http://www2007.org/papers/paper620.pd), the average user has approximately 7 passwords for about 25 accounts and enters a password 8 times a day. These numbers have only increased in the last three years. To try and address this, a number of solutions have been offered including Single Sign-On solutions using a common backend like Microsoft Active Directory or an LDAP server, trust based identity providers like OpenID, and various forms of authorization delegation like OAuth or SAML/XACML. This talk discusses the differences between authentication and authorization, the state of the more popular user registration solutions available for distributed use, and some of the technical and policy drivers that need to be considered when incorporating a user registration system into your application.

  14. Wild Origins: The Evolving Nature of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ifigenia

    For billions of years, evolution has been the driving force behind the incredible range of biodiversity on our planet. Wild Origins is a concept plan for an exhibition at the National Zoo that uses case studies of animal behavior to explain the theory of evolution. Behaviors evolve, just as physical forms do. Understanding natural selection can help us interpret animal behavior and vice-versa. A living collection, digital media, interactives, fossils, and photographs will relay stories of social behavior, sex, navigation and migration, foraging, domestication, and relationships between different species. The informal learning opportunities visitors are offered at the zoo will create a connection with the exhibition's teaching points. Visitors will leave with an understanding and sense of wonder at the evolutionary view of life.

  15. Cyber Security : Home User's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ikonen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Cyber security is important to understand for home users. New technology allows for new cyber threats to emerge and new solutions must be considered to counter them. Nearly every device is connected to the Internet and this opens new possibilities and threats to cyber security. This Bachelor's thesis explores the different aspects of cyber security and suggests solutions to different cyber security issues found. The different aspects of cyber security under research here include personal ...

  16. Getting grid users together

    CERN Multimedia

    Appleton, Owen

    2007-01-01

    "While Grid conferences are becoming ever more popular, many of them remain primarily IT events, with few if any users attending. Not so the second EGEE User Forum, an event specifically designed to bring together the diverse user community that makes use of the EGEE grid infrastructure." (1 page)

  17. NPAS Users Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This NPAS Users Guide is primarily intended as a source of information about policies, procedures, and facilities appropriate for users in the program of Nuclear Physics at SLAC (NPAS). General policies and practices are described, the preparation of proposals is discussed, and the services for users is outlined. SLAC experimental facilities are described, and contacts are listed

  18. Surreptitious, Evolving and Participative Ontology Development: An End-User Oriented Ontology Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachore, Zelalem

    2012-01-01

    Ontology not only is considered to be the backbone of the semantic web but also plays a significant role in distributed and heterogeneous information systems. However, ontology still faces limited application and adoption to date. One of the major problems is that prevailing engineering-oriented methodologies for building ontologies do not…

  19. Evolving user interface design in public areas as a consequence of demographic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Brekkan, Line

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Airports are rapidly getting more complex. They are in general undergoing rapid development with new sections added and new technology and information systems put into operation. The security is also becoming more rigours in terms of restrictions and regulations. Moreover, it can be experienced that airports are becoming more like shopping malls, filled with stores, cafés and restaurants. It can be perceived as a “landscape” of ...

  20. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest a...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry.......This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... a range of potential fashion futures that decouple from declining resources. In the first part literature on 'Past and Present' historical and current aspects of sustainability in fashion and textiles are presented. In the second part, three exploratory case studies are described: Two projects by students...

  1. Enhancing human understanding through intelligent explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Harbers, M.; Doesburg, W.A. van; Bosch, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    Ambient systems that explain their actions promote the user's understanding as they give the user more insight in the e®ects of their behavior on the environment. In order to provide individualized intelligent explanations, we need not only to evaluate a user's observable behavior, but we also need

  2. Caterpillars evolved from onychophorans by hybridogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    I reject the Darwinian assumption that larvae and their adults evolved from a single common ancestor. Rather I posit that, in animals that metamorphose, the basic types of larvae originated as adults of different lineages, i.e., larvae were transferred when, through hybridization, their genomes were acquired by distantly related animals. “Caterpillars,” the name for eruciforms with thoracic and abdominal legs, are larvae of lepidopterans, hymenopterans, and mecopterans (scorpionflies). Grubs ...

  3. Antibody therapeutics - the evolving patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Jenny; McManamny, Patrick; Honeyman, Jane

    2011-09-01

    The antibody patent landscape has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years, particularly in areas of technology relating to antibody modification to reduce immunogenicity in humans or improve antibody function. In some cases antibody techniques that were developed in the 1980s are still the subject of patent protection in the United States or Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The evolving definition of systemic arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, C Venkata S; Giles, Thomas D

    2010-05-01

    Systemic hypertension is an important risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease. Hypertension also contributes to excessive morbidity and mortality. Whereas excellent therapeutic options are available to treat hypertension, there is an unsettled issue about the very definition of hypertension. At what level of blood pressure should we treat hypertension? Does the definition of hypertension change in the presence of co-morbid conditions? This article covers in detail the evolving concepts in the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  5. Evolving Shepherding Behavior with Genetic Programming Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Brulé, Joshua; Engel, Kevin; Fung, Nick; Julien, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    We apply genetic programming techniques to the `shepherding' problem, in which a group of one type of animal (sheep dogs) attempts to control the movements of a second group of animals (sheep) obeying flocking behavior. Our genetic programming algorithm evolves an expression tree that governs the movements of each dog. The operands of the tree are hand-selected features of the simulation environment that may allow the dogs to herd the sheep effectively. The algorithm uses tournament-style sel...

  6. Evolvability of Amyloidogenic Proteins in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Ho, Gilbert; Sugama, Shuei; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Yuka; Takenouchi, Takato; Waragai, Masaaki; Masliah, Eliezer

    2018-01-01

     Currently, the physiological roles of amyloidogenic proteins (APs) in human brain, such as amyloid-β and α-synuclein, are elusive. Given that many APs arose by gene duplication and have been resistant against the pressures of natural selection, APs may be associated with some functions that are advantageous for survival of offspring. Nonetheless, evolvability is the sole physiological quality of APs that has been characterized in microorganisms such as yeast. Since yeast and human brain may share similar strategies in coping with diverse range of critical environmental stresses, the objective of this paper was to discuss the potential role of evolvability of APs in aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Given the heterogeneity of APs in terms of structure and cytotoxicity, it is argued that APs might be involved in preconditioning against diverse stresses in human brain. It is further speculated that these stress-related APs, most likely protofibrillar forms, might be transmitted to offspring via the germline, conferring preconditioning against forthcoming stresses. Thus, APs might represent a vehicle for the inheritance of the acquired characteristics against environmental stresses. Curiously, such a characteristic of APs is reminiscent of Charles Darwin’s ‘gemmules’, imagined molecules of heritability described in his pangenesis theory. We propose that evolvability might be a physiological function of APs during the reproductive stage and neurodegenerative diseases could be a by-product effect manifested later in aging. Collectively, our evolvability hypothesis may play a complementary role in the pathophysiology of APs with the conventional amyloid cascade hypothesis. PMID:29439348

  7. The Evolving Leadership Path of Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluse, Michael; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2012-01-02

    This is a requested book chapter for an internationally authored book on visual analytics and related fields, coordianted by a UK university and to be published by Springer in 2012. This chapter is an overview of the leadship strategies that PNNL's Jim Thomas and other stakeholders used to establish visual analytics as a field, and how those strategies may evolve in the future.

  8. Quantum games on evolving random networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pawela, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.

  9. Quantum games on evolving random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawela, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.

  10. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  11. Correntropy-Based Evolving Fuzzy Neural System

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Rongjing; Rong, Haijun; Angelov, Plamen Parvanov; Chen, Badong; Wong, Pak Kin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a correntropy-based evolving fuzzy neural system (correntropy-EFNS) is proposed for approximation of nonlinear systems. Different from the commonly used meansquare error criterion, correntropy has a strong outliers rejection ability through capturing the higher moments of the error distribution. Considering the merits of correntropy, this paper brings contributions to build EFNS based on the correntropy concept to achieve a more stable evolution of the rule base and update of t...

  12. CMIP6 Data Citation of Evolving Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stockhause

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data citations have become widely accepted. Technical infrastructures as well as principles and recommendations for data citation are in place but best practices or guidelines for their implementation are not yet available. On the other hand, the scientific climate community requests early citations on evolving data for credit, e.g. for CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6. The data citation concept for CMIP6 is presented. The main challenges lie in limited resources, a strict project timeline and the dependency on changes of the data dissemination infrastructure ESGF (Earth System Grid Federation to meet the data citation requirements. Therefore a pragmatic, flexible and extendible approach for the CMIP6 data citation service was developed, consisting of a citation for the full evolving data superset and a data cart approach for citing the concrete used data subset. This two citation approach can be implemented according to the RDA recommendations for evolving data. Because of resource constraints and missing project policies, the implementation of the second part of the citation concept is postponed to CMIP7.

  13. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...

  14. Adaptive evolution of the lactose utilization network in experimentally evolved populations of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Selwyn; Ray, J Christian J; Kwota, Zakari; Duong, Trang; Balázsi, Gábor; Cooper, Tim F; Monds, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to novel environments is often associated with changes in gene regulation. Nevertheless, few studies have been able both to identify the genetic basis of changes in regulation and to demonstrate why these changes are beneficial. To this end, we have focused on understanding both how and why the lactose utilization network has evolved in replicate populations of Escherichia coli. We found that lac operon regulation became strikingly variable, including changes in the mode of environmental response (bimodal, graded, and constitutive), sensitivity to inducer concentration, and maximum expression level. In addition, some classes of regulatory change were enriched in specific selective environments. Sequencing of evolved clones, combined with reconstruction of individual mutations in the ancestral background, identified mutations within the lac operon that recapitulate many of the evolved regulatory changes. These mutations conferred fitness benefits in environments containing lactose, indicating that the regulatory changes are adaptive. The same mutations conferred different fitness effects when present in an evolved clone, indicating that interactions between the lac operon and other evolved mutations also contribute to fitness. Similarly, changes in lac regulation not explained by lac operon mutations also point to important interactions with other evolved mutations. Together these results underline how dynamic regulatory interactions can be, in this case evolving through mutations both within and external to the canonical lactose utilization network.

  15. Adaptive Evolution of the Lactose Utilization Network in Experimentally Evolved Populations of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Selwyn; Ray, J. Christian J.; Kwota, Zakari; Duong, Trang; Balázsi, Gábor; Cooper, Tim F.; Monds, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to novel environments is often associated with changes in gene regulation. Nevertheless, few studies have been able both to identify the genetic basis of changes in regulation and to demonstrate why these changes are beneficial. To this end, we have focused on understanding both how and why the lactose utilization network has evolved in replicate populations of Escherichia coli. We found that lac operon regulation became strikingly variable, including changes in the mode of environmental response (bimodal, graded, and constitutive), sensitivity to inducer concentration, and maximum expression level. In addition, some classes of regulatory change were enriched in specific selective environments. Sequencing of evolved clones, combined with reconstruction of individual mutations in the ancestral background, identified mutations within the lac operon that recapitulate many of the evolved regulatory changes. These mutations conferred fitness benefits in environments containing lactose, indicating that the regulatory changes are adaptive. The same mutations conferred different fitness effects when present in an evolved clone, indicating that interactions between the lac operon and other evolved mutations also contribute to fitness. Similarly, changes in lac regulation not explained by lac operon mutations also point to important interactions with other evolved mutations. Together these results underline how dynamic regulatory interactions can be, in this case evolving through mutations both within and external to the canonical lactose utilization network. PMID:22253602

  16. Adaptive evolution of the lactose utilization network in experimentally evolved populations of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Quan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to novel environments is often associated with changes in gene regulation. Nevertheless, few studies have been able both to identify the genetic basis of changes in regulation and to demonstrate why these changes are beneficial. To this end, we have focused on understanding both how and why the lactose utilization network has evolved in replicate populations of Escherichia coli. We found that lac operon regulation became strikingly variable, including changes in the mode of environmental response (bimodal, graded, and constitutive, sensitivity to inducer concentration, and maximum expression level. In addition, some classes of regulatory change were enriched in specific selective environments. Sequencing of evolved clones, combined with reconstruction of individual mutations in the ancestral background, identified mutations within the lac operon that recapitulate many of the evolved regulatory changes. These mutations conferred fitness benefits in environments containing lactose, indicating that the regulatory changes are adaptive. The same mutations conferred different fitness effects when present in an evolved clone, indicating that interactions between the lac operon and other evolved mutations also contribute to fitness. Similarly, changes in lac regulation not explained by lac operon mutations also point to important interactions with other evolved mutations. Together these results underline how dynamic regulatory interactions can be, in this case evolving through mutations both within and external to the canonical lactose utilization network.

  17. Usability and user driven innovation - unity or clash?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    identified additional key concepts to usability: Context, culture, situation and experience. Understanding those might be achieved by involving users. In this paper, usability of the built environment will be related to the idea of ‗user driven innovation‘ - participatory processes in which users...

  18. A process mining approach to analyse user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, Laura; Faber, Niels R.; Jorna, Rene J.; van Haren, Rob J. F.; Cordeiro, J; Filipe, J; Hammoudi, S

    2008-01-01

    Designing and personalising systems for specific user groups encompasses a lot of effort with respect to analysing and understanding user behaviour. The goal of our paper is to provide a new methodology for determining navigational patterns of behaviour of specific user groups. We consider

  19. Co-evolving prisoner's dilemma: Performance indicators and analytic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Choi, C. W.; Li, Y. S.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the intrinsic relation between the dynamical processes in a co-evolving network and the necessary ingredients in formulating a reliable theory is an important question and a challenging task. Using two slightly different definitions of performance indicator in the context of a co-evolving prisoner's dilemma game, it is shown that very different cooperative levels result and theories of different complexity are required to understand the key features. When the payoff per opponent is used as the indicator (Case A), non-cooperative strategy has an edge and dominates in a large part of the parameter space formed by the cutting-and-rewiring probability and the strategy imitation probability. When the payoff from all opponents is used (Case B), cooperative strategy has an edge and dominates the parameter space. Two distinct phases, one homogeneous and dynamical and another inhomogeneous and static, emerge and the phase boundary in the parameter space is studied in detail. A simple theory assuming an average competing environment for cooperative agents and another for non-cooperative agents is shown to perform well in Case A. The same theory, however, fails badly for Case B. It is necessary to include more spatial correlation into a theory for Case B. We show that the local configuration approximation, which takes into account of the different competing environments for agents with different strategies and degrees, is needed to give reliable results for Case B. The results illustrate that formulating a proper theory requires both a conceptual understanding of the effects of the adaptive processes in the problem and a delicate balance between simplicity and accuracy.

  20. Evolving cellular automata to perform computations. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchfield, J.P.; Mitchell, M.

    1998-04-01

    The overall goals of the project are to determine the usefulness of genetic algorithms (GAs) in designing spatially extended parallel systems to perform computational tasks and to develop theoretical frameworks both for understanding the computation in the systems evolved by the GA and for understanding the evolutionary process which successful systems are designed. In the original proposal the authors scheduled the first year of the project to be devoted to experimental grounding. During the first year they developed the simulation and graphics software necessary for doing experiments and analysis on one dimensional cellular automata (CAs), and they performed extensive experiments and analysis concerning two computational tasks--density classification and synchronization. Details of these experiments and results, and a list of resulting publications, were given in the 1994--1995 report. The authors scheduled the second year to be devoted to theoretical development. (A third year, to be funded by the National Science Foundation, will be devoted to applications.) Accordingly, most of the effort during the second year was spent on theory, both of GAs and of the CAs that they evolve. A central notion is that of the computational strategy of a CA, which they formalize in terms of domains, particles, and particle interactions. This formalization builds on the computational mechanics framework developed by Crutchfield and Hanson for understanding intrinsic computation in spatially extended dynamical systems. They have made significant progress in the following areas: (1) statistical dynamics of GAs; (2) formalizing particle based computation in cellular automata; and (3) computation in two-dimensional CAs.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of microgravity: evolution of understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of cardiovascular effects of spaceflight has evolved throughout the course of the American manned spaceflight program. Originally descriptive in nature, the present understanding is based on empiric measurements of vascular volume, cardiac output, vascular reflexes, and peripheral and central autonomic control. More detailed understanding of cardiovascular effects has allowed us to separate those symptoms from symptoms caused by musculoskeletal or neurovestibular abnormalities.

  2. Japanese experience of evolving nurses' roles in changing social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbara, S; Yamamoto, Y; Sugishita, T; Nakasa, T; Moriguchi, I

    2017-06-01

    To discuss the evolving roles of Japanese nurses in meeting the goals and concerns of ongoing global sustainable development. Japanese nurses' roles have evolved as the needs of the country and the communities they served, changed over time. The comprehensive public healthcare services in Japan were provided by the cooperation of hospitals and public health nurses. The nursing profession is exploring ways to identify and systemize nursing skills and competencies that address global health initiatives for sustainable development goals. This paper is based on the summary of a symposium, (part of the 2015 annual meeting of the Japan Association for International Health) with panel members including experts from Japan's Official Development Assistance. The evolving role of nurses in response to national and international needs is illustrated by nursing practices from Japan. Japanese public health nurses have also assisted overseas healthcare plans. In recent catastrophes, Japanese nurses assumed the roles of community health coordinators for restoration and maintenance of public health. The Japanese experience shows that nursing professionals are best placed to work with community health issues, high-risk situations and vulnerable communities. Their cooperation can address current social needs and help global communities to transform our world. Nurses have tremendous potential to make transformative changes in health and bring about the necessary paradigm shift. They must be involved in global sustainable development goals, health policies and disaster risk management. A mutual understanding of global citizen and nurses will help to renew and strengthen their capacities. Nursing professionals can contribute effectively to achieve national and global health goals and make transformative changes. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Network Analysis of Earth's Co-Evolving Geosphere and Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Eleish, A.; Liu, C.; Morrison, S. M.; Meyer, M.; Consortium, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    A fundamental goal of Earth science is the deep understanding of Earth's dynamic, co-evolving geosphere and biosphere through deep time. Network analysis of geo- and bio- `big data' provides an interactive, quantitative, and predictive visualization framework to explore complex and otherwise hidden high-dimension features of diversity, distribution, and change in the evolution of Earth's geochemistry, mineralogy, paleobiology, and biochemistry [1]. Networks also facilitate quantitative comparison of different geological time periods, tectonic settings, and geographical regions, as well as different planets and moons, through network metrics, including density, centralization, diameter, and transitivity.We render networks by employing data related to geographical, paragenetic, environmental, or structural relationships among minerals, fossils, proteins, and microbial taxa. An important recent finding is that the topography of many networks reflects parameters not explicitly incorporated in constructing the network. For example, networks for minerals, fossils, and protein structures reveal embedded qualitative time axes, with additional network geometries possibly related to extinction and/or other punctuation events (see Figure). Other axes related to chemical activities and volatile fugacities, as well as pressure and/or depth of formation, may also emerge from network analysis. These patterns provide new insights into the way planets evolve, especially Earth's co-evolving geosphere and biosphere. 1. Morrison, S.M. et al. (2017) Network analysis of mineralogical systems. American Mineralogist 102, in press. Figure Caption: A network of Phanerozoic Era fossil animals from the past 540 million years includes blue, red, and black circles (nodes) representing family-level taxa and grey lines (links) between coexisting families. Age information was not used in the construction of this network; nevertheless an intrinsic timeline is embedded in the network topology. In

  4. Mobile computing acceptance grows as applications evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, Louis M; Patrick, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Handheld devices are becoming more cost-effective to own, and their use in healthcare environments is increasing. Handheld devices currently are being used for e-prescribing, charge capture, and accessing daily schedules and reference tools. Future applications may include education on medications, dictation, order entry, and test-results reporting. Selecting the right handheld device requires careful analysis of current and future applications, as well as vendor expertise. It is important to recognize the technology will continue to evolve over the next three years.

  5. New results on evolving strategies in chess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, David B.; Hays, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms have been used for learning strategies in diverse games, including Othello, backgammon, checkers, and chess. The paper provides a brief background on efforts in evolutionary learning in chess, and presents recent results on using coevolution to learn strategies by improving existing nominal strategies. Over 10 independent trials, each executed for 50 generations, a simple evolutionary algorithm was able to improve a nominal strategy that was based on material value and positional value adjustments associated with individual pieces. The improvement was estimated at over 284 rating points, taking a Class A player and evolving it into an expert.

  6. f( R) gravity solutions for evolving wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Subhra; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2017-08-01

    The scalar-tensor f( R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f( R) gravity formalism. These f( R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R)=R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat.

  7. Information theory, evolutionary innovations and evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2017-12-05

    How difficult is it to 'discover' an evolutionary adaptation or innovation? I here suggest that information theory, in combination with high-throughput DNA sequencing, can help answer this question by quantifying a new phenotype's information content. I apply this framework to compute the phenotypic information associated with novel gene regulation and with the ability to use novel carbon sources. The framework can also help quantify how DNA duplications affect evolvability, estimate the complexity of phenotypes and clarify the meaning of 'progress' in Darwinian evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'Process and pattern in innovations from cells to societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Radio Imaging of Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Bill

    2018-04-01

    This talk will cover imaging of stellar envelopes using radio VLBI techniques; special attention will be paid to the technical differences between radio and optical/IR interferomery. Radio heterodyne receivers allow a straightforward way to derive spectral cubes and full polarization observations. Milliarcsecond resolution of very bright, i.e. non thermal, emission of molecular masers in the envelopes of evolved stars can be achieved using VLBI techniques with baselines of thousands of km. Emission from SiO, H2O and OH masers are commonly seen at increasing distance from the photosphere. The very narrow maser lines allow accurate measurements of the velocity field within the emitting region.

  9. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... a range of potential fashion futures that decouple from declining resources. In the first part literature on 'Past and Present' historical and current aspects of sustainability in fashion and textiles are presented. In the second part, three exploratory case studies are described: Two projects by students...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry....

  10. Action coordination and resource allocation against user profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Pedro Ricardo da Nova

    on context-aware information extraction, and the second system, evolving from the first, relating end-users social interaction with resource optimization (coordination). At last, various problems are discussed in the perspective of Resident and Care Staff, as being the principal service provider, inside...

  11. Do Online Voting Patterns Reflect Evolved Features of Human Cognition? An Exploratory Empirical Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Priestley

    Full Text Available Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence, content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias, content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias, and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world.

  12. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...... the countries/regions they operate in. Instead, they focus on a few strategic markets. International user studies tend to be large-scale studies that involve the effort of many both internal and external/local human resources. The studies typically cover 2-4 countries/regions and many end users in each country...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  13. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... huge problems with the final product. The elicitation of user requirements as such changes according to age groups;, to gender,; to cultural settings,; and into time; and experience in the use of the system/software. User requirements, therefore, cannot be used between projects, IT systems......, and different software. That makes the elicitation of user requirements an inherent part of any software development project and a resourceful activity as well. This book provides insights to the process of identifying user requirements and to different types by describing varying case studies in which...

  14. DESTRUCTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST IN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ≳200 km s −1 for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ∼2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ∼3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ∼2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM

  15. Evolving Microbial Communities in Cellulose-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Toczyłowska-Mamińska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of cellulosic wastes make them attractive source of energy for producing electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs. However, electricity production from cellulose requires obligate anaerobes that can degrade cellulose and transfer electrons to the electrode (exoelectrogens, and thus most previous MFC studies have been conducted using two-chamber systems to avoid oxygen contamination of the anode. Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs typically produce higher power densities than aqueous catholyte MFCs and avoid energy input for the cathodic reaction. To better understand the bacterial communities that evolve in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose, we examined the changes in the bacterial consortium in an MFC fed cellulose over time. The most predominant bacteria shown to be capable electron generation was Firmicutes, with the fermenters decomposing cellulose Bacteroidetes. The main genera developed after extended operation of the cellulose-fed MFC were cellulolytic strains, fermenters and electrogens that included: Parabacteroides, Proteiniphilum, Catonella and Clostridium. These results demonstrate that different communities evolve in air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose than the previous two-chamber reactors.

  16. Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities 200 km s(exp -1) for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of approximately 2 compared to those of Jones et al. (1996), who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of approximately 3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of approximately 2-3 Gyr. These increases, while not able resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step towards understanding the origin, and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  17. The Ethics of User Experience Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa

    of boundaries, form, and infinite possibilities of content, the first aim of the designer is to create the boundaries by defining the design problem, give it form, and adjust it to fit the intended content. In doing so the designer aims at creating a certain ‘user experience’ for the person(s) who might intend...... for the understanding, or simply a point of view. This article will look upon design as a responsibility posed to the designer by the intended user. The designer designs a solution to a specific problem a specific user has at a given time. The way the design is composed gives the user a restricted set of possible...... a cased-based overview of how empathy can be achieved during the design process, and become the catalyst of a more ethical approach to designing the user experience of ICT....

  18. Incorporating User-oriented Security into CC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2009-01-01

    in an environment which contains not only other computer systems, but also human users. A case study involving the design of a secure medical instrumentation system will be used to illustrate the problems involved in incorporating user requirements into a secure design, so that system, when implemented, will help......Current versions of the Common Criteria concentrate very heavily on technical security issues which are relevant for the design of secure systems. This approach largely ignores a number of questions which can have great significance for whether or not the system can be operated securely...... users to understand whether they are operating the system in a secure manner, thus avoiding user-related pitfalls such as leaking of confidential data as a result of inappropriate input, loss of patient privacy, inappropriate user reactions due to slow system response, or other similar threats...

  19. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  20. Caterpillars evolved from onychophorans by hybridogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald I

    2009-11-24

    I reject the Darwinian assumption that larvae and their adults evolved from a single common ancestor. Rather I posit that, in animals that metamorphose, the basic types of larvae originated as adults of different lineages, i.e., larvae were transferred when, through hybridization, their genomes were acquired by distantly related animals. "Caterpillars," the name for eruciforms with thoracic and abdominal legs, are larvae of lepidopterans, hymenopterans, and mecopterans (scorpionflies). Grubs and maggots, including the larvae of beetles, bees, and flies, evolved from caterpillars by loss of legs. Caterpillar larval organs are dismantled and reconstructed in the pupal phase. Such indirect developmental patterns (metamorphoses) did not originate solely by accumulation of random mutations followed by natural selection; rather they are fully consistent with my concept of evolution by hybridogenesis. Members of the phylum Onychophora (velvet worms) are proposed as the evolutionary source of caterpillars and their grub or maggot descendants. I present a molecular biological research proposal to test my thesis. By my hypothesis 2 recognizable sets of genes are detectable in the genomes of all insects with caterpillar grub- or maggot-like larvae: (i) onychophoran genes that code for proteins determining larval morphology/physiology and (ii) sequentially expressed insect genes that code for adult proteins. The genomes of insects and other animals that, by contrast, entirely lack larvae comprise recognizable sets of genes from single animal common ancestors.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  2. Netgram: Visualizing Communities in Evolving Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Mall

    Full Text Available Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems.

  3. Slycat™ User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossno, Patricia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gittinger, Jaxon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hunt, Warren L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Letter, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Shawn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sielicki, Milosz Aleksander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Slycat™ is a web-based system for performing data analysis and visualization of potentially large quantities of remote, high-dimensional data. Slycat™ specializes in working with ensemble data. An ensemble is a group of related data sets, which typically consists of a set of simulation runs exploring the same problem space. An ensemble can be thought of as a set of samples within a multi-variate domain, where each sample is a vector whose value defines a point in high-dimensional space. To understand and describe the underlying problem being modeled in the simulations, ensemble analysis looks for shared behaviors and common features across the group of runs. Additionally, ensemble analysis tries to quantify differences found in any members that deviate from the rest of the group. The Slycat™ system integrates data management, scalable analysis, and visualization. Results are viewed remotely on a user’s desktop via commodity web clients using a multi-tiered hierarchy of computation and data storage, as shown in Figure 1. Our goal is to operate on data as close to the source as possible, thereby reducing time and storage costs associated with data movement. Consequently, we are working to develop parallel analysis capabilities that operate on High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms, to explore approaches for reducing data size, and to implement strategies for staging computation across the Slycat™ hierarchy. Within Slycat™, data and visual analysis are organized around projects, which are shared by a project team. Project members are explicitly added, each with a designated set of permissions. Although users sign-in to access Slycat™, individual accounts are not maintained. Instead, authentication is used to determine project access. Within projects, Slycat™ models capture analysis results and enable data exploration through various visual representations. Although for scientists each simulation run is a model of real-world phenomena given certain

  4. Demonstrator 1: User Interface and User Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Describes the user interface and its functionality in a prototype system used for a virtual seminar session. The functionality is restricted to what is needed for a distributed seminar discussion among not too many people. The system is designed to work with the participants distributed at several...

  5. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  6. USER GENERATED CONTENT IN TOURISM MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    ALİKILIÇ, Dr. Özlem

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on the idea that user generated content is of fundamental importance in tourism and travel industry to understand the role of consumer generated messages. This paper also describes interpersonal influences mean for user generated content and also word of mouth (WOM) which reflect cost effective for tourism and travel industry but as well as the real crisis lead by the customer and discusses the new technological and ethical considerations facing tourism and travel industry

  7. AI User Support System for SAP ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Chebotareva, Victoria; Rakhimov, Marat; Kruglikov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    An intelligent system for SAP ERP user support is proposed in this paper. It enables automatic replies on users’ requests for support, saving time for problem analysis and resolution and improving responsiveness for end users. The system is based on an ensemble of machine learning algorithms of multiclass text classification, providing efficient question understanding, and a special framework for evidence retrieval, providing the best answer derivation.

  8. Community-aware user profile enrichment in folksonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haoran; Li, Qing; Mao, Xudong; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Yi; Rao, Yanghui

    2014-10-01

    In the era of big data, collaborative tagging (a.k.a. folksonomy) systems have proliferated as a consequence of the growth of Web 2.0 communities. Constructing user profiles from folksonomy systems is useful for many applications such as personalized search and recommender systems. The identification of latent user communities is one way to better understand and meet user needs. The behavior of users is highly influenced by the behavior of their neighbors or community members, and this can be utilized in constructing user profiles. However, conventional user profiling techniques often encounter data sparsity problems as data from a single user is insufficient to build a powerful profile. Hence, in this paper we propose a method of enriching user profiles based on latent user communities in folksonomy data. Specifically, the proposed approach contains four sub-processes: (i) tag-based user profiles are extracted from a folksonomy tripartite graph; (ii) a multi-faceted folksonomy graph is constructed by integrating tag and image affinity subgraphs with the folksonomy tripartite graph; (iii) random walk distance is used to unify various relationships and measure user similarities; (iv) a novel prototype-based clustering method based on user similarities is used to identify user communities, which are further used to enrich the extracted user profiles. To evaluate the proposed method, we conducted experiments using a public dataset, the results of which show that our approach outperforms previous ones in user profile enrichment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Leveraging High Performance Computing for Managing Large and Evolving Data Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Arora

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of developing a digital collection in the context of a research project often involves a pipeline pattern during which data growth, data types, and data authenticity need to be assessed iteratively in relation to the different research steps and in the interest of archiving. Throughout a project’s lifecycle curators organize newly generated data while cleaning and integrating legacy data when it exists, and deciding what data will be preserved for the long term. Although these actions should be part of a well-oiled data management workflow, there are practical challenges in doing so if the collection is very large and heterogeneous, or is accessed by several researchers contemporaneously. There is a need for data management solutions that can help curators with efficient and on-demand analyses of their collection so that they remain well-informed about its evolving characteristics. In this paper, we describe our efforts towards developing a workflow to leverage open science High Performance Computing (HPC resources for routinely and efficiently conducting data management tasks on large collections. We demonstrate that HPC resources and techniques can significantly reduce the time for accomplishing critical data management tasks, and enable a dynamic archiving throughout the research process. We use a large archaeological data collection with a long and complex formation history as our test case. We share our experiences in adopting open science HPC resources for large-scale data management, which entails understanding usage of the open source HPC environment and training users. These experiences can be generalized to meet the needs of other data curators working with large collections.

  10. The evolved athlete a guide for elite sport enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Gojkovic, Zoran; Greenberg, Ronald; Greenberg, Helen; Jovanovic, Bojan; Lukman, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    This handbook provides insights into becoming a better and more evolved athlete. It offers aspiring athletes, regardless of skill level, a better understanding of their bodies and how to unlock the unlimited potential of muscles without injury. It focuses on the “superhero” muscle: the iliopsoas, and also sheds light on Diamond-Corporation’s new technology and elite athleticism, and how these can contribute to a healthier life. Lastly, the authors explore the mindset of success and provide exercises for remaining calm under pressure. This stand-alone book is the sequel to Paradigm Shift for Future Tennis and Enhancing Performance and Reducing Stress in Sport (2014, Springer). This book is written by scientists, whose expertise collectively spans the fields of biomechanics, clinical surgery, current and former elite athleticism, engineering and naturopath doctoral work. Together, they aim to inspire and educate athletes on how to improve their sports performance by using new technologies, world class bio...

  11. Microsatellites evolve more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Amos, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-10

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers consisting of varying numbers of tandem repeats. At different loci, these repeats can consist of one to five nucleotides. Microsatellites have been used in many fields of genetics, including genetic mapping, linkage disequilibrium analyses, forensic studies, and population genetics. It is important that we understand their mutational processes better so that they can be exploited optimally for studies of human diversity and evolutionary genetics. We have analyzed 24 microsatellite loci in chimpanzees, East Anglians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The stepwise-weighted genetic distances between the humans and the chimpanzees and between the two human populations were calculated according to the method described by Deka et al. The ratio of the genetic distances between the chimpanzees and the humans relative to that between the Africans and the East Anglians was more than 10 times smaller than expected. This suggests that microsatellites have evolved more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Evolving molecular era of childhood medulloblastoma: time to revisit therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Soumen

    2016-01-01

    Currently medulloblastoma is treated with a uniform therapeutic approach based on histopathology and clinico-radiological risk stratification, resulting in unpredictable treatment failure and relapses. Improved understanding of the biological, molecular and genetic make-up of these tumors now clearly identifies it as a compendium of four distinct subtypes (WNT, SHH, group 3 and 4). Advances in utilization of the genomic and epigenomic machinery have now delineated genetic aberrations and epigenetic perturbations in each subgroup as potential druggable targets. This has resulted in endeavors to profile targeted therapy. The challenge and future of medulloblastoma therapeutics will be to keep pace with the evolving novel biological insights and translating them into optimal targeted treatment regimens.

  13. Evolving insights on metabolism, autophagy and epigenetics in liver myofibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeribe Chike Nwosu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver myofibroblasts (MFB are crucial mediators of extracellular matrix (ECM deposition in liver fibrosis. They arise mainly from hepatic stellate cells (HSCs upon a process termed activation. To a lesser extent, and depending on the cause of liver damage, portal fibroblasts, mesothelial cells and fibrocytes may also contribute to the MFB population. Targeting MFB to reduce liver fibrosis is currently an area of intense research. Unfortunately, a clog in the wheel of antifibrotic therapies is the fact that although MFB are known to mediate scar formation, and participate in liver inflammatory response, many of their molecular portraits are currently unknown. In this review, we discuss recent understanding of MFB in health and diseases, focusing specifically on three evolving research fields: metabolism, autophagy and epigenetics. We have emphasized on therapeutic prospects where applicable and mentioned techniques for use in MFB studies. Subsequently, we highlighted uncharted territories in MFB research to help direct future efforts aimed at bridging gaps in current knowledge.

  14. User-Centered Evaluation of Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jean C.

    2017-10-01

    visual analytics. A history of analysis and analysis techniques and problems is provided as well as an introduction to user-centered evaluation and various evaluation techniques for readers from different disciplines. The understanding of these techniques is imperative if we wish to support analysis in the visual analytics software we develop. Currently the evaluations that are conducted and published for visual analytics software are very informal and consist mainly of comments from users or potential users. Our goal is to help researchers in visual analytics to conduct more formal user-centered evaluations. While these are time-consuming and expensive to carryout, the outcomes of these studies will have a defining impact on the field of visual analytics and help point the direction for future features and visualizations to incorporate. While many researchers view work in user-centered evaluation as a less-than-exciting area to work, the opposite is true. First of all, the goal is user-centered evaluation is to help visual analytics software developers, researchers, and designers improve their solutions and discover creative ways to better accommodate their users. Working with the users is extremely rewarding as well. While we use the term “users” in almost all situations there are a wide variety of users that all need to be accommodated. Moreover, the domains that use visual analytics are varied and expanding. Just understanding the complexities of a number of these domains is exciting. Researchers are trying out different visualizations and interactions as well. And of course, the size and variety of data are expanding rapidly. User-centered evaluation in this context is rapidly changing. There are no standard processes and metrics and thus those of us working on user-centered evaluation must be creative in our work with both the users and with the researchers and developers.

  15. Experimental Diagenesis and 3D Printing of Evolving Carbonate Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, T.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how rock microstructures and, in turn, the spatial distribution of the properties of the rock skeleton (porosity, permeability, and elastic properties) evolve because of time-variant, thermo-chemo-mechanical processes is fundamental to decipher changes in the earth's crust due to rock-fluid interactions using remote geophysical monitoring methods. Laboratory experiments undoubtedly play a vital role in understanding the underlying basic rules that are needed to inform both simulations and modeling. Nevertheless, capturing coupled chemo-mechanical processes experimentally is a very challenging problem because as pore space deforms chemo-mechanically, the fluid reacts and flows through a deforming pore space. The result is that as much as we strive to achieve controlled conditions in laboratory experiments, it is extremely difficult to control for all of the possible responses of the highly heterogeneous pore network. To overcome such a limitation, we often resort to the fabrication of rock samples in the laboratory. Nevertheless, analogs are not rocks. This level of complexity requires an approach that advances beyond the limitations of each method, be it experimental or computational. I present an approach that takes advantage of the favorable aspects of experimental diagenesis, multi-scale imaging techniques (from pore scale to 3D rock volumes) and 3D printed models of varying carbonate microstructures. This approach allows us to study the evolution of natural pore network geometries from diagenesis experiments, use the basic rules of the evolving microstructures to drive the digital change of the pore network of the printed models in a well-controlled fashion as much possible in the analog experiments, and then iteratively measure the properties of the printed models at the scale of the laboratory. This integration can help make sense of the trackless evolution of properties in apparently scattered datasets such as those characterizing carbonate

  16. Additional user needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorschach, H.E.; Hayter, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of a discussion group on users' needs held at the Workshop on an Advanced Steady-State Neutron Facility. The discussion was devoted to reactor characteristics, special facilities and siting considerations suggested by user needs. (orig.)

  17. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  18. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... involvement and requirements elicitation Usable security requirements for design of privacy...

  19. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...

  20. Evolvability as a Quality Attribute of Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciraci, S.; van den Broek, P.M.; Duchien, Laurence; D'Hondt, Maja; Mens, Tom

    We review the definition of evolvability as it appears on the literature. In particular, the concept of software evolvability is compared with other system quality attributes, such as adaptability, maintainability and modifiability.

  1. The PANTHER User Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coram, Jamie L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perkins, David Nikolaus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  2. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    User innovation and especially the integration of lead users is a key topic in the innovation management literature of recent years. This paper contributes by providing a rare perspective into what easily could be seen as innovation failure, shown from two perspectives. We show how a lack of shared...... imagination hampers participation and kills innovation between interdependent stakeholders at the threshold between invention and innovation in practice. We present a first case in the fun-sport industry where an external lead user and diverse firm representatives in different functions fail to create......, deliver and capture the value of an innovatively new device together. From the perspective of the lead user, we show antecedents and effects of social interaction between organizational actors and the lead user on the development of social capital, especially trust and shared imagination. The second case...

  3. Cyclic incrementality in competitive coevolution: Evolvability through pseudo-Baldwinian switching-genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Nolfi, S.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.

    2016-01-01

    Coevolving systems are notoriously difficult to understand. This is largely due to the Red Queen effect that dictates heterospecific fitness interdependence. In simulation studies of coevolving systems, master tournaments are often used to obtain more informed fitness measures by testing evolved

  4. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models: a community perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.B.G.; Gerla, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality

  5. Evolved Mechanisms Versus Underlying Conditional Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorga Miguel López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The social contracts theory claims that, in social exchange circumstances, human reasoning is not necessarily led by logic, but by certain evolved mental mechanisms that are useful for catching offenders. An emblematic experiment carried out with the intention to prove this thesis is the first experiment described by Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby in their paper of 2000. Lopez Astorga has questioned that experiment claiming that its results depend on an underlying conditional logical form not taken into account by Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby. In this paper, I propose an explanation alternative to that of Lopez Astorga, which does not depend on logical forms and is based on the mental models theory. Thus, I conclude that this other alternative explanation is one more proof that the experiment in question does not demonstrate the fundamental thesis of the social contracts theory.

  6. Argentina and Brazil: an evolving nuclear relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Argentina and Brazil have Latin America's most advanced nuclear research and power programs. Both nations reject the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and have not formally embraced the Tlatelolco Treaty creating a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone. Disturbing ambiguities persist regarding certain indigenous nuclear facilities and growing nuclear submarine and missile capabilities. For these, and other reasons, the two nations are widely considered potential nuclear weapon states. However both nations have been active supporters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and have, in recent years, assumed a generally responsible position in regard to their own nuclear export activities (requiring IAEA safeguards). Most important, however, has been the advent of bilateral nuclear cooperation. This paper considers the evolving nuclear relationship in the context of recent and dramatic political change in Argentina and Brazil. It discusses current political and nuclear developments and the prospects for maintaining and expanding present bilateral cooperation into an effective non-proliferation arrangement. (author)

  7. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-01-01

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia

  8. Finch: A System for Evolving Java (Bytecode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Michael; Sipper, Moshe

    The established approach in genetic programming (GP) involves the definition of functions and terminals appropriate to the problem at hand, after which evolution of expressions using these definitions takes place. We have recently developed a system, dubbed FINCH (Fertile Darwinian Bytecode Harvester), to evolutionarily improve actual, extant software, which was not intentionally written for the purpose of serving as a GP representation in particular, nor for evolution in general. This is in contrast to existing work that uses restricted subsets of the Java bytecode instruction set as a representation language for individuals in genetic programming. The ability to evolve Java programs will hopefully lead to a valuable new tool in the software engineer's toolkit.

  9. User`s guide to MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisue, S.A.; Williams, N.B.; Huber, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Chun, K.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-12-01

    Welcome to the MIDAS User`s Guide. This document describes the goals of the Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) program and documents the MIDAS software. The main text first describes the equipment and software you need to run MIDAS and tells how to install and start it. It lists the contents of the database and explains how it is organized. Finally, it tells how to perform various functions, such as locating, entering, viewing, deleting, changing, transferring, and printing both textual and graphical data. Images of the actual computer screens accompany these explanations and guidelines. Appendix A contains a glossary of names for the various abbreviations, codes, and chemicals; Appendix B is a list of modem names; Appendix C provides a database dictionary and rules for entering data; and Appendix D describes procedures for troubleshooting problems associated with connecting to the MIDAS server and using MIDAS.

  10. Nonlinear Dynamics in Gene Regulation Promote Robustness and Evolvability of Gene Expression Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Steinacher

    Full Text Available Cellular phenotypes underpinned by regulatory networks need to respond to evolutionary pressures to allow adaptation, but at the same time be robust to perturbations. This creates a conflict in which mutations affecting regulatory networks must both generate variance but also be tolerated at the phenotype level. Here, we perform mathematical analyses and simulations of regulatory networks to better understand the potential trade-off between robustness and evolvability. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics, through the creation of regions presenting sudden changes in phenotype with small changes in genotype. For genotypes embedding low levels of nonlinearity, robustness and evolvability correlate negatively and almost perfectly. By contrast, genotypes embedding nonlinear dynamics allow expression levels to be robust to small perturbations, while generating high diversity (evolvability under larger perturbations. Thus, nonlinearity breaks the robustness-evolvability trade-off in gene expression levels by allowing disparate responses to different mutations. Using analytical derivations of robustness and system sensitivity, we show that these findings extend to a large class of gene regulatory network architectures and also hold for experimentally observed parameter regimes. Further, the effect of nonlinearity on the robustness-evolvability trade-off is ensured as long as key parameters of the system display specific relations irrespective of their absolute values. We find that within this parameter regime genotypes display low and noisy expression levels. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics. Our results provide a possible solution to the robustness-evolvability trade-off, suggest

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics in Gene Regulation Promote Robustness and Evolvability of Gene Expression Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Arno; Bates, Declan G.; Akman, Ozgur E.; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular phenotypes underpinned by regulatory networks need to respond to evolutionary pressures to allow adaptation, but at the same time be robust to perturbations. This creates a conflict in which mutations affecting regulatory networks must both generate variance but also be tolerated at the phenotype level. Here, we perform mathematical analyses and simulations of regulatory networks to better understand the potential trade-off between robustness and evolvability. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics, through the creation of regions presenting sudden changes in phenotype with small changes in genotype. For genotypes embedding low levels of nonlinearity, robustness and evolvability correlate negatively and almost perfectly. By contrast, genotypes embedding nonlinear dynamics allow expression levels to be robust to small perturbations, while generating high diversity (evolvability) under larger perturbations. Thus, nonlinearity breaks the robustness-evolvability trade-off in gene expression levels by allowing disparate responses to different mutations. Using analytical derivations of robustness and system sensitivity, we show that these findings extend to a large class of gene regulatory network architectures and also hold for experimentally observed parameter regimes. Further, the effect of nonlinearity on the robustness-evolvability trade-off is ensured as long as key parameters of the system display specific relations irrespective of their absolute values. We find that within this parameter regime genotypes display low and noisy expression levels. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics. Our results provide a possible solution to the robustness-evolvability trade-off, suggest an explanation for

  12. CULTURAL FEATURES SHARED BY INFORMATION SYSTEMS USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Maldonado

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems may arise when organizational culture is not considered in the development of information systems, such as difficulties in system implementation, since users do not accept changes in their work cultures. However, current methodology designs do not contemplate cultural factors. The objective of this investigation was to identify the main cultural features shared by the users of information systems in an Argentinean university. As result of this work it was possible to identify the memes shared by the members of the community selected, and to categorize such memes according to their incidence grade. This work seeks to be an initial step towards the construction of systems that evolve along with the organizational culture they are an integral part of.

  13. The User Reconfigured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    Foundational to HCI is the notion of “the user.” Whether a cognitive processor, social actor, consumer, or even a non- user, the user in HCI has always been as much a technical construct as actual people using systems. We explore an emerging formulation of the user—the subjectivity of in- formati......, and activism. We argue that subjectivi- ties of information clarifies the relationships between de- sign choices and embodied experiences, ways that designers design users and not just products, and ways to cultivate and transform, rather than merely support, human agency.......Foundational to HCI is the notion of “the user.” Whether a cognitive processor, social actor, consumer, or even a non- user, the user in HCI has always been as much a technical construct as actual people using systems. We explore an emerging formulation of the user—the subjectivity of in- formation......—by laying out what it means and why research- ers are being drawn to it. We then use it to guide a case study of a relatively marginal use of computing—digitally mediated sexuality—to holistically explore design in rela- tion to embodiment, tactual experience, sociability, power, ideology, selfhood...

  14. Designing for user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  15. A compreensão dos operadores de direito do Distrito Federal sobre o usuário de drogas na vigência da nova lei The understanding of law professionals from the Federal District about drug users under the current new law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Barros Santoucy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O usuário de drogas tem recebido tratamentos contraditórios que promovem sua estigmatização e clandestinidade e limitam a compreensão do fenômeno. O objetivo foi investigar como Promotores e Juízes estão entendendo e aplicando a nova lei que legisla sobre a conduta de usar e portar drogas no Brasil. Onze operadores do Direito do Distrito Federal (DF participaram de entrevistas semi-estruturadas divididas em três eixos: a visão em relação ao usuário de droga; como a lei vem sendo aplicada; e como concebe o trabalho da equipe multidisciplinar. As respostas demonstraram posições muito heterogêneas, denotando não haver ainda unanimidade quanto à compreensão da nova lei: se por um lado há uma crença compartilhada de que o uso de drogas é um problema de saúde pública, por outro, acredita-se que o usuário deve receber uma punição por seu ato ilegal. Um diálogo interdisciplinar efetivo permitiria uma atuação eficaz e reflexiva visando a beneficiar as pessoas que chegam à justiça.Drugs users have been receiving contradictory treatments thereby promoting their stigma besides hiding and limiting the understanding of the phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate how the District Attorneys and Judges are considering and applying the new law which legislates on the conduct of drug use in Brazil. Eleven Law professionals from the Federal District participated in semi-structured interviews divided in three areas: the point of view in relation to the user of drugs, how the law is being applied, and how they conceive the work of the multidisciplinary teams. The results showed very heterogeneous positions, showing that there is no unanimity on the understanding of the new law. For some, there is a shared belief that drugs abuse is a public health problem, for others, it is believed that the user must receive a punishment for his/her illegal act. An effective and efficient interdisciplinary dialogue should allow a

  16. Compreensão das mudanças comportamentais do usuário no Programa Saúde da Família por meio da participação habilitadora Understanding the user's health behavior change through their participation in the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa Machado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou compreender como ocorrem os processos decisórios da participação dos usuários no Programa Saúde da Família (PSF, relacionados à saúde-doença, identificando neste movimento o nível de mudança do usuário a partir do modelo de estágio de mudança, de Prochaska e DiClemente. Estudo qualitativo, desenvolvido com usuários do PSF e profissionais das Equipes Saúde da Família, do município do Crato, Ceará, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio da entrevista semiestruturada, grupo focal e observação, no período de maio a setembro de 2005, organizados mediante análise de conteúdo e analisados à luz do referencial teórico. As mudanças do usuário no PSF estão assim configuradas: na fase de pré-contemplação, a ênfase é na doença, no cuidado de si. Na de contemplação, o cuidado é na família, centrado na cura e tratamento da doença. Na fase de determinação, há avanço no sentido da prevenção na família, com registros de olhar no entorno. Na de ação, já se registra um comportamento do usuário para alcançar sua autonomia e emancipação. Estes resultados parecem indicar ascendência na aprendizagem de participação do usuário no PSF em direção à promoção da saúde.This study aimed to understand how users from Family Health Program (FHP make their decision about health-illness. It was used the Stages of Change Model from Prochaska and DiClemente to identify the level of change of FHP users. It was a qualitative research developed with users and FHP health professionals from Crato, Ceará State, Brazil. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews, focal group and observation from May to September in 2005. They were organized by means of content analysis and analyzed in the light of theoretical reference. The changes of the FHP users are depicted as following: in the pre-contemplation stage the emphasis is on disease and care itself. In the contemplation stage, the care is

  17. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  18. Managing dysphonia in occupational voice users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Zambon, Fabiana; Madazio, Glaucya

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances with regard to occupational voice disorders are highlighted with emphasis on issues warranting consideration when assessing, training, and treating professional voice users. Findings include the many particularities between the various categories of professional voice users, the concept that the environment plays a major role in occupational voice disorders, and that biopsychosocial influences should be analyzed on an individual basis. Assessment via self-evaluation protocols to quantify the impact of these disorders is mandatory as a component of an evaluation and to document treatment outcomes. Discomfort or odynophonia has evolved as a critical symptom in this population. Clinical trials are limited and the complexity of the environment may be a limitation in experiment design. This review reinforced the need for large population studies of professional voice users; new data highlighted important factors specific to each group of voice users. Interventions directed at student teachers are necessities to not only improving the quality of future professionals, but also to avoid the frustration and limitations associated with chronic voice problems. The causative relationship between the work environment and voice disorders has not yet been established. Randomized controlled trials are lacking and must be a focus to enhance treatment paradigms for this population.

  19. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  20. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  1. Tribes of Users and System Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dingley

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.

  2. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  3. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  4. Bevalac user's handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment

  5. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  6. Dependence and resistance in community mental health care-Negotiations of user participation between staff and users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femdal, I; Knutsen, I R

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Implementation of user participation is described as a change from a paternalistic healthcare system to ideals of democratization where users' voices are heard in relational interplays with health professionals. The ideological shift involves a transition from welfare dependency and professional control towards more active service-user roles with associated rights and responsibilities. A collaborative relationship between users and professionals in mental health services is seen as important by both parties. Nevertheless, the health professionals find it challenging in practice to reorient their roles and to find productive ways to cooperate. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study illuminates how user participation is negotiated and involves multiple and shifting subject positions in the collaboration between users and professionals in community mental health care. By taking different positions, the relationship between users and professionals develops through dynamic interaction. This study challenges understandings of equality and implicit "truths" in user participation by illuminating subtle forms of power and dilemmas that arise in user-professional negotiations. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Instead of denying the appearance of power, it is important to question the execution of power in the interplay between users and professionals. Focusing on the negotiation processes between users and professionals is important for increasing reflection on and improving understanding of the dynamic in collaboration and speech. By focusing on negotiations, power can be used in productive ways in user-professional relationships. Introduction Implementation of user participation is considered important in today's mental health care. Research shows, however, that user participation lacks clarity and provokes uncertainty regarding shifting roles. Aim To investigate negotiation of user participation in a microstudy of

  7. SILMUSCEN and CLIGEN User`s Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [Water and Environment Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    This User`s Guide has been prepared to provide recommendations for the selection and application of climatic scenarios in the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). These scenarios are required for conducting impact studies in SILMU. They should reflect the current range of estimates of future climate in the Finnish region. In addition, they should be consistent with other projections of importance in impact studies, such as future atmospheric composition and sea level. Section 2 provides some background information about the types of scenarios required in SILMU and Section 3 offers a general description of the scenarios. In Section 4 there is some advice on applying sensitivity studies to complement the use of scenarios. Section 5 explains the installation of the SILMUSCEN program and Section 6 guides the user through some examples to illustrate how SILMUSCEN can be used. Section 7 offers some recommendations on which scenarios to adopt for different impact assessments. In order to ensure some compatibility between impact studies in SILMU, it is very important that the recommendations in this section are followed as far as possible. Section 8 addresses important omissions from the computer program and suggests procedures to adopt in their absence. Section 9 explores alternative methods of specifying the baseline climate, and shows how scenario adjustments to the baseline can be made. in Section 10, the stochastic weather generator, CLIGEN, is described and its use illustrated by means of examples. Finally, possible refinements of the programs are outlined in Section 11, along with contact names and addresses for obtaining further information. (36 refs.)

  8. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  9. Program Trains NASTRAN Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, H. R.; Hinz, P. J.; Collier, M. A.; Cox, Kim D.; Merriman, Warren J.; Commerford, Gerry

    1994-01-01

    Rockwell Environment and NASTRAN Trainer (RENT) computer program developed to assist new and current users of NASTRAN finite-element computer code. Provides organized, systematic collection of IBM(R) features consisting of panels, clists, skeletons, and messages, along with FORTRAN and Pascal programs and example NASTRAN data files. Enables each user to learn at his or her own pace. Written in VS/FORTRAN, VS/ Pascal, and IBM(R) job-control language for an IBM(R) computer system.

  10. On the Critical Role of Divergent Selection in Evolvability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lehman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An ambitious goal in evolutionary robotics is to evolve increasingly complex robotic behaviors with minimal human design effort. Reaching this goal requires evolutionary algorithms that can unlock from genetic encodings their latent potential for evolvability. One issue clouding this goal is conceptual confusion about evolvability, which often obscures the aspects of evolvability that are important or desirable. The danger from such confusion is that it may establish unrealistic goals for evolvability that prove unproductive in practice. An important issue separate from conceptual confusion is the common misalignment between selection and evolvability in evolutionary robotics. While more expressive encodings can represent higher-level adaptations (e.g. sexual reproduction or developmental systems that increase long-term evolutionary potential (i.e. evolvability, realizing such potential requires gradients of fitness and evolvability to align. In other words, selection is often a critical factor limiting increasing evolvability. Thus, drawing from a series of recent papers, this article seeks to both (1 clarify and focus the ways in which the term evolvability is used within artificial evolution, and (2 argue for the importance of one type of selection, i.e. divergent selection, for enabling evolvability. The main argument is that there is a fundamental connection between divergent selection and evolvability (on both the individual and population level that does not hold for typical goal-oriented selection. The conclusion is that selection pressure plays a critical role in realizing the potential for evolvability, and that divergent selection in particular provides a principled mechanism for encouraging evolvability in artificial evolution.

  11. User-oriented understanding of descriptive, proscriptive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the majority of existing accounts can be summarised as follows: Descriptive relates to the empirical basis; accordance between the empirical data and the dictionary is required. Prescriptive relates to the genuine purpose of the dictionary; the dictionary is meant to help with problems concerning text production ...

  12. Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    table-top role-playing game that will help researchers and stake- .... games; White et al. 2010, Akkerman and Bakker 2011) are used in conjunction to help stakeholders navigate the complexities of a landscape in transition, and explore the multiple ...... in the modelling of land-use decisions in an agent-based simulation.

  13. Understanding User-Web Interactions via Web Analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Bernard J

    2009-01-01

    This lecture presents an overview of the Web analytics process, with a focus on providing insight and actionable outcomes from collecting and analyzing Internet data. The lecture first provides an overview of Web analytics, providing in essence, a condensed version of the entire lecture. The lecture then outlines the theoretical and methodological foundations of Web analytics in order to make obvious the strengths and shortcomings of Web analytics as an approach. These foundational elements include the psychological basis in behaviorism and methodological underpinning of trace data as an empir

  14. Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ,. Hunting in the Marshes (light green), Onion/ Rice/ Vegetable Farming in either. Marshes/ Agriculture zone (yellow)/ Open landscape (orange), or Rosewood logging or Sapphire mining in the Forest (dark green); players can also invest into.

  15. Understanding and enhancing user acceptance of computer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, William B.; Morris, Nancy M.

    1986-01-01

    Technology-driven efforts to implement computer technology often encounter problems due to lack of acceptance or begrudging acceptance of the personnel involved. It is argued that individuals' acceptance of automation, in terms of either computerization or computer aiding, is heavily influenced by their perceptions of the impact of the automation on their discretion in performing their jobs. It is suggested that desired levels of discretion reflect needs to feel in control and achieve self-satisfaction in task performance, as well as perceptions of inadequacies of computer technology. Discussion of these factors leads to a structured set of considerations for performing front-end analysis, deciding what to automate, and implementing the resulting changes.

  16. Understanding and modeling users of modern search engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.

    2017-01-01

    As search is being used by billions of people, modern search engines are becoming more and more complex. And complexity does not just come from the algorithms. Richer and richer content is being added to search engine result pages: news and sports results, definitions and translations, images and

  17. Nobody understands me : Products that read users' minds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2001-01-01

    Children often talk to the Lego bricks theyre playing with. When they grow older, theyll give their computer a name, and later still, theyll have a pet name for their first car. People like to talk to inanimate objects, as if they are talking to a partner or colleague. Until now, few of the machines

  18. Understanding User Stories : Computational Linguistics in Agile Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, G.G.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary movies like The Social Network would lead you to believe that multi-billion software companies such as Facebook are built on individual genius. In reality, complex software is created by teams of software professionals that each have their own personality profile and expertise: from

  19. Metadata: A user`s view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretherton, F.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Singley, P.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An analysis is presented of the uses of metadata from four aspects of database operations: (1) search, query, retrieval, (2) ingest, quality control, processing, (3) application to application transfer; (4) storage, archive. Typical degrees of database functionality ranging from simple file retrieval to interdisciplinary global query with metadatabase-user dialog and involving many distributed autonomous databases, are ranked in approximate order of increasing sophistication of the required knowledge representation. An architecture is outlined for implementing such functionality in many different disciplinary domains utilizing a variety of off the shelf database management subsystems and processor software, each specialized to a different abstract data model.

  20. Tumor biology and cancer therapy – an evolving relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lother Ulrike

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of palliative chemotherapy is to increase survival whilst maintaining maximum quality of life for the individual concerned. Although we are still continuing to explore the optimum use of traditional chemotherapy agents, the introduction of targeted therapies has significantly broadened the therapeutic options. Interestingly, the results from current trials put the underlying biological concept often into a new, less favorable perspective. Recent data suggested that altered pathways underlie cancer, and not just altered genes. Thus, an effective therapeutic agent will sometimes have to target downstream parts of a signaling pathway or physiological effects rather than individual genes. In addition, over the past few years increasing evidence has suggested that solid tumors represent a very heterogeneous group of cells with different susceptibility to cancer therapy. Thus, since therapeutic concepts and pathophysiological understanding are continuously evolving a combination of current concepts in tumor therapy and tumor biology is needed. This review aims to present current problems of cancer therapy by highlighting exemplary results from recent clinical trials with colorectal and pancreatic cancer patients and to discuss the current understanding of the underlying reasons.

  1. Orbital Decay in Binaries with Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N.; Troup, Nicholas; Majewski, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Two mechanisms are often invoked to explain tidal friction in binary systems. The ``dynamical tide” is the resonant excitation of internal gravity waves by the tide, and their subsequent damping by nonlinear fluid processes or thermal diffusion. The ``equilibrium tide” refers to non-resonant excitation of fluid motion in the star’s convection zone, with damping by interaction with the turbulent eddies. There have been numerous studies of these processes in main sequence stars, but less so on the subgiant and red giant branches. Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), we have performed calculations of both the dynamical and equilibrium tide processes for stars over a range of mass as the star’s cease core hydrogen burning and evolve to shell burning. Even for stars which had a radiative core on the main sequence, the dynamical tide may have very large amplitude in the newly radiative core in post-main sequence, giving rise to wave breaking. The resulting large dynamical tide dissipation rate is compared to the equilibrium tide, and the range of secondary masses and orbital periods over which rapid orbital decay may occur will be discussed, as well as applications to close APOGEE binaries.

  2. Functional Topology of Evolving Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan S.; Urich, Christian; Krueger, Elisabeth; Kumar, Praveen; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the scaling and topology of engineered urban drainage networks (UDNs) in two cities, and further examined UDN evolution over decades. UDN scaling was analyzed using two power law scaling characteristics widely employed for river networks: (1) Hack's law of length (L)-area (A) [L∝Ah] and (2) exceedance probability distribution of upstream contributing area (δ) [P>(A≥δ>)˜aδ-ɛ]. For the smallest UDNs ((A≥δ>) plots for river networks are abruptly truncated, those for UDNs display exponential tempering [P>(A≥δ>)=aδ-ɛexp⁡>(-cδ>)]. The tempering parameter c decreases as the UDNs grow, implying that the distribution evolves in time to resemble those for river networks. However, the power law exponent ɛ for large UDNs tends to be greater than the range reported for river networks. Differences in generative processes and engineering design constraints contribute to observed differences in the evolution of UDNs and river networks, including subnet heterogeneity and nonrandom branching.

  3. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J.; Hare, Brian A.; Nunn, Charles L.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M.; Emery, Nathan J.; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F.; Platt, Michael L.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Sandel, Aaron A.; Schroepfer, Kara K.; Seed, Amanda M.; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P.; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution. PMID:21927850

  4. Metapopulation capacity of evolving fluvial landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The form of fluvial landscapes is known to attain stationary network configurations that settle in dynamically accessible minima of total energy dissipation by landscape-forming discharges. Recent studies have highlighted the role of the dendritic structure of river networks in controlling population dynamics of the species they host and large-scale biodiversity patterns. Here, we systematically investigate the relation between energy dissipation, the physical driver for the evolution of river networks, and the ecological dynamics of their embedded biota. To that end, we use the concept of metapopulation capacity, a measure to link landscape structures with the population dynamics they host. Technically, metapopulation capacity is the leading eigenvalue λM of an appropriate "landscape" matrix subsuming whether a given species is predicted to persist in the long run. λM can conveniently be used to rank different landscapes in terms of their capacity to support viable metapopulations. We study how λM changes in response to the evolving network configurations of spanning trees. Such sequence of configurations is theoretically known to relate network selection to general landscape evolution equations through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible states frustrated by the vagaries of Nature. Results show that the process shaping the metric and the topological properties of river networks, prescribed by physical constraints, leads to a progressive increase in the corresponding metapopulation capacity and therefore on the landscape capacity to support metapopulations—with implications on biodiversity in fluvial ecosystems.

  5. Diverticular Disease: Traditional and Evolving Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Lenore; Moran, Patricia E

    Diverticular disease includes diverticulosis, which are sac protrusions of the intestinal mucosa, and diverticulitis, inflammation of the diverticula. Diverticular disease is listed as one of the top 10 leading physician diagnoses for gastrointestinal disorders in outpatient clinic visits in the United States. There are several classifications of diverticular disease ranging from asymptomatic diverticulosis to diverticulitis with complications. Several theories are linked to the development of diverticula which includes the physiology of the colon itself, collagen cross-linking, and recently challenged, low-fiber intake. The differential diagnoses of lower abdominal pain in addition to diverticular disease have overlapping signs and symptoms, which can make a diagnosis challenging. Identification of the distinct signs and symptoms of each classification will assist the practitioner in making the correct diagnosis and lead to appropriate management. The findings from recent studies have changed the paradigm of diverticular disease. The purpose of this article is to discuss traditional dogma and evolving concepts in the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of diverticular disease. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about diverticular disease for improved outcomes.

  6. Minority games, evolving capitals and replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Tobias; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2009-11-01

    We discuss a simple version of the minority game (MG) in which agents hold only one strategy each, but in which their capitals evolve dynamically according to their success and in which the total trading volume varies in time accordingly. This feature is known to be crucial for MGs to reproduce stylized facts of real market data. The stationary states and phase diagram of the model can be computed, and we show that the ergodicity breaking phase transition common for MGs, and marked by a divergence of the integrated response, is present also in this simplified model. An analogous majority game turns out to be relatively void of interesting features, and the total capital is found to diverge in time. Introducing a restraining force leads to a model akin to the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory, and we demonstrate that here a different type of phase transition is observed. Finally we briefly discuss the relation of this model with one strategy per player to more sophisticated minority games with dynamical capitals and several trading strategies per agent.

  7. Evolving Interoperable Data Systems Through Regional Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M. K.

    2008-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is a federation of independent sub-regional observing systems. Most of these systems were in operation long before the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Data Management and Communications (DMAC) guidelines were established. Hence, each local data management system evolved independently and interoperability was never a consideration. Achieving the goal of building an automated and largely unattended machine-to-machine interoperable data system for the region has proven to be more than a resource and technological challenge. Challenges also fall within the organizational and cultural realms. In 2008 NOAA funds were used to build the first instance of a GCOOS regional data portal and to harmonize the local data management systems of ten principal sub-regional data providers. Early efforts were focused on regional data catalogs, adoption of a common vocabulary for parameters, and deploying data service access points using common interfaces. This was done in full partnership between the data providers and the portal builders with the intent that local data providers remain independent nodes capable of participating in the vision of IOOS on their own. The data portal serves the region primarily as a central point for fusions of data and products.

  8. Gastric cancer: current and evolving treatment landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weijing; Yan, Li

    2016-08-31

    Gastric (including gastroesophageal junction) cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In China, an estimated 420,000 patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer in 2011, ranking this malignancy the second most prevalent cancer type and resulting in near 300,000 deaths. The treatment landscape of gastric cancer has evolved in recent years. Although systemic chemotherapy is still the mainstay treatment of metastatic disease, the introduction of agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelia growth factor receptor has brought this disease into the molecular and personalized medicine era. The preliminary yet encouraging clinical efficacy observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors, e.g., anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1, will further shape the treatment landscape for gastric cancer. Molecular characterization of patients will play a critical role in developing new agents, as well as in implementing new treatment options for this disease.

  9. Evolved stars in Galactic Plane surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Kars

    2013-09-01

    For the first time in history the entire Galactic Plane is digitally mapped from La Palma and Chile by the European Galactic Plane surveys EGAPS (UVEX, IPHAS and VPHAS+, see http://www.uvexsurvey.org http://www.iphas.org and http://www.vphasplus.org). The complete Galactic plane (3600 square degrees) is imaged in optical colours (U,g,r,i, H-alpha and HeI 5875) down to 21st magnitude using the INT and VST telescopes. This will eventually result into a multi-colour mosaic and a catalogue with more than a billion of stars. In this thesis the populations of evolved stars (white dwarfs, compact binaries and other UV-excess sources) in the data of the "UV-Excess Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (UVEX)" are studied. From the first 211 square degrees of UVEX data, the bluest stars are automatically selected as UV-excess sources, spectroscopic follow-up of UV-excess objects is obtained, a DA white dwarfs space number density and birth rate is derived, and UV-excess sources with an infrared-excess are investigated. (see also Verbeek et al., 2012; Verbeek et al., 2013; Groot et al., 2009).

  10. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roveri, Norberto; Iafisco, Michele

    2010-11-09

    By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical-physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical-physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical-physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.

  11. Approximating centrality in evolving graphs: toward sublinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Benjamin W.; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    The identification of important nodes is a ubiquitous problem in the analysis of social networks. Centrality indices (such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, PageRank, and others) are used across many domains to accomplish this task. However, the computation of such indices is expensive on large graphs. Moreover, evolving graphs are becoming increasingly important in many applications. It is therefore desirable to develop on-line algorithms that can approximate centrality measures using memory sublinear in the size of the graph. We discuss the challenges facing the semi-streaming computation of many centrality indices. In particular, we apply recent advances in the streaming and sketching literature to provide a preliminary streaming approximation algorithm for degree centrality utilizing CountSketch and a multi-pass semi-streaming approximation algorithm for closeness centrality leveraging a spanner obtained through iteratively sketching the vertex-edge adjacency matrix. We also discuss possible ways forward for approximating betweenness centrality, as well as spectral measures of centrality. We provide a preliminary result using sketched low-rank approximations to approximate the output of the HITS algorithm.

  12. Origins of stereoselectivity in evolved ketoreductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noey, Elizabeth L.; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Osuna, Sílvia; Park, Jiyong; Bond, Carly M.; Cascio, Duilio; Liang, Jack; Zhang, Xiyun; Huisman, Gjalt W.; Tang, Yi; Houk, Kendall N.

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of Lactobacillus kefir short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase, used here as ketoreductases (KREDs), enantioselectively reduce the pharmaceutically relevant substrates 3-thiacyclopentanone and 3-oxacyclopentanone. These substrates differ by only the heteroatom (S or O) in the ring, but the KRED mutants reduce them with different enantioselectivities. Kinetic studies show that these enzymes are more efficient with 3-thiacyclopentanone than with 3-oxacyclopentanone. X-ray crystal structures of apo- and NADP+-bound selected mutants show that the substrate-binding loop conformational preferences are modified by these mutations. Quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the mechanism of reduction by the enzyme. We have developed an MD-based method for studying the diastereomeric transition state complexes and rationalize different enantiomeric ratios. This method, which probes the stability of the catalytic arrangement within the theozyme, shows a correlation between the relative fractions of catalytically competent poses for the enantiomeric reductions and the experimental enantiomeric ratio. Some mutations, such as A94F and Y190F, induce conformational changes in the active site that enlarge the small binding pocket, facilitating accommodation of the larger S atom in this region and enhancing S-selectivity with 3-thiacyclopentanone. In contrast, in the E145S mutant and the final variant evolved for large-scale production of the intermediate for the antibiotic sulopenem, R-selectivity is promoted by shrinking the small binding pocket, thereby destabilizing the pro-S orientation. PMID:26644568

  13. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Roveri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Norberto Roveri, Michele IafiscoLaboratory of Environmental and Biological Structural Chemistry (LEBSC, Dipartimento di Chimica ‘G. Ciamician’, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, nanocrystals, biomimetism, biomaterials, drug delivery, remineralization

  14. Generative Representations for Evolving Families of Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2003-01-01

    Since typical evolutionary design systems encode only a single artifact with each individual, each time the objective changes a new set of individuals must be evolved. When this objective varies in a way that can be parameterized, a more general method is to use a representation in which a single individual encodes an entire class of artifacts. In addition to saving time by preventing the need for multiple evolutionary runs, the evolution of parameter-controlled designs can create families of artifacts with the same style and a reuse of parts between members of the family. In this paper an evolutionary design system is described which uses a generative representation to encode families of designs. Because a generative representation is an algorithmic encoding of a design, its input parameters are a way to control aspects of the design it generates. By evaluating individuals multiple times with different input parameters the evolutionary design system creates individuals in which the input parameter controls specific aspects of a design. This system is demonstrated on two design substrates: neural-networks which solve the 3/5/7-parity problem and three-dimensional tables of varying heights.

  15. Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.

  16. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  17. Does userdriven design drive designdriven users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2009-01-01

    by culture, the most popular, often are not the more usable. Clearly, ‘user-driven' is in itself neither a necessary, nor a sufficient condition for success in design. How, then, is the concept of user involvement to be framed in the context of design? The design problems that many user-involving processes...... are designed to adress, are those of making complex and hidden functionality comprehensible for users. In other words, the design of use-signifying properties or affordances. As a basic taxonomy of affordances, this paper suggests applying Peirce's three characteristics of signification: The index, the icon...... and the symbol.  This allows us to see the parts of the material world where shared human understanding rules. Where it is not a question of ‘making sense of things', since they already make sense. Denotations are accounted for. Examining examples of indexical, iconic and symbolic areas of design, it is argued...

  18. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  19. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  20. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  1. Implications of a Culturally Evolved Self for Notions of Free Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most schools in psychology have emphasized individual choice despite evidence of genetic and cultural determinism. It is suggested in this paper that the rejection of classical behaviorism by psychology and other humanities flowed from deeply held cultural assumptions about volition and free will. While compatibilists have suggested that notions of free will and determinism are not mutually exclusive, the psychological mechanisms by which such an accommodation could be explained have been inadequately explored. Drawing on research into classical cultures, this paper builds an argument that the notion of free will was adaptive flowing from culturally evolved changes to the self, and that this “evolved self,” containing assumptions of personal volition, continuity, and reason, became benchmarks of what it means to be human. The paper proposes a model of a culturally evolved self that is compatible with understandings of free will and determinism. Implications for therapeutic practice and future research are discussed.

  2. Implications of a Culturally Evolved Self for Notions of Free Will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lloyd Hawkeye

    2017-01-01

    Most schools in psychology have emphasized individual choice despite evidence of genetic and cultural determinism. It is suggested in this paper that the rejection of classical behaviorism by psychology and other humanities flowed from deeply held cultural assumptions about volition and free will. While compatibilists have suggested that notions of free will and determinism are not mutually exclusive, the psychological mechanisms by which such an accommodation could be explained have been inadequately explored. Drawing on research into classical cultures, this paper builds an argument that the notion of free will was adaptive flowing from culturally evolved changes to the self, and that this "evolved self," containing assumptions of personal volition, continuity, and reason, became benchmarks of what it means to be human. The paper proposes a model of a culturally evolved self that is compatible with understandings of free will and determinism. Implications for therapeutic practice and future research are discussed.

  3. Sustaining an International Partnership: An Evolving Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Melinda R.; Myck-Wayne, Janice; Stang, Kristin K.; Basinska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Universities across the United States have an increasing interest in international education. Increasing global awareness through educational collaborations will promote greater cross-cultural understanding and build effective relationships with diverse communities. This paper documents one university's effort to build an effective international…

  4. Non-Universal Usability? A Survey of How Usability Is Understood by Chinese and Danish Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen-Thorlacius, Olaf; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Hertzum, Morten

    2009-01-01

    , who differ in how they understand and prioritize different aspects of usability. Chinese users appear to be more concerned with visual appearance, satisfaction, and fun than Danish users; Danish users prioritize effectiveness, efficiency, and lack of frustration higher than Chinese users. The results...... suggest that culture influences perceptions of usability. We discuss implications for usability research and for usability practice....

  5. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K.; Mattes, Brian M.; Cothran, Rickey D.; Relyea, Rick A.; Hoverman, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. - Highlights: • We explored patterns of tolerance to six insecticides across 10 wood frog populations. • We found evidence that wood frogs have evolved tolerance to carbaryl and malathion. • The likelihood of evolved tolerance was stronger for older compared to newer pesticides. • We found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion. • This is one of the most comprehensive approaches studying evolved tolerance in a non-pest species. - Using 10 wood frog populations, we detected evidence for evolved tolerance, found that the evolved tolerance depends on insecticide novelty, and found evidence for cross-tolerance.

  6. Medical mentoring via the evolving world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Usman; Vaughan-Huxley, Eyston; Standfield, Nigel; John, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing technology may open new avenues to foster mentoring in medicine. DESIGN, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A search of the MEDLINE database from 1950 to 2012 using the PubMed interface, combined with manual cross-referencing was performed using the following strategy: ("mentors"[MeSH Terms] OR "mentors"[All Fields] OR "mentor"[All Fields]) AND ("internet"[MeSH Terms] OR "internet"[All Fields]) AND ("medicine"[MeSH Terms] OR "medicine"[All Fields]) AND ("humans"[MeSH Terms] AND English[lang]). Abstracts were screened for relevance (UJ) to the topic; eligibility for inclusion was simply on screening for relevance to online mentoring and web-based technologies. Forty-five papers were found, of which 16 were relevant. All studies were observational in nature. To date, all medical mentoring applications utilizing the World Wide Web have enjoyed some success limited by Web 1.0 and 2.0 technologies. With the evolution of the WWW through 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 generations, the potential for meaningful tele- and distance mentoring has greatly improved. Some engagement has been made with these technological advancements, however further work is required to fully realize the potential of these technologies. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The evolving role of tiotropium in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIvor ER

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emma R McIvor,1 R Andrew McIvor2 1Queen’s University, Belfast, UK; 2Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Tiotropium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA that exerts its bronchodilatory effect by blocking endogenous acetylcholine receptors in the airways. Its safety and efficacy are well established for the treatment of COPD, and it is now being recognized for its role in improving lung function and control in asthma. This review discusses the evolving role of tiotropium delivered by the Respimat® in patients across the range of asthma severities and ages, and provides an overview of safety and efficacy data. Tiotropium is the only LAMA currently approved for the treatment of asthma, and evidence from a large-scale clinical trial program, including several Phase III studies in adults, has demonstrated that tiotropium improves lung function and asthma control, with a safety profile comparable with that of placebo. Clinical trials in adolescent patients (aged 12–17 years have also shown improvements in lung function and trends toward improved asthma control. Of note, the efficacy and safety profiles are consistent regardless of baseline characteristics and phenotype. Given the large and growing body of evidence, it is likely that as clinical experience with tiotropium increases, this treatment may possibly emerge as the key choice for add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting β2-agonists, and in patients who do not tolerate long-acting bronchodilators or other medications, in the future. Keywords: tiotropium, anticholinergics, asthma, efficacy

  8. Emergent spacetime in stochastically evolving dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niayesh Afshordi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changing the dimensionality of the space–time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of “evolving dimensions” in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger–Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3+1-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3+1-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.

  9. Understanding Teen UX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitton, Daniel; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Bell, Beth

    2014-01-01

    needs to be understood about this population, from a UX perspective. The theme of this workshop is Building a Bridge to the Future and the aim is to gather together academics and UX practitioners, interested in teen users specifically, in order to discuss experiences, understandings, insights...... and methods that we can use to comprehend teen UX now and explore how this may lead to the creation of better interactive products in the future. The workshop will also foster new collaborations, and define new research agendas to grow the research and literature in this area....

  10. Highway user expectations for ITD winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Providing a high Level of Service (LOS) to ensure the safety and mobility for the traveling public is a key objective for winter : maintenance operations. The goal of this research was to obtain a better understanding of Idaho highway users expect...

  11. Electronic medical records system user acceptance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available the change due to a lack of understanding of the system with usability of the system playing a large role. Even experienced user will resist a system if they perceive the system to be ineffective in assisting them with their primary task. Thus, based...

  12. Maximum Entropy Production As a Framework for Understanding How Living Systems Evolve, Organize and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallino, J. J.; Algar, C. K.; Huber, J. A.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, N.

    2014-12-01

    The maximum entropy production (MEP) principle holds that non equilibrium systems with sufficient degrees of freedom will likely be found in a state that maximizes entropy production or, analogously, maximizes potential energy destruction rate. The theory does not distinguish between abiotic or biotic systems; however, we will show that systems that can coordinate function over time and/or space can potentially dissipate more free energy than purely Markovian processes (such as fire or a rock rolling down a hill) that only maximize instantaneous entropy production. Biological systems have the ability to store useful information acquired via evolution and curated by natural selection in genomic sequences that allow them to execute temporal strategies and coordinate function over space. For example, circadian rhythms allow phototrophs to "predict" that sun light will return and can orchestrate metabolic machinery appropriately before sunrise, which not only gives them a competitive advantage, but also increases the total entropy production rate compared to systems that lack such anticipatory control. Similarly, coordination over space, such a quorum sensing in microbial biofilms, can increase acquisition of spatially distributed resources and free energy and thereby enhance entropy production. In this talk we will develop a modeling framework to describe microbial biogeochemistry based on the MEP conjecture constrained by information and resource availability. Results from model simulations will be compared to laboratory experiments to demonstrate the usefulness of the MEP approach.

  13. The significance of Candida in the human respiratory tract: our evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kathryn M; Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp. in the human respiratory tract. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Evolving Understanding of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Physics and Ambiguity in Probabilistic Sea-Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; DeConto, Robert M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Hay, Carling C.; Horton, Radley M.; Kulp, Scott; Oppenheimer, Michael; Pollard, David; Strauss, Benjamin H.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanisms such as ice-shelf hydrofracturing and ice-cliff collapse may rapidly increase discharge from marine-based ice sheets. Here, we link a probabilistic framework for sea-level projections to a small ensemble of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) simulations incorporating these physical processes to explore their influence on global-mean sea-level (GMSL) and relative sea-level (RSL). We compare the new projections to past results using expert assessment and structured expert elicitation about AIS changes. Under high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway [RCP] 8.5), median projected 21st century GMSL rise increases from 79 to 146 cm. Without protective measures, revised median RSL projections would by 2100 submerge land currently home to 153 million people, an increase of 44 million. The use of a physical model, rather than simple parameterizations assuming constant acceleration of ice loss, increases forcing sensitivity: overlap between the central 90% of simulations for 2100 for RCP 8.5 (93-243 cm) and RCP 2.6 (26-98 cm) is minimal. By 2300, the gap between median GMSL estimates for RCP 8.5 and RCP 2.6 reaches >10 m, with median RSL projections for RCP 8.5 jeopardizing land now occupied by 950 million people (versus 167 million for RCP 2.6). The minimal correlation between the contribution of AIS to GMSL by 2050 and that in 2100 and beyond implies current sea-level observations cannot exclude future extreme outcomes. The sensitivity of post-2050 projections to deeply uncertain physics highlights the need for robust decision and adaptive management frameworks.

  15. An updated conceptual model of Delta Smelt biology: Our evolving understanding of an estuarine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Randy; Brown, Larry R.; Castillo, Gonzalo; Conrad, Louise; Culberson, Steven D.; Dekar, Matthew P.; Dekar, Melissa; Feyrer, Frederick; Hunt, Thaddeus; Jones, Kristopher; Kirsch, Joseph; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Nobriga, Matthew; Slater, Steven B.; Sommer, Ted; Souza, Kelly; Erickson, Gregg; Fong, Stephanie; Gehrts, Karen; Grimaldo, Lenny; Herbold, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment and conceptual model of factors affecting Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) throughout its primarily annual life cycle and to demonstrate how this conceptual model can be used for scientific and management purposes. The Delta Smelt is a small estuarine fish that only occurs in the San Francisco Estuary. Once abundant, it is now rare and has been protected under the federal and California Endangered Species Acts since 1993. The Delta Smelt listing was related to a step decline in the early 1980s; however, population abundance decreased even further with the onset of the “pelagic organism decline” (POD) around 2002. A substantial, albeit short-lived, increase in abundance of all life stages in 2011 showed that the Delta Smelt population can still rebound when conditions are favorable for spawning, growth, and survival. In this report, we update previous conceptual models for Delta Smelt to reflect new data and information since the release of the last synthesis report about the POD by the Interagency Ecological Program for the San Francisco Estuary (IEP) in 2010. Specific objectives include:

  16. States of Terror: Understanding Evolving Islamist Terrorist Organizations and the Threat They Pose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    the infidels of the world will take place in Northern Syria near a town called Dabiq. Supporters of the Islamic State have taken strides to bring...the Eastern Roman Empire.34 Another theory maintains that any infidel army, including U.S. armed forces, could be Rome.35 The Islamic State uses...In order to generate support, meet political and military aims, and finance its operations, JFS has been known to stage

  17. Situational Awareness -- Evolving Knowledge into Understanding: A Competency Critical to US National Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    the world environment, it is critically important to remain adaptive to mitigate emerging threats. For as Gödel, Heisenberg and the Second Law of......from the G-2, 3d U.S. Army (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, April 1991), 28 73 U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication 6-0, Joint Communications Systems

  18. Understanding contracts in evolving agro-economies: Fermers, dekhqans and networks in Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djanibekov, U.; Assche, van K.A.M.; Boezeman, D.; Djanibekov, N.

    2013-01-01

    We combine institutional economic perspectives and actor-network theory to elucidate the role of contracts in the evolution of transitional agricultural systems. Such combination of theories can shed a light on the mutual constitution of actors and institutions, and the formation of economic

  19. Evolving Understanding of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Physics and Ambiguity in Probabilistic Sea-Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; DeConto, Robert M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Hay, Carling C.; Horton, Radley M.; Kulp, Scott; Oppenheimer, Michael; Pollard, David; Strauss, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms such as ice-shelf hydrofracturing and ice-cliff collapse may rapidly increase discharge from marine-based ice sheets. Here, we link a probabilistic framework for sea-level projections to a small ensemble of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) simulations incorporating these physical processes to explore their influence on global-mean sea-level (GMSL) and relative sea-level (RSL). We compare the new projections to past results using expert assessment and structured expert elicitation about AIS changes. Under high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway [RCP] 8.5), median projected 21st century GMSL rise increases from 79 to 146 cm. Without protective measures, revised median RSL projections would by 2100 submerge land currently home to 153 million people, an increase of 44 million. The use of a physical model, rather than simple parameterizations assuming constant acceleration of ice loss, increases forcing sensitivity: overlap between the central 90% of simulations for 2100 for RCP 8.5 (93-243 cm) and RCP 2.6 (26-98 cm) is minimal. By 2300, the gap between median GMSL estimates for RCP 8.5 and RCP 2.6 reaches >10 m, with median RSL projections for RCP 8.5 jeopardizing land now occupied by 950 million people (versus 167 million for RCP 2.6). The minimal correlation between the contribution of AIS to GMSL by 2050 and that in 2100 and beyond implies current sea-level observations cannot exclude future extreme outcomes. The sensitivity of post-2050 projections to deeply uncertain physics highlights the need for robust decision and adaptive management frameworks.

  20. Popularity and Novelty Dynamics in Evolving Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Khushnood; Shang, Mingsheng; Abbasi, Alireza; Luo, Xin; Xu, Jian Jun; Zhang, Yu-Xia

    2018-04-20

    Network science plays a big role in the representation of real-world phenomena such as user-item bipartite networks presented in e-commerce or social media platforms. It provides researchers with tools and techniques to solve complex real-world problems. Identifying and predicting future popularity and importance of items in e-commerce or social media platform is a challenging task. Some items gain popularity repeatedly over time while some become popular and novel only once. This work aims to identify the key-factors: popularity and novelty. To do so, we consider two types of novelty predictions: items appearing in the popular ranking list for the first time; and items which were not in the popular list in the past time window, but might have been popular before the recent past time window. In order to identify the popular items, a careful consideration of macro-level analysis is needed. In this work we propose a model, which exploits item level information over a span of time to rank the importance of the item. We considered ageing or decay effect along with the recent link-gain of the items. We test our proposed model on four various real-world datasets using four information retrieval based metrics.

  1. PROTEOMICS: AN EVOLVING TECHNOLOGY IN LABORATORY MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D J Venter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developments in both genomics and proteomics will allow scientists to define the molecular pathways in normal and diseased cells. With these models, researchers will have the ability to predict previously unknown interactions and verify such predictions experimentally. Novel proteins, cellular functions, and pathways will also be unravelled. It is hoped that understanding the connections between cellular pathways and the ability to identify their associated biomarkers will greatly reduce the suffering and loss of life due to diseases.

  2. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user`s perspective of the system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.

  3. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-03-01

    To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.

  4. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  5. GRSAC Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model

  6. GRSAC Users Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  7. TRANS-USERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in Denmark, Sweden and France. The five case studies are: The industrialised home building concept BoKlok, a web based product configurator for kitchens by HTH, the innovative potential of the dual role of employees as both user and employee in Rockwool, the application of quality management systems......This report addresses user-orientated strategies for industrialising the construction industry. In the first part, the objectives of the study are described along with the theoretical framework and the research design of the study. The second part of this report contains five case studies conducted...... to redesign production and business processes to accommodate for users' requirements (Maisons MACCHI), and the client as driver of innovation on the construction and renovation of the low budget hotel brand Formule 1 of ACCOR Hotels. In the third part, the discussion and conclusion addresses three interlinked...

  8. Evaluating User Participation and User Influence in an Enterprise System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Does user influence have an impact on the data quality of an information systems development project? What decision making should users have? How can users effectively be engaged in the process? What is success? User participation is considered to be a critical success factor for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects, yet there is little…

  9. HANARO user support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Kim, Y. J.; Seong B.S. [and others

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to support external user for the promotion of HANARO common utilization effectively. To do this, external manpower was recruited and trained. Also, in order to find out and cultivate HANARO user, practice-oriented education was done. The total number of project selected as the promotion of HANARO common utilization was 31 in this year. These composed of four fields such as neutron beam utilization, materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production. In each field, the numbers of project were 17, 7, 4 and 3 respectively. At first, from a selected project of view, supporting ratio by external manpower was reached to the 58%, that is, 18 out of 31 project was supported. In each field, it was 82% for neutron beam utilization and 100% for neutron activation analysis. Also, from the utilization time point of view, supporting ratio of external manpower was reached to 30% for neutron beam utilization and 59% for neutron activation analysis. Otherwise, supporting ratio by manpower in KAERI was reached to 97%, that is, 30 out of 31 project was supported. Also, from the utilization time point of view, total supporting ratio was reached to 15%. In each field, it was 20% for neutron beam utilization, 18% for materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, 20% for neutron activation analysis and 6% for radioisotope production. In order to contribute finding and cultivating of HANARO potential user and increase utilization ratio of HANARO experimental facility, practice-oriented HANARO user education has been done. At first, 32 participants from industries, universities, institutes were educated and practiced on HRPD/SANS instrument in the field of neutron beam utilization. Otherwise, in order to support external user effectively, external manpower were trained. Also, more effective support for external user could be possible through the grasping difficulty and problem on the performance of project

  10. Evolvable Habitation Architectures for Long-duration Human Exploration Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research will develop tools and methods to generate, simulate, and evaluate evolvable habitation architectures for long-duration space exploration during...

  11. Robustness promotes evolvability of thermotolerance in an RNA virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Paul E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability for an evolving population to adapt to a novel environment is achieved through a balance of robustness and evolvability. Robustness is the invariance of phenotype in the face of perturbation and evolvability is the capacity to adapt in response to selection. Genetic robustness has been posited, depending on the underlying mechanism, to either decrease the efficacy of selection, or increase the possibility of future adaptation. However, the true effect of genetic robustness on evolvability in biological systems remains uncertain. Results Here we demonstrate that genetic robustness increases evolvability of thermotolerance in laboratory populations of the RNA virus φ6. We observed that populations founded by robust clones evolved greater resistance to heat shock, relative to populations founded by brittle (less-robust clones. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for the idea that robustness can promote evolvability in this environment, and further suggest that evolvability can arise indirectly via selection for robustness, rather than through direct selective action. Conclusion Our data imply that greater tolerance of mutational change is associated with virus adaptability in a new niche, a finding generally relevant to evolutionary biology, and informative for elucidating how viruses might evolve to emerge in new habitats and/or overcome novel therapies.

  12. CRACUK user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W.; Brearley, I.R.

    1986-08-01

    The CRACUK computer code is a revised version of the US consequence modelling code CRAC2, adapted to suit UK applications. Modifications to various models within the code have led to certain changes in the input data requirements for CRACUK in comparison with CRAC2. This guide, written in the form of an Appendix to the CRAC2 User Guide, includes descriptions of the input data layout as it has been altered for use in CRACUK. Used in conjunction with the CRAC2 User Guide, this publication should allow easy use of the CRACUK code. (author)

  13. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?......Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  14. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  15. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  16. The melding of drug markets in Houston after Katrina: dealer and user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-07-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. To be expected, the two markets did not operate indefinitely in parallel fashion. This paper describes the evolving, operational relationship between these two drug markets over time, with a focus on Houston. We analyze the reciprocal evolution of these two markets at two significant points in time: at the beginning of the relocation (2005) and two years later (2007). The overall trend is towards a melding of the two drug markets, as evidenced primarily by decreases in drug-related violence and the cross-fertilization of drug tastes. We describe the process by which the two drug markets are melded over time, in order to seek a better understanding of the social processes by which drug markets in general evolve.

  17. The Influence of Mobile Phone's Forms in the User Perception

    OpenAIRE

    The Jaya Suteja; Stephany Tedjohartoko

    2011-01-01

    Not all types of mobile phone are successful in entering the market because some types of the mobile phone have a negative perception of user. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of mobile phone's characteristics in the local user perception. This research investigates the influence of QWERTY mobile phone's forms in the perception of Indonesian user. First, some alternatives of mobile phone-s form are developed based on a certain number of mobile phone's models. At the seco...

  18. Zgoubi user`s guide. Version 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Valero, S. [CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-10-15

    The computer code Zgoubi calculates trajectories of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields. At the origin specially adapted to the definition and adjustment of beam lines and magnetic spectrometers, it has so-evolved that it allows the study of systems including complex sequences of optical elements such as dipoles, quadrupoles, arbitrary multipoles and other magnetic or electric devices, and is able as well to handle periodic structures. Compared to other codes, it presents several peculiarities: (1) a numerical method for integrating the Lorentz equation, based on Taylor series, which optimizes computing time and provides high accuracy and strong symplecticity, (2) spin tracking, using the same numerical method as for the Lorentz equation, (3) calculation of the synchrotron radiation electric field and spectra in arbitrary magnetic fields, from the ray-tracing outcomes, (4) the possibility of using a mesh, which allows ray-tracing from simulated or measured (1-D, 2-D or 3-D) field maps, (5) Monte Carlo procedures: unlimited number of trajectories, in-flight decay, etc. (6) built-in fitting procedure, (7) multiturn tracking in circular accelerators including many features proper to machine parameter calculation and survey, and also the simulation of time-varying power supplies. The initial version of the Code, dedicated to the ray-tracing in magnetic fields, was developed by D. Garreta and J.C. Faivre at CEN-Saclay in the early 1970`s. It was perfected for the purpose of studying the four spectrometers (SPES I, II, III, IV) at the Laboratoire National Saturne (CEA-Saclay, France), and SPEG at Ganil (Caen, France). It is now in use in several national and foreign laboratories. This manual is intended only to describe the details of the most recent version of Zogoubi, which is far from being a {open_quotes}finished product{close_quotes}.

  19. The Evolving Complexity of the Podocyte Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Christoph; Huber, Tobias B

    2017-11-01

    Podocytes exhibit a unique cytoskeletal architecture that is fundamentally linked to their function in maintaining the kidney filtration barrier. The cytoskeleton regulates podocyte shape, structure, stability, slit diaphragm insertion, adhesion, plasticity, and dynamic response to environmental stimuli. Genetic mutations demonstrate that even slight impairment of the podocyte cytoskeletal apparatus results in proteinuria and glomerular disease. Moreover, mechanisms underpinning all acquired glomerular pathologies converge on disruption of the cytoskeleton, suggesting that this subcellular structure could be targeted for therapeutic purposes. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of the cytoskeleton in podocytes and the associated implications for pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  1. Perspectives on User Satisfaction Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    2001-01-01

    Discusses academic libraries, digital environments, increasing competition, the relationship between service quality and user satisfaction, and user surveys. Describes the SERVQUAL model that measures service quality and user satisfaction in academic libraries; considers gaps between user expectations and managers' perceptions of user…

  2. Users Office - Removal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    As of 8 December 2010 and until the end of February 2011, the Users Office will move from Bldg. 60. New Location : Bldg. 510-R-033 Opening Hours: Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday : 08.30 – 12.30 Monday to Friday: 14.00 – 16.00 Closed Wednesday mornings.

  3. AELIB user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.E.; Klawitter, G.L.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an updatable manual for users of AELIB, the AECL Library of FORTRAN-callable routines for the CRNL CDC 6600/CYBER 170 system. It provides general advice on the use of this library and detailed information on the selection and usage of particular library routines

  4. SALOME. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastrow, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    A user's guide for a least squares fit analysis program is presented, which has been developed for VUV and visible plasma spectroscopy on the Extrap-T1 experiment. The program can be used for line and multiplet identification, multiplet intensity and line width measurements. Atomic data are used extensively to aid the interpretation of the spectra. 7 figs

  5. Neem: A User's Manual

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Neem: A User's Manual The 'Free Tree' – Its Healing Power and Other Uses. M D Subash Chandran. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 84-86. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. CDPOP Users Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. L. Landguth; B. K. Hand; J. M. Glassy; S. A. Cushman; M. Jacobi; T. J. Julian

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this user manual is to explain the technical aspects of the current release of the CDPOP program. CDPOP v1.0 is a major extension of the CDPOP program (Landguth and Cushman 2010). CDPOP is an individual-based program that simulates the influences of landscape structure on emergence of spatial patterns in population genetic data as functions of individual-...

  7. 16. ESRF users meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coraux, J.; Renevier, H.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Daudin, B.; Proietti, M.G.; Renaud, G.; Fowler, B.; Mercer, D.L.; Omar, A.H.; Thompson, P.; Markovic, N.M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Lucas, C.A.; Andrejczuk, A.; Kwiatkowska, J.; Dobrzynski, L.; Zukowski, E.; Bellin, Ch.; Loupias, G.; Shukla, A.; Buslaps, Th.; Stankov, S.; Sladecek, M.; Slezak, T.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Sepiol, B.; Vogl, G.; Chumakov, A.; Ruffer, R.; Hermann, R.P.; Grandjean, F.; Schweika, W.; Long, G.J.; Leupold, O.; Belrhall, H.; Caserotto, H.; Dauvergne, F.; Geoffroy, L.; Guljarro, M.; Launer, L.; Levault, B.; Walsh, M.; Beckers, M.; Schell, N.; Martins, R.M.S.; Mucklich, A.; Moller, W.; Silva, R.J.C.; Mahesh, K.K.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Tejas, Parikh; Neil, Fellows; Durodola, J.; Slawinski, W.; Przenioslo, R.; Sosnowska, I.; Suard, E.

    2006-01-01

    This document gathers the posters that were presented during the poster session of this workshop. These posters highlight the results obtained by ESRF'users in different fields such as surface structure, Compton scattering studies, localized vibrational modes in thermoelectric materials, Ni-Ti thin films, residual stresses in superconducting wires, and changes in crystal and magnetic structure of NdFeO 3

  8. CONSUME: users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  9. User's guide for ICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.K.

    1976-07-01

    ICE is a cross-section mixing code which will accept cross sections from an AMPX working library and produce mixed cross sections in the AMPX working library format, ANISN format, and the group-independent ANISN format. User input is in the free-form or fixed-form FIDO structure. The code is operable as a module in the AMPX system

  10. Governing the water user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, Edwin; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a policy shift that makes the ‘water user’ the main subject of water governance. From a Foucauldian perspective on governmentality these new subjectivities accompany neo-liberal governmental technologies to devolve autonomy from state institutions to an active user base, whilst

  11. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; van der Zaag, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between human beings and water since the Industrial Revolution, a period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet during this time. We show how the rapidly changing world urges us to continuously improve our understanding of the complex interactions between humans and the water system. The paper starts by demonstrating that hydrology and the science of managing water resources have played key roles in human and economic development throughout history; yet these roles have often been marginalised or obscured. Knowledge of hydrology and water resources engineering and management helped to transform the landscape, and thus also the very hydrology within catchments itself. It is only fairly recent that water experts have become conscious of such mechanisms, exemplified by several concepts that try to incorporate them - integrated water resources management, eco-hydrology, socio-hydrology. We have reached a stage at which a more systemic understanding of scale interdependencies can inform the sustainable governance of water systems, using new concepts like precipitation sheds, virtual water transfers, water footprints, and water value flow.

  12. Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

  13. Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Fatima, Farah; Vallabhaneni, Krishna C.; Penfornis, Patrice; Valadi, Hadi; Ekström, Karin; Kholia, Sharad; Whitt, Jason D.; Fernandes, Joseph D.; Pochampally, Radhika; Squire, Jeremy A.; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies. PMID:26649044

  14. Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta

    2013-02-01

    Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently.

  15. Genetic basis for rapidly evolved tolerance in the wild ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) residing in some urban and industrialized estuaries of the US eastern seaboard demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, characterized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis of the genetic basis for DLC tolerance in killifish inhabiting an urban estuary contaminated with PCB congeners, the most toxic of which are DLCs. Consistent with mechanistic knowledge of DLC toxicity in fish and other vertebrates, the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (ahr2) region accounts for 17% of trait variation; however, QTLs on independent linkage groups and their interactions have even greater explanatory power (44%). QTLs interpreted within the context of recently available Fundulus genomic resources and shared synteny among fish species suggest adaptation via inter-acting components of a complex stress response network. Some QTLs were also enriched in other killifish populations characterized as DLC tolerant and residing in distant urban estuaries contaminated with unique mixtures of pollutants. Together, our results suggest that DLC tolerance in killifish represents an emerging example of parallel contemporary evolution that has been driven by intense human-mediated selection on natural populations. This manuscript describes experimental studies that contribute to our understanding of the ecological

  16. Evolving polycentric governance of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Tiffany H

    2017-04-11

    A growing field of sustainability science examines how environments are transformed through polycentric governance. However, many studies are only snapshot analyses of the initial design or the emergent structure of polycentric regimes. There is less systematic analysis of the longitudinal robustness of polycentric regimes. The problem of robustness is approached by focusing not only on the structure of a regime but also on its context and effectiveness. These dimensions are examined through a longitudinal analysis of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) governance regime, drawing on in-depth interviews and demographic, economic, and employment data, as well as organizational records and participant observation. Between 1975 and 2011, the GBR regime evolved into a robust polycentric structure as evident in an established set of multiactor, multilevel arrangements addressing marine, terrestrial, and global threats. However, from 2005 onward, multiscale drivers precipitated at least 10 types of regime change, ranging from contextual change that encouraged regime drift to deliberate changes that threatened regime conversion. More recently, regime realignment also has occurred in response to steering by international organizations and shocks such as the 2016 mass coral-bleaching event. The results show that structural density and stability in a governance regime can coexist with major changes in that regime's context and effectiveness. Clear analysis of the vulnerability of polycentric governance to both diminishing effectiveness and the masking effects of increasing complexity provides sustainability science and governance actors with a stronger basis to understand and respond to regime change.

  17. Personal lifelong user model clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Kay, Judy; Kummerfeld, Bob

    This paper explores an architecture for very long term user modelling, based upon personal user model clouds. These ensure that the individual's applications can access their model whenever it is needed. At the same time, the user can control the use of their user model. So, they can ensure...... which combines both. Finally we discuss implications of our approach for consistency and freshness of the user model information....... it is accessed only when and where they wish, by applications that they wish. We consider the challenges of representing user models so that they can be reused by multiple applications. We indicate potential synergies between distributed and centralised user modelling architectures, proposing an architecture...

  18. Enhancing collaborative filtering by user interest expansion via personalized ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Enhong; Xiong, Hui; Ding, Chris H Q; Chen, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recommender systems suggest a few items from many possible choices to the users by understanding their past behaviors. In these systems, the user behaviors are influenced by the hidden interests of the users. Learning to leverage the information about user interests is often critical for making better recommendations. However, existing collaborative-filtering-based recommender systems are usually focused on exploiting the information about the user's interaction with the systems; the information about latent user interests is largely underexplored. To that end, inspired by the topic models, in this paper, we propose a novel collaborative-filtering-based recommender system by user interest expansion via personalized ranking, named iExpand. The goal is to build an item-oriented model-based collaborative-filtering framework. The iExpand method introduces a three-layer, user-interests-item, representation scheme, which leads to more accurate ranking recommendation results with less computation cost and helps the understanding of the interactions among users, items, and user interests. Moreover, iExpand strategically deals with many issues that exist in traditional collaborative-filtering approaches, such as the overspecialization problem and the cold-start problem. Finally, we evaluate iExpand on three benchmark data sets, and experimental results show that iExpand can lead to better ranking performance than state-of-the-art methods with a significant margin.

  19. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  20. User-Generated Video and Intertextuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Holmgaard; Rasmussen, Tove Arendt; Kofoed, Peter

    This paper discusses the changing relationship between texts, producers and audiences and tries to understand user-generated audio-visual content or to be more precise, intertextuality in user-generated videos in relation to distribution formats, cultural form and genres. Continuing on from...... the work of John Fiske and the notion of vertical and horizontal intertextuality this paper tries to develop Fiske's original ideas so that his model incorporates the changing relationship between producers and their audiences, the text generated by mainstream media and the text generated by ordinary...

  1. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  2. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  3. Awareness of Malicious Social Engineering among Facebook Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonka, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Facebook, the social networking website is becoming a lucrative target for malicious activity. Users of Facebook therefore should be aware of various malicious attacks and know how to identify them. This research analyzed Facebook users' level of understanding in the domain of malicious social engineering on Facebook. The…

  4. How to give your users the LIS services they want

    CERN Document Server

    Pantry, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    With the challenges of a constantly changing job market, shifting information-seeking behaviour and a vast array of resources continually being produced, library and information services need to constantly keep one step, or more, ahead of their users. This text helps in understanding users of the services - the what, why, where, when, how and who.

  5. Reflections on Andes' Goal-Free User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Although the Andes project produced many results over its 18 years of activity, this commentary focuses on its contributions to understanding how a goal-free user interface impacts the overall design and performance of a step-based tutoring system. Whereas a goal-aligned user interface displays relevant goals as blank boxes or empty locations that…

  6. How Good is Your User Experience? Measuring and Designing Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildner Raimund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Form and function are important dimensions of consumer choice, but there is more in our increasingly digital world. It is not only products per se that need to be designed but the whole interaction between consumers and brands. The whole UX or user experience is more important than ever before. Digitalism nowadays is everywhere, and even mundane products are becoming more digital (e.g. ovens, while others evolve that are purely digital (e.g. PayPal.

  7. 76 FR 58279 - Animal Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Internet at http://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/UserFees/AnimalDrugUserFeeActADUFA/ucm042891.htm approximately... better understand the history and evolution of ADUFA, and its current status. II. What is ADUFA? What...

  8. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  9. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  10. Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäferhoff, Bastian; Fleischmann, Andreas; Fischer, Eberhard; Albach, Dirk C; Borsch, Thomas; Heubl, Günther; Müller, Kai F

    2010-11-12

    In the large angiosperm order Lamiales, a diverse array of highly specialized life strategies such as carnivory, parasitism, epiphytism, and desiccation tolerance occur, and some lineages possess drastically accelerated DNA substitutional rates or miniaturized genomes. However, understanding the evolution of these phenomena in the order, and clarifying borders of and relationships among lamialean families, has been hindered by largely unresolved trees in the past. Our analysis of the rapidly evolving trnK/matK, trnL-F and rps16 chloroplast regions enabled us to infer more precise phylogenetic hypotheses for the Lamiales. Relationships among the nine first-branching families in the Lamiales tree are now resolved with very strong support. Subsequent to Plocospermataceae, a clade consisting of Carlemanniaceae plus Oleaceae branches, followed by Tetrachondraceae and a newly inferred clade composed of Gesneriaceae plus Calceolariaceae, which is also supported by morphological characters. Plantaginaceae (incl. Gratioleae) and Scrophulariaceae are well separated in the backbone grade; Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae appear in distant clades, while the recently described Linderniaceae are confirmed to be monophyletic and in an isolated position. Confidence about deep nodes of the Lamiales tree is an important step towards understanding the evolutionary diversification of a major clade of flowering plants. The degree of resolution obtained here now provides a first opportunity to discuss the evolution of morphological and biochemical traits in Lamiales. The multiple independent evolution of the carnivorous syndrome, once in Lentibulariaceae and a second time in Byblidaceae, is strongly supported by all analyses and topological tests. The evolution of selected morphological characters such as flower symmetry is discussed. The addition of further sequence data from introns and spacers holds promise to eventually obtain a fully resolved plastid tree of Lamiales.

  11. Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heubl Günther

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the large angiosperm order Lamiales, a diverse array of highly specialized life strategies such as carnivory, parasitism, epiphytism, and desiccation tolerance occur, and some lineages possess drastically accelerated DNA substitutional rates or miniaturized genomes. However, understanding the evolution of these phenomena in the order, and clarifying borders of and relationships among lamialean families, has been hindered by largely unresolved trees in the past. Results Our analysis of the rapidly evolving trnK/matK, trnL-F and rps16 chloroplast regions enabled us to infer more precise phylogenetic hypotheses for the Lamiales. Relationships among the nine first-branching families in the Lamiales tree are now resolved with very strong support. Subsequent to Plocospermataceae, a clade consisting of Carlemanniaceae plus Oleaceae branches, followed by Tetrachondraceae and a newly inferred clade composed of Gesneriaceae plus Calceolariaceae, which is also supported by morphological characters. Plantaginaceae (incl. Gratioleae and Scrophulariaceae are well separated in the backbone grade; Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae appear in distant clades, while the recently described Linderniaceae are confirmed to be monophyletic and in an isolated position. Conclusions Confidence about deep nodes of the Lamiales tree is an important step towards understanding the evolutionary diversification of a major clade of flowering plants. The degree of resolution obtained here now provides a first opportunity to discuss the evolution of morphological and biochemical traits in Lamiales. The multiple independent evolution of the carnivorous syndrome, once in Lentibulariaceae and a second time in Byblidaceae, is strongly supported by all analyses and topological tests. The evolution of selected morphological characters such as flower symmetry is discussed. The addition of further sequence data from introns and spacers holds promise to eventually obtain a

  12. Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In the large angiosperm order Lamiales, a diverse array of highly specialized life strategies such as carnivory, parasitism, epiphytism, and desiccation tolerance occur, and some lineages possess drastically accelerated DNA substitutional rates or miniaturized genomes. However, understanding the evolution of these phenomena in the order, and clarifying borders of and relationships among lamialean families, has been hindered by largely unresolved trees in the past. Results Our analysis of the rapidly evolving trnK/matK, trnL-F and rps16 chloroplast regions enabled us to infer more precise phylogenetic hypotheses for the Lamiales. Relationships among the nine first-branching families in the Lamiales tree are now resolved with very strong support. Subsequent to Plocospermataceae, a clade consisting of Carlemanniaceae plus Oleaceae branches, followed by Tetrachondraceae and a newly inferred clade composed of Gesneriaceae plus Calceolariaceae, which is also supported by morphological characters. Plantaginaceae (incl. Gratioleae) and Scrophulariaceae are well separated in the backbone grade; Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae appear in distant clades, while the recently described Linderniaceae are confirmed to be monophyletic and in an isolated position. Conclusions Confidence about deep nodes of the Lamiales tree is an important step towards understanding the evolutionary diversification of a major clade of flowering plants. The degree of resolution obtained here now provides a first opportunity to discuss the evolution of morphological and biochemical traits in Lamiales. The multiple independent evolution of the carnivorous syndrome, once in Lentibulariaceae and a second time in Byblidaceae, is strongly supported by all analyses and topological tests. The evolution of selected morphological characters such as flower symmetry is discussed. The addition of further sequence data from introns and spacers holds promise to eventually obtain a fully resolved plastid tree of

  13. Degree distribution of a new model for evolving networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Articles Volume 74 Issue 3 March 2010 pp 469-474 ... Evolving networks; degree distribution; Markov chain; scale-free network. ... Based on the concept of Markov chain, we provide the exact solution of the degree distribution of this model and show that the model can generate scale-free evolving network.

  14. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to glucose promotes evolvability in lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kelly N; Castillo, Gerardo; Wünsche, Andrea; Cooper, Tim F

    2016-02-01

    The selective history of a population can influence its subsequent evolution, an effect known as historical contingency. We previously observed that five of six replicate populations that were evolved in a glucose-limited environment for 2000 generations, then switched to lactose for 1000 generations, had higher fitness increases in lactose than populations started directly from the ancestor. To test if selection in glucose systematically increased lactose evolvability, we started 12 replay populations--six from a population subsample and six from a single randomly selected clone--from each of the six glucose-evolved founder populations. These replay populations and 18 ancestral populations were evolved for 1000 generations in a lactose-limited environment. We found that replay populations were initially slightly less fit in lactose than the ancestor, but were more evolvable, in that they increased in fitness at a faster rate and to higher levels. This result indicates that evolution in the glucose environment resulted in genetic changes that increased the potential of genotypes to adapt to lactose. Genome sequencing identified four genes--iclR, nadR, spoT, and rbs--that were mutated in most glucose-evolved clones and are candidates for mediating increased evolvability. Our results demonstrate that short-term selective costs during selection in one environment can lead to changes in evolvability that confer longer term benefits. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Mesenchymal stromal cells: misconceptions and evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Donald G; Sensebé, Luc

    2013-02-01

    Nearly half a century has passed since the publication of the first articles describing plastic-adherent cells from bone marrow, referred to initially as colony-forming unit fibroblasts, then marrow stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells and most recently multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). As expected, our understanding of the nature and biologic functions of MSCs has undergone major paradigm shifts over this time. Despite significant advances made in deciphering their complex biology and therapeutic potential in both experimental animal models and human clinical trials, numerous misconceptions regarding the nature and function of MSCs have persisted in the field. Continued propagation of these misconceptions in some cases may significantly impede the advancement of MSC-based therapies in clinical medicine. We have identified six prevalent misconceptions about MSCs that we believe affect the field, and we attempt to rectify them based on current available data. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An evolving view of Saturn's dynamic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J N; Burns, J A; Charnoz, S; Clark, R N; Colwell, J E; Dones, L; Esposito, L W; Filacchione, G; French, R G; Hedman, M M; Kempf, S; Marouf, E A; Murray, C D; Nicholson, P D; Porco, C C; Schmidt, J; Showalter, M R; Spilker, L J; Spitale, J N; Srama, R; Sremcević, M; Tiscareno, M S; Weiss, J

    2010-03-19

    We review our understanding of Saturn's rings after nearly 6 years of observations by the Cassini spacecraft. Saturn's rings are composed mostly of water ice but also contain an undetermined reddish contaminant. The rings exhibit a range of structure across many spatial scales; some of this involves the interplay of the fluid nature and the self-gravity of innumerable orbiting centimeter- to meter-sized particles, and the effects of several peripheral and embedded moonlets, but much remains unexplained. A few aspects of ring structure change on time scales as short as days. It remains unclear whether the vigorous evolutionary processes to which the rings are subject imply a much younger age than that of the solar system. Processes on view at Saturn have parallels in circumstellar disks.

  17. How Often Are Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Said to "Evolve" in the News?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nina; Sit, Matthew T; Chung, Deanna M; Lopez, Ana A; Weerackoon, Ranil; Yeh, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Media plays an important role in informing the general public about scientific ideas. We examine whether the word "evolve," sometimes considered controversial by the general public, is frequently used in the popular press. Specifically, we ask how often articles discussing antibiotic resistance use the word "evolve" (or its lexemes) as opposed to alternative terms such as "emerge" or "develop." We chose the topic of antibiotic resistance because it is a medically important issue; bacterial evolution is a central player in human morbidity and mortality. We focused on the most widely-distributed newspapers written in English in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, India, and Australia. We examined all articles that focused primarily on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, were published in 2014 or earlier, and were accessible in online archives, for a total of 1639 articles. The total years examined per newspaper ranged from 5 to 37 years with a median of 27 years, and the overall range was 1978-2014. We quantified how many articles included the term "evolve" and analyzed how this varied with newspaper, country, and time. We found that an overall rate of 18% of articles used the term "evolve" but with significant variation among countries. Newspapers in the United Kingdom had the highest rate (24%), more than double of those in India (9%), the country with the lowest rate. These frequencies were lower than those found in scientific papers from both evolutionary journals and biomedical journals. There were no statistically significant changes in frequency and no trends when "evolve" usage was compared against variables such as newspaper circulation, liberal/conservative bias, time, and state evolution acceptance in U.S. newspapers. This study highlights the globally low usage of the word "evolve" in the popular press. We suggest this low usage may affect public understanding and acceptance of evolutionary concepts.

  18. Cosmos and Creativity - Man in an evolving Universe as a creative, aesthetical Agent - some Peircean Remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Brier, Søren

    2011-01-01

    a cybersemiotics. In this paper, we focus on the understanding of the evolution of the universe that Peirce produced as an alternative to the mechanistic view underlying classical physics and try to place man in an evolving universe as a creative, aesthetical agent. It is true that modern non-equilibrium physics....... To this end, Peirce's thoughts on agapastic evolution coupled with the aesthetical influence of the growth of ideas and reasonableness on man could make a contribution....

  19. The Evolving Role of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Gregory K; Chow, Laura Q M

    2015-07-01

    Traditional treatment modalities for advanced cancer (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or targeted agents) act directly on tumors to inhibit or destroy them. Along with surgery, these modalities are predominantly palliative, with toxicity and only modest improvements in survival in patients with advanced solid tumors. Accordingly, long-term survival rates for most patients with advanced cancer remain low, thus there is a need for cancer treatments with favorable benefit and toxicity profiles that can potentially result in long-term survival. The immune system plays a critical role in the recognition and eradication of tumor cells ("immune surveillance"), and immunotherapies based on this concept have been used for decades with some success against a few tumor types; however, most immunotherapies were limited by a lack of either substantial efficacy or specificity, resulting in toxicity. We now have a greater understanding of the complex interactions between the immune system and tumors and have identified key molecules that govern these interactions. This information has revitalized the interest in immunotherapy as an evolving treatment modality using immunotherapeutics designed to overcome the mechanisms exploited by tumors to evade immune destruction. Immunotherapies have potentially complementary mechanisms of action that may allow them to be combined with other immunotherapeutics, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or other traditional therapies. This review discusses the concepts and data behind immunotherapies, with a focus on the checkpoint inhibitors and their responses, toxicities, and potential for long-term survival, and explores promising single-agent and combination therapies in development. Immunotherapy is an evolving treatment approach based on the role of the immune system in eradicating cancer. An example of an immunotherapeutic is ipilimumab, an antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) to augment antitumor immune responses

  20. Through the Interface - a human activity approach to user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices of us...

  1. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  2. The users centered design of a new digital fluorometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Marcos S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Pedrosa, Paulo S.; Colthurst, Carlos M.; Szabo, Andre P.

    2009-01-01

    The fluorometer is the equipment used in chemical analysis laboratories, research institutes and nuclear fuel cycle companies. This equipment measures an unknown amount of uranium in ores, rivers, etc. The fluorometer functioning is based on the uranium fluorescence when submitted to the ultraviolet radiation incidence. The fluorescence is measured by an electronic optic system with optics filters, photomultiplier tube, and a current amplifier. The user centered design involves the user in the product development in all phases of the design process. Users are not simply consulted at the beginning of the design process and evaluated the system at the end; they are treated as partners throughout the design process. The user centered design emphasizes the needs and abilities of the users and improves the usability of the equipment. The activity centered design emphasizes the development of the equipment with a deep understanding of the users activities and of the current work practices of the users. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework that contributes to the design and evaluation of a new digital fluorometer towards an approach related to the users and their activities. This methodological framework includes users-based testing, interviews, questionnaires, human factors standards and guidelines, the users activity analysis and users satisfaction questionnaire. (author)

  3. Privacy and User Experience in 21st Century Library Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayna Pekala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, libraries have taken advantage of emerging technologies to provide new discovery tools to help users find information and resources more efficiently. In the wake of this technological shift in discovery, privacy has become an increasingly prominent and complex issue for libraries. The nature of the web, over which users interact with discovery tools, has substantially diminished the library’s ability to control patron privacy. The emergence of a data economy has led to a new wave of online tracking and surveillance, in which multiple third parties collect and share user data during the discovery process, making it much more difficult, if not impossible, for libraries to protect patron privacy. In addition, users are increasingly starting their searches with web search engines, diminishing the library’s control over privacy even further. While libraries have a legal and ethical responsibility to protect patron privacy, they are simultaneously challenged to meet evolving user needs for discovery. In a world where “search” is synonymous with Google, users increasingly expect their library discovery experience to mimic their experience using web search engines. However, web search engines rely on a drastically different set of privacy standards, as they strive to create tailored, personalized search results based on user data. Libraries are seemingly forced to make a choice between delivering the discovery experience users expect and protecting user privacy. This paper explores the competing interests of privacy and user experience, and proposes possible strategies to address them in the future design of library discovery tools.

  4. Customer/User Workshops in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Binder, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    In a recent product development project, we have taken part in establishing and organising a series of workshops with a group of customers/users of a future product line through out the development project. The workshops is a kind of informal meetingplace for engineering, marketing, customers......, and users where different needs, preferences, and interests can be discussed. Bringing together stakeholders with different experiences and competencies can provide a highly innovative setting if we are succesful in establishing common understandings of the development task.In this paper we present...... and discuss experiences with this kind of collaborative fora. We have tried to demonstrate that having an on-going dialogue with users/customers also during detailed design in not only a means to keep 'the voive of the customer alive'. We have found that the workshops have an important impact on securing...

  5. User innovation in public service broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    and develop user innovations into professional content. This study follows a qualitative approach with a document study of Denmark's public service broadcast and two interviews. Findings indicate that the commitment to quality and professional content prevents managers of PSBs from outsourcing......This research aims to understand how public service media can encourage media entrepreneurship in the society to enrich user innovations as a source of ideas, products, contents, talent and creativity. The assumption is that media entrepreneurs turn users into sources of external creativity...... their production to media entrepreneurs, but they trust large media companies as external producers. This research contributes to the field by proposing that public service media can foster media entrepreneurship in a society indirectly and by creating demand for external sources of creativity. Large media...

  6. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  7. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  8. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  9. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...... history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...

  10. Growing Data User Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, B.

    2017-12-01

    Preserving data is not only a technical challenge. Perhaps the best way to protect data is to use it. Grassroots efforts to make research-quality copies of federal data continue to energize communities of data users who often did not previously recognize themselves as open earth data users. Beyond "data rescue" events, the Data Refuge project researches how federal climate and environmental data are used downstream in a variety of local communities and municipal governments to address everyday issues: public health, municipal safety, and even the preservation of cultural heritage assets. Documenting the diverse uses made of open earth data beyond the earth sciences research community grows the community who, in making use of data, also helps to preserve it.

  11. COLETTE users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heenan, R.W.; King, S.M.; Osborn, R.; Stanley, H.B.

    1989-12-01

    This guide describes the computer program COLETTE. It has been purposely designed to reduce the small-angle data collected on the ISIS small-angle neutron camera LOQ in an interactive and user-friendly manner. This not only gives the LOQ user an opportunity to inspect data rapidly and comprehensively during the course of an experiment but also provides the instrument scientists with a flexible diagnostic tool with which they can monitor the performance of the instrument. After the experiment is completed, COLETTE may be used to provide the final I(Q) versus Q following subtraction of a sample background run and normalisation to a scattering standard. By limiting the range of azimuthal angles included in the analysis the program may take sections through an anisotropic scattering pattern from an ordered system. A completely two dimensional I(Q x ,Q y ) map may also be generated. (author)

  12. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group - FI Department

    2005-01-01

    The Farnell catalogue can now be accessed from the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue. Users can order Farnell equipment as well as standard Stores equipment at the same time using a single document, the EDH Materials Request form. The Materials Request form offers users items from both the internal 'Stores' catalogue and the external 'Farnell' catalogue, all of which may be ordered on the same form. The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Farnell equipment to Farnell. The delivery time is 48 hours in both cases. Requests for materials are routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  13. Internet user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furthermore, the paper looks at a representative sample of Romanian internet users. The results reveal that the Romanians are using the Internet especially for information gathering, e-mail, entertainment and social networking.

  14. TEBASCO user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.; Kaiser, T.B.; LoDestro, L.; Maron, N.; Nevins, W.M.; Willmann, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    TEBASCO is a Tandem mirror Equilibrium and BAllooning Stability COde. TEBASCO allows you to compute tandem-mirror MHD equilibria and to analyze both the flute-averaged and ballooning-mode stability of these equilibria. This stability analysis is directed toward the computation of marginal stability boundaries. Users of TEBASCO require a binary output file from the EFFI code which describes the vacuum magnetic field. In making this EFFI file the user will have defined a system of units for lengths (e.g., meters) and magnetic field (e.g., Tesla). In TEBASCO, all magnetic field strengths are normalized to the vacuum center-cell midplane value, and times are defined in units of the time for an Alfven wave in this field to transit one EFFI unit of length

  15. Engaging with users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    Textiles are a part of a global fast fashion system that launches several collections over a year. Research from consumer and wardrobe studies has shown that consumers often wear their clothes only a few times. This has a tremendous impact on the environment. In order to meet this challenge we need...... to change the education of future designers. This is an emerging field at a number of design schools across the world, among these Design School Kolding in Denmark. In this paper we discuss ways in which we as design educators can teach fashion and textile students ways to engage with users during...... the creative process. To a large degree it is not common to engage direct with users in fashion and textile design. However, we see an increasing interest in this subject among the design students and also in recent research within fashion and textiles. We therefore argue that there is a need for participatory...

  16. Engaging with users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    seek to point at the need for alternative transformational strategies that may further the design of products and services for a more sustainable future. This paper is based on the Awareness and Design for Change projects, where we conducted a series of experiments with high school students exploring...... to change the education of future designers. This is an emerging field at a number of design schools across the world, among these Design School Kolding in Denmark. In this paper we discuss ways in which we as design educators can teach fashion and textile students ways to engage with users during...... with the biggest sense organ – our skin. Thus, the aim of our research is to develop new dialogue tools for teaching fashion and textile students in order to stimulate new ways of thinking and engaging with users. By developing and employing participatory design methods in the field of fashion and textiles, we...

  17. Homophyly/Kinship Model: Naturally Evolving Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Li, Jiankou; Pan, Yicheng; Yin, Xianchen; Yong, Xi

    2015-10-01

    It has been a challenge to understand the formation and roles of social groups or natural communities in the evolution of species, societies and real world networks. Here, we propose the hypothesis that homophyly/kinship is the intrinsic mechanism of natural communities, introduce the notion of the affinity exponent and propose the homophyly/kinship model of networks. We demonstrate that the networks of our model satisfy a number of topological, probabilistic and combinatorial properties and, in particular, that the robustness and stability of natural communities increase as the affinity exponent increases and that the reciprocity of the networks in our model decreases as the affinity exponent increases. We show that both homophyly/kinship and reciprocity are essential to the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary games and that the homophyly/kinship and reciprocity determined by the appropriate affinity exponent guarantee the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary games, verifying Darwin’s proposal that kinship and reciprocity are the means of individual fitness. We propose the new principle of structure entropy minimisation for detecting natural communities of networks and verify the functional module property and characteristic properties by a healthy tissue cell network, a citation network, some metabolic networks and a protein interaction network.

  18. The Genetic Basis for Evolved Tolerance to Dioxin-Like Compounds in Wild Atlantic Killifish: More Than the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) resident to some US urban estuaries have independently evolved extreme and inherited tolerance to toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). To further understand the genetic basis for this trait, we densely genotyped families o...

  19. 16. ESRF users meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coraux, J.; Renevier, H.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Daudin, B.; Proietti, M.G.; Renaud, G.; Fowler, B.; Mercer, D.L.; Omar, A.H.; Thompson, P.; Markovic, N.M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Lucas, C.A.; Andrejczuk, A.; Kwiatkowska, J.; Dobrzynski, L.; Zukowski, E.; Bellin, Ch.; Loupias, G.; Shukla, A.; Buslaps, Th.; Stankov, S.; Sladecek, M.; Slezak, T.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Sepiol, B.; Vogl, G.; Chumakov, A.; Ruffer, R.; Hermann, R.P.; Grandjean, F.; Schweika, W.; Long, G.J.; Leupold, O.; Belrhall, H.; Caserotto, H.; Dauvergne, F.; Geoffroy, L.; Guljarro, M.; Launer, L.; Levault, B.; Walsh, M.; Beckers, M.; Schell, N.; Martins, R.M.S.; Mucklich, A.; Moller, W.; Silva, R.J.C.; Mahesh, K.K.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Tejas, Parikh; Neil, Fellows; Durodola, J.; Slawinski, W.; Przenioslo, R.; Sosnowska, I.; Suard, E

    2006-07-01

    This document gathers the posters that were presented during the poster session of this workshop. These posters highlight the results obtained by ESRF'users in different fields such as surface structure, Compton scattering studies, localized vibrational modes in thermoelectric materials, Ni-Ti thin films, residual stresses in superconducting wires, and changes in crystal and magnetic structure of NdFeO{sub 3}.

  20. Female marijuana users

    OpenAIRE

    Šlégrová, Petra

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on specifics of marijuana use among teenage girls. Marijuana use is widely spread among young people and still considered deliquent. In the first part of thesis theories of girl's delinquency are summarized, followed by social control theory by Travis Hirschi on which the analytical part of thesis is based on. The last part completes the information obtained with new findings from qualitative research. The aim of this thesis is to study social situation of girl users, thei...