WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding esl learning

  1. Understanding the Epistemological Divide in ESL Education: What We Learned from a Failed University-School District Collaboration

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    Marx, Sherry; Saavedra, Cinthya M.

    2014-01-01

    In this critically reflective article, we share our perceptions of the epistemologies that shape our own understanding of successful ESL education and that of a school district that asked us to help redevelop its ESL program. Our differing epistemologies, ours critical and aimed toward social justice, theirs built on what we describe as neoliberal…

  2. Smartphones Promote Autonomous Learning in ESL Classrooms

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    Viji Ramamuruthy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of high-technology has caused new inventions of gadgets for all walks of life regardless age. In this rapidly advancing technology era many individuals possess hi-tech gadgets such as laptops, tablets, iPad, android phones and smart phones. Adult learners in higher learning institution especially are fond of using smart phones. Students become passive in the classrooms as they are glued to their smart phones. This situation triggers the question of whether learning really takes place while the students are too engaged with their smart phones in the ESL classroom. In this context, the following questions are framed to investigate this issue: What type of learning skills are gained by using smartphones in ESL classrooms? Does smartphone use promote the autonomous learning process? To what extent do learners rely on the lecturers in addition to the usage of smartphones? What are the learning satisfactions gained by ESL learners using smartphones? A total of 70 smartphone users in the age range 18 to 26 years participated in this quantitative study. Questionnaires eliciting demographic details of the respondents, learning skills, learning satisfaction, students' perception on teacher's role in the ESL classroom and autonomous learning were distributed to all the randomly chosen samples. The data were then analyzed by using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed that smartphone use boosted learners’ critical thinking, creative thinking, communication and collaboration skills. In fact, learners gain great satisfaction in the learning process through smartphones. Although learners have moved toward autonomous learning, they are still reliant on the teachers to achieve their learning goals.

  3. Prisoners Teaching ESL: A Learning Community among "Language Partners"

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    Olinger, Andrea; Bishop, Hugh; Cabrales, Jose; Ginsburg, Rebecca; Mapp, Joseph; Mayorga, Orlando; Nava, Erick; Nunez, Elfego; Rosas, Otilio; Slater, Andre; Sorenson, LuAnn; Sosnowski, Jim; Torres, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    This article features Language Partners, an ESL program offered at the Danville Correctional Center, a medium-security men's prison in central Illinois. The program in which prisoners teach ESL classes, supported by volunteer teacher-trainers, is a learning community with immense and sometimes unforeseen value. The authors discuss reasons for…

  4. Do Peer Tutors Help Teach ESL Students to Learn English as a Second Language More Successfully?

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    Lyttle, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    This research study tries to understand the information processing model and social learning theory in regards to teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to Spanish speakers by using peer teaching methods. This study will examine each theory's concepts and frameworks to better comprehend what teaching methods support English language learning.…

  5. Access to Communication for Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing and ESL Students in Blended Learning Courses

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    Gary L. Long

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to better understand student perceptions of communication in blended (online and traditional learning courses, a 22 item questionnaire was developed and sent to all students registered for these courses at a large technology-focused college during three quarters of instruction. The respondents were divided into four groups: 1 hearing, 2 deaf, 3 hard-of-hearing (D/HH, and 3 English as a second language (ESL. Their perceptions of communication and the blended learning experience were examined. While the hearing and ESL students were positive about blended learning, the findings indicated that deaf and hard-of-hearing students reported that both the quality and quantity of their interactions with the professor and other students was greatly improved by the inclusion of an online component. ESL and hearing students were also positive about the blended experience; but the greatest benefit to communication access was observed by students with a hearing loss.

  6. How to Create a Learning-Centered ESL Program

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    Bista, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the major features of learning-centered community colleges that offer educational programs and experiences for learners, based on individual need. By citing some exemplary learning colleges, the author examines the concepts and ideas of learning-centered colleges in teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. An…

  7. Flipped Learning for ESL Writing in a Sudanese School

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    Abdelrahman, Limia Ali Mohamed; DeWitt, Dorothy; Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Sudanese students seem to lack proficiency in writing English. In addition, teachers continue to use traditional, teacher-centered methods in teaching English as a second language (ESL). The flipped learning (FL) approach where video lectures are assigned as online homework before class, followed by learning activities during class, might be able…

  8. Potential of Mobile Learning in Teaching of ESL Academic Writing

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    Zaki, Arlina Ahmad; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    The potentials of mobile learning in teaching academic writing skills for ESL students are explored in this paper. Although there have been studies on MALL to improve writing skills, academic writing was never really touched. Few aspects are covered like the changes in educational technology, defining MALL, identifying issues in academic writing…

  9. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

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    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children.

  10. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

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    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  11. Perspectives: Using Critical Incidents to Understand ESL Student Satisfaction

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    Walker, John

    2015-01-01

    In a marketized environment, ESL providers, in common with other postcompulsory educational institutions, canvass student satisfaction with their services. While the predominant method is likely to be based on tick-box questionnaires using Likert scales that measure degrees of satisfaction, qualitative methodology is an option when rich data is…

  12. Smartphones Promote Autonomous Learning in ESL Classrooms

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    Ramamuruthy, Viji; Rao, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of high-technology has caused new inventions of gadgets for all walks of life regardless age. In this rapidly advancing technology era many individuals possess hi-tech gadgets such as laptops, tablets, iPad, android phones and smart phones. Adult learners in higher learning institution especially are fond of using smart…

  13. Social Network Sites as ESL/EFL Learning and Teaching Tools: A Critical Review

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    Sulaiman Alnujaidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the educational and instructional implications of Social Network Sites (SNS in the ESL/EFL teaching and learning context. SNS's definition, types, classifications, features, positive and negative aspects, their educational implications as well as their limitations and challenges in the ESL/EFL classroom settings are identified and discussed in order to better utilize and integrate their innovative aspects into the language teaching and learning practices.

  14. Understanding L2 Speaking Problems: Implications for ESL Curriculum Development in a Teacher Training Institution in Hong Kong

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    Gan, Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the result of a study that aimed to identify the problems with oral English skills of ESL (English as a second language) students at a tertiary teacher training institution in Hong Kong. The study, by way of semi-structured interview, addresses the gap in our understanding of the difficulties ESL students encountered in their…

  15. Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Supported Project-Based Learning in EFL/ESL Classrooms

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    Bas, Gokhan

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the implementation of Multiple Intelligences supported Project-Based learning in EFL/ESL Classrooms. In this study, after Multiple Intelligences supported Project-based learning was presented shortly, the implementation of this learning method into English classrooms. Implementation process of MI supported Project-based…

  16. ESL students learning biology: The role of language and social interactions

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    Jaipal, Kamini

    This study explored three aspects related to ESL students in a mainstream grade 11 biology classroom: (1) the nature of students' participation in classroom activities, (2) the factors that enhanced or constrained ESL students' engagement in social interactions, and (3) the role of language in the learning of science. Ten ESL students were observed over an eight-month period in this biology classroom. Data were collected using qualitative research methods such as participant observation, audio-recordings of lessons, field notes, semi-structured interviews, short lesson recall interviews and students' written work. The study was framed within sociocultural perspectives, particularly the social constructivist perspectives of Vygotsky (1962, 1978) and Wertsch (1991). Data were analysed with respect to the three research aspects. Firstly, the findings showed that ESL students' preferred and exhibited a variety of participation practices that ranged from personal-individual to socio-interactive in nature. Both personal-individual and socio-interactive practices appeared to support science and language learning. Secondly, the findings indicated that ESL students' engagement in classroom social interactions was most likely influenced by the complex interactions between a number of competing factors at the individual, interpersonal and community/cultural levels (Rogoff, Radziszewska, & Masiello, 1995). In this study, six factors that appeared to enhance or constrain ESL students' engagement in classroom social interactions were identified. These factors were socio-cultural factors, prior classroom practice, teaching practices, affective factors, English language proficiency, and participation in the research project. Thirdly, the findings indicated that language played a significant mediational role in ESL students' learning of science. The data revealed that the learning of science terms and concepts can be explained by a functional model of language that includes: (1

  17. An Examination of the Self-Directed Learning Practices of ESL Adult Language Learners

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    Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…

  18. Transformative Learning around Issues of Language and Culture among ESL Teachers

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    Schmick, Dara Pachence

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the significant teaching and learning experiences of ESL teachers around the issues of culture and language. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by transformative learning theory. The study began with semi-structured in-depth interviews with twelve teachers who obtained their ESL…

  19. Investigating Factors That Contribute to Effective Teaching-Learning Practices: EFL/ESL Classroom Context

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    Islam, Rukaia

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to address some key issues, which can influence as well as determine the nature of teaching and learning practices in an ELT classroom directly or indirectly. This paper views an EFL or ESL classroom as a dynamic and multi-dimensional platform open to different interpretations of teaching and learning. Factors like teachers'…

  20. Social Positioning, Participation, and Second Language Learning: Talkative Students in an Academic ESL Classroom

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    Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye

    2014-01-01

    Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…

  1. Language Learning in the Library: An Exploratory Study of ESL Students

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    Bordonaro, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative research study investigates the uses of an American college library by ESL students in improving their language skills in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Language learning activities in the library are identified, described, and placed in a framework of self-directed language learning and language learner autonomy.

  2. Learning Style Preferences Among Male and Female ESL Students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia

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    Munir Shuib

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals preferentially process information in different ways. This includes the varied learning style preference of the individuals in any study program, including English as a Second Language (ESL. However, one of major concerns is, do the ESL students have different preferred way to learn? Past studies have given mixed results including pertaining to Malaysian students. To address this issue, this study sought to identify whether there are differences in learning style preferences between male and female students who undertook ESL courses in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. To achieve the study objective, Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM was selected to gather data on the respondents’ learning style preference due to its validity, widespread use and suitability to the scope of the study. The responses gathered from FSLSM were tallied and assessed for gender difference in LSP. Results indicated that, there is a strong representation of visual learners from both male and female respondents. On the other hand, the respondents, irrespective of the gender difference, are well-balanced in the dimensions of sensing/intuitive, active/reflective, and sequential/global. In addressing the gender difference, it was found in this study that there is no significant difference between male and female ESL students in their preferred learning styles on each of the FSLSM dimension. Thus, this study revealed that, gender does not help differentiate students’ learning preferences. The findings lend support to several past studies on LSP.

  3. Undergraduate ESL Students' Engagement in Academic Reading and Writing in Learning to Write a Synthesis Paper

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    Zhao, Ruilan; Hirvela, Alan

    2015-01-01

    As an important and a challenging source-based writing task, synthesizing offers rich opportunities to explore the connections between reading and writing. In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study of two Chinese students' learning experiences with academic synthesis writing in a university ESL composition course. Specifically,…

  4. Learner’s Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL among UKM Undergraduates

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    Nooreiny Maarof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate’s experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English language learning experiences at the tertiary level in this country. It reflects on how the teaching of English is variously conceptualized in our classrooms, raising important questions about the positions of English literacy to Malaysian undergraduates. A qualitative research method was employed, whereby a semi-structured interview session was conducted compromising thirty Bachelor of Arts undergraduates (BA ELS. The findings of this study suggests learners at tertiary  level do face challenges in their ESL classroom learning,  in areas such as the learning environment itself needs to be improved, the quality of education, the academics, the role of educators and the teaching approach were among others pointed out by the learners themselves.  Keywords: English language teaching, English as Second language (ESL, learner’s experiences, learner’s difficulties, language learners

  5. Bilingual and ESL Pre-Service Teachers Learn about Effective Instruction for ELLs through Meaningful Collaboration

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    Rodríguez, Alma D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study conducted to identify the perceptions of bilingual and ESL pre-service teachers regarding the integration of a collaborative service learning project in a key course of their teacher preparation program. Pre-, process, and final reflective essays were written by participants as they engaged in the…

  6. Learning English Tenses through Spanish Grammar : When Using the L1 Benefits ESL Learning

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    López Garrido, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The current teaching trend of ESL is focused on maximizing the use of the L2 so that the student learns the language through linguistic immersion. This approach leaves the L1 out of the game, even though research has shown it can also be beneficial for the learner. My research intends to demonstrate that translation of English grammar tenses into Spanish can be a helpful way of assimilating English grammar more easily and faster, especially for those students with a poor command of English. ...

  7. BALL (Blogs Assisted Language Learning: Are Malaysian Secondary School Students Prepared to Use Blogs in ESL Learning?

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    Zurainee Ariffin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out second language learners' perceptions on the use of blogs in their learning process. Participants were 20 secondary school students from a suburban school in Kelantan, Malaysia. The students read articles, discussed in their respective groups and posted their comments in their group blogs in two kinds of learning environment; being supervised face-to-face and virtually.  A survey and also oral interview were administered to elicit participants' perceptions on the use of blogs. The results showed that although the incorporation of blogs in ESL learning were perceived positively among the learners, teachers need to be aware of several factors affect the effectiveness of using this technology in their teaching such as students’ gender, personality and learning preferences.  This paper also provides some pedagogical implications in the use of blogs for ESL learning.

  8. The Effect of Chinese ESL Learners’ Beliefs on their Autonomous Learning

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    Qunyan Zhong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available What beliefs do Chinese learners hold about language learning? What is the effect of these beliefs on their autonomous learning? These are the two questions that this study aims to address. I employed naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln & Guba, 1985 to investigate five Chinese ESL learners’ beliefs about language learning and their learning behaviour. A number of instruments (interviews, classroom observations and stimulated recall, learning logs were used to collect triangulated data over a 12-week period. Following standard procedures of qualitative data analysis, I identified five categories of learners’ beliefs. The results revealed that the beliefs that the learners held were context-specific, reflecting their learning experiences. Some of them were conducive to learning autonomy while others were not. The beliefs influenced the level of the learners’ autonomy. The study suggests that educators should take into account learners’ beliefs when promoting autonomous learning.

  9. Leading the Proverbial Thirsty Horse to Water: ESL Learners’ Experience with Language Learning Contracts

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    Normah Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is agreement among language educators that the process of language teaching and learning should aim to develop autonomous language learners. While the advantages of autonomy seem to be quite obvious, fostering autonomy in practice can prove to be difficult for some language learners. This paper describes the use of learning contracts as a strategy for enhancing learner autonomy among a group of ESL learners in a Malaysian university. Through learners’ account of their experiences with the contracts, the study concludes that the learning contract has potential use for language learning and that learners’ positive learning experience remains the key to the success of any endeavour seeking to promote learner autonomy. The paper ends with some implications for teachers and learners who wish to use the contracts as a strategy for language teaching and learning.

  10. THE LANGUAGE LEARNING BELIEFS OF ARAB ESL STUDENTS

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    Khairi Obaid Al-Zubaidi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning a second / foreign language is more than memorizing the grammatical rules and vocabularies. Language learning is a very complex activity, and culture plays a crucial role in this very dynamic, amorphous and debatable process. Learners of foreign /second languages also use different learning strategies which are influenced very much by their cultural and educational backgrounds. Belief is one of the most significant and important components of culture that encompasses language, religion, race and the personal history of any individual. During the last two decades many researchers have focused on learners‘ beliefs. This study investigates the beliefs of Arab undergraduate students who are studying at three Malaysian Universities, are assessed on an adapted version of the Belief about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, which was developed by Horwitz (1985. The paper assesses the students‘ beliefs in relation to the following areas of language learning: difficulty of language learning; foreign language aptitude; the nature of language learning; learning and communication strategies; and motivations and expectations.

  11. The Use of "Socrative" in ESL Classrooms: Towards Active Learning

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    El Shaban, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The online student response system (SRS) is a technological tool that can be effectively implemented in English language classroom contexts and be used to promote students' active learning. In this qualitative study, "Socrative", a Web 2.0 software, was integrated with active learning activities and used as an SRS to explore English…

  12. Expanding Learning and Teaching Processes in an ESL/Civics ABE Classroom Using an Interactive Video Lesson Plan in the U.S. Southwest: An Action Research Study

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    Cajar-Bravo, Aristides

    2010-01-01

    This study is an action research project that analyzed the ways in which ESL students improve their language learning processes by using as a teaching tool a media literacy video and Civics Education for social skills; it was presented to two groups of 12 students who were attending an ESL/Civics Education Intermediate-Advanced class in an ABE…

  13. "Does a Spider Have Fur"?: A Teacher's Journey in Building the Confidence to Blend the English Language Learning of ESL Students with Inquiry-Based Science

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    Zeegers, Yvonne; McKinnon, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes one aspect of an ESL teacher's journey, in which her voluntary involvement in a series of science-based professional learning events inspired her to use language-based objectives to develop and teach an integrated unit of work with ESL students. Her willingness to modify her usual pedagogical practice and the inspiration she…

  14. LEARNING GERMAN AS A THIRD LANGUAGE THROUGHS ESL. STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP VOCABULARY

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    Carmen-Daniela CARAIMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at revealing advantages of studying German (acquired as an L3 by a speaker who has a high level of knowledge in English (acquired as an L2. Those interested in learning German as a third language through ESL may benefit from a set of facilities that could fasten the process of learning vocabulary and enhance the disambiguation process in case of synonymy, false friends and pseudo-Anglicism. The approach we have adopted in the present paper is a practical one. We have appreciated that the process of assimilating German as an L3 through ESL could offer another benefit to learners, i.e. the possibility of simultaneously activating and practicing both foreign languages that they either master or intend to master. In the present paper, we are not going to refer to the influence of the socio-cultural environment1 on the learners of German as an L3 through English as a Secondary Language, as we are not going to make reference to psycholinguistic elements2 that are characteristic of third language acquisition. After explaining terminology and giving an overview of the theoretical background that we related to when writing the present article, we are going to insist on enumerating some basic strategies that could be successfully used to build and develop vocabulary in German by using English as a secondly acquired foreign language.

  15. Photography and Writing: Alternative Ways of Learning for ESL Students

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    Friesen, Helen Lepp

    2012-01-01

    To writing, painting, drawing, and photography as artistic media, the author would like to add teaching as a creative endeavor as well. Especially in a classroom where English is not the first language for many students, the writing teacher needs to be creative with assignments and activities that address nontraditional ways of learning. Her…

  16. Student Perception of Online Learning in ESL Bilingual Teacher Preparation

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    Daniel, Mayra C.; Schumacher, Gail; Stelter, Nicole; Riley, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies are changing delivery options for post-graduate teacher education. Many practicing teachers who return to school to prepare to educate English learners choose distance learning. This article explores teachers' perceived satisfaction with the quality of online courses, with the collaborative tasks required in these, and the…

  17. Mobile Learning to Improve Writing in ESL Teaching

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    Noriega, Heidy Selene Robles

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study concerning the type of texts and their features produced by a student after using mobile technology as a support to improve the development of the students' writing skills in a second language. The Functional Systemic Linguistic (FSL), Genre Pedagogical Approach (GPA), and mobile learning concepts…

  18. Exploring ESL Students' Understanding of Mathematics in the Early Years: Factors That Make a Difference

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    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more…

  19. The Relationships between Language Learning Strategies and Positive Emotions among Malaysian ESL

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    Mohammad Mohammadipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling from 5 public universities in Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected through two sets of questionnaires: (a Oxford's (1990 Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, and (b Fredrickson's (2009 modified Differential Emotional Scale (mDES. The qualitative data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. With regard to the quantitative data analysis, a series of t-tests and correlational analyses were used. The data from the interviews were analysed qualitatively. A positive significant correlation was found between positive emotions and overall language learning strategy use. Also, the qualitative results of the study indicated that the learners who experienced more positive emotions tended to use a greater variety of language learning strategies. The findings of the study emphasise the importance of students’ positive emotions in their use of language learning strategies. It might be suggested that teachers by designing the classroom settings and instructions which promote positive emotions can inspire learners to use language learning strategies more frequently and with a greater variety which in sequence relate to learners’ language learning proficiency.

  20. ESL Placement and Schools

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    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn. PMID:20617111

  1. Becoming Sociocultural Mediators: What All Educators Can Learn from Bilingual and ESL Teachers

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    Nieto, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses specifically on how what she calls non-specialist teachers (i.e., those who are neither bilingual nor ESL teachers) can benefit from the practices of bilingual and ESL teachers, and how teacher educators can incorporate this knowledge in their curriculum and pedagogy. To do so, she uses examples from research…

  2. WHAT STUDENTS SAY AND WHAT TEACHERS THINK: INFORMAL TALK IN ESL LEARNING

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    Kimberly Bunts-Anderson, PhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of interacting with others has long been considered a critical component of learning processes in general and from a Social Interactions perspective, of language learning, specifically. This presentation explores these relationships from either side of the classroom door. The discussion centers on the beliefs and experiences of learners’ spoken interactions in their own lives outside the classroom and how students view communication with others as impacting their overall knowledge of the language. The paper also looks at these issues from the perspective of the teachers. Multiple perspectives are illustrated with data collected from two Australian studies. The first study describes a cooperative action research project conducted with 13 foreign ESL students focused on enhancing their language learning through improving their personal out-of-class spoken interactions with others. Individual’s narratives of language learning and communication are presented. Results indicate improved learner efficacy and higher assessments in formal learning contexts. The second study is a phenomenographic investigation of 28 EAP instructors’ reported descriptions of learners’ verbal communications in and outside the classroom. Findings indicate greater awareness of formal interactions and fewer categories of conceptions for informal spoken language. The resulting categories for language appear similar to reports of surface and deeper approaches of learning, knowing and thinking in other subject areas. The researcher provided excerpts of instructors' reports and discusses the significance of developing an awareness of the relationships between these spoken communications and cognition. In conclusion, audience participants were asked to share their own thoughts and experiences with these relationships.

  3. Science Education and ESL Students

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    Allen, Heather; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    The number of students who learn English as a second language (ESL) in U.S. schools has grown significantly in the past decade. This segment of the student population increased by 56% between the 1994-95 and 2004-05 school years (NCLR 2007). As the ESL student population increases, many science teachers struggle to tailor instructional materials,…

  4. Error Detection in ESL Teaching

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    Rogoveanu Raluca

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of error correction in the larger paradigm of ESL teaching and learning. It conceptualizes error as an inevitable variable in the process of learning and as a frequently occurring element in written and oral discourses of ESL learners. It also identifies specific strategies in which error can be detected and corrected and makes reference to various theoretical trends and their approach to error correction, as well as to the relation between language instructor...

  5. The role of the phonological loop in English word learning: a comparison of Chinese ESL learners and native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-04-01

    Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level Chinese ESL learners (N = 20) and native speakers of English (N = 20). The groups performed a paired associative learning task under two conditions (control versus articulatory suppression) with two word types (regularly spelled versus irregularly spelled words) differing in degree of phonological accessibility. The results demonstrated that both groups' recall declined when the phonological loop was made less available (with irregularly spelled words and in the articulatory suppression condition), but the decline was greater for the native group. These results suggest that word learning entails phonological encoding uniformly across learners, but the contribution of phonology varies among learners with diverse linguistic backgrounds.

  6. ESL Coteaching and Collaboration: Opportunities to Develop Teacher Leadership and Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Maria; Honigsfeld, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Across the United States, mainstream and English as a second language (ESL) teachers have been sharing their expertise using coteaching and collaboration strategies gleaned from their counterparts in special education inclusion classrooms. These teacher leaders are working together to enhance instruction for their English language learner (ELL)…

  7. Understanding the experiences of a group of Yemeni students in an ESL science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradi, Gihan

    American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different

  8. Comparing Digital Badges-and-Points with Classroom Token Systems: Effects on Elementary School ESL Students' Classroom Behavior and English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Ryan; Hew, Khe Foon; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a field experiment that gamified the classroom experience of elementary school ESL students by implementing digital badges-and-points which students could earn by achieving specific behavioral and learning goals. Altogether, 120 children in eight different classes participated in this study. Four of the classes…

  9. Development of Interactive and Reflective Learning among Malaysian Online Distant Learners: An ESL Instructor’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvaneswary Murugaiah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology has brought tremendous advancements in online education, spurring transformations in online pedagogical practices. Online learning in the past was passive, using the traditional teacher-centred approach. However, with the tools available today, it can be active, collaborative, and meaningful. A well-developed task can impel learners to observe, to reflect, to strategize, and to plan their own learning. This paper describes an English as a Second Language (ESL instructor’s attempt to foster interactive and reflective learning among distance learners at a public university in Malaysia, working within the framework proposed by Salmon (2004. The authors found that proper planning and close monitoring of a writing activity that incorporates interactive and reflective learning helped to raise the students’ awareness of their own learning process and consequently helped them to be more responsible for their learning. The students acquired significant cognitive benefits and also valuable practical learning skills through the online discussions. However, there were challenges in carrying out the writing task to promote this form of learning, including students’ professional and family commitments and cultural attitudes as well as communication barriers in the online environment. To address these challenges, the authors recommend the following: ensure tutor guidance, enforce compulsory participation, address technical problems quickly, commence strategic training prior to the beginning of a task, and implement team teaching with each instructor taking on certain roles.

  10. Internationalizing the Language-Learning Environment : A "Two-Way" Bilingual Programme for ESL & JSL Students

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, BILLINGSLEY; 桃山学院大学文学部

    1997-01-01

    Since the summer of 1992, Momoyama Gakuin University and Douglas College have been operating regular 5-week Bilingual Language & Culture Institutes (BLCI). Taking place in both the spring and summer of each year, the programmes are participated in by Momoyama stu-dents studying English as a second language (ESLs), and Douglas College students studying Japanese as a second (or foreign) language (JSLs). The BLCI is based on a simple contract between the two groups of learners: "If you help me t...

  11. English made easy volume one a new ESL approach learning English through pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives beginner English learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text

  12. Contextualized Workforce Skills and ESL Learner Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafai, Maliheh Mansuripur

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical case study centering on adult ESL learners' motivational patterns for learning English and its relevance to their career goals. It looks at past patterns of immigrant insertion within the socioeconomic context of the US and explores current trends in adult ESL curriculum development focused on the task of…

  13. English made easy, v.1 a new ESL approach learning English through pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This is a fun and userfriendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learningimaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives beginner English learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Selfguided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combina

  14. Developing cross-cultural communicative competence via computer-assisted language learning: the case of pre-service ESL/EFL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah Salim Sehlaoui

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the relevant literature strongly suggests that many, if not most, English as a Second or Foreign Language (ESL/EFL teacher education programmes typically utilize concepts of culture and strategies for teaching and learning that are open to some cogent, but constructive, critiques from the perspective of critical educational theory. In addition, according to Wise (1995, throughout the last ten years the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education has required that colleges of teacher education must integrate technology into their curricula. In fact, ESL/EFL teacher education programmes are increasingly incorporating computer-based technologies and software into their curricula. However, this integration is often done in ways that seem to leave unquestioned the potential cultural and hegemonic ramifications of such technology (see, for example, Bowers, 1988; Jones, 1995; Morton, 1996; Murray, 1997; Sehlaoui, 1999.

  15. ESL Students' Attitudes toward Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvela, Alan; Nussbaum, Alexander; Pierson, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Punctuation is a surprisingly underexplored area of second language writing and learning. The small body of published literature about punctuation tends to look at ways in which punctuation can be taught. Little is known, except anecdotally, about how English as a second language (ESL) students actually feel about using English punctuation,…

  16. The Type of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by ESL Students in University Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Azadeh; Mustapha, Ghazali Bin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that learners will face during the process of second language learning is learning vocabulary. Vocabulary has been recognized as crucial to language use in which insufficient vocabulary knowledge of the learners led to difficulties in second language learning. Thus, in the case of learning the vocabulary in…

  17. Professional Learning Communities: Teaching, Learning, Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Phaedra Bell

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to focus on teacher learning as it relates to professional learning communities. It is often touted that schools are a place for student learning, but many teachers now see school as a place for them to become learners as well through professional learning communities. This qualitative case study was designed to…

  18. ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH TO EFL/ESL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Pasassung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that ethnography, as an approach, is a very useful tool to be applied in research attempting a good understanding of EFL/ESL classrooms. With reference to work done by anthropologists and classroom researchers, the pre- sent article argues that education, including EFL/ESL classrooms, can be well un- derstood by using ethnographic  approaches.  This is done by elaborating  the rele- vance of ethnography and the classroom context in the sense that ethnographic prin- ciples are applicable in describing and understanding the culture of a classroom, and EFL/ESL teaching in particular.

  19. ESL Teaching and Learning Styles at the University of the Americas, Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, Thomas A.; Milman, Jacquelyn

    A summary is presented of research on learning and teaching styles in English as a Second Language, and of results of learning and teaching style preference surveys conducted at a Mexican university in 1989. The students surveyed demonstrated much more cognitive flexibility or willingness to learn through different cognitive modes than was…

  20. An Operationalized Understanding of Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, James D.; Hall, Tracey E.; Carter, Richard A., Jr.; Stahl, William M.

    2016-01-01

    As referenced in the Every Student Succeeds Act and the National Educational Technology Plan, personalized learning is the new focus in many K-12 learning environments. Nonetheless, few people understand what personalized learning really means and even fewer can design and implement a personalized learning environment appropriate for all learners,…

  1. Understanding Learning Style by Eye Tracking in Slide Video Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianxia; Nishihara, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    More and more videos are now being used in e-learning context. For improving learning effect, to understand how students view the online video is important. In this research, we investigate how students deploy their attention when they learn through interactive slide video in the aim of better understanding observers' learning style. Felder and…

  2. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  3. ESL Vocabulary Learning in a TOEFL Preparation Class: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Building on the prior work of Sanaoui (1995), this article reports on the results of administering a self-report questionnaire to students of English as a Second Language to discover the vocabulary learning activities that learners engaged in outside class. Discusses why a structured learning approach did not predict either greater vocabulary…

  4. Perceptions and Use of Language Learning Strategies among ESL Teachers and ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Tretter, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This survey study explored perceptions and use of language learning strategies among English as a second language teachers and English-learning students (Grades 3-8, 10, and 11). The sample comprised 1,057 students (651 elementary, 275 middle, and 131 high school) and 54 teachers (31 elementary, 11 middle, and 12 high school) from 38 schools…

  5. Compensation Still Matters: Language Learning Strategies in Third Millennium ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarami, Alireza; Hajhashemi, Karim; Caltabiano, Nerina J.

    2017-01-01

    Digital media play enormous roles in much of the learning, communication, socializing, and ways of working for "Net-Generation" learners who are growing up in a wired world. Living in this digital era may require different ways of communicating, thinking, approaching learning, prioritizing strategies, interpersonally communicating, and…

  6. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use the prev......The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use...

  7. Authority, Academic Discourse and Ideology in the ESL Writing Class: An ESL teacher’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Kanakri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an ESL teachers’ perspective on teaching ESL writing to advanced second language learners reflecting on her experience as an ESL teachers drawing on the students’ responses to survey questions. It shows that writing in English as a Second language has political, cultural, and historical aspects since the “nature and functions of discourse, audience, and persuasive appeals often differ across linguistic, cultural, and educational contexts” In addition, acquiring the discourse proprieties is challenging because they represent culturally bound, conventionalized, and abstract characteristics of academic prose that are frequently absent in written discourse in rhetorical traditions other than the English dominant educational environments. ESL teachers should get the awareness of the needs and challenges that the face and understand the linguistic, cultural, and educational background they are coming from in order to help them overcome these challenges which also should dictate the instructional pedagogies, curriculum and assessment. Keywords: academic discourse, ESL writing, teacher’s perspective, ideology

  8. Understanding nomadic collaborative learning groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    -term collaborations within the frame of Problem and Project Based Learning. By analysing the patterns of nomadic collaborative learning we identify and discuss how the two groups of students incorporate mobile and digital technologies as well as physical and/or non-digital technologies into their group work......The paper builds on the work of Rossitto et al. on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long....... Specifically, we identify the following categories of nomadic collaborative learning practices: “orchestration of work phases, spaces and activities,” “the orchestration of multiple technologies” and “orchestration of togetherness.” We found that for both groups of students there was a fluidity, situatedness...

  9. Multiple Intelligences and ESL Teaching and Learning: An Investigation in KG II Classrooms in One Private School in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Norma

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' use of the Multiple Intelligences Theory on vocabulary acquisition by preschoolers during English as a second language (ESL) classes in a K-12 school in Lebanon. Eighty kindergartners (KG II, aged 5 years) and eight teachers constituted the sample. The study used mixed methods, including observations of videotaped…

  10. Becoming Black: Rap and Hip Hop, Race, Gender, Identity, and the Politics of ESL Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awad El Karim M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how a group of continental Francophone African youth at a French high school in Ottawa, Canada "become Black" as they enter a world that already constructs them as Black. These students learn Black English, which they access in hip-hop culture and linguistic styles. Discusses the impact of becoming Black on…

  11. Project-Based Learning through the Eyes of Teachers and Students in Adult ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Cristina; Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The use of projects and project-based learning has recently received much attention as a way of promoting meaning-focused communication and integrating different language skills into second and foreign language classrooms. However, perspectives on the effective implementation of projects have not been fully explored. This study examines and…

  12. Filipino ESL Learners' Attitudes toward Cooperative Learning and Their Relationship to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong; Torres, Patrisha Lliane O.

    2016-01-01

    Departing from Gonzales and Torres' (2015) quantitative quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of cooperative learning (CL) on Grade 8 students in a private school in Manila, the present study attempts to uncover possible findings in the affective dimension through a 25-item survey questionnaire that quantitatively gauges the Grade 8…

  13. Use of Content Based Instruction and Socratic Discussion for ESL Undergraduate Biomedical Science Students to Develop Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burder, Ronan L.; Tangalaki, Kathy; Hryciw, Deanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Content based language instruction can assist English as a second language (ESL) students to achieve better learning and teaching outcomes, however, it is primarily used to understand content, and may not help to develop critical analysis skills. Here we describe a pilot study that used a "Socratic" small-group discussion in addition to…

  14. Comments on Awad El Karim M. Ibrahim's "Becoming Black: Rap and Hip-Hop, Race, Gender, and Identity and the Politics of ESL Learning" [and] A Reader Reacts . . . [and] Identity or Identification? A Response to Some Objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lynn; Ibrahim, Awad El Karim M.

    2000-01-01

    Goldstein questions the way Awad El Karim M. Ibrahim portrayed her research on the language and identity of Hispanic English-as-a-Second-Language learners in his article, "Becoming Black: Rap and Hip-Hop, Race, Gender, and Identity and the Politics of ESL Learning." Ibrahim responds to these comments. (Author/VWL)

  15. Understanding Nomadic Collaborative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    The paper builds on the work of Rossitto "et al." on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long-term collaborations within the frame…

  16. Teaching and learning grade 7 science concepts by elaborate analogies: Mainstream and East and South Asian ESL students' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Judy Joo-Hyun

    This study explored the effectiveness of an instructional tool, elaborate analogy, in teaching the particle theory to both Grade 7 mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students. Ten Grade 7 science classes from five different schools in a large school district in the Greater Toronto area participated. Each of the ten classes were designated as either Group X or Y. Using a quasi-experimental counterbalanced design, Group X students were taught one science unit using the elaborate analogies, while Group Y students were taught by their teachers' usual methods of teaching. The instructional methods used for Group X and Y were interchanged for the subsequent science unit. Quantitative data were collected from 95 students (50 mainstream and 45 ESL) by means of a posttest and a follow-up test for each of the units. When the differences between mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students were analyzed, the results indicate that both groups scored higher on the posttests when they were instructed with elaborate analogies, and that the difference between the two groups was not significant. That is, the ESL students, as well as the mainstream students, benefited academically when they were instructed with the elaborate analogies. The students obtained higher inferential scores on the posttest when their teacher connected the features of less familiar and more abstract scientific concepts to the features of the familiar and easy-to-visualize concept of school dances. However, after two months, the students were unable to recall inferential content knowledge. This is perhaps due to the lack of opportunity for the students to represent and test their initial mental models. Rather than merely employing elaborate analogies, perhaps, science teachers can supplement the use of elaborate analogies with explicit guidance in helping students to represent and test the coherence of their mental models.

  17. The Effects of Academic Skills on Chinese ESL Students' Lecture Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyan

    2006-01-01

    Research with ESL students has begun to show that Chinese students experience particular challenges in English academic listening. This study focuses on their challenges as reported by Chinese ESL students in understanding English lectures. Seventy-eight Chinese ESL students at an American university participated in this study. This paper focuses…

  18. Understanding respect: learning from patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickert, N W; Kass, N E

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of respecting patients and participants in clinical research is widely recognised. However, what it means to respect persons beyond recognising them as autonomous is unclear, and little is known about what patients find to be respectful. Objective To understand patients’ conceptions of respect and what it means to be respected by medical providers. Design Qualitative study from an academic cardiology clinic, using semistructured interviews with 18 survivors of sudden cardiac death. Results Patients believed that respecting persons incorporates the following major elements: empathy, care, autonomy, provision of information, recognition of individuality, dignity and attention to needs. Conclusions Making patients feel respected, or valued as a person, is a multi-faceted task that involves more than recognising autonomy. While patients’ views of respect do not determine what respect means, these patients expressed important intuitions that may be of substantial conceptual relevance. PMID:19567690

  19. Learning with Animation and Illusions of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Eugene S.; Schraw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The illusion of understanding hypothesis asserts that, when people are learning with multimedia presentations, the addition of animation can affect metacognitive monitoring such that they perceive the presentation to be easier to understand and develop more optimistic metacomprehension. As a result, learners invest less cognitive effort when…

  20. ESL Multilevel Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melvin G.

    This guide is designed for teachers of multilevel classes in English as a Second Language (ESL) at the adult level. The first section discusses principles, methods, and techniques for classroom instruction, including student grouping, appropriate ESL teaching methods (audiolingual, vocational, language experience, natural approach,…

  1. BALL (Blogs Assisted Language Learning): Are Malaysian Secondary School Students Prepared to Use Blogs in ESL Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Zurainee; Yaacob, Aizan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to find out second language learners' perceptions on the use of blogs in their learning process. Participants were 20 secondary school students from a suburban school in Kelantan, Malaysia. The students read articles, discussed in their respective groups and posted their comments in their group blogs in two kinds of learning…

  2. Divergence in Curricular-Weight Teacher-Efforts and Student-Difficulties in Secondary School ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Gafoor, K.; Sreeja, C.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of English as a global language, calls for an equally vigorous attempt to improving teaching and learning it in schools as a second language within and outside India. Highlighting the relevance of contextualising ESL learning by allowing for the needs of students and teachers in undertaking reforms to ESL learning, this…

  3. Unexpected Poor Comprehenders among Adolescent ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored characteristics of reading comprehension difficulties among Chinese students learning English as a second language (ESL). Two hundred forty-six Grade 8 English-immersion students in China were administered a battery of reading-related and reading comprehension tests. Three groups of comprehenders matched on age, nonverbal…

  4. Improving clinical communication of students with English as a second language (ESL) using online technology: a small scale evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, students with English as a second language (ESL) are enrolled in nursing degrees in English speaking countries (Wang et al., 2008). However, they may be at risk of clinical practice failure due to communication difficulties associated with unfamiliar linguistic and cultural factors (Guhde, 2003). This paper describes and evaluates an innovation to assist ESL nursing students at an Australian university develop their clinical communication skills and practice readiness by providing online learning resources, using podcast and vodcast technology, that blend with classroom activities and facilitate flexible and independent learning. The innovation builds on an intensive clinical language workshop program called 'Clinically Speaking' which has evolved through a cyclical process of ongoing research to produce resources in response to students' learning needs. Whilst uptake of the resources was modest, students of ESL as well as English speaking backgrounds (ESB) found the resources improved their clinical preparation and confidence by increasing their understanding of expectations, clinical language and communication skills. The innovation, developed with a modest budget, shows potential in developing ESL and ESB students' readiness for clinical communication, enabling them to engage in clinical practice to develop competency standards required of nursing graduates and registration authorities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding and combating resistance to online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo, John

    2016-12-01

    Resistance to change is an easy thing for human beings to understand. It is at the heart of our desire to find comfort with the familiar such as family, friends and our homes. We create homes that are designed a certain way and usually are slow to change. We make friends for years and keep those memories etched in stone, even though time and age create a romanticised version of the past. Change scares us so much that we reflect on our past, the old days, with such reverence that we paint over the ugly parts. However, we still talk about how change is good. Consider our institutionalised method of learning that has existed for centuries and involved people sitting learning from another person in a physical space. Then, suddenly in the last 20 years, there is a complete change and almost every major institution in the United States and many around the world decided to offer a new method of learning. Enter online learning. It becomes a sudden disruption to a traditional system. It is not surprising that there has been resistance from faculty, students and administrators. Even in the face of evidence that online learning works as effectively as traditional onsite learning, still people resist. Oddly enough, the resistance can come from those who base their careers on facts and research, but continue to ignore the evidence. Even performance results get ignored. While this article will address the source of resistance to online learning, it will focus primarily on how to combat this resistance within an organisation or institution.

  6. The Role of Transitions in ESL Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transitions in ESL contexts generally refer to those linking words placed between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitions in writing (and in speaking) are helpful; they facilitate coherence and cohesion when used correctly. Understanding them when reading allows us to join the writer in seeing why and how idea B follows idea A. In this…

  7. Willing Learners yet Unwilling Speakers in ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Ali

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To some of us, speech production in ESL has become so natural and integral that we seem to take it for granted. We often do not even remember how we struggled through the initial process of mastering English. Unfortunately, to students who are still learning English, they seem to face myriad problems that make them appear unwilling or reluctant ESL speakers. This study will investigate this phenomenon which is very common in the ESL classroom. Setting its background on related research findings on this matter, a qualitative study was conducted among foreign students enrolled in the Intensive English Programme (IEP at Institute of Liberal Studies (IKAL, University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN. The results will show and discuss an extent of truth behind this perplexing phenomenon: willing learners, yet unwilling speakers of ESL, in our effort to provide supportive learning cultures in second language acquisition (SLA to this group of students.

  8. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  9. Exploring Service Logic in ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John

    2013-01-01

    ESL is both a professional educational service and, particularly in post-compulsory contexts, a commercial activity. The effective management of ESL programs can secure quality outcomes for practitioners and students. Nevertheless, writings on ESL management do not figure prominently in the literature. In particular, the association between…

  10. Writing Together, Learning Together: Teacher Development through Community Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Prater, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, community service learning is incorporated into a graduate-level English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher preparation course. Focusing on a writing project participants completed with English Learners (ELs) as part of the service-learning project, we explored the impact of the project on: (1) teachers' understanding of ESL…

  11. Instructor-Student Rapport in Taiwan ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nathan G.; Barrett, Laura Obrycki

    2014-01-01

    Positive relationships between instructors and students are critical to effective learning in the classroom. Rooted in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), and centered at the crossroads of interpersonal communication and instructional communication (Affective Learning Model), this study examines how instructors in a Taiwan ESL school…

  12. ESL Placement and Schools: Effects on Immigrant Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn.

  13. Grammar and Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Glenda; Young, Barbara N.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of theories relating to teaching ESL learners leads to contradictory ideas about teaching a second language. This paper focuses on the continuing importance of grammar in teaching and the current resurgence in interest in returning to grammar as an important component in the classroom.

  14. Understanding Interorganizational Learning Based on Social Spaces and Learning Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rebelato Mozzato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different organizational settings have been gaining ground in the world economy, resulting in a proliferation of different forms of strategic alliances that translate into a growth in the number of organizations that have started to deal with interorganizational relationships with different actors. These circumstances reinforce Crossan, Lane, White and Djurfeldt (1995 and Crossan, Mauer and White (2011 in exploring what authors refer to as the fourth, interorganizational, level of learning. These authors, amongst others, suggest that the process of interorganizational learning (IOL warrants investigation, as its scope of analysis needs widening and deepening. Therefore, this theoretical essay is an attempt to understand IOL as a dynamic process found in interorganizational cooperative relationships that can take place in different structured and unstructured social spaces and that can generate learning episodes. According to this view, IOL is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum and is analyzed within the framework of practical rationality in an approach that is less cognitive and more social-behavioral.

  15. Marketing of Revenue-Generating ESL Programs at the University of Calgary: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study endeavored to understand how program managers at one post-secondary Canadian university define, understand and undertake the marketing of their revenue-generating English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. Data were collected through interviews with three managers of distinct English as a Second Language (ESL)…

  16. Student Initiative and Risk: Applying My SIT Experience to an ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Patricia A.

    A community college teacher of English as a Second Language (ESL) describes her personal experience in transferring teaching techniques learned at the School for International Training (SIT) (Vermont) to her own refugee ESL classes during the required interim year teaching practicum. An introductory chapter gives background information on the…

  17. Mental Health and the ESL Classroom: A Guide for Teachers Working with Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Moira; Chaffee, Marcia; Terry, Diane; Le Marbre, Joan; Stone, Betty; Wiencek, Donna

    This manual guides English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers by outlining the complex burdens that refugee students carry and setting out concrete steps that ESL teachers can take in order to turn their classrooms into effective and welcoming teaching and learning environments. The seven sections focus on the following: (1) "The Refugee and…

  18. Linking Research and Practice: Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jihyun

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a pivotal role in the ESL classroom. Whereas a considerable amount of research has examined effective ESL vocabulary teaching and learning, missing are studies that provide examples of how to put various research findings into practice: that is, apply them to real texts including target vocabulary items. In order to close the gap…

  19. Influence of Speech Anxiety on Oral Communication Skills among ESL/EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Said Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The realization of speech anxiety among ESL/EFL learners is important. Once understood, these feelings of fear or nervousness may be relieved and the desired objectives of learning the target language may be achieved. The study has attempted to measure the level of anxiety among ESL/EFL learners at HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan. The current…

  20. A Pedagogical Framework for Technology Integration in ESL Classrooms: The Promises and Challenges of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Walker, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Technologies have the potential to support language teaching and learning, but English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers in the United States (U.S.) either sparingly use technologies for instruction or use them at low level. Although previous research has indicated some promises and challenges faced by U.S. ESL teachers with integrating…

  1. International ESL Graduate Student Perceptions of Online Learning in the Context of Second Language Acquisition and Culturally Responsive Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fujuan; Nabb, Lee; Aagard, Steven; Kim, Kioh

    2010-01-01

    The development of technology has made adult and higher education learning opportunities increasingly more accessible to a growing number of people. With the number of courses steadily increasing to meet students' needs and demands, and because programs are likewise changing to incorporate more online learning opportunities, international, English…

  2. Redesigning nursing tutorials for ESL students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Townsend, Lisa; Waters, Cheryl

    2013-04-01

    Increased enrolments of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students who speak English as a second language (ESL) can help create a multilingual and culturally diverse workforce that is better prepared to meet the needs of increasingly diverse health populations. However, although ESL enrolments are increasing, attrition rates for ESL students tend to be higher than those of native speakers of English, partly due to academic failure. At the same time, concerns have been expressed in some quarters about the low levels of English language of entering students. As it is unlikely that language entry levels to university will be raised, sustainable programmes that help ESL students better meet the academic challenges they may face need to be developed. So far, models of ESL support have been mostly an adjunct to their degree, voluntary and not well attended. This paper discusses a model using tutorials integrated into the first year nursing curriculum that were specifically designed for ESL students with low levels of English language proficiency. The paper also examines students' perceptions of such tutorials, which they found beneficial to their learning.

  3. Whole Language Strategies for ESL Students. Language and Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald-Taylor, Gail

    This handbook outlines learning strategies in language arts for children in kindergarten to third grade learning English as a second language (ESL). They are designed for the Whole Language or Natural Approach. Although reading and writing are the key language components emphasized, listening, speaking, drama, and visual arts activities have been…

  4. Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D. (2006). Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding. Presentation at the 8th International Simposio of Educational Computer Science. October, 24-27, 2006, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology.

  5. The double-loop feedback for active learning with understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Learning is an active process, and in engineering education authentic projects is often used to activate the students and promote learning. However, it is not all activity that leads to deep learning; and in a rapid changing society deep understanding is necessary for life-long learning. Empirical...... findings at DTU question the direct link between high activity and a deep approach to learning. Active learning is important to obtain engineering competencies, but active learning requires more than activity. Feedback and reflection is crucial to the learning process, since new knowledge is built...... on the student’s existing understanding. A model for an active learning process with a double-loop feedback is suggested - the first loop gives the student experience through experimentation, the second conceptual understanding through reflection. Students often miss the second loop, so it is important...

  6. Pedagogy in Speaking: Challenges Addressed by Teacher-Student in the ESL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kawser Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching speaking is perhaps one of the major challenges for teachers teaching in English as a Second Language (ESL classroom environment. Like writing, speaking is not linear and easy approach to ensure the best utilization among learners.  Since speaking is a real life event and face to face conversation, it needs more sophisticated care, practice oriented session for the students and effective means to implement it in the ESL situation. Even language experts often grope to outline effective and mediocre way to help learners have a good understanding in speaking.  This paper attempts to delineate the focal points where teachers and students face problems in teaching and learning speaking. It immensely chalks out with methodological study, qualitative data analysis and the underlining factors ESL teachers face enormously in the pedagogy of speaking for second language learners. My paper will outline the pedagogical tenets of speaking in the realistic non-native set ups and diagnose the impediments faced by learners when they are supposed to speak and by teachers when they teach speaking for their students.

  7. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  8. READINESS FOR BLENDED LEARNING: UNDERSTANDING ATTITUDE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Meng Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has provided new means for learning delivery outside of conventional classrooms. Leveraging on IT, blended learning is an approach which takes advantage of the best that both the classroom and online learning can provide. To help institutions of higher learning (IHLs improve their understanding of how students view blended learning and formulate a strategy to successfully implement blended learning, the main objective of this paper is to examine how the attitude of students towards different learning aspects could influence their readiness for blended learning. We conceptualized six learning aspects in a research model and then collected responses from 201 full-time undergraduate students to validate the model. Analyses revealed three key findings. First, the use of technology in education was not a hindrance to the students. Second, blended learning adaptability, which was modelled as a second-order formative construct and formed by four first-order reflective constructs—attitude towards online learning, study management, online interaction, and learning flexibility—had a positive relationship with student readiness for blended learning. Third, attitude towards classroom learning had a negative relationship with student readiness for blended learning. An understanding of student attitude towards different learning aspects can be critical in the assessment of student readiness for blended learning, which is a prerequisite for successful implementation of blended learning.

  9. Teaching English Writing for a Global Context: An Examination of NS, ESL and EFL Learning Strategies That Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    This study, examines two well-known writing pedagogies from the fields of Composition and Rhetoric, and Second Language Acquisition (SLA) for teaching literacy, or reading and writing skills in order to identify intersections for the English Language Learner (ELL) in an EFL learning environment. In addition, I present both quantitative and…

  10. Language Learning Styles: Research and Practical Considerations for Teaching in the Multicultural Tertiary ESL/FL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Key definitions, assumptions, and research concerning learning styles related to culture are presented with six case study examples of cross-cultural conflicts in tertiary education settings. The optimal management of teacher-student style disparities in the multicultural classroom is discussed. (38 references) (Author/LB)

  11. Pedagogical Gestures as Interactional Resources for Teaching and Learning Tense and Aspect in the ESL Grammar Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yumi; Dobs, Abby Mueller

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the functions of gesture in teaching and learning grammar in the context of second language (L2) classroom interactions. The data consisted of video-recorded interactions from a beginner- and an advanced-level grammar classroom in an intensive English program at a U.S. university. The sequences of talk-in-interaction…

  12. Understanding the learning styles of undergraduate physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...

  13. Understanding Observational Learning: An Interbehavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Johnston, Cristin; Hayes, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Observational learning is an important area in the field of psychology and behavior science more generally. Given this, it is essential that behavior analysts articulate a sound theory of how behavior change occurs through observation. This paper begins with an overview of seminal research in the area of observational learning, followed by a…

  14. Understanding Digital Learning and Its Variable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, B.

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of undergraduate courses use an online or blended learning format. This trend signals major changes in the kind of instruction students receive in their STEM courses, yet evidence about the effectiveness of these new approaches is sparse. Existing syntheses and meta-analyses summarize outcomes from experimental or quasi-experimental studies of online and blended courses and document how few studies incorporate proper controls for differences in student characteristics, instructor behaviors, and other course conditions. The evidence that is available suggests that on average blended courses are equal to or better than traditional face-to-face courses and that online courses are equivalent in terms of learning outcomes. But these averages conceal a tremendous underlying variability. Results vary markedly from course to course, even when the same technology is used in both. Some research suggests that online instruction puts lower-achieving students at a disadvantage. It is clear that introducing digital learning per se is no guarantee that student engagement and learning will be enhanced. Getting more consistently positive impacts out of learning technologies is going to require systematic characterization of the features of learning technologies and associated instructional practices as well as attention to context and student characteristics. This presentation will present a framework for characterizing essential features of digital learning resources, implementation practices, and conditions. It will also summarize the research evidence with respect to the learning impacts of specific technology features including spaced practice, immediate feedback, mastery learning based pacing, visualizations and simulations, gaming features, prompts for explanations and reflection, and tools for online collaboration.

  15. A Framework for Understanding Learning from Management Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, David; Armitage, S.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes a framework for understanding aspects of learning from computer-based management simulations based on research with MBA (Masters of Business Administration) students in three European business schools that identified students' perceptions of learning outcomes from experience using computer-based management simulations. Learning style and…

  16. Statistical Learning as a Basis for Social Understanding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…

  17. Understanding of Foreign Language Learning of Generation Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2016-01-01

    Different generations are constituted depending on social changes and they are designed sociologically as traditional, baby boomer, X, Y and Z. Many studies have been reported on understanding of foreign language learning generation Y. This study aims to realise the gap in and contribute to the research on language learning understanding of…

  18. Announcing the ESL-WOW for Self-Directed Writing Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus M. Niles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of ESL-WOW (Writing Online Workshop, a new online resource for students aiming to develop academic writing skills which has been available to the public at no charge since December 2012. Students can visit www.esl-wow.org to learn more about the academic conventions that confound new entrants into academic discourse communities, or to learn more about what makes writing clear and cogent in general. While the site is designed for adult learners and students entering community colleges, a wide variety of intermediate and advanced learners can certainly benefit from the materials offered by the ESL-WOW.

  19. Children's developing understanding of what and how they learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M; Letourneau, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    What do children know about learning? Children between 4 and 10 years of age were asked what they thought the word learning meant and then engaged in a structured interview about what kinds of things they learned and how they learned those things. Most of the 4- and 5-year-olds' responses to these questions indicated a lack of awareness about the nature of learning or how learning occurs. In contrast, the 8- to 10-year-olds showed a strong understanding of learning as a process and could often generate explicit metacognitive responses indicating that they understood under what circumstances learning would occur. The 6- and 7-year-olds were in a transitional stage between these two levels of understanding. We discuss the implications of this development with children's theory-of-mind development more generally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced software development workstation: Knowledge base methodology: Methodology for first Engineering Script Language (ESL) knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeris, Kumar; Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    This report explains some of the concepts of the ESL prototype and summarizes some of the lessons learned in using the prototype for implementing the Flight Mechanics Tool Kit (FMToolKit) series of Ada programs.

  1. Adolescent literacy: learning and understanding content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R

    2012-01-01

    Learning to read--amazing as it is to small children and their parents--is one thing. Reading to learn, explains Susan Goldman of the University of Illinois at Chicago, is quite another. Are today's students able to use reading and writing to acquire knowledge, solve problems, and make decisions in academic, personal, and professional arenas? Do they have the literacy skills necessary to meet the demands of the twenty-first century? To answer these questions, Goldman describes the increasingly complex comprehension, reasoning skills, and knowledge that students need as they progress through school and surveys what researchers and educators know about how to teach those skills. Successfully reading to learn requires the ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information from multiple sources, Goldman writes. Effective readers must be able to apply different knowledge, reading, and reasoning processes to different types of content, from fiction to history and science, to news accounts and user manuals. They must assess sources of information for relevance, reliability, impartiality, and completeness. And they must connect information across multiple sources. In short, successful readers must not only use general reading skills but also pay close attention to discipline-specific processes. Goldman reviews the evidence on three different instructional approaches to reading to learn: general comprehension strategies, classroom discussion, and disciplinary content instruction. She argues that building the literacy skills necessary for U.S. students to read comprehensively and critically and to learn content in a variety of disciplines should be a primary responsibility for all of the nation's teachers. But outside of English, few subject-area teachers are aware of the need to teach subject-area reading comprehension skills, nor have they had opportunities to learn them themselves. Building the capacity of all teachers to meet the literacy needs of today's students

  2. ANALYSIS LEARNING MODEL OF DISCOVERY AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT PRELIMINARY TO PHYSICS LEARNING OUTCOMES SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  3. Understanding Feedback: A Learning Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review's scope also includes feedback in classrooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory adhered to. Findings show that regardless of the…

  4. Unspoken Words: Understanding Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is communicated in the classroom is through nonverbal means. Sending appropriate nonverbal signals, as well as recognizing and interpreting the nonverbal signals of others, are essential features of the learning process. Students' abilities to encode and decode nonverbal communication have the potential to affect all aspects of their…

  5. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  6. Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching ESL Beginners Metacognitive Writing Strategies through Multimedia Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Chen, Julian Chengchiang; Adawu, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores how strategy-based instruction (SBI), assisted by multimedia software, can be incorporated to teach beginning-level ESL learners metacognitive writing strategies. Two beginning-level adult learners participated in a 10-session SBI on planning and organizing strategies. The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach…

  8. An Analysis of Social Network Websites for Language Learning: Implications for Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Abe, K.; Cao, M. W.; Liu, S.; Ok, D. U.; Park, J.; Parrish, C.; Sardegna, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    Although educators are excited about the potential of social network sites for language learning (SNSLL), there is a lack of understanding of how SNSLL can be used to facilitate teaching and learning for English as Second language (ESL) instructors and students. The purpose of this study was to examine the affordances of four selected SNSLL…

  9. Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding NMR: self-learning manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, B.

    2000-01-01

    This initiation to the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging allows to understand the essential basic physical principles for the realization and the interpretation of an NMR examination. (J.S.)

  11. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This research works within the framework of constructivist learning (based on constructivist epistemology) and examines learning as an activity of construction, and it posits that knowledge acquisition (and learning) are transformative through self-involvement in some subject matter. Thus it leads...... and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education...

  12. Siblings' Understanding of Learning Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…

  13. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Ayuni Putri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the context that English in Indonesia is considered as a foreign language, it causes the learners of English in Indonesia understand not only the language but also the culture. Foreign language learners may encounter various communication problems when their interlanguage is limited. In order to convey their messages and remain in a conversation until their communication goal is achieved, ESL (English as a Second Language learners need to employ communication strategies, which have been defined generally as devices used by second language learners to overcome perceived barriers to achieving specific communication goals (Færch & Kasper, 1983. In order to avoid certain miscommunication, the teacher of English in Indonesia should also give their learners the understanding of communication strategies.

  14. The Challenge of English Language Collocation Learning in an ES/FL Environment: PRC Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to seek an in-depth understanding about English collocation learning and the development of learner autonomy through investigating a group of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' perspectives and practices in their learning of English collocations using an AWARE approach. A group of 20 PRC students learning English in…

  15. Do the language errors of ESL teachers affect their learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nel, Norma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available At the University of South Africa (Unisa, a large, open and distance education university in South Africa, the majority of the practising teachers who enrolled as students (henceforth referred to as teacher students for the practical component of the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE: Inclusive Education (Learning Difficulties for the year 2008 lacked English proficiency. Because these students’ primary language is not English, they found it difficult to master this course, as reflected by the low throughput rate of 44 per cent in 2008. The question arose: Does poor proficiency in English of English second-language (ESL teacher students influence ESL learners’ progress during learner support lessons taught by teacher students as part of their teaching practice for the ACE: Inclusive Education (Learning Difficulties? In an attempt to answer this question, we report on typical errors made by the learners and the teacher students and similarities between teacher errors and learner errors, against the background of a literature overview which includes the relationship between input and output and prominent theories of second-language acquisition. Departing from a phenomenological/interpretive paradigm, a qualitative analysis of the teacher students’ portfolios was undertaken (Hussey & Hussey, 1997:54. The document analysis was done by means of error analysis of the teacher-student portfolios (which included ESL learner support lessons and ESL learner evidence that were submitted by the teacher students to Unisa by 1 September 2008. The results of this study are significant because it alerts academia to the fact that qualified practising ESL teachers are not necessarily proficient in English and that this may have an effect on the ESL learner’s ability to acquire English proficiency. However, it was pointed out that several other contributing factors may exist and that further in-depth research is required. Nevertheless, a re

  16. Learning Analytics to Understand Cultural Impacts on Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmeier, Jenna; Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical study, we investigate the role of national cultural dimensions as distal antecedents of the use intensity of e-tutorials, which constitute the digital component within a blended learning course. Profiting from the context of a dispositional learning analytics application, we investigate cognitive processing strategies and…

  17. Understanding the Context of Learning in an Online Social Network for Health Professionals' Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.

  18. Understanding Game-Based Learning Cultures: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This special issue expands our understanding of teaching and learning through video game play, with specific attention to culture. The issue gives insight into the ways educators, researchers, and developers should be discussing and designing for impactful learner-centered game-based learning experiences. The issue features forward-thinking…

  19. OCRA, a Mobile Learning Prototype for Understanding Chemistry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariman, Tenku Putri Norishah; Talib, Othman

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the effects of an interactive multimedia mobile learning application on students' understanding of chemistry concepts. The Organic Chemistry Reaction Application (OCRA), a mobile learning prototype with touch screen commands, was applied in this research. Through interactive multimedia techniques, students can create and…

  20. Understanding the Implications of Online Learning for Educational Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakia, Marianne; Shear, Linda; Toyama, Yukie; Lasseter, Austin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to support educational administrators and policymakers in becoming informed consumers of information about online learning and its potential impact on educational productivity. The report provides foundational knowledge needed to examine and understand the potential contributions of online learning to educational…

  1. E-learning support for student's understanding of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Sendrup, Linda; Sparsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    To enhance active learning and understanding of analogue and digital electronics the use of e-learning techniques will be investigated. In a redesigned course combining introductory analogue and digital electronics, students will be motivated to prepare for lectures and exercises by providing...

  2. Understanding the Quality of Out-of-Class English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Zhu, Weimin; Gong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-class learning constitutes an important context for human development, and active engagement in out-of-class activities is associated with successful language development. However, not all out-of-class experiences are equally beneficial to learning, and it is of paramount importance to understand what quality out-of-class English language…

  3. Spoken Language Understanding Software for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a preliminary, work-in-progress Spoken Language Understanding Software (SLUS with tailored feedback options, which uses interactive spoken language interface to teach Iraqi Arabic and culture to second language learners. The SLUS analyzes input speech by the second language learner and grades for correct pronunciation in terms of supra-segmental and rudimentary segmental errors such as missing consonants. We evaluated this software on training data with the help of two native speakers, and found that the software recorded an accuracy of around 70% in law and order domain. For future work, we plan to develop similar systems for multiple languages.

  4. Fluency First: Reversing the Traditional ESL Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan-Gilhooly, Adele

    1991-01-01

    Describes an ESL department's whole language approach to writing and reading, replacing its traditional grammar-based ESL instructional sequence. Reports the positive quantitative and qualitative results of the first three years of using the new approach. (KEH)

  5. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  6. Impromptu Speech Gamification for ESL/EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardelli, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Any introductory undergraduate public-speaking course, in particular in ESL/EFL contexts. Objectives: This single-class activity is intended to (1) build students' ability to communicate orally "off the cuff;" (2) foster students' understanding of the major organizational formats used in organizing speeches; and (3) increase…

  7. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  8. THE PRONUNCIATION COMPONENT IN ESL LESSONS: TEACHERS’ BELIEFS AND PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanina Sharatol Ahmad Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that teachers’ beliefs on teaching and learning exert an influence on their actual classroom practices. In the teaching of English pronunciation, teachers’ beliefs play a crucial role in the choice of pronunciation components taught in the ESL classrooms. This paper explores teachers’ beliefs about teaching English pronunciation in Malaysian classrooms and the extent to which these beliefs influenced the teachers’ classroom instructions. Employing a multiple case study of five ESL teachers in secondary schools, this study investigated the beliefs the teachers have formed about pronunciation focused areas and classroom practices in teaching English pronunciation. Data were collected through actual classroom observations and semi-structured interviews with the teachers and students. The findings of the study found that ESL teachers seem to believe that pronunciation skills are to be taught integratedly with other English language skills. Results also indicate a discrepancy between these teachers’ beliefs on the focused areas of pronunciation and the stated curriculum specifications.  Additionally, the ESL teachers seem to have vague and contradictory beliefs about pronunciation focused areas. These beliefs are based on their previous language learning and professional experience as well as other contextual factors such as examination demands and time constraints. As a result, these beliefs lead to the pronunciation component being neglected despite it being stipulated by the curriculum.

  9. Understanding Students with Learning Difficulties: How Do They Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Barbara S. S.; Chick, Kay A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines: (1) why learning comes so naturally for some students and yet is so onerous for others; (2) why some students need constant reminders while others get on task right away; and (3) why some students "just don't get it" even after countless repetitions and multitudes of practices. This paper describes the…

  10. Developing and Understanding Intelligent Contexts for Playing and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik

    of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in a primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between......This paper outlines experiences and reflections on the research and development project “Octopus” in order to describe and illustrate how intelligent context facilitates and embody learning and play. The framework is a research and development project where we have tried to work we new kinds...... structure and process (or flow) or it could be formulated in a more philosophical way: The relationship between epistemology and ontology in a designed set up for learning i.e. a classroom setting with learning mediated through intelligent tangible learning media. The tangible learning media...

  11. Working toward Literacy in Correctional Education ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Correctional Education English as a Second Language (ESL) literacy programs vary from state to state, region to region. Some states enroll their correctional ESL students in adult basic education (ABE) classes; other states have separate classes and programs. At the Maryland Correctional Institution in Jessup, the ESL class is a self-contained…

  12. DESIGN OF LEARNING MATERIALS ON LIMIT FUNCTION BASED MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchamad Subali Noto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In learning process, students are currently cannot be separated from learning difficulties, including the study material algebra limit function. It because the level of students' mathematical understanding regarding the material is still quite low. This study aimed to analyze the barriers to student learning, designing learning materials based on the material mathematics understanding algebra limit function is valid, determine teacher intervention during the implementation of learning materials and to analyze barriers to student learning after the implementation of learning materials. This research is a qualitative research study design using the form Didactical Design Research. Stages of research conducted: 1 analysis of the situation didactic before learning, 2 analysis of metapedadidatik and 3 the retrospective analysis. Data collection techniques used were tests, interviews, questionnaires, and documentation. The instrument used was a matter TKPM (Comprehension Mathematical Ability Test, interview, validation sheet materials, and documentation guidelines. Research results obtained are students experiencing obstacle to learning the material limit algebra functions. These obstacles are 1 students' difficulties in relating the material prerequisites to limit problems. 2 students can not write properly limit symbol, 3 students can not apply a limit theorem, 4 students are not able to determine the limit value at one point, and 5 students cannot determine the value of the limit at infinity. Learning materials that have been made have validation level of  with very valid criteria. The response was given when the student intervention, generally in accordance with response prediction so that interventions carried out in accordance with the design that has been made. After learning materials student learning obstacles implemented reduced/minimized.

  13. Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of

  15. The teacher is a facilitator: Reflecting on ESL teacher beliefs through metaphor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors offer a lens through which language teachers express their understanding of their work. Metaphor analysis can be a powerful reflective tool for expressing meanings that underpin ways of thinking about teaching and learning English as a second/foreign language. Through reflecting on their personal teaching metaphors, teachers become more aware of the beliefs that underpin their work. This paper reports the reflections on the prior beliefs of three experienced ESL teachers in Canada through the use of metaphor analysis. The paper attempts to explore the prior beliefs of the three experienced ESL teachers in Canada through metaphor analysis by using the Oxford et al. (1998 framework as a theoretical lens in which to gain understanding of the use and meaning of these metaphors. Results indicated that all three teachers used a total of 94 metaphors throughout the period of the group discussions and interviews, and that the metaphors used most were those related to learner-centered growth, followed by social order, then social reform.

  16. Using Transactivity to Understand Emergence of Team Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoethout, Hildert; Wesselink, Renate; Runhaar, Piety; Mulder, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Team learning is a recurrent topic in research on effective teamwork. However, research about the fact that team learning processes emerge from conversations and the different forms this emergence can take is limited. The aim of this study is to determine whether the extent to which team members act on each other's reasoning (transactivity) can be used to understand how team learning processes emerge. Research on teacher teams was used as the case study: Video recordings of three different teacher teams were used as primary data, and the data were analyzed using qualitative interaction analysis. The analysis shows that the content of team learning processes changes when team members act more closely on each other's reasoning. In particular, team learning processes related to the storage and retrieval of information took place only in sequences in which team members acted closely on each other's reasoning.

  17. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  18. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority students are estimated, first with fixed effects regression models and then with multi-level propensity score matching techniques. While numerous school and individual level factors beyond language proficiency predict ESL placement, a significant negative estimated effect of ESL placement on science enrollment and cumulative GPA is consistently found. Perhaps more important, however, no positive effects of ESL placement on the achievement of language minority youth are found when accounting for English proficiency and other potential covariates. PMID:25431506

  19. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-03-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority students are estimated, first with fixed effects regression models and then with multi-level propensity score matching techniques. While numerous school and individual level factors beyond language proficiency predict ESL placement, a significant negative estimated effect of ESL placement on science enrollment and cumulative GPA is consistently found. Perhaps more important, however, no positive effects of ESL placement on the achievement of language minority youth are found when accounting for English proficiency and other potential covariates.

  20. It's Not Only English: Effects of Other Individual Factors on English Language Learning and Academic Learning of ESL International Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek; Hirsh, David; Woodrow, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Geographic mobility and favourable educational policies have resulted in a rapid expansion in international education in recent decades. International education not only provides significant economic benefits and intellectual progression at the national level but also equips individuals with a good understanding of the educational, linguistic,…

  1. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  2. Learning and Understanding System Stability Using Illustrative Dynamic Texture Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Hongyan; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-01-01

    System stability is a basic concept in courses on dynamic system analysis and control for undergraduate students with computer science backgrounds. Typically, this was taught using a simple simulation example of an inverted pendulum. Unfortunately, many difficult issues arise in the learning and understanding of the concepts of stability,…

  3. Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Dougiamas, Martin; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as follows: Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., Dougiamas, M., Vogten, H., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding. Proceedings of Simposo Internacional de Informática Educativa (SIIE06), León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on

  4. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  5. Understanding Productive Learning Through the Metaphorical Lens of Patchworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The metaphor of patchworking is used throughout this case study to highlight how learning processes, and processes of knowledge creation, consist of the stitching and weaving together of various patches into something new. The patches can be old, new, borrowed and of a widely different fabric; yet......, which formed the basis of the author’s PhD thesis (Ryberg, 2007), the concept of understanding learning as a process of patchworking has emerged. The metaphor of patchworking is a perspective that emphasises the constructive, creative and productive aspects of learning. In this chapter the main aspects...... of this metaphorical perspective will be presented and discussed in relation to networked learning, indirect design and the notion of ‘productive learning’....

  6. Digital video, learning styles, and student understanding of kinematics graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Teresa Lee

    1997-12-01

    Student ability to analyze and interpret motion graphs following laboratory instruction that utilized interactive digital video as well as traditional instructional techniques was investigated. Research presented suggested that digital video tools serve to motivate students and may be an effective mechanism to enhance student understanding of motion concepts. Two laboratory exercises involving motion concepts were developed for this study. Students were divided into two instructional groups. The treatment group used digital video techniques and the control group used traditional techniques to perform the laboratory exercises. Student understanding of motion concepts were assessed, in part, using the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Other assessment measures included student responses to a set of written graphical analysis questions and two post-lab activities. Possible relationships between individual learning style preferences and student understanding of motion concepts were also addressed. Learning style preferences were assessed using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey prior to the instructional treatments. Students were asked to comment in writing about their learning styles before and after they were given the learning style assessment. Student comments revealed that the results they received from Productivity Environmental Preference Survey accurately reflected their learning styles. Results presented in this study showed that no significant relationship exists between students' learning style preferences and their ability to interpret motion graphs as measured by scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between instructional treatment and mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Analysis of writing activities revealed that students in the treatment group responded more effectively than students in the control group to graphical interpretation

  7. Understanding teacher responses to constructivist learning environments: Challenges and resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2006-05-01

    The research literature is just beginning to uncover factors involved in sustaining constructivist learning environments, such as Project-Based Learning (PBL). Our case study investigates teacher responses to the challenges of constructivist environments, since teachers can play strong roles in supporting or undermining even the best constructivist environments or materials. We were invited to work as mediators with a middle-school science staff that was experiencing conflicts regarding two learning environments, PBL (which was the school's politically correc learning environment) and traditional. With mediated group workshops, teachers were sensitized to their own and colleagues' individual learning differences (ILDs), as measured by two styles inventories (the LSI - Kolb, 1976; and the LCI - Johnston & Dainton, 1997). Using these inventories, a learning-environment questionnaire, field notes, and delayed interviews a year later, we found that there was a relationship between teachers' preferred styles, epistemological beliefs, and their preferred teaching environment. Moreover, when the participating teachers, including early-adopters and nonvolunteers to PBL, became more sensitive to their colleagues' preferences, many staff conflicts were resolved and some mismatched teachers expressed more openness to PBL. We argue that having teachers understand their own ILDs and related responses to constructivist learning environments can contribute to resolving staff conflicts and sustaining such environments. We present a cognitive model and a strategy which illustrate this argument.

  8. Creating meaningful learning experiences: Understanding students' perspectives of engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, Richard James Chung Mun

    There is a societal need for design education to prepare holistic engineers with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to innovate and compete globally. Design skills are paramount to the espoused values of higher education, as institutions of higher learning strive to develop in students the cognitive abilities of critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. To meet these interests from industry and academia, it is important to advance the teaching and learning of engineering design. This research aims to understand how engineering students learn and think about design, as a way for engineering educators to optimize instructional practice and curriculum development. Qualitative research methodology was used to investigate the meaning that engineering students' ascribe to engineering design. The recruitment of participants and corresponding collection of data occurred in two phases using two different data collection techniques. The first phase involved the distribution of a one-time online questionnaire to all first year, third year, and fourth year undergraduate engineering students at three Canadian Universities. After the questionnaire, students were asked if they would be willing to participate in the second phase of data collection consisting of a personal interview. A total of ten students participated in interviews. Qualitative data analysis procedures were conducted on students' responses from the questionnaire and interviews. The data analysis process consisted of two phases: a descriptive phase to code and categorize the data, followed by an interpretative phase to generate further meaning and relationships. The research findings present a conceptual understanding of students' descriptions about engineering design, structured within two educational orientations: a learning studies orientation and a curriculum studies orientation. The learning studies orientation captured three themes of students' understanding of engineering design: awareness

  9. Banal Nationalism in ESL Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Despite repeating claims that Canadians are less nationalistic than members of other nations, English as a second language (ESL) textbooks often participate in banal repetitions of nation-ness and nationalism. This banal nationalism takes the form of the marking of nation through flags, maps, routine deixis, and nationalized symbols. This study…

  10. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  11. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  12. ESL Teacher and ICT:Teachers' Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Pei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of Information Communication and Technologies (ICTs has made tremendous changes in the twenty-first century. ICT is said to bring a variety of benefits in facilitating the teaching and learning process. Therefore, ICT has been the emphasis in school and higher institutions of education nowadays. However, to integrate ICT in education is not problem free, problems are faced by the teachers. This paper aims to investigate the ESL teachers’ perception toward the use of ICT in KT, Malaysia. Data were collected via interviews with four Form 4 English teachers in a secondary school in Kuala Terengganu. Findings show teachers have a positive perception towards the use of ICT. However, teachers claimed they face challenges in using ICT especially due to insufficient facilities.

  13. Reticent Students in the ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo R. S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reticence has always been regarded as a problematic phenomenon among students in the ESL classrooms. Many instructors have expressed their frustrations to decode the reticent behaviour and work out suitable strategies to help students with such behaviour. Whenever such students do not engage in the classroom discourse, they are usually regarded as not having the desire to learn or lacking in cooperation. These explanations seem simplistic, bias and stereotypical. Based on a larger project on students’ reticent behaviour, this study investigated the extent in which tertiary students majoring in English experience reticence in the classrooms, and examined the underlying factors of reticence. Data were obtained from 78 students utilizing the Reticence Scale-12 (RS-12 which measures the level of reticence along six dimensions: anxiety, knowledge, timing, organization, skills and memory. The findings reveal that reticent level is high among the students, and their major problems lie in affective-control and delivery.

  14. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  15. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  16. Developing and Understanding Intelligent Contexts for Playing and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between......This short paper outlines experiences and reflections on the research and development project “Octopus” in order to describe and illustrate how intelligent context facilitates and embody learning. The framework is a research and development project where we have tried to work with new kinds...... structure and process or in a more philosophical way: The relationship between epistemology and ontology in a designed set up for learning. This paper therefore aims at illustrating how and why the “Octopus” works and functions in the school setting and discussing the relations between distinctions...

  17. Understanding the Learning Style of Pre-School Children Learning the Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper understanding of how small children learn an instrument in the presence of their parents. It is qualitative in nature and concerned six pre-school children (five years old) who were learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. All the children's homes were visited…

  18. EFL/ESL Textbook Selection in Korea and East Asia - Relevant Issues and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    EFL/ESL departments periodically face the problem of textbook selection. Cogent issues are that non-native speakers will use L2 English mainly to communicate with other non-native English speakers, so an American accent is becoming less important. L2 English will mainly be used in computer-mediated communication, hence the importance of L2 Digital Literacy. The convergence of Information Communication Technologies is radically impacting Second Language Acquisition, which is integrating web-hosted Assessment and Learning Management Systems. EFL/ESL textbooks need to be compatible with blended learning, prepare students for a globalized world, and foster autonomous learning. I summarize five papers on EFL/ESL textbook evaluation and selection, and include relevant material for adaptation. Textbooks are major sources of contact with the target language, so selection is an important decision. Educators need to be systematic and objective in their approach, adopting a selection process that is open, transparent, accountable, participatory, informed and rigorous.

  19. Pros and Cons of Using IICT in Teaching ESL Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Nordin, Norazah; Salehi, Hadi; Sun, Choo Hui; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a major role in creating a new and improved model of teaching and learning. A great number of studies have been conducted to examine the advantages of integrating ICT in language education in general and English as a Second Language (ESL) teaching and learning in particular. However, there is…

  20. Toward understanding writing to learn in physics: Investigating student writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Dedra

    It is received wisdom that writing in a discipline helps students learn the discipline, and millions of dollars have been committed at many universities to supporting such writing. We show that evidence for effectiveness is anecdotal, and that little data-based material informs these prejudices. This thesis begins the process of scientific study of writing in the discipline, in specific, in physics, and creates means to judge whether such writing is effective. The studies culminating in this thesis are an aggressive start to addressing these complex questions. Writing is often promoted as an activity that, when put into classrooms in specific disciplines, not only helps students learn to write in the methods of that discipline but also helps students learn content knowledge. Students at the Ohio State University are being asked to write more in introductory courses, and the Engineering schools want their students to have more writing skills for the job market. Combined with the desire of many educators to have students be able to explain the course content knowledge clearly, it would seem that writing activities would be important and useful in physics courses. However, the question of whether writing helps learning or whether students learn writing within a non-English classroom helps learning in the discipline are open to debate, and data are needed before such claims can be made. This thesis presents several studies aimed at understanding the correlation of writing and content, and tracking and characterizing student writing behaviors to see how they are impacted by writing in physics courses. It consists of four parts: summer and autumn 2005 focus on writing in introductory physics labs with and without explicit instruction, while winter and spring 2006 focus on tracking and analyzing student writing and revising behavior in Physics by Inquiry (PbI). With these related projects, we establish three main results. First, there is a need for quantitative studies of

  1. Shape Understanding System – Knowledge Implementation and Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Les, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the selected results of research on the further development of the shape understanding system (SUS) described in our previous book titled “Shape Understanding System: the First Steps Toward the Visual Thinking Machines”. This is the second book that presents the results of research in the area of thinking and understanding carried out by authors in the newly founded the Queen Jadwiga Research Institute of Understanding. In this book, the new term knowledge implementation is introduced to denote the new method of the meaningful learning in the context of machine understanding. SUS ability to understand is related to the different categories of objects such as the category of visual objects, the category of sensory objects and the category of text objects. In this book, new terms and concepts are introduced in order to describe and explain some issues connected with SUS development. These terms are explained by referring to the content of our books and other our works rather than to exist...

  2. The Effects of Using Multimodal Approaches in Meaning-Making of 21st Century Literacy Texts Among ESL Students in a Private School in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Ganapathy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalised digital era, students are inevitably engaged in various multimodal texts due to their active participation in social media and frequent usage of mobile devices on a daily basis. Such daily activities advocate the need for a transformation in the teaching and learning of ESL lessons in order to promote students’ capabilities in making meaning of different literacy texts which students come across in their ESL learning activities. This paper puts forth the framework of Multimodality in the restructuring of the teaching and learning of ESL with the aim of investigating its effects and students perspectives on the use of multimodal approaches underlying the Multiliteracies theory. Using focus group interviews, this qualitative case study examines the effectiveness of ESL teaching and learning using the Multimodal approaches on literacy in meaning-making among 15 students in a private school in Penang, Malaysia. The results confirm the need to reorientate the teaching and learning of ESL with the focus on multimodal pedagogical practices as it promotes positive learning outcomes among students. The implications of this study suggest that the multimodal approaches integrated in the teaching and learning of ESL have the capacity to promote students’ autonomy in learning, improve motivation to learn and facilitate various learning styles. Keywords: Multimodal Approaches; Multiliteracies; Monomodal; Flipped Classroom; Literacy; Multimodal texts; Ipad

  3. Memory strategies and ESL vocabulary acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carisma Dreyer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the effectiveness of three learning strategies (memory strategies for ESL vocabulary acquisition. Four intact ESL classes were divided into one control group and three treatment groups (keyword, semantic, and keyword-semantic. These Afrikaans-speaking standard 6 pupils then received 4 days of instruction. Both multiplechoice and cued-recall instruments were used to measure effects both 1 day and 9 days after instruction. The results indicated that for both the multiple-choice and cued-recall tests the combined keyword-semantic strategy differed statistically Significantly as well as practically significantly from the keyword method. The results, therefore, suggest that the combined keyword-semantic strategy increased retention above the other strategies. Hierdie artikel vergelyk die effektiwiteit van drie taalleerstrategiee (geheue strategiee vir die aanleer van woordeskat met mekaar. Vier intak Engels tweedetaal klasse is verdeel in een kontrole groep en drie eksperimentele groepe (sleutelwoord, semantiese en 'n kombinasie van die sleutelwoord-semantiese strategiee. 'n Groep Afrikaanssprekende standerd ses leerlinge het vir 'n tydperk van vier dae onderrig in elk van bogenoemde strategiee ontvang. Multikeuse en "cued-recall" instrumente is gebruik om die effek van onderrig beide een dag en nege dae na eksperimentering te bepaal. Die resultate het aangetoon dat die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie statisties betekenisvol sowel as prakties betekenisvol van die sleutelwoord strategie en die kontrole groep verskil het. Dit wil dus voorkom asof die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie die mees belowende strategie is ten opsigte van die retensie van woordeskat.

  4. Developing Engineering Students’ Understanding of Sustainability Using Project Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Jollands

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Project based learning (PjBL can be an effective approach to developing graduate attributes, but it depends on how it is implemented. Chemical Engineering of RMIT University has a stream of PjBL subjects from first to final year. The projects are incrementally more complex but have the same goal: to choose a best process design, using management decision making tools to justify their choices. The tools include GEMI Metrics NavigatorTM. This paper reports an evaluation of whether students’ understanding of sustainability is enhanced by undertaking multiple projects, as well as use of sophisticated analysis tools. Student learning outcomes from intermediate and final subjects were compared using ConceptMaps and a focus group. The students’ understanding of sustainability increased substantially from 2nd to final year, similar to results reported in European studies. The spread of results was broad, attributed to range of student ability and differences between student cohorts. Development of understanding of sustainability was attributed to undertaking multiple projects and use of spread-sheeting tools. Use of the GEMI tool was identified as facilitating application of sustainability principles to process design decisions. Concept maps are a useful way to evaluate innovations in teaching sustainable engineering.

  5. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Developing College English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Irina A.; Kennedy, Jelane A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines available literature on college English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. The literature available on college ESL programs falls into three categories: (1) research reports and articles, (2) recent theoretical discussions on ESL teaching, and (3) thought pieces discussing college ESL curriculum development and assessment…

  7. Ouch! Or ESL and the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliacci, Naomi

    The realities of the glass ceiling, which prevents qualified women, minorities, and many English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students from advancement and promotion, are rarely discussed in English for Special Purposes (ESP)/ESL programs and courses. This paper explores the barriers to success, focusing on the sociolinguistic factors of verbal and…

  8. Getting Started in Private ESL Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzelbacher, Thelma

    2000-01-01

    Provides tips on how to get started in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) private tutoring. Suggests considering three factors before getting started: readiness, market, and service. A readiness profile for private ESL tutoring and a checklist for getting started are included. (Author/VWL)

  9. An Empirical Investigation into Nigerian ESL Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    General observations indicate that ESL learners in Nigeria tend to manifest fear and anxiety in grammar classes, which could influence their performance negatively or positively. This study examines empirically some of the reasons for some ESL learners' apprehension of grammar classes. The data for the study were ...

  10. Standards for Adult Education ESL Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    This monograph describes the components of a quality adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) program. The standards reflect the great variety of adult ESL programs in the United States. Part 1, "Introduction," describes issues to be considered in developing standards for program quality and explains how to use the program…

  11. Collaboration Model for ESL and Content Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study will examine strategies that ESL teachers and content teachers can use to help middle school ESL students acquire science vocabulary and meta-cognitive strategies for writing skills in non-fiction text forms. Two appendixes are included. (Contains 3 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  12. Adult ESL Education in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the state of the art in the field of "adult ESL" in the US. It identifies the size, characteristics, and settings of adult education and discusses relevant professional standards, assessment procedures, and teacher preparation. Three approaches to noncredit adult ESL education will be presented (Functional…

  13. Standards for Adult Education ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    TESOL Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    What are the components of a quality education ESL program? TESOL's "Standards for Adult Education ESL Programs" answers this question by defining quality components from a national perspective. Using program indicators in eight distinct areas, the standards can be used to review an existing program or as a guide in setting up a new…

  14. Understanding neurophobia: Reasons behind impaired understanding and learning of neuroanatomy in cross-disciplinary healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Asim; Chakraborty, Shelly; Cryan, John F; Schellekens, Harriët; Toulouse, André

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a broad cohort of medical, dental, occupational therapy, and speech and language sciences students. Direct evidence of the students' perception regarding specific difficulties associated with learning neuroanatomy has been provided and some of the measures required to address these issues have been identified. Neuroanatomy is perceived as a more difficult subject compared to other anatomy topics (e.g., reproductive/pelvic anatomy) and not all components of the neuroanatomy curriculum are viewed as equally challenging. The difficulty in understanding neuroanatomical concepts is linked to intrinsic factors such as the inherent complex nature of the topic rather than outside influences (e.g., lecture duration). Participants reporting high levels of interest in the subject reported higher levels of knowledge, suggesting that teaching tools aimed at increasing interest, such as case-based scenarios, could facilitate acquisition of knowledge. Newer pedagogies, including web-resources and computer assisted learning (CAL) are considered important tools to improve neuroanatomy learning, whereas traditional tools such as lecture slides and notes were considered less important. In conclusion, it is suggested that understanding of neuroanatomy could be enhanced and neurophobia be decreased by purposefully designed CAL resources. This data could help curricular designers to refocus attention and guide educators to develop improved neuroanatomy web-resources in future. Anat Sci Educ 11: 81-93. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Malaysian Instructors’ Assessment Beliefs in Tertiary ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen R. M. Elshawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language assessment can be a valuable tool for providing information regarding language teaching. Given the importance of assessment that has undergone much change, there are important issues that warrant investigation, particularly those related to language instructors. Understanding the assessment beliefs of ESL instructors, especially at the tertiary level, is important since it can help improve the quality of assessment practices as well. Therefore, this study investigated English language instructors’ assessment beliefs in the Malaysian context. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. The survey method was utilized to collect data from six Malaysian universities using a purposive sampling strategy. English language instructors (n=83 were selected via purposive sampling for the study. Findings of the study revealed that English language instructors believed that the purpose of assessment was to improve teaching and learning. Regarding the assessment beliefs that are related to the assessment purposes, analyses of data showed that the items that received the highest percentage of agreement were diagnosing strength and weaknesses in students, providing information about students’ progress and providing feedback to students as they learn, respectively. Although they reported using both formal and informal assessment of their students’ work, English language instructors relied heavily on paper and pencil assessment while giving more weightage on formative assessment. The majority of English language instructors reported employing marking schemes for the courses they taught, carrying out sample marking and providing feedback. Finally, English language instructors reported using different types of assessments for every language skill taught in their language unit/center. The findings highlight the fact that English instructors should be more empowered in their role as the assessors of students. Their knowledge about what, how

  16. Science Learning Cycle Method to Enhance the Conceptual Understanding and the Learning Independence on Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulisworo, Dwi; Sutadi, Novitasari

    2017-01-01

    There have been many studies related to the implementation of cooperative learning. However, there are still many problems in school related to the learning outcomes on science lesson, especially in physics. The aim of this study is to observe the application of science learning cycle (SLC) model on improving scientific literacy for secondary…

  17. Using Learning Analytics to Understand Scientific Modeling in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quigley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific models represent ideas, processes, and phenomena by describing important components, characteristics, and interactions. Models are constructed across various scientific disciplines, such as the food web in biology, the water cycle in Earth science, or the structure of the solar system in astronomy. Models are central for scientists to understand phenomena, construct explanations, and communicate theories. Constructing and using models to explain scientific phenomena is also an essential practice in contemporary science classrooms. Our research explores new techniques for understanding scientific modeling and engagement with modeling practices. We work with students in secondary biology classrooms as they use a web-based software tool—EcoSurvey—to characterize organisms and their interrelationships found in their local ecosystem. We use learning analytics and machine learning techniques to answer the following questions: (1 How can we automatically measure the extent to which students’ scientific models support complete explanations of phenomena? (2 How does the design of student modeling tools influence the complexity and completeness of students’ models? (3 How do clickstreams reflect and differentiate student engagement with modeling practices? We analyzed EcoSurvey usage data collected from two different deployments with over 1,000 secondary students across a large urban school district. We observe large variations in the completeness and complexity of student models, and large variations in their iterative refinement processes. These differences reveal that certain key model features are highly predictive of other aspects of the model. We also observe large differences in student modeling practices across different classrooms and teachers. We can predict a student’s teacher based on the observed modeling practices with a high degree of accuracy without significant tuning of the predictive model. These results highlight

  18. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  19. Differences in Perceived Approaches to Learning and Teaching English in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Barley; Chik, Pakey

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates differences in approaches to learning and teaching English as a second language (ESL) as reported by 324 mixed-ability Grade 7 Hong Kong ESL students and 37 ESL secondary school teachers with different backgrounds. Information about participants' perceived approaches to learning/teaching English were collected through a…

  20. An Annotated Bibliography of Research on Reading and Adults Learning English as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Miriam, Comp.; Florez, MaryAnn, Comp.; Terrill, Lynda, Comp.; Van Duzer, Carol, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography contains 27 references regarding research on reading and adults learning English as a Second Language (ESL). None of the resources are more than 10 years old. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (KFT)

  1. Reading and esl writers Reading and esl writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Edlund

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether the student population consists of basic writers, non-native speakers, or well-prepared freshmen and whether the primary goal of the class is improvement in writing ability, language and vocabulary acquisition, or critical thinking skills, there is considerable evidence that substantial amounts of reading arc an essential component of the course (See Krashen Writing: Research, Theory and Applications for a summary. This is especially true in the ESL composition class, where language acquisition is still a major factor in the student's success as a writer. Whether the student population consists of basic writers, non-native speakers, or well-prepared freshmen and whether the primary goal of the class is improvement in writing ability, language and vocabulary acquisition, or critical thinking skills, there is considerable evidence that substantial amounts of reading arc an essential component of the course (See Krashen Writing: Research, Theory and Applications for a summary. This is especially true in the ESL composition class, where language acquisition is still a major factor in the student's success as a writer.

  2. Learning for Understanding: A Faculty-Driven Paradigm Shift in Learning, Imaginative Teaching, and Creative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lefebvre, Rene

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an experimental pilot study begun in 1994 in the Glendale Community College (Glendale, Arizona) psychology department. The faculty-driven idea incorporated Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory (MI) into a new paradigm--one where creative forms of learning resulted in real understanding. The pilot study, Multiple…

  3. Examining Online Forum Discussions as Practices of Digital Literacy in College-Level ESL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauler, Clara Vaz

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines the role of digital media, more specifically online forums, in the development of academic literacy and language learning in English as a Second Language (ESL) college writing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition suggest that participation in online forum discussions can potentially foster collaboration,…

  4. Keeping Native Languages in ESL Class: Accounting for the Role Beliefs Play toward Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yough, Michael S.; Fang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Students' native language is a valuable resource in the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom. Use of native languages may increase a student's sense of efficacy for learning English by: (a) facilitating vocabulary acquisition, (b) aiding learners in comprehension, (c) encouraging self-regulation, (d) making routines and explanations clear…

  5. Research and Reflective Practice in the ESL Classroom: Voices from Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocki, Andrzej; Tennekoon, Sujeewa; Calvo, Alicia Pena

    2014-01-01

    Modern language education favours the model of a reflective teacher-researcher who is engaged in both individual and collaborative curriculum revision and teaching-learning environment improvement. The present paper addresses the issue of classroom research and reflective practice in current ESL pedagogy and teacher professional development. The…

  6. The Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Teaching ESL Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Nordin, Norazah; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Salehi, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of many studies showing positive effects of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning process in general, the use of ICT in teaching writing skills in English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms is still not very encouraging. This study attempts to seek findings on the use of ICT in…

  7. Acculturation and Perceived Social Distance among Arabs and Saudi Arabians in an ESL Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Abdulkhaleq A.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the perceived social distance among a small Arab community residing in a college town in the Midwest of the USA. The study examines its possible impact on the process of learning/acquiring English as a second language (ESL). It draws on the findings and contentions of the acculturation model as…

  8. The Pathway to English Word Reading in Chinese ESL Children: The Role of Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…

  9. Instructional Practices in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…

  10. Kachru's Three Concentric Circles and English Teaching Fallacies in EFL and ESL Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiong, Betsy Hu; Xianxing, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce and explain the famous Three Concentric Circles proposed by Kachru, namely, the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. Based on Kachru's theory, the paper proceeds to discuss four fallacies in EFL and ESL contexts, which are (1) English learners in the Outer and Expanding Circles learn English…

  11. Challenging Inquiry and Building Community: Analyzing ESL and Bilingual Teachers' Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musanti, Sandra I.

    2017-01-01

    The study explores English as a second language (ESL) and bilingual teachers' narratives within a learning community as they collectively engage in reflecting on practices to more effectively support English learners. This longitudinal qualitative study integrates narrative inquiry approach and critical incident methodology. Participants were…

  12. Advanced ESL Students' Prior EFL Education and Their Perceptions of Oral Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    The author in this study examines how advanced-level adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students' previous English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom experiences influence their perceptions of their teachers' oral corrective feedback (CF). It uses in-depth qualitative data to characterize the participants' prior English learning, and to…

  13. Effects of a Multimodal Approach on ESL/EFL University Students' Attitudes towards Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyn, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    Poetry is a specific genre of literature that has been long argued as being too difficult for ESL/EFL learners. However, poetry is considered a valuable and authentic material for teaching language learners and teaching poetry in the language classroom can lead to a meaningful language learning experience. This study examined the implementation of…

  14. Learning from disasters. Understanding the Cultural and Organisational Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Professor Richard Taylor, from the University of Bristol, gave a presentation on the causes and potential ways of reducing the risk of Organisational Accidents. The presentation described a research study that was conducted to analyse and identify lessons from 12 major events in the nuclear and other sectors. The study was funded by ONR and BNFL. Although the events occurred in different sectors and circumstances, the analysis identified many common issues. The findings from the analysis were grouped into the following eight themes: leadership issues, operational attitudes and behaviours, business environment, competence, risk assessment and management, oversight and scrutiny, organisational learning and external regulation. Examples of issues identified under each of the themes are provided in Appendix 2. The presentation discussed learning for regulatory bodies from the events studied. This includes the need for regulators to move beyond technical/procedural issues to thinking about leadership commitment, business pressures and the underlying culture of the organisations they regulate. Regulators should take an 'overview' and actively explore organisational causes of problems rather than focusing on the symptoms. The analysis of events also revealed that regulators sometimes picked up emerging issues but did not act. This highlights the importance of good internal communication and discussion of issues within the regulatory body. The findings from the study have been used to develop expectations/objectives for good performance and develop a draft set of questions that regulators could use to assess vulnerability. Further work with industry and regulatory bodies is planned to encourage a better understanding of the organisational issues identified, improve cross industry sector learning, and develop new tools to reduce vulnerability to organisational accidents

  15. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  16. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material

    OpenAIRE

    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto

    2017-01-01

    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  17. Make your point! debate for ESL/EFL students

    CERN Document Server

    Lubetsky, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    This valuable workbook and downloadable audio can turn any ESL student into an accomplished debater!Make Your Point! opens the world of formal debate to the English learner. Debate fundamentals are taught form the first chapter in a student-centered format suitable for large and small classes alike.Each of the ten chapters offers a ""language focus"" and a ""debatable focus."" As students learn new debate skills, they also build important language skills. All task chains integrate speaking, listening, reading and writing activities. Most activities are intended for pairs and small groups.

  18. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  19. Transitioning to Blended Learning: Understanding Student and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Nannette P.; Dekhane, Sonal; Smith, Stella

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of an introductory computing course to the blended learning model at a small, public liberal arts college. Blended learning significantly reduces face-to-face instruction by incorporating rich, online learning experiences. To assess the impact of blended learning on students, survey data was collected at the…

  20. Understanding Aboriginal Learning Ideology through Storywork with Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atleo, Marlene R.

    2009-01-01

    Five Nuu-chah-nulth Elders engaged in the examination of a Nuu-chah-nulth story for what they considered learning. A network of eight learning archetypes inhabited the story to demonstrate a range of learning strategies. The Elders identified features central to a cultural learning project, which included prenatal care and grandparent teaching,…

  1. Opinions from ESL instructors and students about curricula on hepatitis B for use in immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Taylor, Victoria M; Hislop, T Gregory; Teh, Chong; Acorda, Elizabeth; Do, H Hoai; Chen, Hueifang; Thompson, Beti

    2008-01-01

    Chinese immigrants in Canada have a disproportionately high risk for hepatitis B compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma among Asian immigrants to North America. English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes are an effective way of reaching newly immigrated individuals and are a potential channel for delivering health messages. Using data from 6 focus groups among ESL instructors and students, we characterized perceptions about activities that are successfully used in ESL classrooms and strategies for delivering hepatitis B information. RESULTS. Instructors and students generally reported that activities that focused on speaking and listening skills and that addressed content relevant to students' daily lives were successful in the classroom. Instructors generally avoided material that was irrelevant or too difficult to understand. Focus group participants offered strategies for delivering hepatitis B information in ESL classrooms; these strategies included addressing symptoms and prevention and not singling out a specific population subgroup to avoid stigmatization. These findings might assist efforts to develop ESL curricula that target immigrant populations.

  2. Student learning and understanding of sequence stratigraphic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan Sebastian

    Research in geoscience education addressing students' conceptions of geological subjects has concentrated in topics such as geological time, plate tectonics, and problem solving in the field, mostly in K-12 and entry level college scenarios. Science education research addressing learning of sedimentary systems in advance undergraduates is rather limited. Therefore, this dissertation contributed to filling that research gap and explored students' narratives when explaining geological processes associated with the interaction between sediment deposition and sea level fluctuations. The purpose of the present study was to identify the common conceptions and alternative conceptions held by students when learning the basics of the sub discipline known as sequence stratigraphy - which concepts students were familiar and easily identified, and which ones they had more difficulty with. In addition, we mapped the cognitive models that underlie those conceptions by analyzing students' gestures and conceptual metaphors used in their explanations. This research also investigated the interaction between geoscientific visual displays and student gesturing in a specific learning context. In this research, an in-depth assessment of 27 students' ideas of the basic principles of sequence stratigraphy was completed. Participants were enrolled in advanced undergraduate stratigraphy courses at three research-intensive universities in Midwest U.S. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, spatial visualization tests, and lab assignments. Results indicated that students poorly integrated temporal and spatial scales in their sequence stratigraphic models, and that many alternative conceptions were more deeply rooted than others, especially those related to eustasy and base level. In order to better understand the depth of these conceptions, we aligned the analysis of gesture with the theory of conceptual metaphor to recognize the use of mental models known as image

  3. Colorful ESL Test Papers And Spatial Intelligence:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Moradkhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out whether introducing color as an element which may appeal to spatially-intelligent candidates affects their performance on ESL grammar tests. 52 participants were given two parallel grammar tests, one in black and white and the other bearing the full spectrum of colors in the natural daylight. In order to identify the candidates with visual-spatial learning style, the participants and their teachers were asked to respond to Visual-Spatial Identifier rating scale. Based on the results, no significant relationship was found between the performance of candidates on the colorful and black and white grammar tests and their visual-spatial intelligence. It was concluded that other variables including the method of applying colors, the type and combination of colors as well as the differential impact of different colors on candidates with different cultural backgrounds needed to be addressed before any conclusions can be drawn about the application of color in language assessment.

  4. Cultural Narratives: Developing a Three-Dimensional Learning Community through Braided Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    Paula Underwood's "Learning Stories" braid together body, mind, and spirit to enable understanding that does not easily unravel. They tell of relationships among individual and community learning that parallel other ancient and contemporary ideas about learning in caring communities. Underwood's tradition considers learning sacred; everyone's…

  5. Understanding Learning in World Society: Qualitative Reconstructive Research in Global Learning and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunpflug, Annette; Krogull, Susanne; Franz, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Global learning aims to change behaviour and attitudes. Changes in these areas are not easy to assess. This article discusses the documentary method, which belongs to the group of qualitative reconstructive research methods. The authors argue that this method allows reflection on collective orientations and tacit knowledge. The different steps of…

  6. A Quantitative Investigation of ESL Teacher Knowledge in Australian Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Lilly K.

    2015-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) teaching is partly a thinking process in which teacher knowledge plays a pivotal role in making instructional choices (Breen, Hird, Milton, Oliver, & Thwaite, 2001). The present study contributes to understandings of teacher knowledge by exploring the types of knowledge, which practicing teachers value in…

  7. Instructor-Student Rapport in Taiwan ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G. Webb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive relationships between instructors and students are critical to effective learning in the classroom. Rooted in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL, and centered at the crossroads of interpersonal communication and instructional communication (Affective Learning Model, this study examines how instructors in a Taiwan ESL school build relationships with Taiwanese students. Instructors were interviewed regarding the behaviors they use to build rapport with their students. Results show that instructors build rapport with their students using several specific techniques: uncommonly attentive behaviors, common grounding behaviors, courteous behaviors, connecting behavior, information sharing behavior, a balancing of connection and authority, adaptation of rapport to student level, and provision of a respite to norms. The findings provide specific examples of how instructors can build rapport in intercultural classrooms.

  8. ShapeShop: Towards Understanding Deep Learning Representations via Interactive Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Fred; Hodas, Nathan; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-05-01

    Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as "black-boxes" due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user's data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

  9. ShapeShop: Towards Understanding Deep Learning Representations via Interactive Experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohman, Frederick M.; Hodas, Nathan O.; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-05-30

    Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as “black-boxes” due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user’s data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

  10. An Interdisciplinary Theory-Based ESL Curriculum to Teach English as a Second Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Fuentes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among Hispanic immigrants in the United States (US, learning English is considered necessary for economic and social achievement. Asa consequence, there is a high demand for English as a Second Language (ESL classes. Despite the recognized benefits of ESL programs,both at the individual and social levels, more research is needed to identify education strategies that effectively promote all aspects of learningEnglish as a second language. This article describes an ESL curriculum that incorporates a theory-based pedagogical approach specificallydesigned for immigrant Hispanic adults on the US-Mexico border region. The article also describes the implementation of the curriculum aswell as the results of the evaluation, which was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative results indicate thatthe participants significantly improved their English proficiency (L2. Qualitative results suggest that participants were positively impactedby both the content and pedagogical approaches used by the curriculum. Their experience with the ESL class was positive in general. It canbe concluded that the curriculum achieved its objective. This approach could serve as a model for second language teaching for adults

  11. ESL Students’ Perceptions of the use of Higher Order Thinking Skills in English Language Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Ganapathy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the education curriculum in the Malaysia Education Development Plan (PPPM 2013-2025 focuses on the Higher Order Thinking (HOT concept which aims to produce knowledgeable students who are critical and creative in their thinking and can compete at the international level. HOT skills encourage students to apply, analyse, evaluate and think creatively in and outside the classroom. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of using HOT skills in a secondary ESL writing classroom. A total of 120 Form Two ESL students from three intact classes participated in this study. The students experienced project and group-based work both independently and collaboratively in groups during their writing lessons. The findings from the focus group interviews revealed the following student perceptions: felt engaged in active learning, experienced learner autonomy, developed their writing, researching and personal skills. The implications of this study suggest that using HOT skills in ESL writing lessons facilitate students’ writing ability and interest and it is recommended that HOT skills be explicitly infused in the teaching and learning of writing activities in ESL classrooms.

  12. Integrating health literacy and ESL: an interdisciplinary curriculum for Hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Mein, Erika; Fuentes, Brenda; Thatcher, Barry; Balcázar, Héctor

    2013-03-01

    Adult Hispanic immigrants are at a greater risk of experiencing the negative outcomes related to low health literacy, as they confront cultural and language barriers to the complex and predominately monolingual English-based U.S. health system. One approach that has the potential for simultaneously addressing the health, literacy, and language needs of Hispanics is the combination of health literacy and English as a second language (ESL) instruction. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of using ESL instruction as a medium for improving health literacy among Hispanic immigrants. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of an interdisciplinary health literacy/ESL curriculum that integrates theories of health literacy and health behavior research and practice, sociocultural theories of literacy and communication, and adult learning principles. This article describes the curriculum development process and provides preliminary qualitative data on learners' experiences with the curriculum. Results indicate that the curriculum was attractive to participants and that they were highly satisfied with both the format and content. The curriculum described here represents one example of an audience-centered approach designed to meet the specific health and literacy needs of the Hispanic population on the U.S.-Mexico border. The combination of ESL and health literacy contributed to a perceived positive learning experience among participants. Interdisciplinary approaches to health literacy are recommended.

  13. Acquiring organizational learning norms: a contingency approach for understanding deutero learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    'The Learning Organization' is a configuration of learning norms (called a learning prototype here), which is seldom related to varying levels of learning needs. This article assumes that organizational environmental complexity and dynamics define four learning needs levels. Consequently, four

  14. INVESTIGATING TURNTAKING STRATEGIES IN CLASS DISCUSSIONS AMONG ESL ADULT LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hanim Rahmat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study looked into class discussion strategies used by adult ESL learners. Findings revealed several benefits of class discussions for adult learners. Among some of them are, adult learners practice turn-taking skills in a non-combative environment. The sharing of ideas allowed freedom of thoughts among the learners. On the other hand, adult learners also learn to agree or disagree politely using turn-taking strategies. Finally, the benefits of class discussions may go beyond classroom needs such as improving critical thinking skills among learners. This ability is seen when learners participate in group work and discussions. Learners gain accessibility to participate comfortably in discussions when they are pun in a non-combative environment. This will thus give them the freedom to discuss any topics openly. This freedom will further enhance their general participation in the discussion. However, in a normal conversational process, speakers need to learn to speak up and also to give others space to voice their opinions. Learners need the knowledge of turn-taking skills in order to participate actively in the discussion. This turn-taking skills can be taught in ESL classrooms through class discussions.

  15. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Learning theory: a driving force in understanding orbitofrontal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannald, Michael A; Jones, Joshua L; Takahashi, Yuji K; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2014-02-01

    Since it was demonstrated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical to reversal learning, there has been considerable interest in specifying its role in flexible, outcome-guided behavior. Behavioral paradigms from the learning theory tradition, such as outcome devaluation, blocking, Pavlovian to instrumental transfer, and overexpectation have been a driving force in this research. The use of these procedures has revealed OFC's unique role in forming and integrating information about specific features of events and outcomes to drive behavior and learning. These studies highlight the power and importance of learning theory principles in guiding neuroscience research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Designing Websites for ESL Learners: A Usability Testing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Traphagan, Tomoko; Huh, Jin; Koh, Young Ihn; Choi, Gilok; McGregor, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a usability study for ESL websites conducted to gain insights from learners of English as a second language (ESL) as they interacted with specific sites. Five carefully selected ESL sites were tested by 10 different users generating a total of fifty testing sessions. Two major research questions guided the…

  18. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions--namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning.…

  19. Understanding Social Learning Processes in a Citrus Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on what would traditionally be termed 'non-formal' learning processes in the context of a case study examining how citrus farming communities in the Patensie Valley in the Eastern Cape in South Africa were learning conservation practices. Communities of Practice theory was used to provide a ...

  20. Understanding Adult Lifelong Learning Participation as a Layered Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the layered nature of lifelong learning participation, bringing together fragmented insights in why adults do or do not participate in lifelong learning activities. The paper will discuss the roles and responsibilities of individual adults, education and training providers and countries' social education policies, often…

  1. Languages in a Global World: Learning for Better Cultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Bruno Della, Ed.; Scott, Jessica, Ed.; Hinton, Christina, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or…

  2. Understanding the optimal learning environment in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Shirley E; Yates, Patsy; Barrett, Linda

    2011-07-01

    The learning experiences of student nurses undertaking clinical placement are reported widely, however little is known about the learning experiences of health professionals undertaking continuing professional development (CPD) in a clinical setting, especially in palliative care. The aim of this study, which was conducted as part of the national evaluation of a professional development program involving clinical attachments with palliative care services (The Program of Experience in the Palliative Approach [PEPA]), was to explore factors influencing the learning experiences of participants over time. Thirteen semi-structured, one-to-one telephone interviews were conducted with five participants throughout their PEPA experience. The analysis was informed by the traditions of adult, social and psychological learning theories and relevant literature. The participants' learning was enhanced by engaging interactively with host site staff and patients, and by the validation of their personal and professional life experiences together with the reciprocation of their knowledge with host site staff. Self-directed learning strategies maximised the participants' learning outcomes. Inclusion in team activities aided the participants to feel accepted within the host site. Personal interactions with host site staff and patients shaped this social/cultural environment of the host site. Optimal learning was promoted when participants were actively engaged, felt accepted and supported by, and experienced positive interpersonal interactions with, the host site staff. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding Students' Experiences of Well-Being in Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Alisa; Zandvliet, David; Dhaliwal, Rosie; Black, Tara

    2016-01-01

    With the recent release of a new international charter on health promoting universities and institutions of higher education, universities and colleges are increasingly interested in providing learning experiences that enhance and support student well-being. Despite the recognition of learning environments as a potential setting for creating and…

  4. Understanding teachers’ professional learning goals from their current professional concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers’ current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases

  5. Understanding and Utilizing the Effectiveness of e‐Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    . At the same time, learning and development professionals within public and private organizations are increasingly met with a demand to prove the effectiveness of their learning and development initiatives. This paper investigates the concepts of effectiveness in e-Learning. It broadens the definition......A structured search of librarian databases revealed that the research into the effectiveness of e-Learning has heavily increased within the last 5 years. Taking a closer look at the search results, the authors discovered that researchers define and investigate effectiveness in multiple ways...... of effectiveness and qualifies certain measurements of same. Preliminary results from a literature study and an empirical investigation of ‘the effectiveness of e-Learning’ for science teachers (K12) are combined. The paper discusses the following research questions: How is the effectiveness of e-Learning defined...

  6. Languages in a global world learning for better cultural understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc

  7. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  8. Understanding the Nature of Learners' Out-of-Class Language Learning Experience with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Hu, Xiao; Lyu, Boning

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-class learning with technology comprises an essential context of second language development. Understanding the nature of out-of-class language learning with technology is the initial step towards safeguarding its quality. This study examined the types of learning experiences that language learners engaged in outside the classroom and the…

  9. Sparse Machine Learning Methods for Understanding Large Text Corpora

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sparse machine learning has recently emerged as powerful tool to obtain models of high-dimensional data with high degree of interpretability, at low computational...

  10. Understanding the Dynamics of Learning across social worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Aanestad, Margunn

    2013-01-01

    This paper adopts a novel learning perspective on information systems development. Building on the works of Anselm Strauss we conceptualize development processes as “negotiated orders” where members from different “social worlds” encounter and negotiate differences and tensions. We argue...... participation, politics and learning in IS implementation and use. We consider learning to be an integral part of the social practice, and it occurs mainly through encounters and negotiations between actors from different social worlds who might have competing interests and values. The paper also analysed how...... that processes of inquiry and action are interwoven, and this is what facilitates and stimulates learning. Based on a case study where different versions of open source software was customized, further developed and implemented in the Ethiopian public health care system, this paper explores the interplay between...

  11. Educating patients: understanding barriers, learning styles, and teaching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Health care delivery and education has become a challenge for providers. Nurses and other professionals are challenged daily to assure that the patient has the necessary information to make informed decisions. Patients and their families are given a multitude of information about their health and commonly must make important decisions from these facts. Obstacles that prevent easy delivery of health care information include literacy, culture, language, and physiological barriers. It is up to the nurse to assess and evaluate the patient's learning needs and readiness to learn because everyone learns differently. This article will examine how each of these barriers impact care delivery along with teaching and learning strategies will be examined. Copyright © 2011 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions?namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined th...

  13. Theory of Mind and Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional…

  14. Does using active learning in thermodynamics lectures improve students’ conceptual understanding and learning experiences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H; Sharma, M D

    2015-01-01

    Encouraging ‘active learning’ in the large lecture theatre emerges as a credible recommendation for improving university courses, with reports often showing significant improvements in learning outcomes. However, the recommendations are based predominantly on studies undertaken in mechanics. We set out to examine those claims in the thermodynamics module of a large first year physics course with an established technique, called interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs). The study took place at The University of Sydney, where four parallel streams of the thermodynamics module were divided into two streams that experienced the ILDs and two streams that did not. The programme was first implemented in 2011 to gain experience and refine logistical matters and repeated in 2012 with approximately 500 students. A validated survey, the thermal concepts survey, was used as pre-test and post-test to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided insights into what the ‘active learning’ meant from student experiences. We analysed lecture recordings to capture the time devoted to different activities in a lecture, including interactivity. The learning gains were in the ‘high gain’ range for the ILD streams and ‘medium gain’ for the other streams. The analysis of the lecture recordings showed that the ILD streams devoted significantly more time to interactivity while surveys and interviews showed that students in the ILD streams were thinking in deep ways. Our study shows that ILDs can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding as well as their experiences, demonstrating the potential value-add that can be provided by investing in active learning to enhance lectures. (paper)

  15. Does using active learning in thermodynamics lectures improve students’ conceptual understanding and learning experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, H.; Sharma, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Encouraging ‘active learning’ in the large lecture theatre emerges as a credible recommendation for improving university courses, with reports often showing significant improvements in learning outcomes. However, the recommendations are based predominantly on studies undertaken in mechanics. We set out to examine those claims in the thermodynamics module of a large first year physics course with an established technique, called interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs). The study took place at The University of Sydney, where four parallel streams of the thermodynamics module were divided into two streams that experienced the ILDs and two streams that did not. The programme was first implemented in 2011 to gain experience and refine logistical matters and repeated in 2012 with approximately 500 students. A validated survey, the thermal concepts survey, was used as pre-test and post-test to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided insights into what the ‘active learning’ meant from student experiences. We analysed lecture recordings to capture the time devoted to different activities in a lecture, including interactivity. The learning gains were in the ‘high gain’ range for the ILD streams and ‘medium gain’ for the other streams. The analysis of the lecture recordings showed that the ILD streams devoted significantly more time to interactivity while surveys and interviews showed that students in the ILD streams were thinking in deep ways. Our study shows that ILDs can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding as well as their experiences, demonstrating the potential value-add that can be provided by investing in active learning to enhance lectures.

  16. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates’ Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Sa’idu Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a total of 402 undergraduates’ participated through convenience sampling. Quantitatively, an independent samples t-test was carried out. The results indicated the females required putting more efforts towards improving their pragmatic competence in the ESL writing as they achieved a higher means for language errors, compared to that of the males. Moreover, the ttest value demonstrated that the females lacked skills in the pragmatic skills of mechanical structure, grammatical function, and sentence structures and this made them commit more language errors. Qualitatively, a focus group interview was held randomly with 12 participants out of the 402 undergraduates through purposive sampling. The results of the interview sessions revealed novelties of culture-specific, learning feasibility and the academic discourse as the key elements that constraint most of the Nigerian undergraduates ESL writing skills, particularly the females. Therefore, this study revealed strong implications on how best to develop Nigerian learners’ pragmatic competence in ESL writing skills

  17. Fluency and accuracy levels in writing of Grade 12 ESL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Walt, Johann L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated two aspects of the level of second language development achieved by Grade 12 English Second Language (ESL learners in South Africa. It was inspired by the general concern about standards in the matriculation examination and calls for the improvement of ESL teaching and learning. The study involved an investigation and description of the fluency and accuracy levels of Grade 12 learners. We focussed on writing, since it is generally accepted that characteristic patterns of advanced learners are best studied in written production. 216 compositions were analysed in terms of T-units, and fluency and accuracy frequencies and ratios were calculated. Results show that fluency ratios (W/T and W/EFT and an accuracy ratio (EFT/T paint a poor picture of learners’ performance in writing, and suggest that Grade 12 ESL learners are ill-prepared for tertiary study. Better control of morphology and syntax is required, as this will lead to a general improvement of fluency and accuracy levels in ESL.

  18. ESL participation as a mechanism for advancing health literacy in immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maricel G; Handley, Margaret A; Omark, Karin; Schillinger, Dean

    2014-01-01

    A reliance on the conceptualization of health literacy as functional skill has limited researchers' views of the adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) context as a site for health literacy interventions. To explore the contributions of alternative views of literacy as social practice to health literacy research, the authors examined teacher survey data and learner outcomes data collected as part of a multiyear collaboration involving the California Diabetes Program, university researchers, and adult ESL teachers. The survey results (n=144 teachers) indicated that ESL teachers frequently model effective pedagogical practices that mediate social interaction around health content, the basis for acquiring new literacy skills and practices. In the classroom pilot (n=116 learners), the majority of learners reported they had learned about diabetes risk factors and prevention strategies, which affirmed existing healthy behaviors or prompted revision of unhealthy ones. About two thirds of the learners reported sharing preventive health content with members of out-of-school social networks. This study represents a first step in research efforts to account more fully for the mechanisms by which social interaction and social support facilitate health literacy outcomes in ESL contexts, which should complement what is already known about the development of health literacy as functional skill.

  19. UNDERSTANDING STUDENTS' OPINION ON CO-OPERATIVE LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION IN MATHEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Shefali Pandya

    2017-01-01

    The study seeks to understand students’ opinion about implementation of co-operative learning approach. An experiment on co-operative learning approach was conducted on 78 students of standard IX studying in schools affiliated to the SSC Board and with English as the medium of instruction. It has used one tool, namely, Co-operative Learning Implementation Opinionnaire. It was found that on the whole, students are substantially satisfied with the implementation of co-operative learning approac...

  20. Impact of audio narrated animation on students' understanding and learning environment based on gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrudin, Ajeng Ratih; Setiawan, Wawan; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    This study is titled the impact of audio narrated animation on students' understanding in learning humanrespiratory system based on gender. This study was conducted in eight grade of junior high school. This study aims to investigate the difference of students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation. Research method that is used is quasy experiment with matching pre-test post-test comparison group design. The procedures of study are: (1) preliminary study and learning habituation using audio narrated animation; (2) implementation of learning using audio narrated animation and taking data; (3) analysis and discussion. The result of analysis shows that there is significant difference on students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation, both in general and specifically in achieving learning indicators. The discussion related to the impact of audio narrated animation, gender characteristics, and constructivist learning environment. It can be concluded that there is significant difference of students' understanding at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation. Additionally, based on interpretation of students' respond, there is the difference increment of agreement level in learning environment.

  1. Understanding the relationship between student attitudes and student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Frey, Regina F.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Trousil, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    Student attitudes, defined as the extent to which one holds expertlike beliefs about and approaches to physics, are a major research topic in physics education research. An implicit but rarely tested assumption underlying much of this research is that student attitudes play a significant part in student learning and performance. The current study directly tested this attitude-learning link by measuring the association between incoming attitudes (Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey) and student learning during the semester after statistically controlling for the effects of prior knowledge [early-semester Force Concept Inventory (FCI) or Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA)]. This study spanned four different courses and included two complementary measures of student knowledge: late-semester concept inventory scores (FCI or BEMA) and exam averages. In three of the four courses, after controlling for prior knowledge, attitudes significantly predicted both late-semester concept inventory scores and exam averages, but in all cases these attitudes explained only a small amount of variance in concept-inventory and exam scores. Results indicate that after accounting for students' incoming knowledge, attitudes may uniquely but modestly relate to how much students learn and how well they perform in the course.

  2. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and understanding was validated through an exploratory factor analysis of participants' responses. As for the questionnaire regarding the students' biology learning self-efficacy (BLSE), an exploratory factor analysis revealed a total of four factors including higher-order cognitive skills (BLSE-HC), everyday application (BLSE-EA), science communication (BLSE-SC), and practical works (BLSE-PW). The results of the cluster analysis according to the participants' conceptions of learning biology indicated that students in the two major clusters either viewed learning biology as understanding or possessed mixed-conceptions of memorizing and understanding. The students in the third cluster mainly focused on memorizing in their learning while the students in the fourth cluster showed less agreement with both conceptions of memorizing and understanding. This study further revealed that the conception of learning as understanding was positively associated with the BLSE of university students with biology-related majors. However, the conception of learning as memorizing may foster students' BLSE only when such a notion co-exists with the conception of learning with understanding.

  3. Learning Local Components to Understand Large Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Xiang, Yanping; Cordero, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian networks are known for providing an intuitive and compact representation of probabilistic information and allowing the creation of models over a large and complex domain. Bayesian learning and reasoning are nontrivial for a large Bayesian network. In parallel, it is a tough job for users...... in a domain. We evaluate its performance on three benchmark Bayesian networks and provide results in support. We further show that the learned components may represent local knowledge more precisely in comparison to the full Bayesian networks when working with a small amount of data....

  4. Understanding Digital Learning from the Perspective of Systems Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The System Dynamics approach can be seen as a new way of understanding dynamical phenonema (natural, physical, biological, etc.) that occur in our daily lives taking into consideration not only single pairs of cause-effect variables, but the functioning of the system as a whole. This approach also provides the students with a new understanding in…

  5. Enhancing intercultural understanding using e-learning strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercultural understanding is a prerequisite for peaceful local and global citizenship, especially in South African society where prejudice and negative stereotypes were previously the order of the day because of official separatism. It is therefore crucial to teach intercultural understanding in South Africa. I report with ...

  6. Collaborative Learning and the Joint Construction of Knowledge and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a small-scale study conducted among first and second-year students of English at the University of Graz in the winter semester 2013-2014. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which students in their peer-group interactions were using language efficiently as a means of thinking and learning together. To this…

  7. Understanding Social Learning Processes in a Citrus Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linda Downsborough, Rhodes University, South Africa. Abstract. This paper ... also pointed to the significance of policy and market-based changes in farmer learning, and their attachment to the land, which is ... took place in a citrus farming community in the small town of Patensie in the Eastern Cape, which forms part of the ...

  8. Assessing Reflection: Understanding Skill Development through Reflective Learning Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathro, Virginia; O'Kane, Paula; Gilbertson, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways in which business educators can interact successfully with reflective learning journals (RLJs). Specifically, the research was interested in how students used RLJs and how educators assessed these RLJs. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 31 RLJs, submitted as part of an international…

  9. Understanding Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies examining procrastination and its relation to several key components of self-regulated learning using self-report surveys. Results indicate that procrastination was related to college students' self-efficacy and work-avoidant goal orientation and, to a lesser extent, their use of metacognitive strategies. (Contains 54…

  10. Understanding How the Brain Learns Should Inform Our Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Darden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative review of: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools; Mariale Hardiman; (2012. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 223 pages; and How the Brain Learns, 4th ed.; David A. Sousa; (2011. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 321 pages.

  11. Moderate Learning Difficulties: Searching for Clarity and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Brahm; Ylonen, Annamari; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The concept of moderate learning difficulties (MLD) is not clearly understood in its definition and in its general use. Nevertheless, as a distinct area of special educational needs (SEN) this category has constituted about a quarter of all of those pupils identified as having SEN in England. This paper reports the analysis of findings from an…

  12. Understanding the Science-Learning Environment: A Genetically Sensitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that environmental influences on school science performance increase in importance from primary to secondary school. Here we assess for the first time the relationship between the science-learning environment and science performance using a genetically sensitive approach to investigate the aetiology of this link. 3000…

  13. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    criterion for DT use, Tapscott (1998) referred to current digital users as the Net Generation, and later Prensky. (2001) referred to them as Digital natives, implying that as they are born in the digital era, it predisposes them to learning via digital technologies. The normalisation of technology in the everyday life of learners ...

  14. Understanding Student Learning: The Need for Education Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Chip

    2015-01-01

    Schools have long collected information about students, from basic emergency contact details to daily attendance statistics. But only recently have schools used education technology to collect solid, reliable information (or data) about how students learn--as well as details about their strengths, challenges, and individual traits that impact…

  15. Learning with Animation and the Illusion of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Eugene Sam

    2010-01-01

    A controlled experiment was conducted on the effects of two types of animation--motion and highlighting--on learning. The treatment consisted of a 3.5 minute multimedia presentation that described the workings of a flushing toilet tank. A 2x2 factorial design ({motion, no-motion} x {highlight, no-highlight}) was employed with two dependent…

  16. Evaluating the effects of a new qualitative simulation software (DynaLearn) on learning behavior, factual and causal understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitek, A.; Poppe, M.; Stelzhammer, M.; Muhar, S.; Bredeweg, B.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.

    2011-01-01

    The DynaLearn software, a new intelligent learning environment aimed at supporting a better conceptual and causal understanding of environmental sciences was evaluated. The main goals of these pilot evaluations were to provide information on (1) usability of the software and problems learners

  17. Teaching Culture and Language through the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching Model in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate how to enhance second language (L2) learners' linguistic and cultural competencies through the use of the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching (MIFT) model. The paper will introduce two ideas to teachers of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). First, the paper shows how L2 learners learn linguistic and…

  18. BRIDGING THE REAL WORLD ENGLISHES IN THE RURAL ESL CLASSROOM THROUGH TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Zaitun Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation can play a role in the development of communicative abilities since speakers are often engaged in the work of sharing and negotiating meaning. It fosters speculation and discussion, apart from developing abilities considered fundamental for communication, such as interpretation, negotiation, and expression of meaning. However, there are views against translation in the ESL classrooms even though the method has been applied in the pedagogical process. As a result, ESL students who are weak in English are not given the opportunity to excel in the second language from their own bilingual strength. This paper attempts to study and disclose in what ways pedagogogical translation in rural ESL classrooms in Sabah is reflected into practice, thereby assessing whether the gap between pedagogical translation and translation pedagogy has beeen been bridged. In this case study, five primary teachers were selected and their knowledge and practice of translation were assessed through qualitative content analysis in pre- teaching, while teaching and post-teaching activities. A translation framework has been designed and used in assessing the teachers’ performances in using translation. This pilot study reveals that teachers have translated from the first language (L1 into the second language (L2 as a means to help students to understand the content of the English lesson. They did not have adequate knowedge on translation strategies. Thus, the designed translation framework may be used by teachers as a guide in using translation in the ESL context.

  19. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions—namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined the roles of collaboration and identity in the game making process. We argue that future discussions of serious gaming ought to be more inclusive of constructionist approaches to realize the full potential of serious gaming. Making games, we contend, not only more genuinely introduces children to a range of technical skills but also better connects them to each other, addressing the persistent issues of access and diversity present in traditional digital gaming cultures. PMID:27019536

  20. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B; Burke, Quinn

    2015-10-02

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions-namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined the roles of collaboration and identity in the game making process. We argue that future discussions of serious gaming ought to be more inclusive of constructionist approaches to realize the full potential of serious gaming. Making games, we contend, not only more genuinely introduces children to a range of technical skills but also better connects them to each other, addressing the persistent issues of access and diversity present in traditional digital gaming cultures.

  1. Adventure in a new language: what a first generation Canadian immigrant’s narrative holds for ESL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xing

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the value of learner’s stories for ESL (English as a Second Language teachers’ teaching and research through a narrative inquiry of the lived English learning experience of a first generation Canadian immigrant. It first reviewed the concept of narrative and the significance of launching narrative inquiry. Then, it presented an interview conducted with the Canadian immigrant as a model of narrative inquiry. Themes of the narrative interview were found to resonate with theoretical issues of SLE (Second Language Education, ESL and SLA (Second Language Acquisition. Considering the themes and the entire interviewing process, this paper closed with a discussion of the benefits of narrative inquiry for ESL teachers’ teaching and research.

  2. Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups from practices to principles

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, T

    2013-01-01

    Reflective Practise in ESL Teacher Development Groups  discusses the concept of reflective practice in ESL teachers using data from a 3-year collaborative partnership in which three ESL teachers in Canada explored their professional development through reflective practice.

  3. Understanding the Role of Achievements in Game-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Blair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to examine whether one potentially effective gaming strategy—achievements—has a positive impact on learning in a game-based environment. An achievement in a video game is a reward or recognition earned by players for an in-game accomplishment. This paper describes a series of studies to evaluate the effects of achievement types on learning in a game designed to teach about health resources. The Game “Phone Dash” was used as the testbed for the following studies. The following questionnaires were utilized in this study: Video Game Self-Efficacy Scale (VGSES questionnaire, Relevance and Usefulness questionnaire, Game Engagement Questionnaire (GEQ, and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI. Four studies were conducted. Results indicated that while in unison, the achievements were not as potent in motivating performance, certainly when combined they produced measurable changes in behavior. The four studies described in this paper provide important information regarding the optimal design of achievements in game-based health education. Developers of future game-based learning can use this information to enhance the potential effectiveness of their products. 

  4. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  5. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in Engl...

  6. Blending Web 2.0 Technologies with Developing of Writing Skills in ESL Classroom: Some Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Hind Talal Mashrah

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the educational field has adopted a new route for improving and increasing the way we learn languages, particularly English language, through using social networking services such as; Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and other technologies in writing skills. In this respect, this paper discusses how ESL classroom can apply the social networking services or Web 2.0. Technologies effectively to promote learners' writing skills. The paper first details research studies about the characteri...

  7. Employing STEM Curriculum in an ESL Classroom: A Chinese Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory R. MacKinnon; Kate Greene; Edward Rawn; John Cressey; William He

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods action research was undertaken in a grade 6 classroom in Shanghai, China to identify the challenges of implementing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curriculum in an English Second Language (ESL) classroom. The research has shown that while students are well-motivated to learn through a child-centred problem-based approach, the schooling context has measurable deterrents linked directly to an assessment driven system. It was further determined that the lan...

  8. Developmental song learning as a model to understand neural mechanisms that limit and promote the ability to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sarah E

    2017-11-20

    Songbirds famously learn their vocalizations. Some species can learn continuously, others seasonally, and still others just once. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing during a single developmental "Critical Period," a restricted phase during which a specific experience has profound and permanent effects on brain function and behavioral patterns. The zebra finch can therefore provide fundamental insight into features that promote and limit the ability to acquire complex learned behaviors. For example, what properties permit the brain to come "on-line" for learning? How does experience become encoded to prevent future learning? What features define the brain in receptive compared to closed learning states? This piece will focus on epigenomic, genomic, and molecular levels of analysis that operate on the timescales of development and complex behavioral learning. Existing data will be discussed as they relate to Critical Period learning, and strategies for future studies to more directly address these questions will be considered. Birdsong learning is a powerful model for advancing knowledge of the biological intersections of maturation and experience. Lessons from its study not only have implications for understanding developmental song learning, but also broader questions of learning potential and the enduring effects of early life experience on neural systems and behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Metacognition and EFL/ESL Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Patricia L.; Wise, Teresa; Gajdusek, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research streams in metacognition, reading strategies, and training of reading strategies that are converging in the field of English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) and impacting the teaching of English to non-native speakers for academic purposes. A research design for investigating the efficacy of metacognitive strategy…

  10. Mother Goose in the ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Karen

    Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…

  11. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  12. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  13. Literature in EFL/ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed; Derakhshan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature on how literature can be integrated as a language teaching material in EFL/ESL classes. First, it tracks down the place of literature in language classes from the early Grammar Translation Method (GTM) to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) era. The paper then discusses the reasons for the demise and…

  14. Hepatitis B ESL education for Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicky M; Gregory Hislop, T; Bajdik, Christopher; Teh, Chong; Lam, Wendy; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Yasui, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Asian communities in North America include large numbers of immigrants with limited English proficiency. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in most Asian countries and, therefore, Asian immigrant groups have high rates of chronic HBV infection. We conducted a group-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a hepatitis B English as a second language (ESL) educational curriculum for Asian immigrants. Eighty ESL classes were randomized to experimental (hepatitis B education) or control (physical activity education) status. Students who reported they had not received a HBV test (at baseline) completed a follow-up survey 6 months after randomization. The follow-up survey assessed recent HBV testing and HBV-related knowledge. Provider reports were used to verify self-reported HBV tests. The study group included 218 students who reported they had not been tested for HBV. Follow-up surveys were completed by 180 (83%) of these students. Provider records verified HBV testing for 6% of the experimental group students and 0% of the control group students (P = 0.02). Experimental group students were significantly (P ESL curriculum had a meaningful impact on HBV-related knowledge and a limited impact on HBV testing levels. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of ESL curricula for other immigrant groups and other health topics, as well as other intervention approaches to increasing levels of HBV testing in Asian immigrant communities.

  15. Understanding Health Professionals' Informal Learning in Online Social Networks: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Verspoor, Karin; Gray, Kathleen; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding how learning occurs in OSNs is necessary to better support this type of learning. Through a cross-sectional survey, this study found that learning interaction in OSNs is low in general, with a small number of active users. Some health professionals actively used OSNs to support their practice, including sharing practical and experiential knowledge, benchmarking themselves, and to keep up-to-date on policy, advanced information and news in the field. These health professionals had an overall positive learning experience in OSNs.

  16. Understanding Learning and Learning Design in MOOCs: A Measurement-Based Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Sandra; Griffin, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes empirical investigations of how participants in a MOOC learn, and the implications for MOOC design. A learner capability to generate higher order learning in MOOCs--called crowd-sourced learning (C-SL) capability--was defined from learning science literature. The capability comprised a complex yet interrelated array of…

  17. Understanding Learning Styles, Attitudes and Intentions in Using e-Learning System: Evidence from Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyal, Afzaal H.; Rahman, Mohd Noah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the students' learning style, their attitudes about educational technologies in general and e-learning management system (e-LMS) in particular and their behavioral intentions to use the e-learning platform in a single institution of higher learning in Brunei Darussalam. In this study, a survey, using the VARK Questionnaire…

  18. Understanding, Evaluating, and Supporting Self-Regulated Learning Using Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Ido; Winne, Philip H.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an ongoing process rather than a single snapshot in time. Naturally, the field of learning analytics, focusing on interactions and learning trajectories, offers exciting opportunities for analyzing and supporting self-regulated learning. This special section highlights the current state of research at the intersection of…

  19. How Do Chinese ESL Learners Recognize English Words during a Reading Test? A Comparison with Romance-Language-Speaking ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…

  20. Understanding mobile learning: devices, pedagogical implications and research lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos SÁNCHEZ PRIETO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías y el interés en la aplicación de las mismas al proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje han provocado el nacimiento de nuevas metodologías didácticas que pretenden sacar el máximo partido a los dispositivos. Una de las que más fuerza ha cobrado en los últimos años es el mobile learning. Nuestra intención con este artículo es describir las características principales de esta metodología, centrándonos especialmente en las implicaciones pedagógicas que trae consigo y la situación actual de la investigación en este campo, especialmente en España y en Europa.El artículo está dividido en cuatro secciones. En primer lugar, definiremos el concepto de mobile learning y su relación con los ámbitos de enseñanza. En segundo lugar, pasaremos a describir las posibilidades didácticas de los terminales móviles, centrándonos especialmente en los más populares en la actualidad, smartphones y tabletas, que han supuesto un importante avance en este campo. En tercer lugar, profundizaremos en los criterios pedagógicos para el desarrollo de actividades mLearning en los distintos paradigmas y contextos educativos, así como las estrategias de formación del profesorado. Por último, presentaremos las principales líneas de investigación y tendencias actuales y describiremos la situación en los territorios mencionados anteriormente.

  1. Teaching and Learning Medication Calculations: A Grounded Theory of Conceptual Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susan

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify the process of nursing students' attainment of conceptual understanding when learning medication dosage calculations. This study utilized a grounded theory research design with a blended theoretical framework of constructivism and symbolic interaction. A process of conceptual understanding began with the teaching and learning experiences in the classroom and progressed to students' reengagement with the course content outside of the classroom. Confusion was the core category of the process. Students who were able to work through the confusion and solve problems were able to attain conceptual understanding and progress to more complex problem solving. Nurse educators need to identify teaching and learning strategies that promote conceptual understanding. Helping students to get beyond memorization and move to understanding of medication calculations can help students' critical thinking and problem solving ability and lead to conceptual understanding.

  2. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  3. Enhancing intercultural understanding using e-learning strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    'intercultural communication' and 'intercultural understanding' were used to provide a basis for the theoretical outline ... therefore established intercultural communication through a non-verbal medium. Because of the ..... and intercultural communication would have to be developed as essential skills. It was apparent that the ...

  4. Student Approaches to Achieving Understanding--Approaches to Learning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyrenius, Anna; Wirell, Staffan; Silen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a phenomenographic study that investigates students' approaches to achieving understanding. The results are based on interviews, addressing physiological phenomena, with 16 medical students in a problem-based curriculum. Four approaches--sifting, building, holding and moving--are outlined. The holding and moving approaches…

  5. Michigan Community College Virtual Learning Collaborative Memorandum of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Community Coll. Association, Lansing.

    This memorandum of understanding was written to establish the general framework for collaboration among Michigan community colleges in support of technology-mediated courses. It also serves as a formal consortium agreement among member colleges so that students can receive financial assistance while enrolled in courses offered through the Michigan…

  6. Teaching Care Ethics: Conceptual Understandings and Stories for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Colette; Smith, Grinell

    2013-01-01

    An ethic of care acknowledges the centrality of the role of caring relationships in moral education. Care ethics requires a conception of "care" that differs from the quotidian use of the word. In order to teach care ethics more effectively, this article discusses four interrelated ways that teachers' understandings of care differ…

  7. Provocative Opinion: Can Chemistry be Learned Without Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    Voices the opinion that clearer and more useful explanations of common chemistry are needed to facilitate understanding. Presents examples from the realms of atomic structure, periodic table, history of chemistry, valence, electronegativity, electrode potentials, covalent bonds, polar covalence, bond energy, and causes of chemical change. (GS)

  8. Understanding Generation Z Students to Promote a Contemporary Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; mohr, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    University faculty predominantly represent the Baby Boomer and Baby Buster (Gen X) Generations, but, university students are largely iYs Millenials and Generation Z Digital Natives. These groups have been characterized both positively and negatively in the popular press. A fresh understanding of the newer generations can help instructors better meet current students’ educational needs. This article shares brief generational profiles based on recent research and then presents questions and rec...

  9. Comparative Difficulties with Non-Scientific General Vocabulary and Scientific/Medical Terminology in English as a Second Language (ESL) Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Thomas A; Nandagopal, Shobha

    2012-11-01

    Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with "English as a second language" (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge.

  10. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  11. Student Nurses' Experience of Experiential Teaching and Learning: Towards a Phenomenological Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Interviews with nine nursing students revealed that they are able to define experiential learning, consider role playing the chief method, are aware of theory-practice issues, understand the importance of reflective practice, and view clinical supervision as an integral part of experiential learning. (SK)

  12. Towards a Culturally Sensitive and Deeper Understanding of "Rote Learning" and Memorisation of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Po-Li

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to provide evidence that "rote learning" or "memorisation" is a complex construct and is deeply embedded in the East Asian culture. An in-depth understanding of this learning approach is increasingly crucial considering the complex demography of contemporary higher education nowadays. Not only is there a rise…

  13. Adult Learners Understanding in Learning Islam Using the Andragogy Approach in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…

  14. An Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory: Students' Emerging Understanding of Exponential Growth through Covariation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amy B.; Ozgur, Zekiye; Kulow, Torrey; Dogan, Muhammed F.; Amidon, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory (EGLT), a trajectory identifying and characterizing middle grade students' initial and developing understanding of exponential growth as a result of an instructional emphasis on covariation. The EGLT explicates students' thinking and learning over time in relation to a set of tasks…

  15. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  16. Understanding Informal Learning in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shinhee; McLean, Gary N.; Park, Soyoun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore informal learning experiences among employees working in South Korean small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with fewer than 100 employees. This study specifically seeks to understand the characteristics of informal learning in Korean SMEs and culturally sensitive contextual factors that shape informal…

  17. The pulse of learning analytics. Understandings and expectations from the Stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Greller, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Drachsler, H., & Greller, W. (2012). The pulse of learning analytics. Understandings and expectations from the stakeholders. In S. Buckingham Shum, D. Gasevic, & R. Ferguson (Eds.), 2nd International Conference Learning Analytics & Knowledge (pp. 120-129). April, 29-May, 02, 2012, Vancouver, BC,

  18. Environmental Identity: A New Approach to Understanding Students' Participation in Environmental Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksha, Amanda P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of how participants express their environmental identities during an environmental learning program. Past research on the outcomes of environmental learning programs has focused primarily on changes in knowledge and attitudes. However, even if knowledge or attitudes can be accurately measured,…

  19. Integrating Model-Based Learning and Animations for Enhancing Students' Understanding of Proteins Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri; Hussein-Farraj, Rania

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the context of chemistry education reforms in Israel. The study examined a new biochemistry learning unit that was developed to promote in-depth understanding of 3D structures and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Our goal was to examine whether, and to what extent teaching and learning via…

  20. Understanding How Service-Learning Impacts the Dispositions of Teach for America Candidates and Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dymaneke; Karlin, Sy; Price, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a study that assessed Teach for America (TFA) candidates' dispositions toward service-learning before and after they developed and implemented a service-learning project with their students. This article may be used to understand the significance of raising alternative certification teacher candidates' community awareness…

  1. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  2. Improving the Understanding of Research Methodology and Self-Regulated Learning Through Blog Project

    OpenAIRE

    Retnawati, Heri

    2017-01-01

    : This classroom action research seeks to improve self-regulated learning (SRL) and understanding of research methodology at the graduate school. Nineteen graduate school students were involved. Using project-based learning (PjBL), students were assigned to create online blogs as the main project. The blog was intended for representing their understanding of research methodology by writing review of research articles and submitting a research proposal. The classroom action research was based ...

  3. Pedagogical strategies for teaching literacy to ESL immigrant students: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O; Lavin, Tracy; Thompson, Terri; Ungerleider, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Many countries rely on immigrants for population growth and to maintain a skilled workforce. However, many such immigrants face literacy-related barriers to success in education and in the labour force. This meta-analysis reviews experimental and quasi-experimental studies to examine strategies for teaching English literacy to immigrant students. Following an exhaustive and systematic search for studies meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria, two researchers independently extracted data from 26 English as a Second Language (ESL) studies involving 3,150 participants. These participants consisted of ESL immigrant students in kindergarten through grade 6 who were exposed to English literacy instructional interventions. Measured outcomes were reading and writing. Mean effect sizes vary from small to large, depending on instructional interventions and outcome constructs. Across several different grade levels, settings, and methodological features, pedagogical strategies used in teaching ESL to immigrant students are associated with increased competence in reading and writing. Collaborative reading interventions, in which peers engage in oral interaction and cooperatively negotiate meaning and a shared understanding of texts, produced larger effects than systematic phonics instruction and multimedia-assisted reading interventions. The results show that the pedagogical strategies examined in this meta-analysis produced statistically significant benefits for students in all grade levels. The findings also show that students from low socio-economic status (SES) background benefit from ESL literacy interventions. However, significant heterogeneity was found in each subset. Educators and policy makers are encouraged to consider specific school contexts when making decisions about optimal pedagogical strategies. It is possible that contextual factors as well as ESL learner characteristics may influence the effectiveness of these strategies. To ensure literacy acquisition

  4. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  5. Passing the English as a second language (ESL) supplemental texes exam keys to certification and language proficient learners

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmore, Elaine L

    2014-01-01

    Master the TExES with down-to-earth test prep strategies ESL certification is attainable if one understands the domains and competencies represented in the test and masters test prep skills. Dr. Elaine Wilmore, known for her popular TExES preparation seminars, synthesizes her knowledge and experiences and gives readers a practical approach to passing the ESL Supplemental Exam. Written in a conversational tone, the book uses real examples to help readers connect theory with actual practice and offers: Thorough discussions of relevant concepts related to domains and competencies Tables and graph

  6. Accepting, understanding, teaching, and learning (human) evolution: Obstacles and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobiner, Briana

    2016-01-01

    Questions about our origin as a species are universal and compelling. Evolution-and in particular human evolution-is a subject that generates intense interest across the world, evidenced by the fact that fossil and DNA discoveries grace the covers of major science journals and magazines as well as other popular print and online media. However, virtually all national polls indicate that the majority of Americans strongly reject biological evolution as a fact-based, well-tested, and robust understanding of the history of life. In the popular mind, no topic in all of science is more contentious or polarizing than evolution and media sources often only serve to magnify this polarization by covering challenges to the teaching of evolution. In the realm of teaching, debates about evolution have shaped textbooks, curricula, standards, and policy. Challenges to accepting and understanding evolution include mistrust and denial of science, cognitive obstacles and misconceptions, language and terminology, and a religious worldview, among others. Teachers, who are on the front lines of these challenges, must be armed with the tools and techniques to teach evolution in formal education settings across grades K-16 in a straightforward, thorough, and sensitive way. Despite the potentially controversial topic of human evolution, growing research is demonstrating that a pedagogical focus on human examples is an effective and engaging way to teach core concepts of evolutionary biology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Using Learning Analytics to Understand the Learning Pathways of Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Matthew; Martin, Taylor; Benton, Tom; Smith, Carmen Petrick; Davis, Don

    2013-01-01

    Many have suggested that tinkering plays a critical role in novices learning to program, and recent work in learning analytics (Baker & Yacef, 2009 Blikstein, 2011) allows us to describe new relationships in the process. Using learning analytics, we explore how students progress from exploration, through tinkering, to refinement, a pathway…

  8. Understanding Learner Acceptance of Learning Objects: The Roles of Learning Object Characteristics and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Many organisations and institutions have integrated learning objects into their e-learning systems to make the instructional resources more efficient. Like any other information systems, this trend has made user acceptance of learning objects an increasingly critical issue as a high level of learner satisfaction and acceptance reflects that the…

  9. Using computer-assisted learning to engage diverse learning styles in understanding business management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mary E; Derby, Dustin C; Haan, Andrea G

    2013-01-01

    Objective : Changes in small business and insurance present challenges for newly graduated chiropractors. Technology that reaches identified, diverse learning styles may assist the chiropractic student in business classes to meet course outcomes better. Thus, the purpose of our study is to determine if the use of technology-based instructional aids enhance students' mastery of course learning outcomes. Methods : Using convenience sampling, 86 students completed a survey assessing course learning outcomes, learning style, and the helpfulness of lecture and computer-assisted learning related to content mastery. Quantitative analyses occurred. Results : Although respondents reported not finding the computer-assisted learning as helpful as the lecture, significant relationships were found between pre- and post-assisted learning measures of the learning outcomes 1 and 2 for the visual and kinesthetic groups. Surprisingly, however, all learning style groups exhibited significant pre- and post-assisted learning appraisal relationships with learning outcomes 3 and 4. Conclusion : While evidence exists within the current study of a relationship between students' learning of the course content corollary to the use of technologic instructional aids, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear.

  10. Transforming Chinese Teachers' Thinking, Learning and Understanding via E-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian; Motteram, Gary; Bangxiang, Liu

    2006-01-01

    The Developing E-learning for Teachers (DEfT) project, a collaborative venture between UK and Chinese universities, has produced e-learning modules for master's level programmes for in-service high school teachers in China. E-learning offers Chinese teachers new and innovative forms of professional development and provides for transformative…

  11. Understanding Mobile Learning from the Perspective of Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, L.; Looi, C.-K.; Chen, W.; Zhang, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Cognizant of the research gap in the theorization of mobile learning, this paper conceptually explores how the theories and methodology of self-regulated learning (SRL), an active area in contemporary educational psychology, are inherently suited to address the issues originating from the defining characteristics of mobile learning: enabling…

  12. Theory of mind and children’s understanding of teaching and learning during early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlin Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional attempt to change others’ knowledge state. Theory of mind (ToM facilitates children’s understanding of knowledge state and change as well as teaching and learning intention in various aspects, including knowing you do not know; knowing what other people know; knowing that other people do not know what you know; and knowing how knowledge comes about. This paper highlights the integral relation between children’s ToM development and their teaching and learning concept based on review of empirical research and discusses the implication for early childhood education and school transition.

  13. Can a model of study activity increase didactic dialogue and students' understanding of learning in IPE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    by both lecturers and students will be presented. Findings/results/outcomes/effects: Students point out that the model can be a useful tool to gain an overview of learning activities and the amount of time they are expected to spend in courses. When lecturers introduce courses via the model it deepens...... student's understanding of the learning outcome and how to achieve it Lecturers on the other hand find it difficult to use the model as a mean of dialogue with the students. Conclusion: Students find that the model has potential to develop their understanding of their own learning processes. Though...... at Metropolitan University College. Since 2013 all UCS have worked with a nationally decided study activity model. The model outlines four different types of learning activities. Students are introduced to courses via the model to heighten their understanding of course design and the expectations...

  14. Dematerialization and Deformalization of the EFL/ESL Textbook - Literature Review and Relevant Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Rapid development and critical convergence of Information Communication Technologies is radically impacting education, particularly in second language acquisition, where the sudden availability of multimedia content and immediacy of distance communication offer specific advantage. The language classroom is evolving to integrate computer-mediated learning and communication with traditional schooling; digitization and the Internet mean the textbook is evolving from inert hard copy that is consumed, to dynamic e-texts that students participate in. The emergence of English as a Global Language, with the primary role of English on the Internet, means that the transition from fixed hard copy to fluid online digital environment is particularly evident in EFL/ESL. I review research, trace ways in which this transition occurs, and speculate on how, under the impact of ICTs and their convergence, the EFL/ESL textbook will reform, and may even disappear as a stand-alone entity.

  15. Influence of Speech Anxiety on Oral Communication Skills among ESL/EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Muhammad Khan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The realization of speech anxiety among ESL/EFL learners is important. Once understood, these feelings of fear or nervousness may be relieved and the desired objectives of learning the target language may be achieved.  The study has attempted to measure the level of anxiety among ESL/EFL learners at HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan. The current research has arrived at the conclusion that the target population is highly anxious in situation where they are required to speak English. The findings show that sources such as pedagogical, psychological, socio-economic, linguistic and cultural generate anxiety among the EFL learners. The study has suggested variety of strategies to treat anxiety in the academic context. It was found that communicative approach in classroom may be helpful in minimizing the negative impact of anxiety among language learners. Keywords:  speech anxiety, communicative approach, communication apprehension, FLA

  16. The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

  17. The Understanding of "Concept Study" in Teachers' Professional Learning: A Lived Experience of Complexity Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper used narrative to present the author's understanding process of "concept study" in teachers' professional learning. The understanding process was advanced by several questions emerging from the preparation of doing "concept study". Thus, the several questions and their solutions became the threads of the narrative.…

  18. Students' Understanding of the Function-Derivative Relationship When Learning Economic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Angel; Llinares, Salvador; Valls, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterise students' understanding of the function-derivative relationship when learning economic concepts. To this end, we use a fuzzy metric (Chang 1968) to identify the development of economic concept understanding that is defined by the function-derivative relationship. The results indicate that the understanding…

  19. Video "Reading" and Multimodality: A Study of ESL/Literacy Pupils' Interpretation of "Cinderella" from Their Socio-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Hispanic ESL/literacy learners used their socio-historical experiences and multimodal resources to mediate interpretation and representation of "Cinderella". Eighteen third-grade pupils "read" the video and re-created their understandings in pictures and sentences. The findings suggest that (a)…

  20. Teaching ESL/EFL in a World of Social Media, Mash-Ups, and Hyper-Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the emerging pedagogical potential offered by today's technologies and how understanding the relationship between emerging technology and emerging pedagogy can enhance the teaching of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). The author begins with an overview of recent developments in the field, focused upon…

  1. Using WebQLM to Enhance Performance in Argumentative Writing among Year 12 ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Ooi L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of a designed web-based learning module on Year 12 students’ learning of argumentative writing. The module known as WebQuest Learning Module or WebQLM comprises four units of learning. The subjects were 68 Year 12 Arts Stream students in an urban school in Penang. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of WebQLM on students’ performance in argumentative writing as well as students’ responses towards the integration of this web technology in the ESL classroom. The paired-samples T-Test revealed significant improvement in students’ argumentative writing performance. Findings from the questionnaire and group interviews showed students generally responded positively towards the use of WebQLM in argumentative writing instruction. This study has brought to light the importance of integrating web-based learning tasks in the classroom. The credibility of the teacher in web-based instruction depends very much on the roles he or she plays in designing, scaffolding, facilitating and aspiring students towards a better learning culture. Implications on the teaching and learning of writing in an ESL context, especially for learners in the contemporary digital culture, can be drawn from the findings.

  2. How online learning modules can improve the representational fluency and conceptual understanding of university physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, H.

    2015-07-01

    The use of online learning resources as core components of university science courses is increasing. Learning resources range from summaries, videos, and simulations, to question banks. Our study set out to develop, implement, and evaluate research-based online learning resources in the form of pre-lecture online learning modules (OLMs). The aim of this paper is to share our experiences with those using, or considering implementing, online learning resources. Our first task was to identify student learning issues in physics to base the learning resources on. One issue with substantial research is conceptual understanding, the other with comparatively less research is scientific representations (graphs, words, equations, and diagrams). We developed learning resources on both these issues and measured their impact. We created weekly OLMs which were delivered to first year physics students at The University of Sydney prior to their first lecture of the week. Students were randomly allocated to either a concepts stream or a representations stream of online modules. The programme was first implemented in 2013 to trial module content, gain experience and process logistical matters and repeated in 2014 with approximately 400 students. Two validated surveys, the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE) and the Representational Fluency Survey (RFS) were used as pre-tests and post-tests to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided further insights. While both streams of OLMs produced similar positive learning gains on the FMCE, the representations-focussed OLMs produced higher gains on the RFS. Conclusions were triangulated with student responses which indicated that they have recognized the benefit of the OLMs for their learning of physics. Our study shows that carefully designed online resources used as pre-instruction can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding and representational fluency in physics, as well as make them more aware

  3. Arab ESL Secondary School Students’ Spelling Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Mohammad Saeed Al-Sobhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available English spelling has always been described by many language researchers and teachers as a daunting task especially for learners whose first language is not English. Accordingly, Arab ESL learners commit serious errors when they spell out English words. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the types as well as the causes of spelling errors made by Arab ESL secondary school students. In order to collect the data, a fifty-word standardised spelling test was administered to seventy Arab student participants. The students’ types of spelling errors were detected, analysed and then categorised according to Cook’s (1999 classification of errors namely substitution, omission, insertion and transposition. In total, 2,873 spelling errors of various categories were identified. The study findings revealed that errors of substitution constituted the highest percentage of the students’ type of errors. In addition, the study indicated that the main causes of the students’ spelling errors were possibly attributed to the anomalous nature of the English spelling system, the Arab students’ lack of awareness of English spelling rules as well as L1 interference. Despite being conducted in an ESL context, the study was almost consistent with the findings indicated by other studies which were carried out in many Arabic EFL context. The findings suggest that spelling instruction should be emphasised while teaching English and should also be integrated with the skills and subskills of reading, writing, pronunciation and vocabulary in order to develop the students’ spelling accuracy.

  4. Integrating Model-Based Learning and Animations for Enhancing Students' Understanding of Proteins Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri; Hussein-Farraj, Rania

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the context of chemistry education reforms in Israel. The study examined a new biochemistry learning unit that was developed to promote in-depth understanding of 3D structures and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Our goal was to examine whether, and to what extent teaching and learning via model-based learning and animations of biomolecules affect students' chemical understanding. Applying the mixed methods research paradigm, pre- and post-questionnaires as well as class-observations were employed in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. The research population included 175 grade twelve students, divided into three research groups: (a) hands-on exploration of animations, (b) teacher's demonstrations of animations, (c) traditional learning using textbooks. Findings indicated that the integration of model-based learning and 3D animations enhanced students' understanding of proteins' structure and function and their ability to transfer across different levels of chemistry understanding. Findings also indicated that teachers' demonstrations of animations may enhance students' `knowledge'—a low order thinking skill; however, in order to enhance higher levels of thinking, students should be able to explore 3D animations on their own. Applying constructivist and interpretative analysis of the data, three themes were raised, corresponding to cognitive, affective, and social aspects of learning while exploring web-based models and animations.

  5. Learning Fractions by Splitting: Using Learning Analytics to Illuminate the Development of Mathematical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Taylor; Petrick Smith, Carmen; Forsgren, Nicole; Aghababyan, Ani; Janisiewicz, Philip; Baker, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The struggle with fraction learning in kindergarten through Grade 12 in the United States is a persistent problem and one of the major stumbling blocks to succeeding in higher mathematics. Research into this problem has identified several areas where students commonly struggle with fractions. While there are many theories of fraction learning,…

  6. Teachers' Assessment of ESL Students in Mainstream Classes: Challenges, Strategies, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Milnes, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of ESL students in Canadian classrooms, this study investigated how teachers of mainstream classes assess the written work of ESL students and whether they use different assessment strategies for ESL versus non-ESL students. Interviews were conducted with seven mainstream teachers from a private high school in Ontario.…

  7. Russian Immigrants in the ESL Classroom. Success, Motivation, and Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the success, motivation, and acculturation of Russian immigrants in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms, explaining why they are motivated and well-prepared, discussing variations in their previous English education, examining the effects of cultural differences, and noting other problems that they may face in ESL classrooms…

  8. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right…

  9. Translating Information Literacy: Online Library Support for ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Emmett

    2016-01-01

    This article describes information literacy struggles of ESL college students within the context of four information literacy components: Identify, Locate, Evaluate, Use. Experiences from an online freshman composition course are used to illustrate these struggles, along with techniques academic librarians use to help ESL students from a distance.

  10. Balancing Act: Addressing Culture and Gender in ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle A.; Chang, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    ESL educators find themselves teaching a diverse group of students in today's classroom. This study investigated how ESL instructors address diversity in their teaching. The literature review revealed research on the experiences of teachers using culturally responsive teaching strategies. Using qualitative research methods, this study explores the…

  11. Losing Strangeness: Using Culture to Mediate ESL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Sztainbok, Vannina; Blaney, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways of using culture and cultural practices as an informing principle in ESL teaching. To research culture and ESL teaching, we conducted focus groups with teachers in an urban ethnically diverse school in Toronto, Canada and their student teachers during their month-long practice in the school as a part of a Bachelor of…

  12. Lexical Borrowings in the ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirusanku, Jantmary; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the use of lexical borrowings in ten teaching materials used by the English as Second Language (ESL) teachers in the ESL classrooms in the National Secondary Schools in the Klang district in Selangor, Malaysia. It also discusses the general and pedagogical implications involved in using lexical borrowings. This paper…

  13. Accent, Identity, and a Fear of Loss? ESL Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrocklin, Shannon; Link, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Because many theorists propose a connection between accent and identity, some theorists have justifiably been concerned about the ethical ramifications of L2 pronunciation teaching. However, English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students often state a desire to sound like native speakers. With little research into ESL students' perceptions of links…

  14. The Use of Progressives among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinasamy, Ilhamanggai; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Studies on ESL/EFL learners' use of the progressives reveal that it is one of the grammatical aspects most problematic to them. This paper presents the results of a study on the use of progressives among Year 5, Form 1 and Form 4 Malaysian ESL learners' compositions using the English of Malaysian School Students (EMAS) corpus. The purpose of this…

  15. Complex Text in ESL Grammar Textbooks: Barriers or Gateways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesikin, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers assess prospective textbooks by comparing real-life user's actual knowledge of the author's assumed student knowledge. Through examination of charts and page excerpts of two ESL grammar textbooks, demonstrates that access to the pedagogical knowledge demands sophisticated formal knowledge,…

  16. Flipped ESL Teacher Professional Development: Embracing Change to Remain Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Kaur, Dalwinder; Halili, Siti Hajar; Ramlan, Zahri

    2016-01-01

    Many traditional professional development programs that are initiated to equip ESL teachers with knowledge and skills have been futile for numerous reasons. This paper addresses a gap in the recent research of ESL teachers' professional development. Literature has revealed many shortcomings of the traditional and online professional development…

  17. The Relationship between Instructor Feedback and ESL Student Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loreto, Sabrina; McDonough, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This correlational study, conducted in intermediate English as a second language (ESL) high school classes in Quebec, investigated the relationship between instructor feedback and student anxiety. The participants were 53 ESL students in their last year of secondary school who were required to take an integrative-writing exam as part of their…

  18. Training Using Technology in the Adult ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss two reasons for the slow adoption of technology as an instructional tool in adult English as a Second Language (ESL) education. I outline recent facts about the relationships between today's adult ESL learners and technology, and then construct a background of theoretical support in favor of integrating technology in…

  19. ESL Learners' Online Research and Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, Noridah; Bown, Andy; Fluck, Andrew; Kebble, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance second language (L2) acquisition, English as a Second Language (ESL) students are encouraged to exploit the abundant information and opportunities for authentic language use afforded by the Internet. This study investigated the online research and comprehension strategies employed by ESL learners in a public university in…

  20. Rethinking ESL Service Courses for International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Young-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from a writing program in English as a second language (ESL) at a large university in the midwestern United States, this article addresses the significant gap in programmatic and pedagogical responses for graduate writing support by probing the notion of ESL service courses that approach graduate writing courses as being…

  1. Let's Talk! ESL Students' Needs and Writing Centre Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussu, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    When university/college faculty members believe that ESL students' writing skills are not equivalent to those of native speakers, they frequently send these ESL students to their institution's writing centres (WCs). However, this often results in frustration for WC staff, the students, and faculty members. This article first describes ESL…

  2. LEARNING IN FRIENDSHIP GROUPS: DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING THROUGH SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl eSenior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role that student friendship groups play in learning was investigated here. Employing a critical realist design, two focus groups on undergraduates were conducted to explore their experience of studying. Data from the ‘case-by-case’ analysis suggested student-to-student friendships produced social contexts which facilitated conceptual understanding through discussion, explanation and application to ‘real life’ contemporary issues. However, the students did not conceive this as a learning experience or suggest the function of their friendships involved learning. These data therefore challenge the perspective that student groups in higher education are formed and regulated for the primary function of learning. Given these findings, further research is needed to assess the role student friendships play in developing disciplinary conceptual understanding.

  3. Master and novice secondary science teachers' understandings and use of the learning cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reap, Melanie Ann

    2000-09-01

    The learning cycle paradigm had been used in science classrooms for nearly four decades. This investigation seeks to reveal how the 1earning cycle, as originally designed, is currently understood and implemented by teachers in authentic classroom settings. The specific purposes of this study were: (1) to describe teachers who use the learning cycle and compare their understandings and perceptions of the learning cycle procedure in instruction; (2) to elicit novice and master teacher perspectives on their instruction and determine their perception of the process by which learning cycles are implemented in the science classroom; (3) to describe the context of science instruction in the novice and master teacher's classroom to ascertain how the teacher facilitates implementation of the learning cycle paradigm in their authentic classroom setting. The study used a learning cycle survey, interviews and classroom observations using the Learning Cycle Teacher Behavior Instruments and the Verbal Interaction Category System to explore these features of learning cycle instruction. The learning cycle survey was administered to a sample of teachers who use the learning cycle, including master and novice learning cycle teachers. One master and one novice learning cycle teacher were selected from this sample for further study. Analysis of the surveys showed no significant differences in master and novice teacher understandings of the learning cycle as assessed by the instrument. However, interviews and observations of the selected master and novice learning cycle teachers showed several differences in how the paradigm is understood and implemented in the classroom. The master learning cycle teacher showed a more developed teaching philosophy and had more engaged, extensive interactions with students. The novice learning cycle teacher held a more naive teaching philosophy and had fewer, less developed interactions with students. The most significant difference was seen in the use

  4. It's Rather like Learning a Language: Development of talk and conceptual understanding in mechanics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincke, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Although a broad literature exists concerning the development of conceptual understanding of force and other topics within mechanics, little is known about the role and development of students' talk about the subject. The paper presents an in-depth investigation of students' talk whilst being introduced to the concept of force. The main research goal was to investigate and understand how students develop an understanding of the concept of force and how they use and understand the term 'force'. Therefore, we make relation to the research field of students' preconceptions and the field of second language learning. Two classes of students (N = 47) were videotaped during a time period of nine lessons, each transcribed and analysed using a category system. Additional data were obtained via written tasks, logs kept by the students, and tests. The detailed analysis of the talk and the results of the tests indicate that students face difficulties in using the term 'force' scientifically similar to those in a foreign language instruction. Vygotsky already recognised a relationship between learning in science and learning a language. In this paper, important aspects of this relationship are discussed based upon empirical data. We conclude that in some respects it might be useful to make reference to the research related to language learning when thinking about improving science education. In particular, according to Selinker's concept of interlanguage describing language-learning processes within language instruction, the language used by the students during physics lessons can be viewed as a 'scientific interlanguage'.

  5. Development of the living thing transportation systems worksheet on learning cycle model to increase student understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, E.; Nurohman, S.; Widowati, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to know: 1) the feasibility LKPD review of aspects of the didactic requirements, construction requirements, technical requirements and compliance with the Learning Cycle. 2) Increase understanding of learners with Learning Model Learning Cycle in SMP N 1 Wates in the form LKPD. 3) The response of learners and educators SMP N 1 Wates to quality LKPD Transportation Systems Beings. This study is an R & D with the 4D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate). Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis in the form of advice description and assessment scores from all validates that was converted to a scale of 4. While the analysis of quantitative data by calculating the percentage of materializing learning and achievement using the standard gain an increased understanding and calculation of the KKM completeness evaluation value as an indicator of the achievement of students understanding. the results of this study yield LKPD IPA model learning Cycle theme Transportation Systems Beings obtain 108.5 total scores of a maximum score of 128 including the excellent category (A). LKPD IPA developed able to demonstrate an improved understanding of learners and the response of learners was very good to this quality LKPD IPA.

  6. Influence of the temperature on materials electric behaviour: Understanding and students’ learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Carmona

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we defend that in the teaching/learning of the electricity, its contents must be associa ted with contents concerning the structure and behaviour of the matter. Thus, it is possible to understand some electricity topics as the influence of the temperature on electric behaviour of materials. In this sense, we propose a conceptual framework for its teaching, coherent with the Spanish Physics and Chemistry curriculum of Secondary Education. Likewise, we show the results of a research carried out with 60 pupils (age 14-15, about theirs understanding levels and theirs learning difficulties regarding considered topic.

  7. Revitalization of the ESL Program on the Rockville Campus of Montgomery College, and the Matter of Credit for ESL Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, John K.

    In 1990-91, the Rockville Campus (RC) of Montgomery College (MC) in Maryland, revised its English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program to make it more responsive to student needs and begin offering ESL courses for institutional credit in fall 1991. Faculty at MC's Takoma Park Campus (TPC), however, objected to RC's proposed changes, particularly to…

  8. Applying cognitive learning theories to understanding of learning in vulnerable groups of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kuran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-twentieth century cognitive learning theories appeared as a criticism of behaviourism, and were later replaced by constructivist and connectivist learning theories. In the last two decades psychological research into cognition experienced a revival thanks to new methodological possibilities. This article brings a selection of research studies related to adult edu- cation in various ways: post-formal cognitive development stage, cognitive ageing, the meaning of crystallized intelligence in adulthood, and research into learning styles. The article proceeds with an account of research of literacy in vulnerable social groups and ends with a final chapter, which brings useful findings for researchers and adult education practitioners. In this article, the author has drawn from two separate sources. The first source are the professional premises underlying conceptualization of multi-media contents, prepared by the Slovenian Institute for Adult Education within the framework of the project titled Literacy development, and Assessment and Acknowledgement of Non-formal Learning between 2009 – 2011. The theoretical part of the underlying professional premises dealt, among other, with cognitive aspects of adult learning, which represent the basis of this article. The second source is the authorØs personal involvement in the field of cognitive psychology, or rather, in the field of cognitive sciences, in which even today learning and education of vulnerable groups of adults is given only marginal consideration in research.

  9. ESL Teachers/ESL Students: Looking at Autoethnography through the Lens of Personetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Alec; Kaveh, Yalda M.; Hirano, Mamiko

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, naturalistic study examines thoughts expressed in autoethnographies and accompanying notes written by ESL teachers/learners who are enrolled in a graduate teacher education program in the US. These data are then juxtaposed with the Freirean idea that English learners can be empowered if they analyze their personal paths…

  10. Understanding the Need of Mobile ICT Learning as an Elderly Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanches Lam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a rapid deployment of mobile devices, mobile learning gives rise to new possibilities for extending learning opportunities. Nevertheless, current research on mobile learning has mostly been aimed at enhancing learning of school or college students. In this light, the paper seeks to throw light on the potential of mobile learning for elderly. We describe in this paper a research study for examining needs that determine the adoption and usage of mobile devices by elderly population. The elderly are an often neglected group in product development and marketing, but they are the only growing age group in most developed societies. By using semi-structured interviews with a number of different stakeholders interested in elderly people, we identify a set of issues that need to be taken into account when designing strategy for the elderly learners. The results of our study indicate that elderly people are interested in using mobile devices and services, but these services need to deliver real value for them.

  11. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  12. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  13. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  14. Keeping conceptual boundaries distinct between decision making and learning is necessary to understand social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mens, Gaël

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al. make the deliberate choice to blur the distinction between learning and decision making. This obscures the social influence mechanisms that operate in the various empirical settings that their map aims to categorize. Useful policy prescriptions, however, require an accurate understanding of the social influence mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of popularity.

  15. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  16. Exploring Secondary Students' Understanding of Chemical Kinetics through Inquiry-Based Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairam, Sanoe; Klahan, Nutsuda; Coll, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    This research is trying to evaluate the feedback of Thai secondary school students to inquiry-based teaching and learning methods, exemplified by the study of chemical kinetics. This work used the multiple-choice questions, scientifically practical diagram and questionnaire to assess students' understanding of chemical kinetics. The findings…

  17. The Inquiry, Communication, Construction and Expression (ICCE) Framework for Understanding Learning Experiences in Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research frameworks that focus on aiding game selection and use, analyzing the game as a holistic system, and studying learner experiences in games. There is a need for frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games and facilitating knowledge construction and motivation to…

  18. Improving the Conceptual Understanding in Kinematics Subject Matter with Hypertext Media Learning and Formal Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Sondang R.; Mihardi, Satria

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypertext media based kinematic learning and formal thinking ability to improve the conceptual understanding of physic prospective students. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from…

  19. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  20. Learning Informally to Use the "Full Version" of Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines an experienced teacher's employment of the teaching games for understanding (TGfU) model in a UK secondary school. The study sought to investigate how the teacher delivered TGfU and those factors that influenced his informal learning of this instructional model. Occupational socialisation was utilised to determine the factors…

  1. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  2. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students' Understanding of Concepts in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the degree of effectiveness of cooperative learning instruction over a traditional approach on 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry. The study involved forty-one 11th grade students from two science classes with the same teacher. To determine students' misconceptions concerning…

  3. A Study to Understand the Role of Visual Arts in the Teaching and Learning of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Saroja; Kanapathy, Ravi; Mastan, Jamilah

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to understand the role of visual arts in the teaching and learning of science among Grade 3 teachers and students. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research design was used to discover the different perceptions of both teachers and students on the role of visual arts in science. The data for the research was…

  4. Enhancing Laos Students' Understanding of Nature of Science in Physics Learning about Atom for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengdala, Phoxay; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of Grade 12 students' understanding of nature of science in learning about atom for peace through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 51 Grade 12 who study in Thongphong high school Vientiane Capital City Lao PDR, 1st semester of 2012 academic year. This research regarded interpretive…

  5. Employer Understanding of Work-Integrated Learning and the Challenges of Engaging in Work Placement Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Rowbottom, David; Ferns, Sonia; McLaren, Diane

    2017-01-01

    This study examines employer understanding of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL), reasons for participation and the challenges and barriers posed during the WIL process. This is important given the drive to grow WIL, augmented by the National Strategy for WIL, and the significant benefits it holds in preparing students for their transition to…

  6. Sharing the Load: Understanding the Roles of Academics and Host Supervisors in Work-Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester-Seeto, Theresa; Rowe, Anna; Mackaway, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Student supervision is a key factor underpinning the success of work-integrated learning programs. Supervisory responsibilities can be shared across a number of stakeholders including university staff and host/workplace supervisors. While there have been attempts to understand the roles played by each of these stakeholders, little research has…

  7. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment with Undergraduate Student by Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…

  8. A Complete Understanding of Disorientation Problems in Web-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2012-01-01

    Disorientation problems influence student learning. To address this issue, this study uses an integrative approach to investigate the causes and consequences of disorientation problems so that a complete understanding can be obtained. Unlike previous empirical studies, which use statistical techniques, this study attempts to expose unexpected…

  9. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Nature of Science and Perceptions of the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated prospective elementary teachers' understandings of the nature of science and explored associations with their guided-inquiry science learning environment. Over 500 female students completed the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Survey (NSKS), although only four scales were analyzed-Creative, Testable, Amoral, and Unified. The…

  10. Understanding and Theorizing the Role of Culture in the Conceptualizations of Successful Aging and Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Successful aging and lifelong learning are value-laden concepts that are culturally determined. To this effect, people with different value systems and cultural backgrounds may perceive and understand these two concepts differently, resulting in different definitions and conceptualizations by people in diverse cultural contexts. There have been…

  11. The Effect of Enriched Learning Environments on the Conceptual Understanding of Students: "The Erosion and Landslide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoruhlu, Tülay Senel; Bilgin, Arzu Kirman; Nas, Sibel Er

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of enriched learning environments which have been developed in the framework of the "erosion and landslide" concepts on the conceptual understanding of students. A quasi-experimental method has been used in this research. The sample consists of 40 students. 5th grade students (aged…

  12. Understanding the impact of eating disorders: using the reflecting team as a learning strategy for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Alicia; Evans, Nicola; Evans, Anne-Marie

    2018-02-08

    This article outlines how the application of a reflecting team from systemic family therapy practice was used as a learning strategy for a postgraduate programme for healthcare students. The programme was designed to increase the students' skills, knowledge and awareness of the needs of people with eating disorders, and their families. There were some benefits to this learning strategy. Students reported that the use of a reflecting team enabled them to gain a deep understanding of the emotional impact of eating disorders on individuals and their carers. However, as this method of learning was new to the students, they needed some initial instruction on the approach. During the programme of study, it became evident that the health professionals were deeply affected by the experiences of people with eating disorders. This would suggest that possibly it was the presence of the sufferers themselves as part of the reflecting team that provided the pivotal learning opportunity, rather than the reflecting team per se.

  13. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Maya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.751.231-250

  14. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Karbalaei

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in E...

  15. The Effects of Using Multimodal Approaches in Meaning-Making of 21st Century Literacy Texts among ESL Students in a Private School in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Malina; Seetharam, Saundravalli A/P

    2016-01-01

    In today's globalised digital era, students are inevitably engaged in various multimodal texts due to their active participation in social media and frequent usage of mobile devices on a daily basis. Such daily activities advocate the need for a transformation in the teaching and learning of ESL lessons in order to promote students' capabilities…

  16. Second-Language Learning through Imaginative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Egan's (1997) work on imagination can enrich our understanding of teaching English as a second language (ESL). Much has been written on ESL teaching techniques; however, some of this work has been expounded in a standard educational framework, which is what Egan calls an assembly-line model. This model can easily underlie…

  17. Examining oral reading fluency among grade 5 rural English Second Language (ESL) learners in South Africa: An analysis of NEEDU 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Draper; Nic Spaull

    2015-01-01

    The ability to read for meaning and pleasure is arguably the most important skill children learn in primary school. One integral component of learning to read is Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), defined as the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with meaningful expression. Although widely acknowledged in the literature as important, to date there have been no large-scale studies on ORF in English in South Africa, despite this being the language of learning and teaching for 80% of ESL stu...

  18. Learning from Other People's Mistakes: Causal Understanding in Learning To Use a Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, Stephen C.; Harris, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined in 2 studies the ability of 2- and 3-year-olds to learn to use tools via imitation. Found that when shown a correct solution to a tool-using task, all children managed at least a partial solution. When shown an incorrect followed by a correct solution, 2-year-olds produced a partial solution and most 3-year-olds produced a full solution.…

  19. Prospective ESL/EFL Teachers’ Perceptions towards Writing Poetry in a Second Language: Difficulty, Value, Emotion, and Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to explore how 18 M.A. TESOL students, who are prospective or experienced ESL/EFL teachers, perceive poetry writing in a second language. A qualitative interview-based design was utilized. Following Iida’s (2012a analytical framework in examining EFL students’ perceptions toward writing haiku in English, this current study investigates 18 prospective ESL/EFL teachers’ perspectives through the lens of difficulty, value, emotion, and attitude. In order to validate the coding of the interviews, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC test was computed among three interview coders including the primary researcher, which yields a great agreement rate at .86. The results indicate that while these prospective ESL/EFL teachers understand writing poetry in a second language involves various difficulties, they acknowledge the values of utilizing poetry writing in second language classrooms. The results also show that writing poetry in a second language contains both positive and negative emotions, but positive ones are more frequently addressed. Most importantly, the data suggests that writing poetry in a second language is considered as an applicable practice in ESL/EFL language classrooms.

  20. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  1. An Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Theory to the Investigation of Blended Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurovic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates technology-enhanced blended learning in an English as a Second Language (ESL) program from the theoretical perspective of Diffusion of Innovations theory. The study first established that the use of a learning management system (LMS) in two ESL classes represented an educational innovation. Next, the innovation attributes…

  2. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Nature of Science and Perceptions of the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine S.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated prospective elementary teachers' understandings of the nature of science and explored associations with their guided-inquiry science learning environment. Over 500 female students completed the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Survey (NSKS), although only four scales were analyzed-Creative, Testable, Amoral, and Unified. The learning environment was assessed using previously-validated and reliable scales from What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) and the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI). Analyses indicated moderate multiple correlations that were statistically significant ( p Creative (R = 0.22), Testable (R = 0.29), and Unified (R = 0.27), and a positive learning environment. Regression coefficients revealed that Open-Endedness was a significant independent predictor of students' understanding of the role of creativity in science (β = 0.16), while Cooperation, Open-Endedness, and Material Environment were linked with understanding the testable nature of science (β = 0.10-0.12). Interview questions probed possible relationships between an improved understanding of the nature of science and elements of a positive classroom environment. Responses suggested that an appropriate level of open-endedness during investigations was very important as this helped students grapple with abstract nature of science concepts and shift their conceptions closer to a more realistic view of scientific practice.

  3. Digital storytelling in teacher education: A meaningful way of integrating ICT in ESL teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Mørk Røkenes

    2016-04-01

    for the data analysis where data come from a quantitative survey, participant observations, reflection logs, digital artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Findings point to a number of approaches that can be used in the workshop design such as modeling ICT integration and assessment, scaffolding student-active learning experiences with ICT, and linking theory and practice through reflection. Implications for teacher education are discussed. Keywords: professional digital competence, digital storytelling, student teachers, teacher educators, teacher education, ESL didactics

  4. Employing STEM Curriculum in an ESL Classroom: A Chinese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. MacKinnon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed methods action research was undertaken in a grade 6 classroom in Shanghai, China to identify the challenges of implementing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM curriculum in an English Second Language (ESL classroom. The research has shown that while students are well-motivated to learn through a child-centred problem-based approach, the schooling context has measurable deterrents linked directly to an assessment driven system. It was further determined that the language barrier sometimes mitigated the use of higher-order terminology to promote critical thinking as defined by Bloom’s taxonomy.

  5. "Ten Things" to Enhance Learning and Fun in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2016-01-01

    This Teaching Technique introduces a fun, versatile game that gets students thinking, talking, and working together in the English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom. It is easy to prepare, and it is a fun and efficient way to enhance learning. The game can be adapted to almost any grade level or ESL/EFL…

  6. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

  7. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Understanding PGCE Student Teacher Learning in the Wild Coast Rural Schools' Partnership Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennefather, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a theoretical model that I am developing in order to understand student teacher learning in a rural context and the enabling conditions that can support this learning. The question of whether a supervised teaching practice in a rural context can contribute to the development of student teacher professional learning and…

  8. The ESL classroom teaching, critical practice, and community development

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Brian D

    1998-01-01

    Brian Morgan uses his own teaching experience in Canada and China to investigate the complexities of teaching English as a second language to those newly arrived in Canada and to suggest ways of becoming a more effective ESL teacher.

  9. A Rural South African Experience of an ESL Computer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dieperink

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a case study that explored the effect of an English-as-Second Language (ESL computer program at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT, South Africa. The case study explored participants’ perceptions, attitudes and beliefs regarding the ESL reading enhancement program, Reading Excellence™. The study found that participants experienced the program in a positive light. They experienced improved ESL reading as well as listening and writing proficiency. In addition, they experienced improved affective well-being in the sense that they generally felt more comfortable using ESL. This included feeling more self-confident in their experience of their academic environment. Interviews as well as document review resulted in dissonance, however: data pointed towards poor class attendance as well as a perturbing lack of progress in terms of reading comprehension and speed.

  10. How evolution learns to generalise: Using the principles of learning theory to understand the evolution of developmental organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Kouvaris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing questions in evolution is how organisms exhibit suitable phenotypic variation to rapidly adapt in novel selective environments. Such variability is crucial for evolvability, but poorly understood. In particular, how can natural selection favour developmental organisations that facilitate adaptive evolution in previously unseen environments? Such a capacity suggests foresight that is incompatible with the short-sighted concept of natural selection. A potential resolution is provided by the idea that evolution may discover and exploit information not only about the particular phenotypes selected in the past, but their underlying structural regularities: new phenotypes, with the same underlying regularities, but novel particulars, may then be useful in new environments. If true, we still need to understand the conditions in which natural selection will discover such deep regularities rather than exploiting 'quick fixes' (i.e., fixes that provide adaptive phenotypes in the short term, but limit future evolvability. Here we argue that the ability of evolution to discover such regularities is formally analogous to learning principles, familiar in humans and machines, that enable generalisation from past experience. Conversely, natural selection that fails to enhance evolvability is directly analogous to the learning problem of over-fitting and the subsequent failure to generalise. We support the conclusion that evolving systems and learning systems are different instantiations of the same algorithmic principles by showing that existing results from the learning domain can be transferred to the evolution domain. Specifically, we show that conditions that alleviate over-fitting in learning systems successfully predict which biological conditions (e.g., environmental variation, regularity, noise or a pressure for developmental simplicity enhance evolvability. This equivalence provides access to a well-developed theoretical

  11. How evolution learns to generalise: Using the principles of learning theory to understand the evolution of developmental organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Kostas; Clune, Jeff; Kounios, Loizos; Brede, Markus; Watson, Richard A

    2017-04-01

    One of the most intriguing questions in evolution is how organisms exhibit suitable phenotypic variation to rapidly adapt in novel selective environments. Such variability is crucial for evolvability, but poorly understood. In particular, how can natural selection favour developmental organisations that facilitate adaptive evolution in previously unseen environments? Such a capacity suggests foresight that is incompatible with the short-sighted concept of natural selection. A potential resolution is provided by the idea that evolution may discover and exploit information not only about the particular phenotypes selected in the past, but their underlying structural regularities: new phenotypes, with the same underlying regularities, but novel particulars, may then be useful in new environments. If true, we still need to understand the conditions in which natural selection will discover such deep regularities rather than exploiting 'quick fixes' (i.e., fixes that provide adaptive phenotypes in the short term, but limit future evolvability). Here we argue that the ability of evolution to discover such regularities is formally analogous to learning principles, familiar in humans and machines, that enable generalisation from past experience. Conversely, natural selection that fails to enhance evolvability is directly analogous to the learning problem of over-fitting and the subsequent failure to generalise. We support the conclusion that evolving systems and learning systems are different instantiations of the same algorithmic principles by showing that existing results from the learning domain can be transferred to the evolution domain. Specifically, we show that conditions that alleviate over-fitting in learning systems successfully predict which biological conditions (e.g., environmental variation, regularity, noise or a pressure for developmental simplicity) enhance evolvability. This equivalence provides access to a well-developed theoretical framework from

  12. How evolution learns to generalise: Using the principles of learning theory to understand the evolution of developmental organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Kostas; Clune, Jeff; Brede, Markus; Watson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most intriguing questions in evolution is how organisms exhibit suitable phenotypic variation to rapidly adapt in novel selective environments. Such variability is crucial for evolvability, but poorly understood. In particular, how can natural selection favour developmental organisations that facilitate adaptive evolution in previously unseen environments? Such a capacity suggests foresight that is incompatible with the short-sighted concept of natural selection. A potential resolution is provided by the idea that evolution may discover and exploit information not only about the particular phenotypes selected in the past, but their underlying structural regularities: new phenotypes, with the same underlying regularities, but novel particulars, may then be useful in new environments. If true, we still need to understand the conditions in which natural selection will discover such deep regularities rather than exploiting ‘quick fixes’ (i.e., fixes that provide adaptive phenotypes in the short term, but limit future evolvability). Here we argue that the ability of evolution to discover such regularities is formally analogous to learning principles, familiar in humans and machines, that enable generalisation from past experience. Conversely, natural selection that fails to enhance evolvability is directly analogous to the learning problem of over-fitting and the subsequent failure to generalise. We support the conclusion that evolving systems and learning systems are different instantiations of the same algorithmic principles by showing that existing results from the learning domain can be transferred to the evolution domain. Specifically, we show that conditions that alleviate over-fitting in learning systems successfully predict which biological conditions (e.g., environmental variation, regularity, noise or a pressure for developmental simplicity) enhance evolvability. This equivalence provides access to a well-developed theoretical framework from

  13. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…

  14. Understanding the Influence of Learners' Forethought on Their Use of Science Study Strategies in Postsecondary Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Karee E.; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding self-regulation in science learning is important for theorists and practitioners alike. However, very little has been done to explore and understand students' self-regulatory processes in postsecondary science courses. In this study, the influence of science efficacy, learning value, and goal orientation on the perceived use of…

  15. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Motion sensors in mathematics teaching: learning tools for understanding general math concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Woldron, Hildegard

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating technology tools into the mathematics classroom adds a new dimension to the teaching of mathematics concepts and establishes a whole new approach to mathematics learning. In particular, gathering data in a hands-on and real-time method helps classrooms coming alive. The focus of this paper is on bringing forward important mathematics concepts such as functions and rate of change with the motion detector. Findings from the author's studies suggest that the motion detector can be introduced from a very early age and used to enliven classes at any level. Using real-world data to present the main functions invites an experimental approach to mathematics and encourages students to engage actively in their learning. By emphasizing learning experiences with computer-based motion detectors and aiming to involve students in mathematical representations of real-world phenomena, six learning activities, which were developed in previous research studies, will be presented. Students use motion sensors to collect physical data that are graphed in real time and then manipulate and analyse them. Because data are presented in an immediately understandable graphical form, students are allowed to take an active role in their learning by constructing mathematical knowledge from observation of the physical world. By utilizing a predict-observe-explain format, students learn about slope, determining slope and distance vs. time graphs through motion-filled activities. Furthermore, exploring the meaning of slope, viewed as the rate of change, students acquire competencies for reading, understanding and interpreting kinematics graphs involving a multitude of mathematical representations. Consequently, the students are empowered to efficiently move among tabular, graphical and symbolic representation to analyse patterns and discover the relationships between different representations of motion. In fact, there is a need for further research to explore how mathematics teachers

  17. The Scientific Approach Learning: How prospective science teachers understand about questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyanto; Nugroho, S. E.; Hartono

    2017-04-01

    In the new curriculum, questioning is one of theaspects of scientific approach learning. It means teachers should facilitate students to ask their questions during science learning. The purpose of this research was to reveal the prospective science teachers’ understanding about questioning and how the science teachers implement of that in the scientific approach learning. Data of the prospective science teachers’ understanding was explored from their teaching plan that produced during microteaching. The microteaching is an activity that should be followed by students before they conduct partnership program in school. Data about theimplementation of questioning that conducted by theteacher was be collected by video-assisted observation in junior school science class. The results showed that majority of the prospective science teachers had difficulty to write down in their teaching plan about how to facilitate students to ask their questions, even majority of them understood that questioning is not students’ activity, but it is an activity that should be done by teachers. Based on the observation showed that majority of teachers did not yet implement a learning that facilitates students to ask their questions.

  18. Reflection for learning: understanding the value of reflective writing for information literacy development

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, P.A.; Sen, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective writing has long been acknowledged as an important aspect of personal and professional development. There is increasing evidence of the use of reflective writing assessments and activities in the context of information literacy education, particular in Higher Education. Writing reflectively can help students to understand their own information literacy development and engage in deeper learning. Students on an undergraduate Business Intelligence module at the University of Sheffield...

  19. Language Classroom Anxiety: A Comparative Study of ESL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voviana Zulkifli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia decided use English as the medium of instruction at university level beginning 2002 and much debate has surfaced since then. English has also increased in importance in the People’s Republic of China (PRC since the nation joined the World Trade Organization (WTO and implemented an Open Door Policy. This study compares perceived second language anxiety and attempts to identify significant differences in the level of anxiety of male and female ESL university students at Stamford College, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia and from the PRC Malaysia. It also attempts to identify the factors that could contribute to language classroom anxiety. Although the study did not control for factors that may influence language apprehension, the results suggest that nearly half of the total number of respondents are anxious about learning the English language. The English Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (ELCAS with 32 items was constructed and used for the purpose of the study which was adapted from the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS (Horwitz et al. 1986. Findings show that gender is of slight significance but nationality is an important variable in identifying the anxiety level with the various factors that may contribute to English language classroom anxiety.

  20. Composition-Effects of Context-based Learning Opportunities on Students' Understanding of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschuweit, Sören; Bernholt, Sascha

    2017-05-01

    Context-based learning has become a widespread approach in science education. While positive motivational effects of such approaches have been well established empirically, clear results regarding cognitive aspects of students' learning are still missing. In this article, we argue that this circumstance might be mainly rooted in the definition of context itself. Based on this argument, we shift from the issue of if contexts are cognitively beneficial to focus on the question of which composition of contexts is, at least by tendency, more effective than another. Based on theories of conceptual change, we therefore conducted a small-scale intervention study comparing two groups of students learning in different sets of contexts focusing on the same scientific concept—the cross-cutting concept of energy. Results suggest that learning in a more heterogeneous set of contexts eases transfer to new contexts in comparison to learning in a more homogeneous set of contexts. However, a more abstract understanding of the energy concept does not seem to be fostered by either of these approaches. Theoretical as well as practical implications of these finding are discussed.

  1. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Rowe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  2. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie

    2018-02-20

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  3. The Errors of Our Ways: Understanding Error Representations in Cerebellar-Dependent Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Laurentiu S; Streng, Martha L; Hewitt, Angela L; Ebner, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    The cerebellum is essential for error-driven motor learning and is strongly implicated in detecting and correcting for motor errors. Therefore, elucidating how motor errors are represented in the cerebellum is essential in understanding cerebellar function, in general, and its role in motor learning, in particular. This review examines how motor errors are encoded in the cerebellar cortex in the context of a forward internal model that generates predictions about the upcoming movement and drives learning and adaptation. In this framework, sensory prediction errors, defined as the discrepancy between the predicted consequences of motor commands and the sensory feedback, are crucial for both on-line movement control and motor learning. While many studies support the dominant view that motor errors are encoded in the complex spike discharge of Purkinje cells, others have failed to relate complex spike activity with errors. Given these limitations, we review recent findings in the monkey showing that complex spike modulation is not necessarily required for motor learning or for simple spike adaptation. Also, new results demonstrate that the simple spike discharge provides continuous error signals that both lead and lag the actual movements in time, suggesting errors are encoded as both an internal prediction of motor commands and the actual sensory feedback. These dual error representations have opposing effects on simple spike discharge, consistent with the signals needed to generate sensory prediction errors used to update a forward internal model.

  4. Machine Learning for Big Data: A Study to Understand Limits at Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Del-Castillo-Negrete, Carlos Emilio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report aims to empirically understand the limits of machine learning when applied to Big Data. We observe that recent innovations in being able to collect, access, organize, integrate, and query massive amounts of data from a wide variety of data sources have brought statistical data mining and machine learning under more scrutiny, evaluation and application for gleaning insights from the data than ever before. Much is expected from algorithms without understanding their limitations at scale while dealing with massive datasets. In that context, we pose and address the following questions How does a machine learning algorithm perform on measures such as accuracy and execution time with increasing sample size and feature dimensionality? Does training with more samples guarantee better accuracy? How many features to compute for a given problem? Do more features guarantee better accuracy? Do efforts to derive and calculate more features and train on larger samples worth the effort? As problems become more complex and traditional binary classification algorithms are replaced with multi-task, multi-class categorization algorithms do parallel learners perform better? What happens to the accuracy of the learning algorithm when trained to categorize multiple classes within the same feature space? Towards finding answers to these questions, we describe the design of an empirical study and present the results. We conclude with the following observations (i) accuracy of the learning algorithm increases with increasing sample size but saturates at a point, beyond which more samples do not contribute to better accuracy/learning, (ii) the richness of the feature space dictates performance - both accuracy and training time, (iii) increased dimensionality often reflected in better performance (higher accuracy in spite of longer training times) but the improvements are not commensurate the efforts for feature computation and training and (iv) accuracy of the learning algorithms

  5. The improvement of reading skills of L1 and ESL children using a Response to Intervention (RtI) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Orly; Siegel, Linda S

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the development of literacy skills in children in a district that used a Response to Intervention (RTI) model. The district included children whose first language was English and children who were learning English as a second language (ESL). Tasks measuring phonological awareness, lexical access, and syntactic awareness were administered when the children entered school in kindergarten at age 5. Reading, phonological processing, syntactic awareness, memory, and spelling were administered in grade 7. When the children entered school, significant numbers of them were at risk for literacy difficulties. After systematic instruction and annual monitoring of skills, their reading abilities improved to the extent that only a very small percentage had reading difficulties. The results demonstrated that early identification and intervention and frequent monitoring of basic skills can significantly reduce the incidence of reading problems in both the ESL and language majority children.

  6. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. A model for understanding and learning of the game process of computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    time make sure that the students learn to act and reflect like game designers? We fell our game design model managed to just that end. Our model entails a guideline for the computer game design process in its entirety, and at same time distributes clear and easy understandable insight to a particular......This abstract focuses on the computer game design process in the education of engineers at the university level. We present a model for understanding the different layers in the game design process, and an articulation of their intricate interconnectedness. Our motivation is propelled by our daily...... teaching practice of game design. We have observed a need for a design model that quickly can create an easily understandable overview over something as complex as the design processes of computer games. This posed a problem: how do we present a broad overview of the game design process and at the same...

  8. Tools for Science Inquiry Learning: Tool Affordances, Experimentation Strategies, and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wieman, Carl; Blikstein, Paulo

    2017-12-01

    Manipulative environments play a fundamental role in inquiry-based science learning, yet how they impact learning is not fully understood. In a series of two studies, we develop the argument that manipulative environments (MEs) influence the kind of inquiry behaviors students engage in, and that this influence realizes through the affordances of MEs, independent of whether they are physical or virtual. In particular, we examine how MEs shape college students' experimentation strategies and conceptual understanding. In study 1, students engaged in two consecutive inquiry tasks, first on mass and spring systems and then on electric circuits. They either used virtual or physical MEs. We found that the use of experimentation strategies was strongly related to conceptual understanding across tasks, but that students engaged differently in those strategies depending on what ME they used. More students engaged in productive strategies using the virtual ME for electric circuits, and vice versa using the physical ME for mass and spring systems. In study 2, we isolated the affordance of measurement uncertainty by comparing two versions of the same virtual ME for electric circuits—one with and one without noise—and found that the conditions differed in terms of productive experimentation strategies. These findings indicate that measures of inquiry processes may resolve apparent ambiguities and inconsistencies between studies on MEs that are based on learning outcomes alone.

  9. Mapping the Evolution of eLearning from 1977–2005 to Inform Understandings of eLearning Historical Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chen Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While there have been very limited studies of the educational computing literature to analyze the research trends since the early emergence of educational computing technologies, the authors argue that it is important for both researchers and educators to understand the major, historical educational computing trends in order to inform understandings of current and future eLearning trends. This study provides the findings of an analysis of 2,694 journal articles published between 1977 and 2005 in four major, international educational computing journals. It provides the platform for a subsequent analysis for the period 2006–2014 and beyond, as future educational computing research is published. The journal articles analyzed were categorized according to their research themes. Subsequently, clustering analysis, multi-dimension scale analysis, and research diversity analysis were performed on the categorized results to explore the research trends. The research literature analysis confirmed that there were identifiable evolutionary trends dating from 1977, and, importantly, the analysis highlighted that each key breakthrough in technology was accompanied by increased educational research about those technologies to inform educational practices. Importantly, two major driving forces of the historical trends identified were technologies and pedagogical approaches. The paper concludes with explanations of how these trends from 1977–2005 have shaped the current focus on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK needed for effective current and future eLearning.

  10. Learning science in small groups: The relationship of conversation to conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Tarleton

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conversation and conceptual understanding of erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' conceptions of erosion changed while they used stream tables and worked in groups of four within an inquiry-based curriculum. This study used symbolic interactionism and sociocognitive frameworks to interpret science learning in the elementary classroom. The research focused on the conceptual understanding of the focal group students, their use of classroom discourse to talk about their understandings of erosion, and the expertise that emerged while using stream tables. This study took place over a one-semester long study on erosion. Key informants were eight fifth graders. The data sources consisted of children's journals; transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the key informants before, during, and after the erosion unit; transcripts of videotapes of the students using the stream tables; and field notes recording children's discourse and activity. Individual and group cases were constructed during the study. The knowledge of the eight focal group children was placed on a hierarchy of conceptual understanding that contained 8 components of the erosion process. All four of the students whose ideas were examined in depth gained in their conceptual understanding of erosion. Students' individual expertise enhanced their own conceptual understanding. The contribution of classroom discourse and expertise to conceptual understanding differed between the two focal groups. Group 1 used essential expertise to sustain generative conversations, maximizing their learning opportunities. Students in Group 1 got along with one another, rotated assigned roles and jobs, and were able to start their own generative conversations. Members of Group 1 asked generative questions, connected stream table events to real life situations, and involved everyone in the group. Group 2 engaged in a

  11. Development and validation of a method for measuring depth of understanding in constructivist learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Lucia Falsetti

    A method for measuring depth of understanding of students in the middle-level science classroom was developed and validated. A common theme in the literature on constructivism in science education is that constructivist pedagogy, as opposed to objectivist pedagogy, results in a greater depth of understanding. Since few instruments measuring this construct exist at the present time, the development of such a tool to measure this construct was a significant contribution to the current body of assessment technologies in science education. The author's Depth of Understanding Assessment (DUA) evolved from a writing measure originally designed as a history assessment. The study involved 230 eighth grade science students studying a chemical change unit. The main research questions were: (1) What is the relationship between the DUA and each of the following independent variables: recall, application, and questioning modalities as measured by the Cognitive Preference Test; deep, surface, achieving, and deep-achieving approaches as measured by the Learning Process Questionnaire; achievement as measured by the Chemical Change Quiz, and teacher perception of student ability to conceptualize science content? (2) Is there a difference in depth of understanding, as measured by the DUA, between students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy and students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy favoring the constructivist group? (3) Is there a gender difference in depth of understanding as measured by the DUA? (4) Do students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy perceive their learning environment as more constructivist than students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy? Six out of nine hypothesis tests supported the validity of the DUA. The results of the qualitative component of this study which consisted of student interviews substantiated the quantitative results by providing additional information and insights. There was a significant difference in depth of

  12. Improvements in Students' Understanding from Increased Implementation of Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors are hesitant to implement active learning strategies in their introductory astronomy classrooms because they are not sure which techniques they should use, how to implement those techniques, and question whether the investment in changing their course will really bring the advertised learning gains. We present an example illustrating how thoughtful and systematic implementation of active learning strategies into a traditionally taught Astro 101 class can translate into significant increases in students' understanding. We detail the journey of one instructor, over several years, as she changes the instruction and design of her course from one that focuses almost exclusively on lecture to a course that provides an integrated use of several active learning techniques such as Lecture-Tutorials and Think-Pair-Share questions. The students in the initial lecture-only course achieved a low normalized gain score of only 0.2 on the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), while the students in the re-designed learner-centered course achieved a significantly better normalized gain of 0.43. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS), and Grant No. 0847170, a PAARE Grant for the Calfornia-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  13. Cognitive neuroepigenetics: the next evolution in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul; Bredy, Timothy W.

    2016-07-01

    A complete understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of learning and memory continues to elude neuroscientists. Although many important discoveries have been made, the question of how memories are encoded and maintained at the molecular level remains. So far, this issue has been framed within the context of one of the most dominant concepts in molecular biology, the central dogma, and the result has been a protein-centric view of memory. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for neuroepigenetic mechanisms, which constitute dynamic and reversible, state-dependent modifications at all levels of control over cellular function, and their role in learning and memory. This neuroepigenetic view suggests that DNA, RNA and protein each influence one another to produce a holistic cellular state that contributes to the formation and maintenance of memory, and predicts a parallel and distributed system for the consolidation, storage and retrieval of the engram.

  14. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Second Grade Junior Students’ Mathematics Conceptual Understanding on Polyhedron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suarsana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior high school students’ conceptual understanding on polyhedron. This study was conducted by using post-test only control group quasi-experimental design. The subjects of this study were 148 students that divided into three classes. Two classes were taken as sample by using cluster random sampling technique. One of the classes was randomly selected as an experimental group and the other as control group. There were 48 students in experimental group and 51 students in control group. The data were collected with post-test which contained mathematical conceptual understanding on fractions. The post-test consisted of 8 essay question types.  The normality and variance homogeny test result showed that the scores are normally distributed and have no difference in variance. The data were analyzed by using one tailed t-test with significance level of 5%. The result of data analysis revealed that the value of t-test = 6,7096 greater than t-table = 1,987, therefore; the null hypothesis is rejected. There is positive effect of of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior students’ conceptual understanding in polyhedron.

  15. A Review of the Research on the Evaluation of ESL Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tony

    A review of the literature on the evaluation of writing in English as a Second Language (ESL) discusses research in four areas: (1) general discussions of basic issues in large-scale ESL composition evaluation; (2) accounts of the development of particular instruments and programs for measuring the ability of ESL writers; (3) reports of research…

  16. EFL/ESL and Environmental Education: Towards an Eco-Applied Linguistic Awareness in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwetisama, Carlous Muluh

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to examine the perception of the EFL/ESL teachers on environmental education and the integration of environmental education in language teaching. The hope of the article is that it will enable Cameroon EFL/ESL teachers to discover or rediscover the aims and extended reach of their profession. That is, that EFL/ESL teaching…

  17. Strangers and Professionals: Positioning Discourse in ESL Teachers' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Mari; Nespor, Jan

    2013-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) usually spend most of the school day with regular classroom teachers. The ability of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) teachers to help these students, then, depends in part on their ability to influence how the classroom teachers think of ELL students and ESL itself. One way ESL teachers do this is through…

  18. 28 CFR 544.41 - Applicability: Who must attend the ESL program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability: Who must attend the ESL... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.41 Applicability: Who must attend the ESL program. (a) All Federal prisoners who have limited English proficiency skills...

  19. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  20. Can a model of study activity increase didactic dialogue and students' understanding of learning in IPE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    Introduction: The project presented is "The Study Activity Model as a mean of development in IPE", which explores the potential of a model of study activity as means of pedagogical development and collaboration. Background: Students from 14 different professions have IPE as part of their curriculum...... at Metropolitan University College. Since 2013 all UCS have worked with a nationally decided study activity model. The model outlines four different types of learning activities. Students are introduced to courses via the model to heighten their understanding of course design and the expectations...

  1. A framework for understanding outcomes of mutual learning situations in IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2012-01-01

    How do we analyse and understand design decisions derived from mutual learning (ML) situations and how may practitioners take advantage of these in IT projects? In the following we present a framework of design decisions inferred from ML situations that occurred between end-users and stakeholders...... but not discussed with stakeholders despite the fact that the users had proclaimed that the redesign could have consequences for the stakeholders in the long run. By applying the framework to the ML situations as we define situation "a" and "b" as actionable and situation "c" and "d" as volatile...

  2. Reflections on the Pedagogical Imports of Western Practices for Professionalizing ESL/ EFL Writing and Writing-Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2016-01-01

    The teaching of writing in English as a second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) has been a challenging task for many teachers due to its multifaceted nature. This paper is a reflection on ESL/EFL writing teaching in three countries, namely China, Singapore, and New Zealand, with particular reference to professionalizing ESL/ EFL writing and ESL/EFL…

  3. Learning from catchments to understand hydrological drought (HS Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Drought is a global challenge. To be able to manage drought effectively on global or national scales without losing smaller scale variability and local context, we need to understand what the important hydrological drought processes are at different scales. Global scale models and satellite data are providing a global overview and catchment scale studies provide detailed site-specific information. I am interested in bridging these two scale levels by learning from catchments from around the world. Much information from local case studies is currently underused on larger scales because there is too much complexity. However, some of this complexity might be crucial on the level where people are facing the consequences of drought. In this talk, I will take you on a journey around the world to unlock catchment scale information and see if the comparison of many catchments gives us additional understanding of hydrological drought processes on the global scale. I will focus on the role of storage in different compartments of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, and how we as humans interact with that storage. I will discuss aspects of spatial and temporal variability in storage that are crucial for hydrological drought development and persistence, drawing from examples of catchments with storage in groundwater, lakes and wetlands, and snow and ice. The added complexity of human activities shifts the focus from natural to catchments with anthropogenic increases in storage (reservoirs), decreases in storage (groundwater abstraction), and changes in hydrological processes (urbanisation). We learn how local information is providing valuable insights, in some cases challenging theoretical understanding or model outcomes. Despite the challenges of working across countries, with a high number of collaborators, in a multitude of languages, under data-scarce conditions, the scientific advantages of bridging scales are substantial. The comparison of catchments around the world can

  4. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Okazaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from educators’ perspectives have seldom been explored. The data collection takes place in three major Brazilian universities. In total, 446 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Our structural equation modeling reveals that ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant antecedents of attitude, which in turn affects intention. However, unlike the original TAM, perceived usefulness is not a direct driver of intention. In terms of moderation, gender affects three relationships: (1 ease of use –› perceived usefulness; (2 perceived usefulness –› attitude, and (3 intention –› actual behavior. The analysis is carried out in a single country; thus, caution should be taken in generalization of the results. The findings will help academics, educators, and policy makers to better understand the mechanism of e-learning adoption in Brazil.

  5. To what Extent Do School Leaders in Slovenia Understand Physical School Environments as a Learning Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Cenčič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available School leaders are a central factor of the quality of learning and teaching in schools. It is generally believed that the staff model their behaviour on leaders, which means if school leaders understand the physical school environment to be an important factor of learning, school staff (teachers and other professional staff will also do so. To discover how school leaders assess the school environment as a factor of learning, 150 school leaders in primary education in Slovenia were invited to complete an online questionnaire. They were asked about their views regarding to what extent their school as physical environment encouraged certain factors. Fourteen listed factors were assessed on five-point numeric scales. The results show that in their school environment, school leaders assessed ecology, movement, and respect the highest, and feelings, imagination, and space the lowest. Their estimates of the assessed factors differ depending on the type of school building (new, old, renovated only on the factors of movement, creativity, and logic and mathematics in favour of old schools. The results provide interesting information especially for school policy and everyone involved in the planning, building, or renewal of school premises.

  6. Do iPads promote symbolic understanding and word learning in children with autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L; Hartley, Calum; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word-referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently colored, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalization compared to the use of a single exemplar. Sixteen minimally verbal children with ASD were taught a new word in four within-subjects conditions, which varied by media (iPad vs. book) and content (single vs. multiple exemplar presentation). Children were then tested on the ability to symbolically relate the word to a 3-D referent (real-life depicted object) and generalize it to a differently colored category member (another similarly shaped object). The extent of symbolic understanding did not differ between the two media, and levels of generalization did not differ across conditions. However, presentation of multiple exemplars increased the rate that children with ASD extended labels from pictures to depicted objects. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of content to picture-based learning and the potential benefits and challenges of using the Apple iPad as an educational resource for children with ASD.

  7. Do iPads promote symbolic understanding and word learning in children with autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eAllen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Here we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word-referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently-coloured, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalisation compared to the use of a single exemplar. Sixteen minimally-verbal children with ASD were taught a new word in 4 within-subjects conditions, which varied by media (iPad vs. book and content (single vs. multiple exemplar presentation. Children were then tested on the ability to symbolically relate the word to a 3-D referent (real-life depicted object and generalise it to a differently-coloured category member (another similarly-shaped object. The extent of symbolic understanding did not differ between the two media, and levels of generalisation did not differ across conditions. However, presentation of multiple exemplars increased the rate that children with ASD extended labels from pictures to depicted objects. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of content to picture-based learning and the potential benefits and challenges of using the Apple iPad as an educational resource for children with ASD.

  8. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  9. Structuring Assignments to Improve Understanding and Presentation Skills: Experiential Learning in the Capstone Strategic Management Team Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Marilyn M.; Whitesell, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    In the strategic management course, students select, analyze, and present viable future alternatives based on information provided in cases or computer simulations. Rather than understanding the entire process, the student's focus is on the final presentation. Chickering's (1977) research on active learning suggests students learn more effectively…

  10. Macon, Celie, Patricia and Me: Deepening Understanding of Transformative Learning through the Lives of Fictional Characters and Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Randee Lipson

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a reflective analysis on how the author came to a deeper understanding of transformative learning while collaborating on a research project with Patricia Cranton from 2012- 2014, resulting in "A Novel Idea: Researching Transformative Learning in Fiction," published by Sense Publishers in 2015. They read six…

  11. A Process-Philosophical Understanding of Organizational Learning as "Wayfinding": Process, Practices and Sensitivity to Environmental Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to articulate a practice-based, non-cognitivist approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the potential contribution of a process-based "practice turn" in social theory for understanding organizational learning. Findings: In complex, turbulent environments, robust…

  12. A Pilot Study: Facilitating Cross-Cultural Understanding with Project-Based Collaborative Learning in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three aspects: how project-based collaborative learning facilitates cross-cultural understanding; how students perceive project-based collaborative learning implementation in a collaborative cyber community (3C) online environment; and what types of communication among students are used. A qualitative case study approach…

  13. Adult Learners' Understanding in Learning Islam Using Andragogy Approach: A Study in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Kadir, Mohd Amin; Arifin, Syamsul; Latipun; Fuad, Ahmad Nur

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners' understanding in learning Islam using andragogy approach in which the study was conducted in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) educate his companions of who are adults from the shackles of "jahiliyyah," spiritual and intellectual…

  14. Theory that explains an Aboriginal perspective of learning to understand and manage diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Emma; Johnson, Craig; Kemp, Bernie; Smith, Valerie; Johnson, Monica; Townsend, Billie

    2017-02-01

    To use grounded theory and participatory research methodology to explain how Aboriginal people learn to understand and manage type 2 diabetes. Aboriginal people with diabetes were invited to participate in one of five focus groups (n=25, male=12, female=13). Focus groups and education sessions were conducted by Aboriginal members of the research team. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed, with coding and first level analysis undertaken by all members of the research team. Participants described colonisation and dislocation from Country and family members' experiences with diabetes as significant historical influences which, in conjunction with the model of care experienced and the type of interaction with health services, shaped how they came to understand and manage their diabetes. Patient experience of a model of care alone is not what influences understanding and management of diabetes in Aboriginal people. Implications for Public Health: Health service improvements should focus on understanding past experiences of Aboriginal patients, improving interactions with health services and supporting holistic family centred models of care. Focusing on just the model of care in absence of other improvements is unlikely to deliver health benefits to Aboriginal people. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Scaffolded problem-solving, learning approaches and understanding of concepts in an introductory college physics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Constance

    This study was an exploration of students' use of scaffolded problems as part of their homework in an introductory calculus-based physics class. The study included consideration of the possible relationship of students' meaningful and rote learning approaches. The sample was comprised of 48 students who had completed all study instruments. Of this number, 23 did homework assignments that included scaffolded problems that had been divided into multiple steps that simplify, highlight, and organize the knowledge associated with the problem solving process. The other 25 students did non-scaffolded homework assignments. The Mechanics Baseline Test, given at the beginning of the study, measured students' prior knowledge of physics concepts. The Learning Approach Questionnaire, also given at the beginning of the study, measured students' meaningful and rote approaches to learning. Student responses to 6 qualitative physics problems and their selection of concepts associated with 4 quantitative physics problems was a gauge of their understanding of physics concepts. These 10 problems were distributed between 2 classroom examinations given during the study. At the end of the study 4 students who had done scaffolded homework problems and 4 students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems participated in think aloud protocols. They verbalized their thoughts as they attempted to solve 2 physics problems. Characterizations of individual problem solving approaches emerged from the think aloud protocols. An analysis of statistical data showed that students who did scaffolded problems attained significantly greater understanding of physics concepts than students who did non-scaffolded assignments. There were no significant differences by learning approaches, and no significant interactions. This indicates that scaffolded homework problems may benefit students regardless of learning orientation. Think aloud protocols revealed patterns of difference between students who had

  16. English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing student success: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mary Angela

    2012-01-01

    Many English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students struggle in nursing school for a multitude of reasons. The purpose of this critical review of the literature is to identify barriers and discover bridges to ESL nursing student success. Twenty-five articles were identified for the review. Language barriers were identified as the single most significant obstacle facing the ESL nursing student. Bridges to ESL nursing student success include enhancing language development and acculturation into the American mainstream culture. A broad range of strategies to promote student success are outlined and the role of the nurse educator in ESL nursing student success is also addressed.

  17. Self-Directed English Language Learning through Watching English Television Drama in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danping

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a group of Chinese ESL learners in China, who study English by immersing themselves regularly and rigorously in English television drama. A self-directed learning pedagogy has been developed and discussed, which seems to have signposted an effective and economic way for ESL learners to improve linguistic,…

  18. Understanding the long-term influence of EIA on organisational learning and transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Megan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2017-01-01

    This research is an attempt to verify the notion postulated by Robert Bartlett and Lynton Caldwell that the full benefits of environmental impact assessment (EIA) would take decades to be realized. While EIA is intended to directly influence decision-making regarding new development proposals, the process is also expected to lead to organisational learning and transformation over time. Our aim was to examine the influence of EIA on a single Western Australian proponent with sustained experience in the process to understand how EIA is used within the organisation and to seek evidence of transformation of the organisation's purpose and mission. The research reviewed literature in order to identify key influences of EIA on organisations, along with semi-structured staff interviews and document analysis for the case study organisation. Ascertaining causality that involvement in EIA processes influences or effects organisational learning and transformation is a challenge in the face of other societal events. Document analysis and interviewee data indicates that the action-forcing nature of EIA did influence proponent behavior through the creation of internal processes seeking to ensure robust design of new projects that would satisfy environmental protection expectations, without the need to trigger formal EIA. Evidence of EIA values and thinking were apparent within internal documentation, including the evolving mission statement. Our research indicates that participation in the EIA process can positively influence organisational learning and transformation by guiding internal change for decision-making. - Highlights: • The long-term influence of EIA on a proponent organisation is investigated. • EIA promotes internal organisational learning and transformation. • Analysis of mission statements can indicate the influence of EIA on organisations. • Organisations aligned with EIA values can reduce the need to engage in formal EIA.

  19. Why Did I Ask That Question? Bilingual/ESL Pre-Service Teachers’ Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulmaris Diaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questioning techniques have historically been considered the measurement by which teachers challenge and gauge student learning. Much has been said about questioning strategies used by teachers; yet little is known about the strategies used by pre-service teachers, especially those that are working with English language learners. This study presents findings from a qualitative study that explored what types of questions pre-service teachers use and their reflections on the use of such strategies. Eight bilingual/ESL pre-service teachers in South Texas were videotaped during a math and a language arts lesson, attended focus groups, and participated in an exit interview. The findings revealed the type of questions used by the participants, how they made sense of their teaching, and how accountability measures influenced their teaching. This research recommends education programs to prepare future teachers to comply with what is required by the current reform without compromising their students’ learning and thinking skills.

  20. Literature: A Natural Source for Teaching English in ESL/ EFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ali Chalikendy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which literature function as a source and as a meaningful context for teaching and learning English as a second language or foreign language. It claims that literature is an authentic, stimulating and appealing material to the learners. Therefore, it encourages interaction, promotes language development and motivates learners in the process of learning. Traditionally it is taught as an academic subject without considering its potential in ESL/EFL classrooms. The paper argues that literature can be used as an effective source for teaching English language and the target culture; furthermore, it is used as a natural context for integrating language skills and systems. This paper demonstrates how a poem is used as a natural source or a material for developing English language and integrating the four language skills, grammar and vocabulary through communicative tasks and activities.

  1. I Listen and I Believe, I See and I Understand: A Collective Reflection Approach to Understanding Children's Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The project on which this report is based set out to establish how exploring children's musicality might encourage adults to consider their engagement with the musical play and learning of children under the age of five. Through reflection and evaluation the participants became aware that they were challenging their own teaching style in response…

  2. EFL College Students' Attitudes towards Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Fatimah A.; Aldashti, Abdulmohsen A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, cell phones have received much attention in the context of EFL/ESL learning. Mobile learning, in general, and distant learning, in particular, in educational contexts has been approached by educationalist all over the world (Hwang & Chang, 2011). Presently, countries pay ample attention to mobile learning in education. Despite the…

  3. DEVELOPING ESL/EFL LEARNERS’ PUBLIC SPEAKING SKILLS THROUGH PECHA KUCHA PRESENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo A. Mabuan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century workplace, there has been an increasing demand for graduates to possess communicative competence particularly in speaking. Anchored on the 21st Century Learning Framework (Partnership for 21st Century Skills or P21, 2006 and the TPACK Framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2009, this study reports findings on the pedagogical viability of utilizing Pecha Kucha 20x20 Presentations in developing students’ competence and confidence while presenting in the language classroom. Research participants include 43 English as Second Language (ESL learners taking Speech Communication classes in a private university in Manila, the Philippines during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. Research data from students’ reflections, interviews, survey, and focus group discussion (FGD suggest that despite some format and technological limitations, delivering Pecha Kucha presentations may help students develop their English speaking and oral presentation skills, build their confidence in speaking before an audience, and practice their English macro skills such as listening and reading. In the light of these findings, pedagogical implications are provided for ESL (English as a second language and EFL (English as a foreign language teachers, communication educators, and researchers.

  4. Malaysian Rural ESL Students Critical Thinking Literacy Level: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshila Umar Baki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of thinking skills in the education circles in Malaysia. Nevertheless, more effort needs to be placed on providing skills in developing the critical thinking literacy level of English as a second language (ESL secondary school students, and its implication on the practice of teaching and learning. This is especially so for rural secondary school students.  This paper presents findings of a preliminary case study which analyzes the critical thinking literacy level of twenty students of a rural secondary school in Malaysia as measured by the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTTX. Overall, the findings show that students struggled to answer the critical thinking questions posed in the CCTTX.  The analysis point to the fact that students encountered problems with questions on ‘judging what is assumed in an argument’ section of the standardized critical thinking test. Interview responses from students revealed that they found the 71-item-test challenging to answer. Despite the national education agenda to develop world-class thinkers, our study suggests that there appears to be a lack in exposure to thinking-based activities in Malaysian classrooms Keywords: Rural ESL secondary school students, critical thinking, Cornell Critical Thinking Test

  5. Prosody as a Tool for Assessing Reading Fluency of Adult ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seftirina Evina Sinambela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prosodic features in reading aloud assignment has been associated with the students’ decoding skill. The goal of the present study is to determine the reliability of prosody for assessing reading fluency of adult ESL students in Indonesia context. The participants were all Indonesian natives, undergraduate students, adult females and males who have learned English in school (at the very least twice a week for more than 12 years. Text reading prosody was assessed by reading aloud task and the students’ speaking manner was taped and measured by using the Multidimensional Fluency Scale, as for text comprehension was assessed with a standardized test. It was discovered by the current study that prosody is a reliable sign to determine reading fluency and also reading comprehension. The student who did not read the text prosodically (with appropriate expression actually showed that he/she failed to comprehend the text. This study also revealed that a struggling reader was also having low comprehension capacity in listening spoken texts. The ESL students’ common problems to acquire prosodic reading skill are low exposure to the target language and do not have a good model to imitate prosodic reading.

  6. Self-Regulated Learning in the Museum: Understanding the Relationship of Visitor's Goals, Learning Strategies, and Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) in the museum was explored by 2 investigations. The first one investigated 233 visitors on their goals and intended learning strategies by questionnaire before they visited the science museum. Results indicated visitors' learning goals can predict their intended deep-learning strategy. Moreover, visitors can be…

  7. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2010-01-01

    Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both

  8. Understanding students' readiness for interprofessional learning in an Asian context: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Endang; Stalmeijer, Renée E; Widyandana, Doni; Scherpbier, Albert

    2016-07-15

    Healthcare is generally provided by various health professionals acting together. Unfortunately, poor communication and collaboration within such healthcare teams often prevent its members from actively engaging in collaborative decision-making. Interprofessional education (IPE) which prepares health professionals for their collaborative role in the healthcare system may partially address this problem. This study aimed to investigate: 1) students' readiness for IPE in an Asian context, 2) the most important factors influencing students' perceptions of IPE, 3) the reasons underlying such perceptions, and 4) the factors mitigating or promoting their sense of readiness. To identify students' perceptions of IPE, we administered the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) to 398 in approximately 470 students from a range of health professions (medicine, nursing, midwifery and dentistry). The questionnaire included factors that could potentially influence readiness for IPE as found in the literature (GPA, etc.). To enhance our understanding of the responses to the RIPLS and to explore the reasons underlying them, we conducted 4 mono-professional focus group discussions (FGDs). We ran a statistical analysis on the quantitative data, while performing a thematic content analysis of the qualitative data using ATLAS.ti (version 7). Medical students seemed to be the most prepared for IPE. Students' perceptions of IPE were conditioned by the study programme they took, their GPA, intrinsic motivation and engagement in the student council connoting experience of working with students from different programmes. Focus groups further revealed that: 1) early exposure to clinical practice triggered both positive and negative perceptions of IPE and of its importance to learning communication and leadership skills, 2) medical students caused insecurity and disengagement in other students, 3) medical students felt pressured to be leaders, and 4) there was a need to clarify

  9. Understanding adult neurogenesis beyond its role in learning and memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Latif Wani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a shift in the understanding of brain, neurons, and their functional role over the last two decades. Earlier it was believed that the brain was a static organ and was not subject to any change throughout life. An understanding was developed later that brain reorganizes its structure by a specific property called neuroplasticity. Recent research shows that the brain generates new neurons even in the adult stage, and this process is called adult neurogenesis. Although researchers still not have all the answers about the newborn neurons, and why and how they are generated, and what is their role, some have highlighted the importance of these in learning and memory formation, and even in memories of fear and spatial navigation. A wide range of environmental experience influences the generation of newborn neurons and their functional variability. There are questions about how different environmental experiences cause the differences in the generation of new neurons. Recently the field of optogenetics attempted to answer the questions on adult neurogenesis. However there are still questions about adult neurogenesis which needs a more naturalistic approach, for their better understanding.

  10. Fostering Cross-Cultural Understanding Through E-Learning: Russian-American Forum Case-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Talalakina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The importance of cross-cultural understanding is accelerated nowadays by globalization and joint efforts of different countries in the face of global challenges. Countries’ educational systems display attempts to incorporate cross-cultural studies in their curricula across all stages of formal learning. Many higher education institutions offer special courses aimed at promoting cross-cultural studies. One of the tools used to facilitate the process is e-learning. The present article examines the case study of an internet-based collaboration between two higher education institutions – State University Higher School of Economics in Russia and Champlain College in the USA – in fostering cross-cultural understanding. The project is based on the study of individualistic and collectivistic values within the framework of two corresponding courses studied at both institutions. The topicality of the study is determined by the growing importance of the cooperation of two countries on the international affairs arena, on the one hand, and the fundamental differences of the countries’ underlying value system, on the other. In particular, a post-soviet Russia is generally viewed as a developing democracy representing the collectivistic end of the value spectrum, whereas the USA is considered as an extreme case of individualistic value system. The comparison and contrast of the two systems conducted simultaneously by the representatives of both cultures (students of the two universities within a specifically built internet forum comprises the base of the project. The case study covers the project’s objectives, its background, the rationale behind its content choice, the design of the e-learning tool, the profile of the participants of the project, its implementation stages and its outcome. The major findings of the case study deal with the process of building cross-cultural awareness, reinforcing students’ analytical skills and

  11. "Bigger Number Means You Plus!"--Teachers Learning to Use Clinical Interviews to Understand Students' Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Mary Anne; Sudarshan, Akhila

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the perceptions and understandings of ten grades 1 and 2 Singapore mathematics teachers as they learned to use clinical interviews (Ginsburg, "Human Development" 52:109-128, 2009) to understand students' mathematical thinking. This study challenged teachers' pedagogical assumptions about what it means to teach for…

  12. A Case Study of Understanding the Influence of Cultural Patterns on International Students' Perception and Experience with Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralejas, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to understand the influence of cultural patterns on international students' perception and experience with online learning. This case study utilized Hofstede's cultural dimension model as an interpretative framework to understand what are the international students' perceptions and experiences with online courses. Two…

  13. Clinical practice guidelines as learned treatises: understanding their use as evidence in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2008-01-01

    It is important for forensic experts to understand how clinical practice guidelines may enter the courtroom, what role they may play in a trial, and how they relate to expert testimony. Guidelines enter the record in several different ways and in several types of cases, typically with the assistance of an expert witness. A common vehicle for their introduction is the learned-treatise exception to the hearsay rule. Case law before and after Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. helps to elucidate the scrutiny that courts may direct toward medical texts proffered as evidence. This article discusses the implications of different rules and relevant case law for the forensic psychiatrist. The discussion notes important considerations for the expert witness, such as how guidelines may affect the expert's role, concerns about the reliability and relevance of scientific evidence, and questions about whether guidelines will be used for inculpatory or exculpatory purposes in medical malpractice trials.

  14. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  15. Understanding Organizational Learning via Knowledge Management in Government-Link Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Asleena; Ahmad, Zainal Ariffin; Hung, Daisy Kee Mui

    The knowledge management or KM discipline conjures a host of understanding and impact upon the global business community albeit commercially or socially. Regardless of the different approach to KM, it has inarguably brought about changes in viewing the knowledge capabilities and capacities of organizations. Peter Drucker (1998) argued that knowledge has become the key economic resource and the only source of competitive advantage. Hence organizational learning is an integral part of KM initiatives and has been widely practiced in many large organizations and across nations such as Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Thus, this paper explores the KM initiatives of government link companies (GLCs) in Malaysia via synergizing knowledge strategy and capabilities in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  16. Mixing methodologies in ESL: Cumulative or contradictory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Absalom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that an eclectic approach to teaching a second language is desirable, as no single method can be regarded as universally ideal. Such a mixed methodologies approach was adopted in an ESL course at the University of Newcastle in Australia, deliberately incorporating the use of CALL techniques to enhance the success of a variety of other methods. Surprisingly, students who reported to have enjoyed the CALL classes and testified to their practical usefulness fared worse in the examinations than students in the previous five years, when CALL techniques were not used The. writer speculates on the possible reasons for this unexpected finding, and cites a further example of the lack of success of a mixed methodologies approach. Dit word dikwe/s aangeneem dat 'n eklektiese benadering tot tweedetaalonde"ig wenslik is, aangesien dit aanvaar word dat geen onde"igmetode as universeel ideaal beskou kan word nie. Met die aanname in gedagte, is 'n gemengde metodologiese benadering gebruik vir die aanbieding van 'n Engels tweedetaalkursus aan die Universiteit van Newcastle in Australie. Die kursus het, bo en behalwe die gewone tweedetaalonde"igmetodes, ook gebruik gemaak van CALL-tegnieke (dw.s. rekenaar-ondersteunde leertegnieke met die bedoeling om die taalverwerwingsproses op die wyse te bevorder. Teen die verwagting in het studente wat aangedui het dat die rekenaarklasse genotvol en waardevol was, swakker in die eindeksamen gevaar as die gemiddelde student wat geen CALL-onderrig in dieseifde kursus oor die vorige vyf jaar ontvang het nie. Die skrywer spekuleer oor die moontlike redes vir hierdie onverwagte swak vertoning en ve~s na nog 'n voorbeeld van onsuksesvol/e resultate na die gebruik van 'n gemengde-metode-benadering.

  17. STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING AND CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING IN LEARNING INTODUCTION TO LITERATURE TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS MORALITY AND MULTICULTURAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminto Siminto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously the paradigm change was done from the teacher centered to the student centered in teaching learning process. It was expected to be able to encourage the students to be involved in building their knowledge, attitude, and character. Besides that, English learners did not understand about the native culture and morality values to the language that they are learning. Cross cultural understanding knowledge is very useful to improve the students‘ ability in recognizing the dissimilarity culture and live together in the middle of the dissimilarity culture. This research was based on the qualitative research principle. The research type used was qualitative study by using action research design. Subject of this research was the fourth semester students who have programmed Introduction to Literature in English Study Program at Palangkaraya State Islamic Institute in academic year 2014/2015, consisted of two learning group. Based on the research findings, by implementing of student-centered learning and cross cultural understanding, it showed that they can increase: (1 the students‘ readiness, being active, seriousness in analyzing English literature text; (2 the students‘ performance in doing of tasks given to each students to be able to share their understanding about English literature text to the other students; (3 the students‘ learning quality, academic achievement, interest, response in learning of Introduction to Literature related to literature text analysis concept mastering; (4 the students‘ morality and multicultural values. It could be seen from the students‘ study result, literature text analysis result, and the students‘ character.

  18. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Lidya Ayuni

    2013-01-01

    Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the…

  19. Understanding the Construction of Personal Learning Networks to Support Non-Formal Workplace Learning of Training Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Workers in the 21st century workplace are faced with rapid and constant developments that place a heavy demand on them to continually learn beyond what the Human Resources and Training groups can meet. As a consequence, professionals must rely on non-formal learning approaches through the development of a personal learning network to keep…

  20. Learning Environments and Inquiry Behaviors in Science Inquiry Learning: How Their Interplay Affects the Development of Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wierzchula, Miriam; Blikstein, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing virtual and physical manipulative environments (VME and PME) in inquiry-based science learning have mostly focused on students' learning outcomes but not on the actual processes they engage in during the learning activities. In this paper, we examined experimentation strategies in an inquiry activity and their relation to…

  1. The Model of Strategic e-Learning: Understanding and Evaluating Student e-Learning from Metacognitive Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Model of Strategic e-Learning to explain and evaluate student e-learning from metacognitive perspectives. An in-depth interview, pilot study and main study are employed to construct the model and develop an instrument--the Online Learning Strategies Scale (OLSS). The model framework is constructed and illustrated by four…

  2. Understanding the effects of short-term international service-learning trips on medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Nauzley C; Gruppen, Larry D; Kolars, Joseph C; Kumagai, Arno K

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand what meaning(s) preclinical students attributed to participation in one-week international service-learning trips (ISLTs) and what specific experiences during the trips accounted for such perspectives. Twenty-four first-year students who had participated in one-week ISLTs at the University of Michigan Medical School during February 2010 were invited to participate. Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted from March to August 2010 with 13 student participants. Using grounded theory analysis, several major themes were identified. Acquisition of clinical/language skills and knowledge of other health care systems were explicit benefits associated with student ISLT experiences. However, in-depth, reflective discussions revealed implicit insights and lessons, the most pervasive of which were student ambivalence concerning the value and effect of ISLTs on communities, issues of privilege and power, and ethical concerns when working with vulnerable populations. These implicit lessons stimulated new insights into future involvement in global health and emphasized the importance of reflection and discussion to enhance ISLT experiences. The current study suggests that one-week ISLTs may engender implicit insights and lessons regarding ethical and societal issues involved with global health and may stimulate the development of critical reflection on current and future professional roles for student participants. Furthermore, these activities should allow time and space for dialogue and reflection to ensure that this implicit understanding can be put to constructive educational and service-oriented uses.

  3. ACTIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING FOR ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Dewi Pratama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Cultural Understanding (CCU is one of required courses in English Language Teaching which aims at connecting language and culture so that language learners can use foreign language appropriately, i.e. appropriate forms of language for appropriate context of situation. However, some obstacles usually occur during the course, for examples: students’ lack of understanding that lead to opinions stating that this is a boring and useless course, and large number of students within a class where lecturer must teach more than 40 students in one class. Considering the importance of CCU course as well as the needs to overcome the problems during this course, this paper proposes some particular teaching strategies to help students in apprehending CCU materials through students’ active participations. Active learning strategies are preferred by means of raising students’ participation and critical thinking so that the class would run more effectively. Other consideration in composing the strategies is to prepare English Education students to be future English language teachers by training their ability in teaching performance as well as connecting language and culture in English Language Teaching (ELT.   Keywords: language, culture, strategies, media, ELT

  4. The Evils of the Use of IQ Tests To Define Learning Disabilities in First- and Second-Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Lee; Siegel, Linda S.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how IQ tests may not be an effective means of identifying English-as-a-second language (ESL) students with learning disabilities due to inherent cultural biases of the tests. Concludes that the use of IQ tests with ESL or English-dialect students is inappropriate when the student's first or primary language is different from the language…

  5. Prenatal Care: A Content-Based ESL Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Elissa Anne

    A content-based curriculum in English as a Second Language (ESL) focusing on prenatal self-care is presented. The course was designed as a solution to the problem of inadequate prenatal care for limited-English-proficient Mexican immigrant women. The first three sections offer background information on and discussion of (1) content-based ESL…

  6. Teacher's Approaches in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustakim, Siti Salina; Mustapha, Ramlee; Lebar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the approaches employed by teachers in teaching Contemporary Children's Literature Program to upper primary school. Using classroom observations and interview as research instruments, this paper evaluates the approaches of five ESL teachers teaching Year 5 students and examines the various challenges faced by them in…

  7. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  8. Let Them Speak for Themselves: ESL Students on Multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Gene

    1994-01-01

    Reviews experiences teaching diverse groups of college English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students. Writing assignments encouraged students to depict a particular aspect of multiculturalism in an autobiographical manner. Until teachers give greater credence to the complex voices of their students, multiculturalism will be an academic discourse the…

  9. Arab ESL Secondary School Students' Spelling Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobhi, Bandar Mohammad Saeed; Rashid, Sabariah Md; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah; Darmi, Ramiza

    2017-01-01

    English spelling has always been described by many language researchers and teachers as a daunting task especially for learners whose first language is not English. Accordingly, Arab ESL learners commit serious errors when they spell out English words. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the types as well as the causes of spelling…

  10. The Changing Social Content of ESL Textbooks in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas W.

    An analysis of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks published in the United States from the 1950s through the 1980s focuses on incidental but pervasive social messages contained in their content, including restriction to middle class populations and values, stereotyped sex roles, lack of visibility of minorities, negative messages about…

  11. The Construction of Collective Identity in Malaysian ESL Secondary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Faizah; Nazri, Nas Idayu Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the construction of collective identity in ESL classroom among students in a secondary school in Selangor, Malaysia. Identity construction can be helpful in supporting students academically and socially, especially in the English language classrooms. Being non-native speakers, students may have the tendency to feel…

  12. Competency-Based Teacher Education Workshops in CBE/ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Deborah L.; Van Duzer, Carol H.

    This document contains five modules for presenting a series of workshops on competency-based education (CBE) to teachers of English as a second language (ESL). Each module consists of the following: competency sheet (including rationale, performance objective, and enabling objectives), background notes and resources, suggested format for a…

  13. ESL@Facebook: A Teacher's Diary on Using Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Monique N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether Facebook would be an "effective and easy" teaching tool in ESL classes in South Korean universities. Using a teacher's diary, action research was conducted. The study indicated that Facebook is not different from other new teaching tools; the teacher must familiarize him/herself with the tool to use it…

  14. Group vs. Individual Completions of Cloze Passages by ESL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Susan C.

    A study investigated whether group interaction in completing cloze passages resulted in better completion than individual work. An earlier analysis of cloze procedure was replicated with 41 community college students of English as a Second Language (ESL). The population was randomly divided into two samples. Each sample completed two cloze…

  15. Advanced Cantonese ESL learners' use of a monolingual dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This article reports on the results of a research study which investigated the use of monolingual dictionaries by Hong Kong advanced Cantonese ESL learners in the production of target language sentences. Thirty-one English majors participated in a sentence completion task and a sentence construction task with ...

  16. What Makes Critical Thinking Critical for Adult ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miekley, Joshua P.

    2014-01-01

    Critical-thinking skills help to prepare adult education students for a successful transition to college degree programs and for job advancement. Yet fostering critical thinking poses a challenge to ESL instructors. Brookfield (2012) provides a way forward for adult educators when he explains that the crux of critical thinking is to discover one's…

  17. In Pursuit of Excellence in Teaching: An ESL Educator's Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sheldon; Clark, M. Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This is an educator's story about the pursuit of excellence in teaching. The narrative of an ESL teacher is examined using the analysis tool, Burke's Pentad (Burke 1945). This qualitative examination considers contributing factors of teacher self-efficacy and agency connected with the development, implementation, and sustenance of exemplary…

  18. Thinking in English: A New Perspective on Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muciaccia, John B.

    2011-01-01

    "Thinking in English" represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of…

  19. Automated Error Detection for Developing Grammar Proficiency of ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Hsien; Saricaoglu, Aysel; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to natural language processing technologies, computer programs are actively being used not only for holistic scoring, but also for formative evaluation of writing. CyWrite is one such program that is under development. The program is built upon Second Language Acquisition theories and aims to assist ESL learners in higher education by…

  20. Identifying Gaps in Academic Writing of ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Beena

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…