WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding esl learning

  1. Smartphones Promote Autonomous Learning in ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viji Ramamuruthy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of high-technology has caused new inventions of gadgets for all walks of life regardless age. In this rapidly advancing technology era many individuals possess hi-tech gadgets such as laptops, tablets, iPad, android phones and smart phones. Adult learners in higher learning institution especially are fond of using smart phones. Students become passive in the classrooms as they are glued to their smart phones. This situation triggers the question of whether learning really takes place while the students are too engaged with their smart phones in the ESL classroom. In this context, the following questions are framed to investigate this issue: What type of learning skills are gained by using smartphones in ESL classrooms? Does smartphone use promote the autonomous learning process? To what extent do learners rely on the lecturers in addition to the usage of smartphones? What are the learning satisfactions gained by ESL learners using smartphones? A total of 70 smartphone users in the age range 18 to 26 years participated in this quantitative study. Questionnaires eliciting demographic details of the respondents, learning skills, learning satisfaction, students' perception on teacher's role in the ESL classroom and autonomous learning were distributed to all the randomly chosen samples. The data were then analyzed by using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed that smartphone use boosted learners’ critical thinking, creative thinking, communication and collaboration skills. In fact, learners gain great satisfaction in the learning process through smartphones. Although learners have moved toward autonomous learning, they are still reliant on the teachers to achieve their learning goals.

  2. ESL Instruction and Adults with Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Robin; Terrill, Lynda

    This digest reviews what is known about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners and learning disabilities, suggests ways to identify and assess ESL adults who may have learning disabilities, and offers practical methods for both instruction and teacher training. Topics covered in some detail include identifying and diagnosing learning…

  3. Learner's Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL) among UKM Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…

  4. Understanding Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge In ESL Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizatulliza Muhamad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In communicative language teaching classrooms, one of the main emphases is on students’ ability to use the target language for real life purposes. To achieve this goal, teachers may have to ensure that students have adequate vocabulary to express their feelings and ideas. Previous research on vocabulary teaching and learning tends to be quantitative in nature focusing on testing the effectiveness of some techniques. This research study however, is an attempt to understand teachers’ pedagogical systems that influence their practice in actual classroom interactions during vocabulary teaching and learning. In-depth interviews and classroom observations with two experienced Malaysian ESL teachers were conducted. The interviews highlighted the teachers’ beliefs as well as challenges they faced with regards to vocabulary teaching and learning. The classroom observations revealed that their practice was very much a reflection of their own beliefs, based on their own experience as students as well as teachers. The results of this study showcased the fact that teachers operate within the spectrum of their pedagogical knowledge.

  5. Do Peer Tutors Help Teach ESL Students to Learn English as a Second Language More Successfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    This research study tries to understand the information processing model and social learning theory in regards to teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to Spanish speakers by using peer teaching methods. This study will examine each theory's concepts and frameworks to better comprehend what teaching methods support English language learning.…

  6. How to Create a Learning-Centered ESL Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the major features of learning-centered community colleges that offer educational programs and experiences for learners, based on individual need. By citing some exemplary learning colleges, the author examines the concepts and ideas of learning-centered colleges in teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. An…

  7. Flipped Learning for ESL Writing in a Sudanese School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Limia Ali Mohamed; DeWitt, Dorothy; Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Sudanese students seem to lack proficiency in writing English. In addition, teachers continue to use traditional, teacher-centered methods in teaching English as a second language (ESL). The flipped learning (FL) approach where video lectures are assigned as online homework before class, followed by learning activities during class, might be able…

  8. Potential of Mobile Learning in Teaching of ESL Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Arlina Ahmad; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    The potentials of mobile learning in teaching academic writing skills for ESL students are explored in this paper. Although there have been studies on MALL to improve writing skills, academic writing was never really touched. Few aspects are covered like the changes in educational technology, defining MALL, identifying issues in academic writing…

  9. Perspectives: Using Critical Incidents to Understand ESL Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John

    2015-01-01

    In a marketized environment, ESL providers, in common with other postcompulsory educational institutions, canvass student satisfaction with their services. While the predominant method is likely to be based on tick-box questionnaires using Likert scales that measure degrees of satisfaction, qualitative methodology is an option when rich data is…

  10. Smartphones Promote Autonomous Learning in ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamuruthy, Viji; Rao, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of high-technology has caused new inventions of gadgets for all walks of life regardless age. In this rapidly advancing technology era many individuals possess hi-tech gadgets such as laptops, tablets, iPad, android phones and smart phones. Adult learners in higher learning institution especially are fond of using smart…

  11. Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Supported Project-Based Learning in EFL/ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gokhan

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the implementation of Multiple Intelligences supported Project-Based learning in EFL/ESL Classrooms. In this study, after Multiple Intelligences supported Project-based learning was presented shortly, the implementation of this learning method into English classrooms. Implementation process of MI supported Project-based…

  12. Three Empowering Curricular Innovations for Service-Learning in ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, James; Grove, Nuray; Thornton, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes three service-learning projects implemented in three different ESL programs in the United States. Each description includes typical course goals, service-learning assignments, reflection activities, student learning outcomes, and pedagogical challenges. The first project was developing digital literacy through…

  13. ESL students learning biology: The role of language and social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipal, Kamini

    This study explored three aspects related to ESL students in a mainstream grade 11 biology classroom: (1) the nature of students' participation in classroom activities, (2) the factors that enhanced or constrained ESL students' engagement in social interactions, and (3) the role of language in the learning of science. Ten ESL students were observed over an eight-month period in this biology classroom. Data were collected using qualitative research methods such as participant observation, audio-recordings of lessons, field notes, semi-structured interviews, short lesson recall interviews and students' written work. The study was framed within sociocultural perspectives, particularly the social constructivist perspectives of Vygotsky (1962, 1978) and Wertsch (1991). Data were analysed with respect to the three research aspects. Firstly, the findings showed that ESL students' preferred and exhibited a variety of participation practices that ranged from personal-individual to socio-interactive in nature. Both personal-individual and socio-interactive practices appeared to support science and language learning. Secondly, the findings indicated that ESL students' engagement in classroom social interactions was most likely influenced by the complex interactions between a number of competing factors at the individual, interpersonal and community/cultural levels (Rogoff, Radziszewska, & Masiello, 1995). In this study, six factors that appeared to enhance or constrain ESL students' engagement in classroom social interactions were identified. These factors were socio-cultural factors, prior classroom practice, teaching practices, affective factors, English language proficiency, and participation in the research project. Thirdly, the findings indicated that language played a significant mediational role in ESL students' learning of science. The data revealed that the learning of science terms and concepts can be explained by a functional model of language that includes: (1

  14. The Relationships between Language Learning Strategies and Positive Emotions among Malaysian ESL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipour, Mohammad; Rashid, Sabariah Md; Rafik-Galea, Shameem; Thai, Yap Ngee

    2018-01-01

    Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling…

  15. Social Positioning, Participation, and Second Language Learning: Talkative Students in an Academic ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye

    2014-01-01

    Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…

  16. Learner’s Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL among UKM Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooreiny Maarof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate’s experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English language learning experiences at the tertiary level in this country. It reflects on how the teaching of English is variously conceptualized in our classrooms, raising important questions about the positions of English literacy to Malaysian undergraduates. A qualitative research method was employed, whereby a semi-structured interview session was conducted compromising thirty Bachelor of Arts undergraduates (BA ELS. The findings of this study suggests learners at tertiary  level do face challenges in their ESL classroom learning,  in areas such as the learning environment itself needs to be improved, the quality of education, the academics, the role of educators and the teaching approach were among others pointed out by the learners themselves.  Keywords: English language teaching, English as Second language (ESL, learner’s experiences, learner’s difficulties, language learners

  17. Learning English Tenses through Spanish Grammar : When Using the L1 Benefits ESL Learning

    OpenAIRE

    López Garrido, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The current teaching trend of ESL is focused on maximizing the use of the L2 so that the student learns the language through linguistic immersion. This approach leaves the L1 out of the game, even though research has shown it can also be beneficial for the learner. My research intends to demonstrate that translation of English grammar tenses into Spanish can be a helpful way of assimilating English grammar more easily and faster, especially for those students with a poor command of English. ...

  18. Perceptions Of Success In ESL Classrooms With Cooperative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Játiva Guachilema, Magali Janet

    2016-01-01

    I have been teaching english as a foreign language in several ecuadorian schools for more than ten years in an elementary school for two years, in a secondary school for other three years and in two different universities (one private and the other one public) for six years. I have used group work for the last five years in my english as a second language (esl) classes. At one of the universities where i received the guidance and training on how to apply group work activities, collaborati...

  19. BALL (Blogs Assisted Language Learning: Are Malaysian Secondary School Students Prepared to Use Blogs in ESL Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurainee Ariffin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out second language learners' perceptions on the use of blogs in their learning process. Participants were 20 secondary school students from a suburban school in Kelantan, Malaysia. The students read articles, discussed in their respective groups and posted their comments in their group blogs in two kinds of learning environment; being supervised face-to-face and virtually.  A survey and also oral interview were administered to elicit participants' perceptions on the use of blogs. The results showed that although the incorporation of blogs in ESL learning were perceived positively among the learners, teachers need to be aware of several factors affect the effectiveness of using this technology in their teaching such as students’ gender, personality and learning preferences.  This paper also provides some pedagogical implications in the use of blogs for ESL learning.

  20. The Effect of Chinese ESL Learners’ Beliefs on their Autonomous Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunyan Zhong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available What beliefs do Chinese learners hold about language learning? What is the effect of these beliefs on their autonomous learning? These are the two questions that this study aims to address. I employed naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln & Guba, 1985 to investigate five Chinese ESL learners’ beliefs about language learning and their learning behaviour. A number of instruments (interviews, classroom observations and stimulated recall, learning logs were used to collect triangulated data over a 12-week period. Following standard procedures of qualitative data analysis, I identified five categories of learners’ beliefs. The results revealed that the beliefs that the learners held were context-specific, reflecting their learning experiences. Some of them were conducive to learning autonomy while others were not. The beliefs influenced the level of the learners’ autonomy. The study suggests that educators should take into account learners’ beliefs when promoting autonomous learning.

  1. Leading the Proverbial Thirsty Horse to Water: ESL Learners’ Experience with Language Learning Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is agreement among language educators that the process of language teaching and learning should aim to develop autonomous language learners. While the advantages of autonomy seem to be quite obvious, fostering autonomy in practice can prove to be difficult for some language learners. This paper describes the use of learning contracts as a strategy for enhancing learner autonomy among a group of ESL learners in a Malaysian university. Through learners’ account of their experiences with the contracts, the study concludes that the learning contract has potential use for language learning and that learners’ positive learning experience remains the key to the success of any endeavour seeking to promote learner autonomy. The paper ends with some implications for teachers and learners who wish to use the contracts as a strategy for language teaching and learning.

  2. The Use of "Socrative" in ESL Classrooms: Towards Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shaban, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The online student response system (SRS) is a technological tool that can be effectively implemented in English language classroom contexts and be used to promote students' active learning. In this qualitative study, "Socrative", a Web 2.0 software, was integrated with active learning activities and used as an SRS to explore English…

  3. "Does a Spider Have Fur"?: A Teacher's Journey in Building the Confidence to Blend the English Language Learning of ESL Students with Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Yvonne; McKinnon, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes one aspect of an ESL teacher's journey, in which her voluntary involvement in a series of science-based professional learning events inspired her to use language-based objectives to develop and teach an integrated unit of work with ESL students. Her willingness to modify her usual pedagogical practice and the inspiration she…

  4. LEARNING GERMAN AS A THIRD LANGUAGE THROUGHS ESL. STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Daniela CARAIMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at revealing advantages of studying German (acquired as an L3 by a speaker who has a high level of knowledge in English (acquired as an L2. Those interested in learning German as a third language through ESL may benefit from a set of facilities that could fasten the process of learning vocabulary and enhance the disambiguation process in case of synonymy, false friends and pseudo-Anglicism. The approach we have adopted in the present paper is a practical one. We have appreciated that the process of assimilating German as an L3 through ESL could offer another benefit to learners, i.e. the possibility of simultaneously activating and practicing both foreign languages that they either master or intend to master. In the present paper, we are not going to refer to the influence of the socio-cultural environment1 on the learners of German as an L3 through English as a Secondary Language, as we are not going to make reference to psycholinguistic elements2 that are characteristic of third language acquisition. After explaining terminology and giving an overview of the theoretical background that we related to when writing the present article, we are going to insist on enumerating some basic strategies that could be successfully used to build and develop vocabulary in German by using English as a secondly acquired foreign language.

  5. Photography and Writing: Alternative Ways of Learning for ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Helen Lepp

    2012-01-01

    To writing, painting, drawing, and photography as artistic media, the author would like to add teaching as a creative endeavor as well. Especially in a classroom where English is not the first language for many students, the writing teacher needs to be creative with assignments and activities that address nontraditional ways of learning. Her…

  6. The Relationships between Language Learning Strategies and Positive Emotions among Malaysian ESL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling from 5 public universities in Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected through two sets of questionnaires: (a Oxford's (1990 Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, and (b Fredrickson's (2009 modified Differential Emotional Scale (mDES. The qualitative data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. With regard to the quantitative data analysis, a series of t-tests and correlational analyses were used. The data from the interviews were analysed qualitatively. A positive significant correlation was found between positive emotions and overall language learning strategy use. Also, the qualitative results of the study indicated that the learners who experienced more positive emotions tended to use a greater variety of language learning strategies. The findings of the study emphasise the importance of students’ positive emotions in their use of language learning strategies. It might be suggested that teachers by designing the classroom settings and instructions which promote positive emotions can inspire learners to use language learning strategies more frequently and with a greater variety which in sequence relate to learners’ language learning proficiency.

  7. Exploring ESL Students' Understanding of Mathematics in the Early Years: Factors That Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more…

  8. Development of Interactive and Reflective Learning among Malaysian Online Distant Learners: An ESL Instructor’s Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Puvaneswary Murugaiah; Siew Ming Thang

    2010-01-01

    Technology has brought tremendous advancements in online education, spurring transformations in online pedagogical practices. Online learning in the past was passive, using the traditional teacher-centred approach. However, with the tools available today, it can be active, collaborative, and meaningful. A well-developed task can impel learners to observe, to reflect, to strategize, and to plan their own learning. This paper describes an English as a Second Language (ESL) instructor’s att...

  9. ESL Placement and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn. PMID:20617111

  10. Becoming Sociocultural Mediators: What All Educators Can Learn from Bilingual and ESL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses specifically on how what she calls non-specialist teachers (i.e., those who are neither bilingual nor ESL teachers) can benefit from the practices of bilingual and ESL teachers, and how teacher educators can incorporate this knowledge in their curriculum and pedagogy. To do so, she uses examples from research…

  11. Teaching More Than English: Connecting ESL Students to Their Community through Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Natalie M.

    2007-01-01

    Language and cultural differences often cause English as a second language (ESL) students to feel alienated from their school and their community. As a result, they tend to make friends primarily within their own ESL classes and avoid interacting with mainstream students and getting involved in school activities. This article describes how…

  12. Science Education and ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    The number of students who learn English as a second language (ESL) in U.S. schools has grown significantly in the past decade. This segment of the student population increased by 56% between the 1994-95 and 2004-05 school years (NCLR 2007). As the ESL student population increases, many science teachers struggle to tailor instructional materials,…

  13. WHAT STUDENTS SAY AND WHAT TEACHERS THINK: INFORMAL TALK IN ESL LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Bunts-Anderson, PhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of interacting with others has long been considered a critical component of learning processes in general and from a Social Interactions perspective, of language learning, specifically. This presentation explores these relationships from either side of the classroom door. The discussion centers on the beliefs and experiences of learners’ spoken interactions in their own lives outside the classroom and how students view communication with others as impacting their overall knowledge of the language. The paper also looks at these issues from the perspective of the teachers. Multiple perspectives are illustrated with data collected from two Australian studies. The first study describes a cooperative action research project conducted with 13 foreign ESL students focused on enhancing their language learning through improving their personal out-of-class spoken interactions with others. Individual’s narratives of language learning and communication are presented. Results indicate improved learner efficacy and higher assessments in formal learning contexts. The second study is a phenomenographic investigation of 28 EAP instructors’ reported descriptions of learners’ verbal communications in and outside the classroom. Findings indicate greater awareness of formal interactions and fewer categories of conceptions for informal spoken language. The resulting categories for language appear similar to reports of surface and deeper approaches of learning, knowing and thinking in other subject areas. The researcher provided excerpts of instructors' reports and discusses the significance of developing an awareness of the relationships between these spoken communications and cognition. In conclusion, audience participants were asked to share their own thoughts and experiences with these relationships.

  14. The role of the phonological loop in English word learning: a comparison of Chinese ESL learners and native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-04-01

    Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level Chinese ESL learners (N = 20) and native speakers of English (N = 20). The groups performed a paired associative learning task under two conditions (control versus articulatory suppression) with two word types (regularly spelled versus irregularly spelled words) differing in degree of phonological accessibility. The results demonstrated that both groups' recall declined when the phonological loop was made less available (with irregularly spelled words and in the articulatory suppression condition), but the decline was greater for the native group. These results suggest that word learning entails phonological encoding uniformly across learners, but the contribution of phonology varies among learners with diverse linguistic backgrounds.

  15. Understanding Learning Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…

  16. Comparing Digital Badges-and-Points with Classroom Token Systems: Effects on Elementary School ESL Students' Classroom Behavior and English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Ryan; Hew, Khe Foon; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a field experiment that gamified the classroom experience of elementary school ESL students by implementing digital badges-and-points which students could earn by achieving specific behavioral and learning goals. Altogether, 120 children in eight different classes participated in this study. Four of the classes…

  17. Understanding the experiences of a group of Yemeni students in an ESL science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradi, Gihan

    American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different

  18. Development of Interactive and Reflective Learning among Malaysian Online Distant Learners: An ESL Instructor’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvaneswary Murugaiah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology has brought tremendous advancements in online education, spurring transformations in online pedagogical practices. Online learning in the past was passive, using the traditional teacher-centred approach. However, with the tools available today, it can be active, collaborative, and meaningful. A well-developed task can impel learners to observe, to reflect, to strategize, and to plan their own learning. This paper describes an English as a Second Language (ESL instructor’s attempt to foster interactive and reflective learning among distance learners at a public university in Malaysia, working within the framework proposed by Salmon (2004. The authors found that proper planning and close monitoring of a writing activity that incorporates interactive and reflective learning helped to raise the students’ awareness of their own learning process and consequently helped them to be more responsible for their learning. The students acquired significant cognitive benefits and also valuable practical learning skills through the online discussions. However, there were challenges in carrying out the writing task to promote this form of learning, including students’ professional and family commitments and cultural attitudes as well as communication barriers in the online environment. To address these challenges, the authors recommend the following: ensure tutor guidance, enforce compulsory participation, address technical problems quickly, commence strategic training prior to the beginning of a task, and implement team teaching with each instructor taking on certain roles.

  19. English made easy volume one a new ESL approach learning English through pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives beginner English learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text

  20. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally...

  1. Contextualized Workforce Skills and ESL Learner Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafai, Maliheh Mansuripur

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical case study centering on adult ESL learners' motivational patterns for learning English and its relevance to their career goals. It looks at past patterns of immigrant insertion within the socioeconomic context of the US and explores current trends in adult ESL curriculum development focused on the task of…

  2. English made easy, v.1 a new ESL approach learning English through pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This is a fun and userfriendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learningimaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives beginner English learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Selfguided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combina

  3. Learning to understand others' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia; Kilner, James M

    2011-06-23

    Despite nearly two decades of research on mirror neurons, there is still much debate about what they do. The most enduring hypothesis is that they enable 'action understanding'. However, recent critical reviews have failed to find compelling evidence in favour of this view. Instead, these authors argue that mirror neurons are produced by associative learning and therefore that they cannot contribute to action understanding. The present opinion piece suggests that this argument is flawed. We argue that mirror neurons may both develop through associative learning and contribute to inferences about the actions of others.

  4. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  5. Deep learning for visual understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.

    2017-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the image data on the web, there is an increasing demand of the algorithms capable of understanding the visual information automatically. Deep learning, served as one of the most significant breakthroughs, has brought revolutionary success in diverse visual applications,

  6. Comparing Learning Outcomes of Blended Learning and Traditional Face-to-Face Learning of University Students in ESL Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    Combining elements of online and face-to-face education, blended learning is emerging as an important teaching and learning model in higher education. In order to examine the effectiveness of blended learning, as compared to the traditional face-to-face learning mode, this research investigated the learning outcomes of students following English…

  7. Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.

  8. Learning to understand others' actions

    OpenAIRE

    Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia; Kilner, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite nearly two decades of research on mirror neurons, there is still much debate about what they do. The most enduring hypothesis is that they enable ‘action understanding’. However, recent critical reviews have failed to find compelling evidence in favour of this view. Instead, these authors argue that mirror neurons are produced by associative learning and therefore that they cannot contribute to action understanding. The present opinion piece suggests that this argument is flawed. We a...

  9. Learning environment, learning styles and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Lourdes M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.

  10. ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH TO EFL/ESL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Pasassung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that ethnography, as an approach, is a very useful tool to be applied in research attempting a good understanding of EFL/ESL classrooms. With reference to work done by anthropologists and classroom researchers, the pre- sent article argues that education, including EFL/ESL classrooms, can be well un- derstood by using ethnographic  approaches.  This is done by elaborating  the rele- vance of ethnography and the classroom context in the sense that ethnographic prin- ciples are applicable in describing and understanding the culture of a classroom, and EFL/ESL teaching in particular.

  11. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  12. Compensation Still Matters: Language Learning Strategies in Third Millennium ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarami, Alireza; Hajhashemi, Karim; Caltabiano, Nerina J.

    2017-01-01

    Digital media play enormous roles in much of the learning, communication, socializing, and ways of working for "Net-Generation" learners who are growing up in a wired world. Living in this digital era may require different ways of communicating, thinking, approaching learning, prioritizing strategies, interpersonally communicating, and…

  13. Chinese ESL Students' Learning Strategies: A Look at Frequency, Proficiency, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Kwah Poh; Goh, Christine C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the learning strategies of English-as-Second-Language students in the People's Republic of China. Surveyed the frequency of strategy use to determine how it is influenced by learners' proficiency level and gender. (Author/VWL)

  14. Multiple Intelligences and ESL Teaching and Learning: An Investigation in KG II Classrooms in One Private School in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Norma

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' use of the Multiple Intelligences Theory on vocabulary acquisition by preschoolers during English as a second language (ESL) classes in a K-12 school in Lebanon. Eighty kindergartners (KG II, aged 5 years) and eight teachers constituted the sample. The study used mixed methods, including observations of videotaped…

  15. Understanding Learning Style by Eye Tracking in Slide Video Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianxia; Nishihara, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    More and more videos are now being used in e-learning context. For improving learning effect, to understand how students view the online video is important. In this research, we investigate how students deploy their attention when they learn through interactive slide video in the aim of better understanding observers' learning style. Felder and…

  16. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

  17. Use of Content Based Instruction and Socratic Discussion for ESL Undergraduate Biomedical Science Students to Develop Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burder, Ronan L.; Tangalaki, Kathy; Hryciw, Deanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Content based language instruction can assist English as a second language (ESL) students to achieve better learning and teaching outcomes, however, it is primarily used to understand content, and may not help to develop critical analysis skills. Here we describe a pilot study that used a "Socratic" small-group discussion in addition to…

  18. Filipino ESL Learners' Attitudes toward Cooperative Learning and Their Relationship to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong; Torres, Patrisha Lliane O.

    2016-01-01

    Departing from Gonzales and Torres' (2015) quantitative quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of cooperative learning (CL) on Grade 8 students in a private school in Manila, the present study attempts to uncover possible findings in the affective dimension through a 25-item survey questionnaire that quantitatively gauges the Grade 8…

  19. Project-Based Learning through the Eyes of Teachers and Students in Adult ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Cristina; Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The use of projects and project-based learning has recently received much attention as a way of promoting meaning-focused communication and integrating different language skills into second and foreign language classrooms. However, perspectives on the effective implementation of projects have not been fully explored. This study examines and…

  20. Teaching and learning grade 7 science concepts by elaborate analogies: Mainstream and East and South Asian ESL students' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Judy Joo-Hyun

    This study explored the effectiveness of an instructional tool, elaborate analogy, in teaching the particle theory to both Grade 7 mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students. Ten Grade 7 science classes from five different schools in a large school district in the Greater Toronto area participated. Each of the ten classes were designated as either Group X or Y. Using a quasi-experimental counterbalanced design, Group X students were taught one science unit using the elaborate analogies, while Group Y students were taught by their teachers' usual methods of teaching. The instructional methods used for Group X and Y were interchanged for the subsequent science unit. Quantitative data were collected from 95 students (50 mainstream and 45 ESL) by means of a posttest and a follow-up test for each of the units. When the differences between mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students were analyzed, the results indicate that both groups scored higher on the posttests when they were instructed with elaborate analogies, and that the difference between the two groups was not significant. That is, the ESL students, as well as the mainstream students, benefited academically when they were instructed with the elaborate analogies. The students obtained higher inferential scores on the posttest when their teacher connected the features of less familiar and more abstract scientific concepts to the features of the familiar and easy-to-visualize concept of school dances. However, after two months, the students were unable to recall inferential content knowledge. This is perhaps due to the lack of opportunity for the students to represent and test their initial mental models. Rather than merely employing elaborate analogies, perhaps, science teachers can supplement the use of elaborate analogies with explicit guidance in helping students to represent and test the coherence of their mental models.

  1. Understanding nomadic collaborative learning groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    -term collaborations within the frame of Problem and Project Based Learning. By analysing the patterns of nomadic collaborative learning we identify and discuss how the two groups of students incorporate mobile and digital technologies as well as physical and/or non-digital technologies into their group work......The paper builds on the work of Rossitto et al. on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long....... Specifically, we identify the following categories of nomadic collaborative learning practices: “orchestration of work phases, spaces and activities,” “the orchestration of multiple technologies” and “orchestration of togetherness.” We found that for both groups of students there was a fluidity, situatedness...

  2. Understanding Nomadic Collaborative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    The paper builds on the work of Rossitto "et al." on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long-term collaborations within the frame…

  3. Divergence in Curricular-Weight Teacher-Efforts and Student-Difficulties in Secondary School ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Gafoor, K.; Sreeja, C.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of English as a global language, calls for an equally vigorous attempt to improving teaching and learning it in schools as a second language within and outside India. Highlighting the relevance of contextualising ESL learning by allowing for the needs of students and teachers in undertaking reforms to ESL learning, this…

  4. Understanding Learning Style Variations among Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the learning styles of students. The term learning style refers to the way or method or approach by which a student learns. The study explored the possible learning style variations among agricultural, horticultural, engineering and arts & science students and their association with academic achievement. One hundred and twelve students were randomly selected from the four streams and their learning styles were analyzed. In the agricultural and horticultural streams, a majority of the students were auditory learners. They were also found to be predominantly unimodal learners. Overall, it was found that majority of the students were visual learners followed by auditory and kinesthetic style. The highest percentage of kinesthetic learners was found among engineering students. Trimodal learners scored the highest mean percentage of marks. The influence of learning styles on the academic achievements of the students did not show a significant relationship.

  5. Improving clinical communication of students with English as a second language (ESL) using online technology: a small scale evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, students with English as a second language (ESL) are enrolled in nursing degrees in English speaking countries (Wang et al., 2008). However, they may be at risk of clinical practice failure due to communication difficulties associated with unfamiliar linguistic and cultural factors (Guhde, 2003). This paper describes and evaluates an innovation to assist ESL nursing students at an Australian university develop their clinical communication skills and practice readiness by providing online learning resources, using podcast and vodcast technology, that blend with classroom activities and facilitate flexible and independent learning. The innovation builds on an intensive clinical language workshop program called 'Clinically Speaking' which has evolved through a cyclical process of ongoing research to produce resources in response to students' learning needs. Whilst uptake of the resources was modest, students of ESL as well as English speaking backgrounds (ESB) found the resources improved their clinical preparation and confidence by increasing their understanding of expectations, clinical language and communication skills. The innovation, developed with a modest budget, shows potential in developing ESL and ESB students' readiness for clinical communication, enabling them to engage in clinical practice to develop competency standards required of nursing graduates and registration authorities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, E.; Fitriani, A.; Redjeki, S.; Riandi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Research on the identification of conceptual understanding in the learning of Biotechnology, especially on the concept of Genetic Engineering has been done. The lesson is carried out by means of discussion and presentation mediated-powerpoint media that contains learning materials with relevant images and videos. This research is a qualitative research with one-shot case study or one-group posttest-only design. Analysis of 44 students' answers show that only 22% of students understand the concept, 18% of students lack understanding of concepts, 57% of students have misconceptions, and 3% of students are error. It can be concluded that most students has misconceptions in learning the concept of Genetic Engineering.

  7. The Role of Transitions in ESL Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transitions in ESL contexts generally refer to those linking words placed between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitions in writing (and in speaking) are helpful; they facilitate coherence and cohesion when used correctly. Understanding them when reading allows us to join the writer in seeing why and how idea B follows idea A. In this…

  8. Willing Learners yet Unwilling Speakers in ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraidah Ali

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To some of us, speech production in ESL has become so natural and integral that we seem to take it for granted. We often do not even remember how we struggled through the initial process of mastering English. Unfortunately, to students who are still learning English, they seem to face myriad problems that make them appear unwilling or reluctant ESL speakers. This study will investigate this phenomenon which is very common in the ESL classroom. Setting its background on related research findings on this matter, a qualitative study was conducted among foreign students enrolled in the Intensive English Programme (IEP at Institute of Liberal Studies (IKAL, University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN. The results will show and discuss an extent of truth behind this perplexing phenomenon: willing learners, yet unwilling speakers of ESL, in our effort to provide supportive learning cultures in second language acquisition (SLA to this group of students.

  9. Exploring Service Logic in ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John

    2013-01-01

    ESL is both a professional educational service and, particularly in post-compulsory contexts, a commercial activity. The effective management of ESL programs can secure quality outcomes for practitioners and students. Nevertheless, writings on ESL management do not figure prominently in the literature. In particular, the association between…

  10. ESL Placement and Schools: Effects on Immigrant Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn.

  11. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  12. Grammar and Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Glenda; Young, Barbara N.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of theories relating to teaching ESL learners leads to contradictory ideas about teaching a second language. This paper focuses on the continuing importance of grammar in teaching and the current resurgence in interest in returning to grammar as an important component in the classroom.

  13. Mental Health and the ESL Classroom: A Guide for Teachers Working with Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Moira; Chaffee, Marcia; Terry, Diane; Le Marbre, Joan; Stone, Betty; Wiencek, Donna

    This manual guides English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers by outlining the complex burdens that refugee students carry and setting out concrete steps that ESL teachers can take in order to turn their classrooms into effective and welcoming teaching and learning environments. The seven sections focus on the following: (1) "The Refugee and…

  14. A Pedagogical Framework for Technology Integration in ESL Classrooms: The Promises and Challenges of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Walker, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Technologies have the potential to support language teaching and learning, but English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers in the United States (U.S.) either sparingly use technologies for instruction or use them at low level. Although previous research has indicated some promises and challenges faced by U.S. ESL teachers with integrating…

  15. Linking Research and Practice: Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jihyun

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a pivotal role in the ESL classroom. Whereas a considerable amount of research has examined effective ESL vocabulary teaching and learning, missing are studies that provide examples of how to put various research findings into practice: that is, apply them to real texts including target vocabulary items. In order to close the gap…

  16. Influence of Speech Anxiety on Oral Communication Skills among ESL/EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Said Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The realization of speech anxiety among ESL/EFL learners is important. Once understood, these feelings of fear or nervousness may be relieved and the desired objectives of learning the target language may be achieved. The study has attempted to measure the level of anxiety among ESL/EFL learners at HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan. The current…

  17. Redesigning nursing tutorials for ESL students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Townsend, Lisa; Waters, Cheryl

    2013-04-01

    Increased enrolments of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students who speak English as a second language (ESL) can help create a multilingual and culturally diverse workforce that is better prepared to meet the needs of increasingly diverse health populations. However, although ESL enrolments are increasing, attrition rates for ESL students tend to be higher than those of native speakers of English, partly due to academic failure. At the same time, concerns have been expressed in some quarters about the low levels of English language of entering students. As it is unlikely that language entry levels to university will be raised, sustainable programmes that help ESL students better meet the academic challenges they may face need to be developed. So far, models of ESL support have been mostly an adjunct to their degree, voluntary and not well attended. This paper discusses a model using tutorials integrated into the first year nursing curriculum that were specifically designed for ESL students with low levels of English language proficiency. The paper also examines students' perceptions of such tutorials, which they found beneficial to their learning.

  18. Knowledge. Progression and the Understanding of Workplace Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The book explores new ways of thinking about learning at work, and the understanding of its role and purpose.......The book explores new ways of thinking about learning at work, and the understanding of its role and purpose....

  19. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  20. Pedagogy in Speaking: Challenges Addressed by Teacher-Student in the ESL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kawser Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching speaking is perhaps one of the major challenges for teachers teaching in English as a Second Language (ESL classroom environment. Like writing, speaking is not linear and easy approach to ensure the best utilization among learners.  Since speaking is a real life event and face to face conversation, it needs more sophisticated care, practice oriented session for the students and effective means to implement it in the ESL situation. Even language experts often grope to outline effective and mediocre way to help learners have a good understanding in speaking.  This paper attempts to delineate the focal points where teachers and students face problems in teaching and learning speaking. It immensely chalks out with methodological study, qualitative data analysis and the underlining factors ESL teachers face enormously in the pedagogy of speaking for second language learners. My paper will outline the pedagogical tenets of speaking in the realistic non-native set ups and diagnose the impediments faced by learners when they are supposed to speak and by teachers when they teach speaking for their students.

  1. Understanding Interorganizational Learning Based on Social Spaces and Learning Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rebelato Mozzato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different organizational settings have been gaining ground in the world economy, resulting in a proliferation of different forms of strategic alliances that translate into a growth in the number of organizations that have started to deal with interorganizational relationships with different actors. These circumstances reinforce Crossan, Lane, White and Djurfeldt (1995 and Crossan, Mauer and White (2011 in exploring what authors refer to as the fourth, interorganizational, level of learning. These authors, amongst others, suggest that the process of interorganizational learning (IOL warrants investigation, as its scope of analysis needs widening and deepening. Therefore, this theoretical essay is an attempt to understand IOL as a dynamic process found in interorganizational cooperative relationships that can take place in different structured and unstructured social spaces and that can generate learning episodes. According to this view, IOL is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum and is analyzed within the framework of practical rationality in an approach that is less cognitive and more social-behavioral.

  2. Pedagogical Gestures as Interactional Resources for Teaching and Learning Tense and Aspect in the ESL Grammar Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yumi; Dobs, Abby Mueller

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the functions of gesture in teaching and learning grammar in the context of second language (L2) classroom interactions. The data consisted of video-recorded interactions from a beginner- and an advanced-level grammar classroom in an intensive English program at a U.S. university. The sequences of talk-in-interaction…

  3. Announcing the ESL-WOW for Self-Directed Writing Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus M. Niles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of ESL-WOW (Writing Online Workshop, a new online resource for students aiming to develop academic writing skills which has been available to the public at no charge since December 2012. Students can visit www.esl-wow.org to learn more about the academic conventions that confound new entrants into academic discourse communities, or to learn more about what makes writing clear and cogent in general. While the site is designed for adult learners and students entering community colleges, a wide variety of intermediate and advanced learners can certainly benefit from the materials offered by the ESL-WOW.

  4. Using Data to Understand How to Better Design Adaptive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Kang, Jina; Zou, Wenting; Lee, Hyeyeon; Pan, Zilong; Corliss, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    There is much enthusiasm in higher education about the benefits of adaptive learning and using big data to investigate learning processes to make data-informed educational decisions. The benefits of adaptive learning to achieve personalized learning are obvious. Yet, there lacks evidence-based research to understand how data such as user behavior…

  5. Advanced software development workstation: Knowledge base methodology: Methodology for first Engineering Script Language (ESL) knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeris, Kumar; Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    This report explains some of the concepts of the ESL prototype and summarizes some of the lessons learned in using the prototype for implementing the Flight Mechanics Tool Kit (FMToolKit) series of Ada programs.

  6. The double-loop feedback for active learning with understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Learning is an active process, and in engineering education authentic projects is often used to activate the students and promote learning. However, it is not all activity that leads to deep learning; and in a rapid changing society deep understanding is necessary for life-long learning. Empirical...... findings at DTU question the direct link between high activity and a deep approach to learning. Active learning is important to obtain engineering competencies, but active learning requires more than activity. Feedback and reflection is crucial to the learning process, since new knowledge is built...... on the student’s existing understanding. A model for an active learning process with a double-loop feedback is suggested - the first loop gives the student experience through experimentation, the second conceptual understanding through reflection. Students often miss the second loop, so it is important...

  7. The Power of Story in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Bonnie J.; Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable research has examined the use of literature in the second language (L2) classroom, there has been less investigation into the integration of learners' personal stories in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom. Following Wajnryb's (2003) categorizations of story as language learning, genre, and the creation of what…

  8. Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Educating Bilingual/ESL Teachers in a Language/Culture Exchange Field School: A Collaborative Model in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama, Irma N.

    This paper describes a program that brings bilingual and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers from the United States to a Mexican ESL school to teach in the Tetiz (Yucatan, Mexico) field school and in exchange, learn Mayan language and culture. The theoretical base for the project is drawn from the work of major theorists in second language…

  10. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Ayuni Putri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the context that English in Indonesia is considered as a foreign language, it causes the learners of English in Indonesia understand not only the language but also the culture. Foreign language learners may encounter various communication problems when their interlanguage is limited. In order to convey their messages and remain in a conversation until their communication goal is achieved, ESL (English as a Second Language learners need to employ communication strategies, which have been defined generally as devices used by second language learners to overcome perceived barriers to achieving specific communication goals (Færch & Kasper, 1983. In order to avoid certain miscommunication, the teacher of English in Indonesia should also give their learners the understanding of communication strategies.

  11. Understanding the Problems of Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semilla-Dube, Lilia

    1983-01-01

    A model is being developed to categorize problems in teaching and learning mathematics. Categories include problems due to language difficulties, lack of prerequisite knowledge, and those related to the affective domain. This paper calls on individuals to share teaching and learning episodes; those submitted will then be compiled and categorized.…

  12. Helping Education Students Understand Learning through Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen-Fuhrmann, Tamar; Kali, Yael; Hoadley, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a course in which graduate students in education learn practical and theoretical aspects of educational design by creating technologies for learning. The course was built around three themes: "Analyzing technologies," in which students study state-of- the-art technologies and interview their designers; "design studio," in…

  13. Understanding the learning styles of undergraduate physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...

  14. Designing Professional Learning Communities through Understanding the Beliefs of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jie; Kang, Rui; Liu, Di

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to initiate the process of building professional development learning communities for pre-service math teachers through revealing those teachers' conceptions/beliefs of students' learning and their own learning in China. It examines Chinese pre-service math teachers' conceptions of student learning and their related…

  15. An Analysis of Social Network Websites for Language Learning: Implications for Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Abe, K.; Cao, M. W.; Liu, S.; Ok, D. U.; Park, J.; Parrish, C.; Sardegna, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    Although educators are excited about the potential of social network sites for language learning (SNSLL), there is a lack of understanding of how SNSLL can be used to facilitate teaching and learning for English as Second language (ESL) instructors and students. The purpose of this study was to examine the affordances of four selected SNSLL…

  16. Understanding Digital Learning and Its Variable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, B.

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of undergraduate courses use an online or blended learning format. This trend signals major changes in the kind of instruction students receive in their STEM courses, yet evidence about the effectiveness of these new approaches is sparse. Existing syntheses and meta-analyses summarize outcomes from experimental or quasi-experimental studies of online and blended courses and document how few studies incorporate proper controls for differences in student characteristics, instructor behaviors, and other course conditions. The evidence that is available suggests that on average blended courses are equal to or better than traditional face-to-face courses and that online courses are equivalent in terms of learning outcomes. But these averages conceal a tremendous underlying variability. Results vary markedly from course to course, even when the same technology is used in both. Some research suggests that online instruction puts lower-achieving students at a disadvantage. It is clear that introducing digital learning per se is no guarantee that student engagement and learning will be enhanced. Getting more consistently positive impacts out of learning technologies is going to require systematic characterization of the features of learning technologies and associated instructional practices as well as attention to context and student characteristics. This presentation will present a framework for characterizing essential features of digital learning resources, implementation practices, and conditions. It will also summarize the research evidence with respect to the learning impacts of specific technology features including spaced practice, immediate feedback, mastery learning based pacing, visualizations and simulations, gaming features, prompts for explanations and reflection, and tools for online collaboration.

  17. Peter Jarvis and the Understanding of Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Knud

    2017-01-01

    By comparing Peter Jarvis' understanding of learning with two other approaches--which Jarvis himself has referred to as "the most comprehensive": Etienne Wenger's "social theory of learning" and my own psychologically oriented theory of "the three dimensions of learning"--it becomes evident that Jarvis' understanding…

  18. The Challenge of English Language Collocation Learning in an ES/FL Environment: PRC Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to seek an in-depth understanding about English collocation learning and the development of learner autonomy through investigating a group of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' perspectives and practices in their learning of English collocations using an AWARE approach. A group of 20 PRC students learning English in…

  19. Statistical Learning as a Basis for Social Understanding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…

  20. Understanding of Foreign Language Learning of Generation Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2016-01-01

    Different generations are constituted depending on social changes and they are designed sociologically as traditional, baby boomer, X, Y and Z. Many studies have been reported on understanding of foreign language learning generation Y. This study aims to realise the gap in and contribute to the research on language learning understanding of…

  1. Children's developing understanding of what and how they learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M; Letourneau, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    What do children know about learning? Children between 4 and 10 years of age were asked what they thought the word learning meant and then engaged in a structured interview about what kinds of things they learned and how they learned those things. Most of the 4- and 5-year-olds' responses to these questions indicated a lack of awareness about the nature of learning or how learning occurs. In contrast, the 8- to 10-year-olds showed a strong understanding of learning as a process and could often generate explicit metacognitive responses indicating that they understood under what circumstances learning would occur. The 6- and 7-year-olds were in a transitional stage between these two levels of understanding. We discuss the implications of this development with children's theory-of-mind development more generally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluency First: Reversing the Traditional ESL Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan-Gilhooly, Adele

    1991-01-01

    Describes an ESL department's whole language approach to writing and reading, replacing its traditional grammar-based ESL instructional sequence. Reports the positive quantitative and qualitative results of the first three years of using the new approach. (KEH)

  3. Impromptu Speech Gamification for ESL/EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardelli, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Any introductory undergraduate public-speaking course, in particular in ESL/EFL contexts. Objectives: This single-class activity is intended to (1) build students' ability to communicate orally "off the cuff;" (2) foster students' understanding of the major organizational formats used in organizing speeches; and (3) increase…

  4. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  5. Adolescent literacy: learning and understanding content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R

    2012-01-01

    Learning to read--amazing as it is to small children and their parents--is one thing. Reading to learn, explains Susan Goldman of the University of Illinois at Chicago, is quite another. Are today's students able to use reading and writing to acquire knowledge, solve problems, and make decisions in academic, personal, and professional arenas? Do they have the literacy skills necessary to meet the demands of the twenty-first century? To answer these questions, Goldman describes the increasingly complex comprehension, reasoning skills, and knowledge that students need as they progress through school and surveys what researchers and educators know about how to teach those skills. Successfully reading to learn requires the ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information from multiple sources, Goldman writes. Effective readers must be able to apply different knowledge, reading, and reasoning processes to different types of content, from fiction to history and science, to news accounts and user manuals. They must assess sources of information for relevance, reliability, impartiality, and completeness. And they must connect information across multiple sources. In short, successful readers must not only use general reading skills but also pay close attention to discipline-specific processes. Goldman reviews the evidence on three different instructional approaches to reading to learn: general comprehension strategies, classroom discussion, and disciplinary content instruction. She argues that building the literacy skills necessary for U.S. students to read comprehensively and critically and to learn content in a variety of disciplines should be a primary responsibility for all of the nation's teachers. But outside of English, few subject-area teachers are aware of the need to teach subject-area reading comprehension skills, nor have they had opportunities to learn them themselves. Building the capacity of all teachers to meet the literacy needs of today's students

  6. ANALYSIS LEARNING MODEL OF DISCOVERY AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT PRELIMINARY TO PHYSICS LEARNING OUTCOMES SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  7. THE PRONUNCIATION COMPONENT IN ESL LESSONS: TEACHERS’ BELIEFS AND PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanina Sharatol Ahmad Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that teachers’ beliefs on teaching and learning exert an influence on their actual classroom practices. In the teaching of English pronunciation, teachers’ beliefs play a crucial role in the choice of pronunciation components taught in the ESL classrooms. This paper explores teachers’ beliefs about teaching English pronunciation in Malaysian classrooms and the extent to which these beliefs influenced the teachers’ classroom instructions. Employing a multiple case study of five ESL teachers in secondary schools, this study investigated the beliefs the teachers have formed about pronunciation focused areas and classroom practices in teaching English pronunciation. Data were collected through actual classroom observations and semi-structured interviews with the teachers and students. The findings of the study found that ESL teachers seem to believe that pronunciation skills are to be taught integratedly with other English language skills. Results also indicate a discrepancy between these teachers’ beliefs on the focused areas of pronunciation and the stated curriculum specifications.  Additionally, the ESL teachers seem to have vague and contradictory beliefs about pronunciation focused areas. These beliefs are based on their previous language learning and professional experience as well as other contextual factors such as examination demands and time constraints. As a result, these beliefs lead to the pronunciation component being neglected despite it being stipulated by the curriculum.

  8. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  9. Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Working toward Literacy in Correctional Education ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Correctional Education English as a Second Language (ESL) literacy programs vary from state to state, region to region. Some states enroll their correctional ESL students in adult basic education (ABE) classes; other states have separate classes and programs. At the Maryland Correctional Institution in Jessup, the ESL class is a self-contained…

  11. Professionalism Prevails in Adult Education ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan C.; Bywater, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the issue of professionalism of adult education ESL educators and uncover any inequities. The arc of this exploration describes the history of adult education, the current state of adult education ESL professionals, and the direction in which ESL adult educators appear to be heading. The results illustrate…

  12. Clinical expectations: what facilitators expect from ESL students on clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Many nursing students for whom English is a second language (ESL) face challenges related to communication on clinical placement and although clinical facilitators are not usually trained language assessors, they are often in a position of needing to assess ESL students' clinical language performance. Little is known, however, about the particular areas of clinical performance facilitators focus on when they are assessing ESL students. This paper discusses the results of a study of facilitators' written assessment comments about the clinical performance of a small group of ESL nursing students over a two and a half year period. These comments were documented on students' clinical assessment forms at the end of each placement. The results provide a more detailed insight into facilitators' expectations of students' language performance and the particular challenges faced by ESL students and indicate that facilitators have clear expectations of ESL students regarding communication, learning styles and professional demeanour. These findings may help both ESL students and their facilitators better prepare for clinical placement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. What Prevents ESL/FL Writers from Avoiding Plagiarism? Analyses of 10 North-American College Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kyoko

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how inexperienced English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language (ESL/EFL) writers can be helped to avoid plagiarism. Analyzes 10 North American Web sites on plagiarism, which provide a window to understanding how this issue has been problemitized and explained in Anglophone academic contexts. Concludes ESL/EFL may need to emphasize the role of…

  14. Siblings' Understanding of Learning Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…

  15. Learning Analytics to Understand Cultural Impacts on Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmeier, Jenna; Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical study, we investigate the role of national cultural dimensions as distal antecedents of the use intensity of e-tutorials, which constitute the digital component within a blended learning course. Profiting from the context of a dispositional learning analytics application, we investigate cognitive processing strategies and…

  16. The teacher is a facilitator: Reflecting on ESL teacher beliefs through metaphor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors offer a lens through which language teachers express their understanding of their work. Metaphor analysis can be a powerful reflective tool for expressing meanings that underpin ways of thinking about teaching and learning English as a second/foreign language. Through reflecting on their personal teaching metaphors, teachers become more aware of the beliefs that underpin their work. This paper reports the reflections on the prior beliefs of three experienced ESL teachers in Canada through the use of metaphor analysis. The paper attempts to explore the prior beliefs of the three experienced ESL teachers in Canada through metaphor analysis by using the Oxford et al. (1998 framework as a theoretical lens in which to gain understanding of the use and meaning of these metaphors. Results indicated that all three teachers used a total of 94 metaphors throughout the period of the group discussions and interviews, and that the metaphors used most were those related to learner-centered growth, followed by social order, then social reform.

  17. Understanding the Context of Learning in an Online Social Network for Health Professionals' Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.

  18. Understanding Productive Learning Through the Metaphorical Lens of Patchworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    , which formed the basis of the author’s PhD thesis (Ryberg, 2007), the concept of understanding learning as a process of patchworking has emerged. The metaphor of patchworking is a perspective that emphasises the constructive, creative and productive aspects of learning. In this chapter the main aspects...

  19. Understanding the Quality of Out-of-Class English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Zhu, Weimin; Gong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-class learning constitutes an important context for human development, and active engagement in out-of-class activities is associated with successful language development. However, not all out-of-class experiences are equally beneficial to learning, and it is of paramount importance to understand what quality out-of-class English language…

  20. Understanding the Implications of Online Learning for Educational Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakia, Marianne; Shear, Linda; Toyama, Yukie; Lasseter, Austin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to support educational administrators and policymakers in becoming informed consumers of information about online learning and its potential impact on educational productivity. The report provides foundational knowledge needed to examine and understand the potential contributions of online learning to educational…

  1. Understanding Game-Based Learning Cultures: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This special issue expands our understanding of teaching and learning through video game play, with specific attention to culture. The issue gives insight into the ways educators, researchers, and developers should be discussing and designing for impactful learner-centered game-based learning experiences. The issue features forward-thinking…

  2. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  3. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    OpenAIRE

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of learning groups in organisations. Four theoretical types of learning projects are distinguished. Four different approaches to the learning climate of work groups are compared to the approach offered by t...

  4. Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: Effects of ESL placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-03-01

    The 1974 Lau decision requires that U.S. public schools ensure a meaningful education for students learning English. English as a Second Language (ESL) placement is an institutional response to the linguistic needs of these students; however, its academic implications remain largely unexplored. Using nationally representative data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS), the effects of ESL placement on college preparatory course enrollment and academic achievement of language minority students are estimated, first with fixed effects regression models and then with multi-level propensity score matching techniques. While numerous school and individual level factors beyond language proficiency predict ESL placement, a significant negative estimated effect of ESL placement on science enrollment and cumulative GPA is consistently found. Perhaps more important, however, no positive effects of ESL placement on the achievement of language minority youth are found when accounting for English proficiency and other potential covariates.

  5. Developing and Understanding Intelligent Contexts for Playing and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik

    of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in a primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between....... This paper therefore aims at illustrating how and why the “Octopus” works and functions in a learning community (school) and discus the relations between distinctions, embodiment, intelligent contexts, structure and flow. This paper introduces a new reading of pervasive learning environments as the “Octopus......” through M.M. Bachtins concept of “Chronotopos” or how time and space influence and structure experience and learning.  We have adapted this theory that originally is about literature in order to find new ways of understanding the time and place relation in learning....

  6. Assessing Understanding of the Learning Cycle: The ULC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Edmund A.; Maier, Steven J.; McCann, Florence

    2008-08-01

    An 18-item, multiple choice, 2-tiered instrument designed to measure understanding of the learning cycle (ULC) was developed and field-tested from the learning cycle test (LCT) of Odom and Settlage ( Journal of Science Teacher Education, 7, 123 142, 1996). All question sets of the LCT were modified to some degree and 5 new sets were added, resulting in the ULC. The ULC measures (a) understandings and misunderstandings of the learning cycle, (b) the learning cycle’s association with Piaget’s ( Biology and knowledge theory: An essay on the relations between organic regulations and cognitive processes, 1975) theory of mental functioning, and (c) applications of the learning cycle. The resulting ULC instrument was evaluated for internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha, yielding a coefficient of .791.

  7. Adults' and Children's Understanding of How Expertise Influences Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Judith H; Shenouda, Christine K

    2018-01-01

    Adults and children use information about expertise to infer what a person is likely to know, but it is unclear whether they realize that expertise also has implications for learning. We explore adults' and children's understanding that expertise in a particular category supports learning about a closely related category. In four experiments, 5-year-olds and adults (n = 160) judged which of two people would be better at learning about a new category. When faced with an expert and a nonexpert, adults consistently indicated that expertise supports learning in a closely related category; however, children's judgments were inconsistent and were strongly influenced by the description of the nonexpert. The results suggest that although children understand what it means to be an expert, they may judge an individual's learning capacity based on different considerations than adults.

  8. A machine learning approach to understand business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, L.

    2003-01-01

    Business processes (industries, administration, hospitals, etc.) become nowadays more and more complex and it is difficult to have a complete understanding of them. The goal of the thesis is to show that machine learning techniques can be used successfully for understanding a process on the basis of

  9. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  10. Reticent Students in the ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo R. S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reticence has always been regarded as a problematic phenomenon among students in the ESL classrooms. Many instructors have expressed their frustrations to decode the reticent behaviour and work out suitable strategies to help students with such behaviour. Whenever such students do not engage in the classroom discourse, they are usually regarded as not having the desire to learn or lacking in cooperation. These explanations seem simplistic, bias and stereotypical. Based on a larger project on students’ reticent behaviour, this study investigated the extent in which tertiary students majoring in English experience reticence in the classrooms, and examined the underlying factors of reticence. Data were obtained from 78 students utilizing the Reticence Scale-12 (RS-12 which measures the level of reticence along six dimensions: anxiety, knowledge, timing, organization, skills and memory. The findings reveal that reticent level is high among the students, and their major problems lie in affective-control and delivery.

  11. ESL Teacher and ICT:Teachers' Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Pei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of Information Communication and Technologies (ICTs has made tremendous changes in the twenty-first century. ICT is said to bring a variety of benefits in facilitating the teaching and learning process. Therefore, ICT has been the emphasis in school and higher institutions of education nowadays. However, to integrate ICT in education is not problem free, problems are faced by the teachers. This paper aims to investigate the ESL teachers’ perception toward the use of ICT in KT, Malaysia. Data were collected via interviews with four Form 4 English teachers in a secondary school in Kuala Terengganu. Findings show teachers have a positive perception towards the use of ICT. However, teachers claimed they face challenges in using ICT especially due to insufficient facilities.

  12. Pedagogical Stances of High School ESL Teachers: "Huelgas" in High School ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Salazar, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study of the pedagogical stances of high school English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers, and the subsequent responses of resistance or conformity by their English Language Learners (ELLs). The participants include three high school ESL teachers and 60 high school ESL students of Mexican origin. Findings…

  13. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of

  14. Understanding and Predicting Student Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Game-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jennifer L.; Shores, Lucy R.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning behaviors such as goal setting and monitoring have been found to be crucial to students' success in computer-based learning environments. Consequently, understanding students' self-regulated learning behavior has been the subject of increasing attention. Unfortunately, monitoring these behaviors in real-time has…

  15. E-learning support for student's understanding of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Sendrup, Linda; Sparsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    To enhance active learning and understanding of analogue and digital electronics the use of e-learning techniques will be investigated. In a redesigned course combining introductory analogue and digital electronics, students will be motivated to prepare for lectures and exercises by providing...... access to interactive simulations. Some exercises will furthermore be carried out first as simulations of electrical circuits and then with physical components, i.e. as design-build exercises. A number of didactic problems in learning electricity and electronics are discussed....

  16. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education......, through this constructivism to a pedagogical theory of learning. I will mainly focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of humans’ conceptualisations based on their own mental objects (schemata). Subsequently, I will propose an analytical specification of humans’ conceptualisations...

  17. EFL/ESL Textbook Selection in Korea and East Asia - Relevant Issues and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    EFL/ESL departments periodically face the problem of textbook selection. Cogent issues are that non-native speakers will use L2 English mainly to communicate with other non-native English speakers, so an American accent is becoming less important. L2 English will mainly be used in computer-mediated communication, hence the importance of L2 Digital Literacy. The convergence of Information Communication Technologies is radically impacting Second Language Acquisition, which is integrating web-hosted Assessment and Learning Management Systems. EFL/ESL textbooks need to be compatible with blended learning, prepare students for a globalized world, and foster autonomous learning. I summarize five papers on EFL/ESL textbook evaluation and selection, and include relevant material for adaptation. Textbooks are major sources of contact with the target language, so selection is an important decision. Educators need to be systematic and objective in their approach, adopting a selection process that is open, transparent, accountable, participatory, informed and rigorous.

  18. Pros and Cons of Using IICT in Teaching ESL Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Nordin, Norazah; Salehi, Hadi; Sun, Choo Hui; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a major role in creating a new and improved model of teaching and learning. A great number of studies have been conducted to examine the advantages of integrating ICT in language education in general and English as a Second Language (ESL) teaching and learning in particular. However, there is…

  19. Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Dougiamas, Martin; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as follows: Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., Dougiamas, M., Vogten, H., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding. Proceedings of Simposo Internacional de Informática Educativa (SIIE06), León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on

  20. Understanding and Utilizing the Effectiveness of e‐Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    , the research brings valuable input to the discussion of the validity of self-assessments suggesting that participants are able to report on their own practices provided certain qualitative survey approaches. Understanding the many ways to define effectiveness can help learning and development professionals...

  1. Learning Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation through Sibling Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Young children's relationships with their sisters and brothers offer unique and important opportunities for learning about emotions and developing emotional understanding. Through a critical analysis, this article examines sibling interaction in 3 different but normative contexts (conflict/conflict management, play, and…

  2. Learning and Understanding System Stability Using Illustrative Dynamic Texture Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Hongyan; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-01-01

    System stability is a basic concept in courses on dynamic system analysis and control for undergraduate students with computer science backgrounds. Typically, this was taught using a simple simulation example of an inverted pendulum. Unfortunately, many difficult issues arise in the learning and understanding of the concepts of stability,…

  3. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  4. Creating meaningful learning experiences: Understanding students' perspectives of engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, Richard James Chung Mun

    There is a societal need for design education to prepare holistic engineers with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to innovate and compete globally. Design skills are paramount to the espoused values of higher education, as institutions of higher learning strive to develop in students the cognitive abilities of critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. To meet these interests from industry and academia, it is important to advance the teaching and learning of engineering design. This research aims to understand how engineering students learn and think about design, as a way for engineering educators to optimize instructional practice and curriculum development. Qualitative research methodology was used to investigate the meaning that engineering students' ascribe to engineering design. The recruitment of participants and corresponding collection of data occurred in two phases using two different data collection techniques. The first phase involved the distribution of a one-time online questionnaire to all first year, third year, and fourth year undergraduate engineering students at three Canadian Universities. After the questionnaire, students were asked if they would be willing to participate in the second phase of data collection consisting of a personal interview. A total of ten students participated in interviews. Qualitative data analysis procedures were conducted on students' responses from the questionnaire and interviews. The data analysis process consisted of two phases: a descriptive phase to code and categorize the data, followed by an interpretative phase to generate further meaning and relationships. The research findings present a conceptual understanding of students' descriptions about engineering design, structured within two educational orientations: a learning studies orientation and a curriculum studies orientation. The learning studies orientation captured three themes of students' understanding of engineering design: awareness

  5. Memory strategies and ESL vocabulary acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carisma Dreyer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the effectiveness of three learning strategies (memory strategies for ESL vocabulary acquisition. Four intact ESL classes were divided into one control group and three treatment groups (keyword, semantic, and keyword-semantic. These Afrikaans-speaking standard 6 pupils then received 4 days of instruction. Both multiplechoice and cued-recall instruments were used to measure effects both 1 day and 9 days after instruction. The results indicated that for both the multiple-choice and cued-recall tests the combined keyword-semantic strategy differed statistically Significantly as well as practically significantly from the keyword method. The results, therefore, suggest that the combined keyword-semantic strategy increased retention above the other strategies. Hierdie artikel vergelyk die effektiwiteit van drie taalleerstrategiee (geheue strategiee vir die aanleer van woordeskat met mekaar. Vier intak Engels tweedetaal klasse is verdeel in een kontrole groep en drie eksperimentele groepe (sleutelwoord, semantiese en 'n kombinasie van die sleutelwoord-semantiese strategiee. 'n Groep Afrikaanssprekende standerd ses leerlinge het vir 'n tydperk van vier dae onderrig in elk van bogenoemde strategiee ontvang. Multikeuse en "cued-recall" instrumente is gebruik om die effek van onderrig beide een dag en nege dae na eksperimentering te bepaal. Die resultate het aangetoon dat die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie statisties betekenisvol sowel as prakties betekenisvol van die sleutelwoord strategie en die kontrole groep verskil het. Dit wil dus voorkom asof die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie die mees belowende strategie is ten opsigte van die retensie van woordeskat.

  6. The Effects of Using Multimodal Approaches in Meaning-Making of 21st Century Literacy Texts Among ESL Students in a Private School in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Ganapathy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalised digital era, students are inevitably engaged in various multimodal texts due to their active participation in social media and frequent usage of mobile devices on a daily basis. Such daily activities advocate the need for a transformation in the teaching and learning of ESL lessons in order to promote students’ capabilities in making meaning of different literacy texts which students come across in their ESL learning activities. This paper puts forth the framework of Multimodality in the restructuring of the teaching and learning of ESL with the aim of investigating its effects and students perspectives on the use of multimodal approaches underlying the Multiliteracies theory. Using focus group interviews, this qualitative case study examines the effectiveness of ESL teaching and learning using the Multimodal approaches on literacy in meaning-making among 15 students in a private school in Penang, Malaysia. The results confirm the need to reorientate the teaching and learning of ESL with the focus on multimodal pedagogical practices as it promotes positive learning outcomes among students. The implications of this study suggest that the multimodal approaches integrated in the teaching and learning of ESL have the capacity to promote students’ autonomy in learning, improve motivation to learn and facilitate various learning styles. Keywords: Multimodal Approaches; Multiliteracies; Monomodal; Flipped Classroom; Literacy; Multimodal texts; Ipad

  7. Developing College English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Irina A.; Kennedy, Jelane A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines available literature on college English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. The literature available on college ESL programs falls into three categories: (1) research reports and articles, (2) recent theoretical discussions on ESL teaching, and (3) thought pieces discussing college ESL curriculum development and assessment…

  8. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  9. Standards for Adult Education ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    TESOL Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    What are the components of a quality education ESL program? TESOL's "Standards for Adult Education ESL Programs" answers this question by defining quality components from a national perspective. Using program indicators in eight distinct areas, the standards can be used to review an existing program or as a guide in setting up a new…

  10. Adult ESL Education in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the state of the art in the field of "adult ESL" in the US. It identifies the size, characteristics, and settings of adult education and discusses relevant professional standards, assessment procedures, and teacher preparation. Three approaches to noncredit adult ESL education will be presented (Functional…

  11. Collaboration Model for ESL and Content Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study will examine strategies that ESL teachers and content teachers can use to help middle school ESL students acquire science vocabulary and meta-cognitive strategies for writing skills in non-fiction text forms. Two appendixes are included. (Contains 3 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  12. Professionalization and Exclusion in ESL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    As ESL/EFL teachers, how do we fit into the spectrum between unskilled workers and highly trained professionals? This article examines three features of the traditional professions and applies them to the ESL/EFL context. It considers problems with the lack of mandatory standardized certification, critically assesses attachment to the university,…

  13. Ouch! Or ESL and the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliacci, Naomi

    The realities of the glass ceiling, which prevents qualified women, minorities, and many English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students from advancement and promotion, are rarely discussed in English for Special Purposes (ESP)/ESL programs and courses. This paper explores the barriers to success, focusing on the sociolinguistic factors of verbal and…

  14. Guide to Resources for ESL Literacy Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber-Katz, Elaine; Zettel, Kathryn

    This resource guide, for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy facilitators, reviews a variety of resources for ESL literacy. The guide contains three sections. The first section cites four books that provide a theoretical context for literacy work: "Ah-Hah! A New Approach to Popular Education" (Gatt-Fly); "Approaches and Methods in Language…

  15. An Empirical Investigation into Nigerian ESL Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    General observations indicate that ESL learners in Nigeria tend to manifest fear and anxiety in grammar classes, which could influence their performance negatively or positively. This study examines empirically some of the reasons for some ESL learners' apprehension of grammar classes. The data for the study were ...

  16. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  17. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  18. Understanding the Learning Style of Pre-School Children Learning the Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper understanding of how small children learn an instrument in the presence of their parents. It is qualitative in nature and concerned six pre-school children (five years old) who were learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. All the children's homes were visited…

  19. Developing and Understanding Intelligent Contexts for Playing and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between......This short paper outlines experiences and reflections on the research and development project “Octopus” in order to describe and illustrate how intelligent context facilitates and embody learning. The framework is a research and development project where we have tried to work with new kinds......, embodiment, intelligent contexts, structure and flow. This paper does this through Bachtins concept of “Chronotopos” or how time and space influence and structure experience and learning....

  20. Malaysian Instructors’ Assessment Beliefs in Tertiary ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen R. M. Elshawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language assessment can be a valuable tool for providing information regarding language teaching. Given the importance of assessment that has undergone much change, there are important issues that warrant investigation, particularly those related to language instructors. Understanding the assessment beliefs of ESL instructors, especially at the tertiary level, is important since it can help improve the quality of assessment practices as well. Therefore, this study investigated English language instructors’ assessment beliefs in the Malaysian context. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. The survey method was utilized to collect data from six Malaysian universities using a purposive sampling strategy. English language instructors (n=83 were selected via purposive sampling for the study. Findings of the study revealed that English language instructors believed that the purpose of assessment was to improve teaching and learning. Regarding the assessment beliefs that are related to the assessment purposes, analyses of data showed that the items that received the highest percentage of agreement were diagnosing strength and weaknesses in students, providing information about students’ progress and providing feedback to students as they learn, respectively. Although they reported using both formal and informal assessment of their students’ work, English language instructors relied heavily on paper and pencil assessment while giving more weightage on formative assessment. The majority of English language instructors reported employing marking schemes for the courses they taught, carrying out sample marking and providing feedback. Finally, English language instructors reported using different types of assessments for every language skill taught in their language unit/center. The findings highlight the fact that English instructors should be more empowered in their role as the assessors of students. Their knowledge about what, how

  1. Reading and esl writers Reading and esl writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Edlund

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether the student population consists of basic writers, non-native speakers, or well-prepared freshmen and whether the primary goal of the class is improvement in writing ability, language and vocabulary acquisition, or critical thinking skills, there is considerable evidence that substantial amounts of reading arc an essential component of the course (See Krashen Writing: Research, Theory and Applications for a summary. This is especially true in the ESL composition class, where language acquisition is still a major factor in the student's success as a writer. Whether the student population consists of basic writers, non-native speakers, or well-prepared freshmen and whether the primary goal of the class is improvement in writing ability, language and vocabulary acquisition, or critical thinking skills, there is considerable evidence that substantial amounts of reading arc an essential component of the course (See Krashen Writing: Research, Theory and Applications for a summary. This is especially true in the ESL composition class, where language acquisition is still a major factor in the student's success as a writer.

  2. Differences in Perceived Approaches to Learning and Teaching English in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Barley; Chik, Pakey

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates differences in approaches to learning and teaching English as a second language (ESL) as reported by 324 mixed-ability Grade 7 Hong Kong ESL students and 37 ESL secondary school teachers with different backgrounds. Information about participants' perceived approaches to learning/teaching English were collected through a…

  3. An Annotated Bibliography of Research on Reading and Adults Learning English as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Miriam, Comp.; Florez, MaryAnn, Comp.; Terrill, Lynda, Comp.; Van Duzer, Carol, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography contains 27 references regarding research on reading and adults learning English as a Second Language (ESL). None of the resources are more than 10 years old. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (KFT)

  4. Advanced ESL Students' Prior EFL Education and Their Perceptions of Oral Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    The author in this study examines how advanced-level adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students' previous English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom experiences influence their perceptions of their teachers' oral corrective feedback (CF). It uses in-depth qualitative data to characterize the participants' prior English learning, and to…

  5. Challenging Inquiry and Building Community: Analyzing ESL and Bilingual Teachers' Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musanti, Sandra I.

    2017-01-01

    The study explores English as a second language (ESL) and bilingual teachers' narratives within a learning community as they collectively engage in reflecting on practices to more effectively support English learners. This longitudinal qualitative study integrates narrative inquiry approach and critical incident methodology. Participants were…

  6. Effects of a Multimodal Approach on ESL/EFL University Students' Attitudes towards Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyn, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    Poetry is a specific genre of literature that has been long argued as being too difficult for ESL/EFL learners. However, poetry is considered a valuable and authentic material for teaching language learners and teaching poetry in the language classroom can lead to a meaningful language learning experience. This study examined the implementation of…

  7. Instructional Practices in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…

  8. The Pathway to English Word Reading in Chinese ESL Children: The Role of Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…

  9. The Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Teaching ESL Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Nordin, Norazah; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Salehi, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of many studies showing positive effects of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning process in general, the use of ICT in teaching writing skills in English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms is still not very encouraging. This study attempts to seek findings on the use of ICT in…

  10. Integrating Social Networking Tools into ESL Writing Classroom: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Chenzi, Chen

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of world and technology, English learning has become more important. Teachers frequently use teacher-centered pedagogy that leads to lack of interaction with students. This paper aims to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of integrating social networking tools into ESL writing classroom and discuss the ways to…

  11. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  12. Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Second Language Learning: Help or Hindrance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gloria M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the concerns of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers in Canada regarding their students' use of pocket bilingual electronic dictionaries (EDs). The article highlights the ED's features, uses, and effectiveness as a tool for learning ESL at the secondary level and ESL students' perceptions of the ED's usefulness. (nine references)…

  13. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Learning by doing? Prospective elementary teachers' developing understandings of scientific inquiry and science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla

    This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.

  15. Make your point! debate for ESL/EFL students

    CERN Document Server

    Lubetsky, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    This valuable workbook and downloadable audio can turn any ESL student into an accomplished debater!Make Your Point! opens the world of formal debate to the English learner. Debate fundamentals are taught form the first chapter in a student-centered format suitable for large and small classes alike.Each of the ten chapters offers a ""language focus"" and a ""debatable focus."" As students learn new debate skills, they also build important language skills. All task chains integrate speaking, listening, reading and writing activities. Most activities are intended for pairs and small groups.

  16. Opinions from ESL instructors and students about curricula on hepatitis B for use in immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Taylor, Victoria M; Hislop, T Gregory; Teh, Chong; Acorda, Elizabeth; Do, H Hoai; Chen, Hueifang; Thompson, Beti

    2008-01-01

    Chinese immigrants in Canada have a disproportionately high risk for hepatitis B compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma among Asian immigrants to North America. English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes are an effective way of reaching newly immigrated individuals and are a potential channel for delivering health messages. Using data from 6 focus groups among ESL instructors and students, we characterized perceptions about activities that are successfully used in ESL classrooms and strategies for delivering hepatitis B information. RESULTS. Instructors and students generally reported that activities that focused on speaking and listening skills and that addressed content relevant to students' daily lives were successful in the classroom. Instructors generally avoided material that was irrelevant or too difficult to understand. Focus group participants offered strategies for delivering hepatitis B information in ESL classrooms; these strategies included addressing symptoms and prevention and not singling out a specific population subgroup to avoid stigmatization. These findings might assist efforts to develop ESL curricula that target immigrant populations.

  17. Supporting inquiry learning by promoting normative understanding of multivariable causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla

    2003-11-01

    Early adolescents may lack the cognitive and metacognitive skills necessary for effective inquiry learning. In particular, they are likely to have a nonnormative mental model of multivariable causality in which effects of individual variables are neither additive nor consistent. Described here is a software-based intervention designed to facilitate students' metalevel and performance-level inquiry skills by enhancing their understanding of multivariable causality. Relative to an exploration-only group, sixth graders who practiced predicting an outcome (earthquake risk) based on multiple factors demonstrated increased attention to evidence, improved metalevel appreciation of effective strategies, and a trend toward consistent use of a controlled comparison strategy. Sixth graders who also received explicit instruction in making predictions based on multiple factors showed additional improvement in their ability to compare multiple instances as a basis for inferences and constructed the most accurate knowledge of the system. Gains were maintained in transfer tasks. The cognitive skills and metalevel understanding examined here are essential to inquiry learning.

  18. Colorful ESL Test Papers And Spatial Intelligence:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Moradkhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out whether introducing color as an element which may appeal to spatially-intelligent candidates affects their performance on ESL grammar tests. 52 participants were given two parallel grammar tests, one in black and white and the other bearing the full spectrum of colors in the natural daylight. In order to identify the candidates with visual-spatial learning style, the participants and their teachers were asked to respond to Visual-Spatial Identifier rating scale. Based on the results, no significant relationship was found between the performance of candidates on the colorful and black and white grammar tests and their visual-spatial intelligence. It was concluded that other variables including the method of applying colors, the type and combination of colors as well as the differential impact of different colors on candidates with different cultural backgrounds needed to be addressed before any conclusions can be drawn about the application of color in language assessment.

  19. Science Learning Cycle Method to Enhance the Conceptual Understanding and the Learning Independence on Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulisworo, Dwi; Sutadi, Novitasari

    2017-01-01

    There have been many studies related to the implementation of cooperative learning. However, there are still many problems in school related to the learning outcomes on science lesson, especially in physics. The aim of this study is to observe the application of science learning cycle (SLC) model on improving scientific literacy for secondary…

  20. Using Learning Analytics to Understand Scientific Modeling in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quigley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific models represent ideas, processes, and phenomena by describing important components, characteristics, and interactions. Models are constructed across various scientific disciplines, such as the food web in biology, the water cycle in Earth science, or the structure of the solar system in astronomy. Models are central for scientists to understand phenomena, construct explanations, and communicate theories. Constructing and using models to explain scientific phenomena is also an essential practice in contemporary science classrooms. Our research explores new techniques for understanding scientific modeling and engagement with modeling practices. We work with students in secondary biology classrooms as they use a web-based software tool—EcoSurvey—to characterize organisms and their interrelationships found in their local ecosystem. We use learning analytics and machine learning techniques to answer the following questions: (1 How can we automatically measure the extent to which students’ scientific models support complete explanations of phenomena? (2 How does the design of student modeling tools influence the complexity and completeness of students’ models? (3 How do clickstreams reflect and differentiate student engagement with modeling practices? We analyzed EcoSurvey usage data collected from two different deployments with over 1,000 secondary students across a large urban school district. We observe large variations in the completeness and complexity of student models, and large variations in their iterative refinement processes. These differences reveal that certain key model features are highly predictive of other aspects of the model. We also observe large differences in student modeling practices across different classrooms and teachers. We can predict a student’s teacher based on the observed modeling practices with a high degree of accuracy without significant tuning of the predictive model. These results highlight

  1. A Quantitative Investigation of ESL Teacher Knowledge in Australian Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Lilly K.

    2015-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) teaching is partly a thinking process in which teacher knowledge plays a pivotal role in making instructional choices (Breen, Hird, Milton, Oliver, & Thwaite, 2001). The present study contributes to understandings of teacher knowledge by exploring the types of knowledge, which practicing teachers value in…

  2. ESL and Content Area Teacher Responses to Discussions on English Language Learner Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawan, Faridah; Craig, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compares the responses and statements of English as a second language (ESL) and content area teachers in discussions about the instruction of English language learners (ELLs). A study on how these two sets of teachers understand the field is important because commonalities and differences in their opinions may have an impact on…

  3. Learning from disasters. Understanding the Cultural and Organisational Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Professor Richard Taylor, from the University of Bristol, gave a presentation on the causes and potential ways of reducing the risk of Organisational Accidents. The presentation described a research study that was conducted to analyse and identify lessons from 12 major events in the nuclear and other sectors. The study was funded by ONR and BNFL. Although the events occurred in different sectors and circumstances, the analysis identified many common issues. The findings from the analysis were grouped into the following eight themes: leadership issues, operational attitudes and behaviours, business environment, competence, risk assessment and management, oversight and scrutiny, organisational learning and external regulation. Examples of issues identified under each of the themes are provided in Appendix 2. The presentation discussed learning for regulatory bodies from the events studied. This includes the need for regulators to move beyond technical/procedural issues to thinking about leadership commitment, business pressures and the underlying culture of the organisations they regulate. Regulators should take an 'overview' and actively explore organisational causes of problems rather than focusing on the symptoms. The analysis of events also revealed that regulators sometimes picked up emerging issues but did not act. This highlights the importance of good internal communication and discussion of issues within the regulatory body. The findings from the study have been used to develop expectations/objectives for good performance and develop a draft set of questions that regulators could use to assess vulnerability. Further work with industry and regulatory bodies is planned to encourage a better understanding of the organisational issues identified, improve cross industry sector learning, and develop new tools to reduce vulnerability to organisational accidents

  4. Integrating health literacy and ESL: an interdisciplinary curriculum for Hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Mein, Erika; Fuentes, Brenda; Thatcher, Barry; Balcázar, Héctor

    2013-03-01

    Adult Hispanic immigrants are at a greater risk of experiencing the negative outcomes related to low health literacy, as they confront cultural and language barriers to the complex and predominately monolingual English-based U.S. health system. One approach that has the potential for simultaneously addressing the health, literacy, and language needs of Hispanics is the combination of health literacy and English as a second language (ESL) instruction. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of using ESL instruction as a medium for improving health literacy among Hispanic immigrants. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of an interdisciplinary health literacy/ESL curriculum that integrates theories of health literacy and health behavior research and practice, sociocultural theories of literacy and communication, and adult learning principles. This article describes the curriculum development process and provides preliminary qualitative data on learners' experiences with the curriculum. Results indicate that the curriculum was attractive to participants and that they were highly satisfied with both the format and content. The curriculum described here represents one example of an audience-centered approach designed to meet the specific health and literacy needs of the Hispanic population on the U.S.-Mexico border. The combination of ESL and health literacy contributed to a perceived positive learning experience among participants. Interdisciplinary approaches to health literacy are recommended.

  5. An Interdisciplinary Theory-Based ESL Curriculum to Teach English as a Second Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Fuentes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among Hispanic immigrants in the United States (US, learning English is considered necessary for economic and social achievement. Asa consequence, there is a high demand for English as a Second Language (ESL classes. Despite the recognized benefits of ESL programs,both at the individual and social levels, more research is needed to identify education strategies that effectively promote all aspects of learningEnglish as a second language. This article describes an ESL curriculum that incorporates a theory-based pedagogical approach specificallydesigned for immigrant Hispanic adults on the US-Mexico border region. The article also describes the implementation of the curriculum aswell as the results of the evaluation, which was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative results indicate thatthe participants significantly improved their English proficiency (L2. Qualitative results suggest that participants were positively impactedby both the content and pedagogical approaches used by the curriculum. Their experience with the ESL class was positive in general. It canbe concluded that the curriculum achieved its objective. This approach could serve as a model for second language teaching for adults

  6. ESL Students’ Perceptions of the use of Higher Order Thinking Skills in English Language Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Ganapathy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the education curriculum in the Malaysia Education Development Plan (PPPM 2013-2025 focuses on the Higher Order Thinking (HOT concept which aims to produce knowledgeable students who are critical and creative in their thinking and can compete at the international level. HOT skills encourage students to apply, analyse, evaluate and think creatively in and outside the classroom. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of using HOT skills in a secondary ESL writing classroom. A total of 120 Form Two ESL students from three intact classes participated in this study. The students experienced project and group-based work both independently and collaboratively in groups during their writing lessons. The findings from the focus group interviews revealed the following student perceptions: felt engaged in active learning, experienced learner autonomy, developed their writing, researching and personal skills. The implications of this study suggest that using HOT skills in ESL writing lessons facilitate students’ writing ability and interest and it is recommended that HOT skills be explicitly infused in the teaching and learning of writing activities in ESL classrooms.

  7. Instructor-Student Rapport in Taiwan ESL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G. Webb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive relationships between instructors and students are critical to effective learning in the classroom. Rooted in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL, and centered at the crossroads of interpersonal communication and instructional communication (Affective Learning Model, this study examines how instructors in a Taiwan ESL school build relationships with Taiwanese students. Instructors were interviewed regarding the behaviors they use to build rapport with their students. Results show that instructors build rapport with their students using several specific techniques: uncommonly attentive behaviors, common grounding behaviors, courteous behaviors, connecting behavior, information sharing behavior, a balancing of connection and authority, adaptation of rapport to student level, and provision of a respite to norms. The findings provide specific examples of how instructors can build rapport in intercultural classrooms.

  8. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  9. Designing Websites for ESL Learners: A Usability Testing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Traphagan, Tomoko; Huh, Jin; Koh, Young Ihn; Choi, Gilok; McGregor, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a usability study for ESL websites conducted to gain insights from learners of English as a second language (ESL) as they interacted with specific sites. Five carefully selected ESL sites were tested by 10 different users generating a total of fifty testing sessions. Two major research questions guided the…

  10. Listening Instruction and Practice for Advanced ESL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Dennis

    This paper attempts to enact Rivers' (1971 and 1972) urgings to base ESL listening instruction on both psychological and linguistic findings and contends that advanced ESL students' listening needs call for improvement in processing spoken English discourse. Psychological data on memory span is cited to demonstrate that advanced ESL students…

  11. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material

    OpenAIRE

    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto

    2017-01-01

    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  12. Transitioning to Blended Learning: Understanding Student and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Nannette P.; Dekhane, Sonal; Smith, Stella

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of an introductory computing course to the blended learning model at a small, public liberal arts college. Blended learning significantly reduces face-to-face instruction by incorporating rich, online learning experiences. To assess the impact of blended learning on students, survey data was collected at the…

  13. Understanding Aboriginal Learning Ideology through Storywork with Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atleo, Marlene R.

    2009-01-01

    Five Nuu-chah-nulth Elders engaged in the examination of a Nuu-chah-nulth story for what they considered learning. A network of eight learning archetypes inhabited the story to demonstrate a range of learning strategies. The Elders identified features central to a cultural learning project, which included prenatal care and grandparent teaching,…

  14. Methodological Reflections: Designing and Understanding Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Learning involves more than just a small group of participants, which makes designing and managing collaborative learning processes in higher education a challenging task. As a result, emerging concerns in current research have pointed increasingly to teacher orchestrated learning processes in naturalistic learning settings. In line with this…

  15. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  16. Student learning and understanding of sequence stratigraphic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan Sebastian

    Research in geoscience education addressing students' conceptions of geological subjects has concentrated in topics such as geological time, plate tectonics, and problem solving in the field, mostly in K-12 and entry level college scenarios. Science education research addressing learning of sedimentary systems in advance undergraduates is rather limited. Therefore, this dissertation contributed to filling that research gap and explored students' narratives when explaining geological processes associated with the interaction between sediment deposition and sea level fluctuations. The purpose of the present study was to identify the common conceptions and alternative conceptions held by students when learning the basics of the sub discipline known as sequence stratigraphy - which concepts students were familiar and easily identified, and which ones they had more difficulty with. In addition, we mapped the cognitive models that underlie those conceptions by analyzing students' gestures and conceptual metaphors used in their explanations. This research also investigated the interaction between geoscientific visual displays and student gesturing in a specific learning context. In this research, an in-depth assessment of 27 students' ideas of the basic principles of sequence stratigraphy was completed. Participants were enrolled in advanced undergraduate stratigraphy courses at three research-intensive universities in Midwest U.S. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, spatial visualization tests, and lab assignments. Results indicated that students poorly integrated temporal and spatial scales in their sequence stratigraphic models, and that many alternative conceptions were more deeply rooted than others, especially those related to eustasy and base level. In order to better understand the depth of these conceptions, we aligned the analysis of gesture with the theory of conceptual metaphor to recognize the use of mental models known as image

  17. Cultural Narratives: Developing a Three-Dimensional Learning Community through Braided Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    Paula Underwood's "Learning Stories" braid together body, mind, and spirit to enable understanding that does not easily unravel. They tell of relationships among individual and community learning that parallel other ancient and contemporary ideas about learning in caring communities. Underwood's tradition considers learning sacred; everyone's…

  18. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... knowledge about the type of learning that creates such change, how such learning emerges, or how it ... social inequalities and damaged people–nature relations. The Think ..... interpersonal relationality and more. The Think ...

  19. ESL participation as a mechanism for advancing health literacy in immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maricel G; Handley, Margaret A; Omark, Karin; Schillinger, Dean

    2014-01-01

    A reliance on the conceptualization of health literacy as functional skill has limited researchers' views of the adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) context as a site for health literacy interventions. To explore the contributions of alternative views of literacy as social practice to health literacy research, the authors examined teacher survey data and learner outcomes data collected as part of a multiyear collaboration involving the California Diabetes Program, university researchers, and adult ESL teachers. The survey results (n=144 teachers) indicated that ESL teachers frequently model effective pedagogical practices that mediate social interaction around health content, the basis for acquiring new literacy skills and practices. In the classroom pilot (n=116 learners), the majority of learners reported they had learned about diabetes risk factors and prevention strategies, which affirmed existing healthy behaviors or prompted revision of unhealthy ones. About two thirds of the learners reported sharing preventive health content with members of out-of-school social networks. This study represents a first step in research efforts to account more fully for the mechanisms by which social interaction and social support facilitate health literacy outcomes in ESL contexts, which should complement what is already known about the development of health literacy as functional skill.

  20. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates’ Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Sa’idu Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a total of 402 undergraduates’ participated through convenience sampling. Quantitatively, an independent samples t-test was carried out. The results indicated the females required putting more efforts towards improving their pragmatic competence in the ESL writing as they achieved a higher means for language errors, compared to that of the males. Moreover, the ttest value demonstrated that the females lacked skills in the pragmatic skills of mechanical structure, grammatical function, and sentence structures and this made them commit more language errors. Qualitatively, a focus group interview was held randomly with 12 participants out of the 402 undergraduates through purposive sampling. The results of the interview sessions revealed novelties of culture-specific, learning feasibility and the academic discourse as the key elements that constraint most of the Nigerian undergraduates ESL writing skills, particularly the females. Therefore, this study revealed strong implications on how best to develop Nigerian learners’ pragmatic competence in ESL writing skills

  1. Understanding and reducing student withdrawal in e-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Radovan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of student dropout from e-learning programmes. The proponents of e-learning highlight several advantages of this type of education as compared to the traditional, such as greater openness and diversity of training materials, the ability to adjust the mode and speed of learning, and similar. Despite these advantages, an increasing number of programmes and acceptance of e-learning as a national strategy all around the world, e-learning providers also face th...

  2. Understanding Learning in World Society: Qualitative Reconstructive Research in Global Learning and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunpflug, Annette; Krogull, Susanne; Franz, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Global learning aims to change behaviour and attitudes. Changes in these areas are not easy to assess. This article discusses the documentary method, which belongs to the group of qualitative reconstructive research methods. The authors argue that this method allows reflection on collective orientations and tacit knowledge. The different steps of…

  3. Understanding and reducing student withdrawal in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the problem of student dropout from e-learning programmes. The proponents of e-learning highlight several advantages of this type of education as compared to the traditional, such as greater openness and diversity of training materials, the ability to adjust the mode and speed of learning, and similar. Despite these advantages, an increasing number of programmes and acceptance of e-learning as a national strategy all around the world, e-learning providers also face the problem of drop-outs. Research shows that student dropout in educational programmes implemented in the form of e-learning is higher than in traditional programmes. The reasons that affect the dropout rate should be considered when designing and implementing e-learning programmes

  4. ShapeShop: Towards Understanding Deep Learning Representations via Interactive Experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohman, Frederick M.; Hodas, Nathan O.; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-05-30

    Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as “black-boxes” due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user’s data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

  5. ShapeShop: Towards Understanding Deep Learning Representations via Interactive Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Fred; Hodas, Nathan; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-05-01

    Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as "black-boxes" due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user's data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

  6. Acquiring organizational learning norms: a contingency approach for understanding deutero learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    'The Learning Organization' is a configuration of learning norms (called a learning prototype here), which is seldom related to varying levels of learning needs. This article assumes that organizational environmental complexity and dynamics define four learning needs levels. Consequently, four

  7. Understanding Student Learning in Context: Relationships between University Students' Social Identity, Approaches to Learning, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N…

  8. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. BRIDGING THE REAL WORLD ENGLISHES IN THE RURAL ESL CLASSROOM THROUGH TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Zaitun Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation can play a role in the development of communicative abilities since speakers are often engaged in the work of sharing and negotiating meaning. It fosters speculation and discussion, apart from developing abilities considered fundamental for communication, such as interpretation, negotiation, and expression of meaning. However, there are views against translation in the ESL classrooms even though the method has been applied in the pedagogical process. As a result, ESL students who are weak in English are not given the opportunity to excel in the second language from their own bilingual strength. This paper attempts to study and disclose in what ways pedagogogical translation in rural ESL classrooms in Sabah is reflected into practice, thereby assessing whether the gap between pedagogical translation and translation pedagogy has beeen been bridged. In this case study, five primary teachers were selected and their knowledge and practice of translation were assessed through qualitative content analysis in pre- teaching, while teaching and post-teaching activities. A translation framework has been designed and used in assessing the teachers’ performances in using translation. This pilot study reveals that teachers have translated from the first language (L1 into the second language (L2 as a means to help students to understand the content of the English lesson. They did not have adequate knowedge on translation strategies. Thus, the designed translation framework may be used by teachers as a guide in using translation in the ESL context.

  10. Teaching Culture and Language through the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching Model in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate how to enhance second language (L2) learners' linguistic and cultural competencies through the use of the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching (MIFT) model. The paper will introduce two ideas to teachers of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). First, the paper shows how L2 learners learn linguistic and…

  11. Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups from practices to principles

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, T

    2013-01-01

    Reflective Practise in ESL Teacher Development Groups  discusses the concept of reflective practice in ESL teachers using data from a 3-year collaborative partnership in which three ESL teachers in Canada explored their professional development through reflective practice.

  12. Adventure in a new language: what a first generation Canadian immigrant’s narrative holds for ESL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xing

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the value of learner’s stories for ESL (English as a Second Language teachers’ teaching and research through a narrative inquiry of the lived English learning experience of a first generation Canadian immigrant. It first reviewed the concept of narrative and the significance of launching narrative inquiry. Then, it presented an interview conducted with the Canadian immigrant as a model of narrative inquiry. Themes of the narrative interview were found to resonate with theoretical issues of SLE (Second Language Education, ESL and SLA (Second Language Acquisition. Considering the themes and the entire interviewing process, this paper closed with a discussion of the benefits of narrative inquiry for ESL teachers’ teaching and research.

  13. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  14. Hepatitis B ESL education for Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicky M; Gregory Hislop, T; Bajdik, Christopher; Teh, Chong; Lam, Wendy; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Yasui, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Asian communities in North America include large numbers of immigrants with limited English proficiency. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in most Asian countries and, therefore, Asian immigrant groups have high rates of chronic HBV infection. We conducted a group-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a hepatitis B English as a second language (ESL) educational curriculum for Asian immigrants. Eighty ESL classes were randomized to experimental (hepatitis B education) or control (physical activity education) status. Students who reported they had not received a HBV test (at baseline) completed a follow-up survey 6 months after randomization. The follow-up survey assessed recent HBV testing and HBV-related knowledge. Provider reports were used to verify self-reported HBV tests. The study group included 218 students who reported they had not been tested for HBV. Follow-up surveys were completed by 180 (83%) of these students. Provider records verified HBV testing for 6% of the experimental group students and 0% of the control group students (P = 0.02). Experimental group students were significantly (P ESL curriculum had a meaningful impact on HBV-related knowledge and a limited impact on HBV testing levels. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of ESL curricula for other immigrant groups and other health topics, as well as other intervention approaches to increasing levels of HBV testing in Asian immigrant communities.

  15. Guidelines for Tutoring Adult ESL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Marcella

    This document is a copy of a talk regularly given to new volunteers of English in Action, a community-based organization that provides conversation practice to non-native English speakers. The volunteer tutors typically have no formal English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) training. This packet is designed to help these volunteers be effective ESL…

  16. Literature in EFL/ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed; Derakhshan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature on how literature can be integrated as a language teaching material in EFL/ESL classes. First, it tracks down the place of literature in language classes from the early Grammar Translation Method (GTM) to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) era. The paper then discusses the reasons for the demise and…

  17. The Departmentalization of the ESL Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, John K.

    A review of prevailing patterns of sponsorship of college and university English as a second language (ESL) programs indicates that in community colleges, they tend to be housed in English departments. In four-year institutions they are generally in semi-autonomous units or institutes. The argument for departmental sponsorship is based on data…

  18. Mother Goose in the ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Karen

    Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…

  19. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  20. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions--namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning.…

  1. Understanding How to Build Long-Lived Learning Collaborators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    language. We also made progress on using qualitative representations for strategic thinking , where continuous processes and causal knowledge about...discrimination in learning, and dynamic encoding strategies to improve visual encoding for learning via analogical generalization. We showed that spatial concepts...a 20,000 sketch corpus to examine the tradeoffs involved in visual representation and analogical generalization. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  2. Understanding teachers’ professional learning goals from their current professional concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers’ current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases

  3. How Do Chinese ESL Learners Recognize English Words during a Reading Test? A Comparison with Romance-Language-Speaking ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…

  4. Understanding the Dynamics of Learning across social worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Aanestad, Margunn

    2013-01-01

    participation, politics and learning in IS implementation and use. We consider learning to be an integral part of the social practice, and it occurs mainly through encounters and negotiations between actors from different social worlds who might have competing interests and values. The paper also analysed how......This paper adopts a novel learning perspective on information systems development. Building on the works of Anselm Strauss we conceptualize development processes as “negotiated orders” where members from different “social worlds” encounter and negotiate differences and tensions. We argue...

  5. Languages in a global world learning for better cultural understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc

  6. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  7. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    vision) for using Turnitin as a deterrent, in order to help learners to learn in the process. .... such as the American Psychological Association. (APA) ..... from other people. ..... and enduring concerns (2nd ed). ... Generations: The history of.

  8. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... new social systems that are more sustainable and socially just. ... collection to these international deliberations about the role of education in enabling ... learning can foster and contribute to the development of change agents ...

  9. Educating patients: understanding barriers, learning styles, and teaching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Health care delivery and education has become a challenge for providers. Nurses and other professionals are challenged daily to assure that the patient has the necessary information to make informed decisions. Patients and their families are given a multitude of information about their health and commonly must make important decisions from these facts. Obstacles that prevent easy delivery of health care information include literacy, culture, language, and physiological barriers. It is up to the nurse to assess and evaluate the patient's learning needs and readiness to learn because everyone learns differently. This article will examine how each of these barriers impact care delivery along with teaching and learning strategies will be examined. Copyright © 2011 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sparse Machine Learning Methods for Understanding Large Text Corpora

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sparse machine learning has recently emerged as powerful tool to obtain models of high-dimensional data with high degree of interpretability, at low computational...

  11. Theory of Mind and Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional…

  12. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions?namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined th...

  13. Understanding learning within a commercial video game: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Allan

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the debate on the value and relevance using video games for learning. Some of the interest stems from frustration with current educational methods. However, some of this interest also stems from the observations of large numbers of children that play video games. This paper finds that children can learn basic construction skills from playing a video game called World of Goo. The study also employed novel eye-tracking technology to measure endogenous ey...

  14. Comparative Difficulties with Non-Scientific General Vocabulary and Scientific/Medical Terminology in English as a Second Language (ESL) Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Thomas A; Nandagopal, Shobha

    2012-11-01

    Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with "English as a second language" (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge.

  15. Pedagogical strategies for teaching literacy to ESL immigrant students: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O; Lavin, Tracy; Thompson, Terri; Ungerleider, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Many countries rely on immigrants for population growth and to maintain a skilled workforce. However, many such immigrants face literacy-related barriers to success in education and in the labour force. This meta-analysis reviews experimental and quasi-experimental studies to examine strategies for teaching English literacy to immigrant students. Following an exhaustive and systematic search for studies meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria, two researchers independently extracted data from 26 English as a Second Language (ESL) studies involving 3,150 participants. These participants consisted of ESL immigrant students in kindergarten through grade 6 who were exposed to English literacy instructional interventions. Measured outcomes were reading and writing. Mean effect sizes vary from small to large, depending on instructional interventions and outcome constructs. Across several different grade levels, settings, and methodological features, pedagogical strategies used in teaching ESL to immigrant students are associated with increased competence in reading and writing. Collaborative reading interventions, in which peers engage in oral interaction and cooperatively negotiate meaning and a shared understanding of texts, produced larger effects than systematic phonics instruction and multimedia-assisted reading interventions. The results show that the pedagogical strategies examined in this meta-analysis produced statistically significant benefits for students in all grade levels. The findings also show that students from low socio-economic status (SES) background benefit from ESL literacy interventions. However, significant heterogeneity was found in each subset. Educators and policy makers are encouraged to consider specific school contexts when making decisions about optimal pedagogical strategies. It is possible that contextual factors as well as ESL learner characteristics may influence the effectiveness of these strategies. To ensure literacy acquisition

  16. Does using active learning in thermodynamics lectures improve students’ conceptual understanding and learning experiences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H; Sharma, M D

    2015-01-01

    Encouraging ‘active learning’ in the large lecture theatre emerges as a credible recommendation for improving university courses, with reports often showing significant improvements in learning outcomes. However, the recommendations are based predominantly on studies undertaken in mechanics. We set out to examine those claims in the thermodynamics module of a large first year physics course with an established technique, called interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs). The study took place at The University of Sydney, where four parallel streams of the thermodynamics module were divided into two streams that experienced the ILDs and two streams that did not. The programme was first implemented in 2011 to gain experience and refine logistical matters and repeated in 2012 with approximately 500 students. A validated survey, the thermal concepts survey, was used as pre-test and post-test to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided insights into what the ‘active learning’ meant from student experiences. We analysed lecture recordings to capture the time devoted to different activities in a lecture, including interactivity. The learning gains were in the ‘high gain’ range for the ILD streams and ‘medium gain’ for the other streams. The analysis of the lecture recordings showed that the ILD streams devoted significantly more time to interactivity while surveys and interviews showed that students in the ILD streams were thinking in deep ways. Our study shows that ILDs can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding as well as their experiences, demonstrating the potential value-add that can be provided by investing in active learning to enhance lectures. (paper)

  17. Using Learning Analytics to Understand the Design of an Intelligent Language Tutor – Chatbot Lucy

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Fei Wang; Stephen Petrina

    2013-01-01

    the goal of this article is to explore how learning analytics can be used to predict and advise the design of an intelligent language tutor, chatbot Lucy. With its focus on using student-produced data to understand the design of Lucy to assist English language learning, this research can be a valuable component for language-learning designers to improve second language acquisition. In this article, we present students’ learning journey and data trails, the chatting log architecture and result...

  18. Understanding the relationship between student attitudes and student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Frey, Regina F.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Trousil, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    Student attitudes, defined as the extent to which one holds expertlike beliefs about and approaches to physics, are a major research topic in physics education research. An implicit but rarely tested assumption underlying much of this research is that student attitudes play a significant part in student learning and performance. The current study directly tested this attitude-learning link by measuring the association between incoming attitudes (Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey) and student learning during the semester after statistically controlling for the effects of prior knowledge [early-semester Force Concept Inventory (FCI) or Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA)]. This study spanned four different courses and included two complementary measures of student knowledge: late-semester concept inventory scores (FCI or BEMA) and exam averages. In three of the four courses, after controlling for prior knowledge, attitudes significantly predicted both late-semester concept inventory scores and exam averages, but in all cases these attitudes explained only a small amount of variance in concept-inventory and exam scores. Results indicate that after accounting for students' incoming knowledge, attitudes may uniquely but modestly relate to how much students learn and how well they perform in the course.

  19. Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, M; Karltun, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  20. Passing the English as a second language (ESL) supplemental texes exam keys to certification and language proficient learners

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmore, Elaine L

    2014-01-01

    Master the TExES with down-to-earth test prep strategies ESL certification is attainable if one understands the domains and competencies represented in the test and masters test prep skills. Dr. Elaine Wilmore, known for her popular TExES preparation seminars, synthesizes her knowledge and experiences and gives readers a practical approach to passing the ESL Supplemental Exam. Written in a conversational tone, the book uses real examples to help readers connect theory with actual practice and offers: Thorough discussions of relevant concepts related to domains and competencies Tables and graph

  1. Learning Local Components to Understand Large Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Xiang, Yanping; Cordero, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    (domain experts) to extract accurate information from a large Bayesian network due to dimensional difficulty. We define a formulation of local components and propose a clustering algorithm to learn such local components given complete data. The algorithm groups together most inter-relevant attributes......Bayesian networks are known for providing an intuitive and compact representation of probabilistic information and allowing the creation of models over a large and complex domain. Bayesian learning and reasoning are nontrivial for a large Bayesian network. In parallel, it is a tough job for users...... in a domain. We evaluate its performance on three benchmark Bayesian networks and provide results in support. We further show that the learned components may represent local knowledge more precisely in comparison to the full Bayesian networks when working with a small amount of data....

  2. Some secret language: how toddlers learn to understand movies

    OpenAIRE

    Bazalgette, Cary

    2018-01-01

    The starting-point of this thesis is the hypothesis that, from at least 22 months old, children who watch movies (i.e. any moving-image media) may be learning how to make sense of them. Rather than looking for evidence of precursors to further learning (such as language, literacy or technological skills) or for the risks or benefits that movie-watching may entail, the thesis argues that viewing behaviour provides enough evidence about the practices and processes through which children of this...

  3. Enhancing intercultural understanding using e-learning strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercultural understanding is a prerequisite for peaceful local and global citizenship, especially in South African society where prejudice and negative stereotypes were previously the order of the day because of official separatism. It is therefore crucial to teach intercultural understanding in South Africa. I report with ...

  4. Understanding Digital Learning from the Perspective of Systems Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The System Dynamics approach can be seen as a new way of understanding dynamical phenonema (natural, physical, biological, etc.) that occur in our daily lives taking into consideration not only single pairs of cause-effect variables, but the functioning of the system as a whole. This approach also provides the students with a new understanding in…

  5. Working across Disciplines to Understand Playful Learning in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina; Broadhead, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Educators stress the importance of play for children's cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development. In order to effectively advocate for the inclusion of play in education settings, it is important to fully understand it. Two researchers, one from England and one from the Netherlands, sought common ground for understanding what children…

  6. Understanding Students' Use and Value of Technology for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Karley; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant research in the field of educational technology, there is still much we do not fully understand about students' experiences with technology. This article proposes that research in the field of educational technology would benefit from a sociological framing that pays attention to the understandings and lives of learners. Within…

  7. Understanding the Relationship between Student Attitudes and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Frey, Regina F.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Trousil, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Student attitudes, defined as the extent to which one holds expertlike beliefs about and approaches to physics, are a major research topic in physics education research. An implicit but rarely tested assumption underlying much of this research is that student attitudes play a significant part in student learning and performance. The current study…

  8. Assessing Reflection: Understanding Skill Development through Reflective Learning Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathro, Virginia; O'Kane, Paula; Gilbertson, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways in which business educators can interact successfully with reflective learning journals (RLJs). Specifically, the research was interested in how students used RLJs and how educators assessed these RLJs. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 31 RLJs, submitted as part of an international…

  9. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... made between students' lives, their African identities and local natural places. Introduction to the Think Piece Collection: 'Collective Learning and Change ... is increasingly recognised in the social-ecological and global change sciences. For example, ..... processes that allow for the change agent to act.

  10. Understanding the Roles of Families in Virtual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Rubin, Rachel; Smith, Sean J.

    2014-01-01

    Families choose to enroll their children in fully online schools for many reasons. Online schools offer the possibility of flexible schedules and the potential to learn at a pace and in a manner that is not available to students in their brick-and-mortar schools (Cavanaugh & Clark, 2007). Because online education can allow for individualized…

  11. Understanding Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies examining procrastination and its relation to several key components of self-regulated learning using self-report surveys. Results indicate that procrastination was related to college students' self-efficacy and work-avoidant goal orientation and, to a lesser extent, their use of metacognitive strategies. (Contains 54…

  12. Understanding the Science-Learning Environment: A Genetically Sensitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that environmental influences on school science performance increase in importance from primary to secondary school. Here we assess for the first time the relationship between the science-learning environment and science performance using a genetically sensitive approach to investigate the aetiology of this link. 3000…

  13. Drawing out Understanding: Arts-Based Learning and Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserman, Jennifer; Lai, Heather; Rushton, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Dabrowski recognized that the creative process is important in the personality development of the gifted and talented. Given the intrinsically creative nature of learning in an arts-infused context, we hypothesize that interdisciplinary approaches to curriculum address the unique needs of the gifted. First, we will summarize Dabrowski's theory of…

  14. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  15. Understanding How the Brain Learns Should Inform Our Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Darden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative review of: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools; Mariale Hardiman; (2012. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 223 pages; and How the Brain Learns, 4th ed.; David A. Sousa; (2011. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 321 pages.

  16. Young Children's Understandings of Length Measurement: Evaluating a Learning Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Janka; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent…

  17. Understanding Student Learning: The Need for Education Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Chip

    2015-01-01

    Schools have long collected information about students, from basic emergency contact details to daily attendance statistics. But only recently have schools used education technology to collect solid, reliable information (or data) about how students learn--as well as details about their strengths, challenges, and individual traits that impact…

  18. Influence of Speech Anxiety on Oral Communication Skills among ESL/EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Muhammad Khan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The realization of speech anxiety among ESL/EFL learners is important. Once understood, these feelings of fear or nervousness may be relieved and the desired objectives of learning the target language may be achieved.  The study has attempted to measure the level of anxiety among ESL/EFL learners at HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan. The current research has arrived at the conclusion that the target population is highly anxious in situation where they are required to speak English. The findings show that sources such as pedagogical, psychological, socio-economic, linguistic and cultural generate anxiety among the EFL learners. The study has suggested variety of strategies to treat anxiety in the academic context. It was found that communicative approach in classroom may be helpful in minimizing the negative impact of anxiety among language learners. Keywords:  speech anxiety, communicative approach, communication apprehension, FLA

  19. Dematerialization and Deformalization of the EFL/ESL Textbook - Literature Review and Relevant Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Rapid development and critical convergence of Information Communication Technologies is radically impacting education, particularly in second language acquisition, where the sudden availability of multimedia content and immediacy of distance communication offer specific advantage. The language classroom is evolving to integrate computer-mediated learning and communication with traditional schooling; digitization and the Internet mean the textbook is evolving from inert hard copy that is consumed, to dynamic e-texts that students participate in. The emergence of English as a Global Language, with the primary role of English on the Internet, means that the transition from fixed hard copy to fluid online digital environment is particularly evident in EFL/ESL. I review research, trace ways in which this transition occurs, and speculate on how, under the impact of ICTs and their convergence, the EFL/ESL textbook will reform, and may even disappear as a stand-alone entity.

  20. Evaluating the effects of a new qualitative simulation software (DynaLearn) on learning behavior, factual and causal understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitek, A.; Poppe, M.; Stelzhammer, M.; Muhar, S.; Bredeweg, B.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.

    2011-01-01

    The DynaLearn software, a new intelligent learning environment aimed at supporting a better conceptual and causal understanding of environmental sciences was evaluated. The main goals of these pilot evaluations were to provide information on (1) usability of the software and problems learners

  1. Teaching ESL/EFL in a World of Social Media, Mash-Ups, and Hyper-Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the emerging pedagogical potential offered by today's technologies and how understanding the relationship between emerging technology and emerging pedagogy can enhance the teaching of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). The author begins with an overview of recent developments in the field, focused upon…

  2. Perspectives on Teacher Quality: Bilingual Education and ESL Teacher Certification, Test-Taking Experiences, and Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberger, Nancy; Reyes-Carrasquillo, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive exploratory study looked at the certification process, test-taking experiences, and instructional practices of a group of graduate bilingual education (BE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers to understand why some had problems passing teacher certification tests after completing their degrees. The study surveyed 63 BE…

  3. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions—namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined the roles of collaboration and identity in the game making process. We argue that future discussions of serious gaming ought to be more inclusive of constructionist approaches to realize the full potential of serious gaming. Making games, we contend, not only more genuinely introduces children to a range of technical skills but also better connects them to each other, addressing the persistent issues of access and diversity present in traditional digital gaming cultures. PMID:27019536

  4. Learning to Understand Natural Language with Less Human Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Supervision Distant supervision is a recent trend in information extraction. Distantly-supervised extractors are trained using a corpus of unlabeled text...consists of fill-in-the-blank natural language questions such as “Incan emperor ” or “Cunningham directed Auchtre’s second music video .” These questions...with an 132 unknown knowledge base, simultaneously learning how to semantically parse language and pop - ulate the knowledge base. The weakly

  5. Understanding the Role of Achievements in Game-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Blair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to examine whether one potentially effective gaming strategy—achievements—has a positive impact on learning in a game-based environment. An achievement in a video game is a reward or recognition earned by players for an in-game accomplishment. This paper describes a series of studies to evaluate the effects of achievement types on learning in a game designed to teach about health resources. The Game “Phone Dash” was used as the testbed for the following studies. The following questionnaires were utilized in this study: Video Game Self-Efficacy Scale (VGSES questionnaire, Relevance and Usefulness questionnaire, Game Engagement Questionnaire (GEQ, and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI. Four studies were conducted. Results indicated that while in unison, the achievements were not as potent in motivating performance, certainly when combined they produced measurable changes in behavior. The four studies described in this paper provide important information regarding the optimal design of achievements in game-based health education. Developers of future game-based learning can use this information to enhance the potential effectiveness of their products. 

  6. Developmental song learning as a model to understand neural mechanisms that limit and promote the ability to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sarah E

    2017-11-20

    Songbirds famously learn their vocalizations. Some species can learn continuously, others seasonally, and still others just once. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing during a single developmental "Critical Period," a restricted phase during which a specific experience has profound and permanent effects on brain function and behavioral patterns. The zebra finch can therefore provide fundamental insight into features that promote and limit the ability to acquire complex learned behaviors. For example, what properties permit the brain to come "on-line" for learning? How does experience become encoded to prevent future learning? What features define the brain in receptive compared to closed learning states? This piece will focus on epigenomic, genomic, and molecular levels of analysis that operate on the timescales of development and complex behavioral learning. Existing data will be discussed as they relate to Critical Period learning, and strategies for future studies to more directly address these questions will be considered. Birdsong learning is a powerful model for advancing knowledge of the biological intersections of maturation and experience. Lessons from its study not only have implications for understanding developmental song learning, but also broader questions of learning potential and the enduring effects of early life experience on neural systems and behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Using WebQLM to Enhance Performance in Argumentative Writing among Year 12 ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Ooi L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of a designed web-based learning module on Year 12 students’ learning of argumentative writing. The module known as WebQuest Learning Module or WebQLM comprises four units of learning. The subjects were 68 Year 12 Arts Stream students in an urban school in Penang. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of WebQLM on students’ performance in argumentative writing as well as students’ responses towards the integration of this web technology in the ESL classroom. The paired-samples T-Test revealed significant improvement in students’ argumentative writing performance. Findings from the questionnaire and group interviews showed students generally responded positively towards the use of WebQLM in argumentative writing instruction. This study has brought to light the importance of integrating web-based learning tasks in the classroom. The credibility of the teacher in web-based instruction depends very much on the roles he or she plays in designing, scaffolding, facilitating and aspiring students towards a better learning culture. Implications on the teaching and learning of writing in an ESL context, especially for learners in the contemporary digital culture, can be drawn from the findings.

  8. Understanding, Evaluating, and Supporting Self-Regulated Learning Using Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Ido; Winne, Philip H.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an ongoing process rather than a single snapshot in time. Naturally, the field of learning analytics, focusing on interactions and learning trajectories, offers exciting opportunities for analyzing and supporting self-regulated learning. This special section highlights the current state of research at the intersection of…

  9. Design e-learning with flipped learning model to improve layout understanding the concepts basic of the loop control structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D. P.; Sutarno, H.; Wihardi, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed in design and build e-learning with classroom flipped model to improve the concept of understanding of SMK students on the basic programming subject. Research and development obtained research data from survey questionnaire given to students of SMK class X RPL in SMK Negeri 2 Bandung and interviews to RPL productive teacher. Data also obtained from questionnaire of expert validation and students' assessment from e-learning with flipped classroom models. Data also obtained from multiple-choice test to measure improvements in conceptual understanding. The results of this research are: 1) Developed e- learning with flipped classroom model considered good and worthy of use by the average value of the percentage of 86,3% by media experts, and 85,5% by subjects matter experts, then students gave judgment is very good on e-learning either flipped classroom model with a percentage of 79,15% votes. 2) e-learning with classroom flipped models show an increase in the average value of pre-test before using e-learning 26.67 compared to the average value post-test after using e- learning at 63.37 and strengthened by the calculation of the index gains seen Increased understanding of students 'concepts by 50% with moderate criteria indicating that students' understanding is improving.

  10. Teachers' Assessment of ESL Students in Mainstream Classes: Challenges, Strategies, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Milnes, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of ESL students in Canadian classrooms, this study investigated how teachers of mainstream classes assess the written work of ESL students and whether they use different assessment strategies for ESL versus non-ESL students. Interviews were conducted with seven mainstream teachers from a private high school in Ontario.…

  11. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  12. How Contextualized Learning Settings Enhance Meaningful Nature of Science Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilican, K.; Cakiroglu, J.; Oztekin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring different contexts to facilitate in-depth nature of science (NOS) views were seen as critical for better professional development of pre-service science teachers, which ultimately would assure better students' NOS understanding and achieve an ultimate goal of current science education reforms. This study aimed to reduce the lack of…

  13. Teaching Care Ethics: Conceptual Understandings and Stories for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Colette; Smith, Grinell

    2013-01-01

    An ethic of care acknowledges the centrality of the role of caring relationships in moral education. Care ethics requires a conception of "care" that differs from the quotidian use of the word. In order to teach care ethics more effectively, this article discusses four interrelated ways that teachers' understandings of care differ…

  14. Accent, Identity, and a Fear of Loss? ESL Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrocklin, Shannon; Link, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Because many theorists propose a connection between accent and identity, some theorists have justifiably been concerned about the ethical ramifications of L2 pronunciation teaching. However, English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students often state a desire to sound like native speakers. With little research into ESL students' perceptions of links…

  15. Rethinking ESL Service Courses for International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Young-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from a writing program in English as a second language (ESL) at a large university in the midwestern United States, this article addresses the significant gap in programmatic and pedagogical responses for graduate writing support by probing the notion of ESL service courses that approach graduate writing courses as being…

  16. Translating Information Literacy: Online Library Support for ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Emmett

    2016-01-01

    This article describes information literacy struggles of ESL college students within the context of four information literacy components: Identify, Locate, Evaluate, Use. Experiences from an online freshman composition course are used to illustrate these struggles, along with techniques academic librarians use to help ESL students from a distance.

  17. ESL Learners' Online Research and Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, Noridah; Bown, Andy; Fluck, Andrew; Kebble, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance second language (L2) acquisition, English as a Second Language (ESL) students are encouraged to exploit the abundant information and opportunities for authentic language use afforded by the Internet. This study investigated the online research and comprehension strategies employed by ESL learners in a public university in…

  18. Let's Talk! ESL Students' Needs and Writing Centre Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussu, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    When university/college faculty members believe that ESL students' writing skills are not equivalent to those of native speakers, they frequently send these ESL students to their institution's writing centres (WCs). However, this often results in frustration for WC staff, the students, and faculty members. This article first describes ESL…

  19. Training Using Technology in the Adult ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss two reasons for the slow adoption of technology as an instructional tool in adult English as a Second Language (ESL) education. I outline recent facts about the relationships between today's adult ESL learners and technology, and then construct a background of theoretical support in favor of integrating technology in…

  20. Balancing Act: Addressing Culture and Gender in ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle A.; Chang, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    ESL educators find themselves teaching a diverse group of students in today's classroom. This study investigated how ESL instructors address diversity in their teaching. The literature review revealed research on the experiences of teachers using culturally responsive teaching strategies. Using qualitative research methods, this study explores the…

  1. Complex Text in ESL Grammar Textbooks: Barriers or Gateways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesikin, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers assess prospective textbooks by comparing real-life user's actual knowledge of the author's assumed student knowledge. Through examination of charts and page excerpts of two ESL grammar textbooks, demonstrates that access to the pedagogical knowledge demands sophisticated formal knowledge,…

  2. Lexical Borrowings in the ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirusanku, Jantmary; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the use of lexical borrowings in ten teaching materials used by the English as Second Language (ESL) teachers in the ESL classrooms in the National Secondary Schools in the Klang district in Selangor, Malaysia. It also discusses the general and pedagogical implications involved in using lexical borrowings. This paper…

  3. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right…

  4. Flipped ESL Teacher Professional Development: Embracing Change to Remain Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Kaur, Dalwinder; Halili, Siti Hajar; Ramlan, Zahri

    2016-01-01

    Many traditional professional development programs that are initiated to equip ESL teachers with knowledge and skills have been futile for numerous reasons. This paper addresses a gap in the recent research of ESL teachers' professional development. Literature has revealed many shortcomings of the traditional and online professional development…

  5. Understanding Neurophobia: Reasons behind Impaired Understanding and Learning of Neuroanatomy in Cross-Disciplinary Healthcare Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Asim; Chakraborty, Shelly; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët; Toulouse, André

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a…

  6. Adult Learners Understanding in Learning Islam Using the Andragogy Approach in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…

  7. Towards a Culturally Sensitive and Deeper Understanding of "Rote Learning" and Memorisation of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Po-Li

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to provide evidence that "rote learning" or "memorisation" is a complex construct and is deeply embedded in the East Asian culture. An in-depth understanding of this learning approach is increasingly crucial considering the complex demography of contemporary higher education nowadays. Not only is there a rise…

  8. Exploring a Pluralist Understanding of Learning for Sustainability and Its Implications for Outdoor Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Susanne C.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a pluralist understanding of learning for sustainability in educational theory and relates it to outdoor education practice. In brief, this kind of learning can be described as a deep engagement with an individual's multiple identities and the personal location in diverse geo-physical and socio-cultural surroundings. I…

  9. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  10. Integrating Model-Based Learning and Animations for Enhancing Students' Understanding of Proteins Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri; Hussein-Farraj, Rania

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the context of chemistry education reforms in Israel. The study examined a new biochemistry learning unit that was developed to promote in-depth understanding of 3D structures and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Our goal was to examine whether, and to what extent teaching and learning via…

  11. Understanding Informal Learning in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shinhee; McLean, Gary N.; Park, Soyoun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore informal learning experiences among employees working in South Korean small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with fewer than 100 employees. This study specifically seeks to understand the characteristics of informal learning in Korean SMEs and culturally sensitive contextual factors that shape informal…

  12. Developing an Understanding of Higher Education Science and Engineering Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Eames, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article sets the scene for this special issue of "Research in Science & Technological Education", dedicated to understanding higher education science and engineering learning communities. We examine what the literature has to say about the nature of, and factors influencing, higher education learning communities. A discussion of…

  13. An Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory: Students' Emerging Understanding of Exponential Growth through Covariation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amy B.; Ozgur, Zekiye; Kulow, Torrey; Dogan, Muhammed F.; Amidon, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory (EGLT), a trajectory identifying and characterizing middle grade students' initial and developing understanding of exponential growth as a result of an instructional emphasis on covariation. The EGLT explicates students' thinking and learning over time in relation to a set of tasks…

  14. Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

  15. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  16. Environmental Identity: A New Approach to Understanding Students' Participation in Environmental Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksha, Amanda P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of how participants express their environmental identities during an environmental learning program. Past research on the outcomes of environmental learning programs has focused primarily on changes in knowledge and attitudes. However, even if knowledge or attitudes can be accurately measured,…

  17. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  18. Improving the Understanding of Research Methodology and Self-Regulated Learning Through Blog Project

    OpenAIRE

    Retnawati, Heri

    2017-01-01

    : This classroom action research seeks to improve self-regulated learning (SRL) and understanding of research methodology at the graduate school. Nineteen graduate school students were involved. Using project-based learning (PjBL), students were assigned to create online blogs as the main project. The blog was intended for representing their understanding of research methodology by writing review of research articles and submitting a research proposal. The classroom action research was based ...

  19. Understanding the variable effect of instructional innovations on student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Heidi L.

    2012-02-01

    As a result of dissatisfaction with the traditional lecture-based model of education a large number of reform-oriented instructional innovations have been developed, enacted, and studied in undergraduate physics courses. While previous work has shown that the impact of instructional innovations on student learning has been overwhelmingly positive, it has also been highly variable. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate this variability. For this analysis, 79 published studies on undergraduate physics instructional innovations were analyzed with respect to the types of innovations used and the methodological characteristics of the studies themselves. The findings of this analysis have indicated that nearly half of the variability in effect size can be accounted for by study design characteristics rather than by the characteristics of the innovations used. However, a subsequent analysis illustrated that one specific innovation, Workshop/Studio Physics, appears to be particularly effective within the observed sample of studies.

  20. Conceptual Change in Understanding the Nature of Science Learning: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetto, Christina M.

    This study is the first of its kind to explore the thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and values of secondary educators as they experience conceptual change in their understanding of the nature of science learning vis a vis the Framework for K-12 Science Education published by the National Research Council. The study takes aim at the existing gap between the vision for science learning as an active process of inquiry and current pedagogical practices in K-12 science classrooms. For students to understand and explain everyday science ideas and succeed in science studies and careers, the means by which they learn science must change. Focusing on this change, the study explores the significance of educator attitudes, beliefs and values to science learning through interpretive phenomenological analysis around the central question, "In what ways do educators understand and articulate attitudes and beliefs toward the nature of science learning?" The study further explores the questions, "How do educators experience changes in their understanding of the nature of science learning?" and "How do educators believe these changes influence their pedagogical practice?" Study findings converge on four conceptions that science learning: is the action of inquiry; is a visible process initiated by both teacher and learner; values student voice and changing conceptions is science learning. These findings have implications for the primacy of educator beliefs, attitudes and values in reform efforts, science teacher leadership and the explicit instruction of both Nature of Science and conceptual change in educator preparation programs. This study supports the understanding that the nature of science learning is cognitive and affective conceptual change. Keywords: conceptual change, educator attitudes and beliefs, framework for K-12 science education, interpretive phenomenological analysis, nature of science learning, next generation science standards, science professional development

  1. Using computer-assisted learning to engage diverse learning styles in understanding business management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mary E; Derby, Dustin C; Haan, Andrea G

    2013-01-01

    Objective : Changes in small business and insurance present challenges for newly graduated chiropractors. Technology that reaches identified, diverse learning styles may assist the chiropractic student in business classes to meet course outcomes better. Thus, the purpose of our study is to determine if the use of technology-based instructional aids enhance students' mastery of course learning outcomes. Methods : Using convenience sampling, 86 students completed a survey assessing course learning outcomes, learning style, and the helpfulness of lecture and computer-assisted learning related to content mastery. Quantitative analyses occurred. Results : Although respondents reported not finding the computer-assisted learning as helpful as the lecture, significant relationships were found between pre- and post-assisted learning measures of the learning outcomes 1 and 2 for the visual and kinesthetic groups. Surprisingly, however, all learning style groups exhibited significant pre- and post-assisted learning appraisal relationships with learning outcomes 3 and 4. Conclusion : While evidence exists within the current study of a relationship between students' learning of the course content corollary to the use of technologic instructional aids, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear.

  2. Impact of Learning Model Based on Cognitive Conflict toward Student’s Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufit, F.; Festiyed, F.; Fauzan, A.; Lufri, L.

    2018-04-01

    The problems that often occur in the learning of physics is a matter of misconception and low understanding of the concept. Misconceptions do not only happen to students, but also happen to college students and teachers. The existing learning model has not had much impact on improving conceptual understanding and remedial efforts of student misconception. This study aims to see the impact of cognitive-based learning model in improving conceptual understanding and remediating student misconceptions. The research method used is Design / Develop Research. The product developed is a cognitive conflict-based learning model along with its components. This article reports on product design results, validity tests, and practicality test. The study resulted in the design of cognitive conflict-based learning model with 4 learning syntaxes, namely (1) preconception activation, (2) presentation of cognitive conflict, (3) discovery of concepts & equations, (4) Reflection. The results of validity tests by some experts on aspects of content, didactic, appearance or language, indicate very valid criteria. Product trial results also show a very practical product to use. Based on pretest and posttest results, cognitive conflict-based learning models have a good impact on improving conceptual understanding and remediating misconceptions, especially in high-ability students.

  3. Cooperative learning model with high order thinking skills questions: an understanding on geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, P. P.; Budiyono; Slamet, I.

    2018-05-01

    Geometry, a branch of mathematics, has an important role in mathematics learning. This research aims to find out the effect of learning model, emotional intelligence, and the interaction between learning model and emotional intelligence toward students’ mathematics achievement. This research is quasi-experimental research with 2 × 3 factorial design. The sample in this research included 179 Senior High School students on 11th grade in Sukoharjo Regency, Central Java, Indonesia in academic year of 2016/2017. The sample was taken by using stratified cluster random sampling. The results showed that: the student are taught by Thinking Aloud Pairs Problem-Solving using HOTs questions provides better mathematics learning achievement than Make A Match using HOTs questions. High emotional intelligence students have better mathematics learning achievement than moderate and low emotional intelligence students, and moderate emotional intelligence students have better mathematics learning achievement than low emotional intelligence students. There is an interaction between learning model and emotional intelligence, and these affect mathematics learning achievement. We conclude that appropriate learning model can support learning activities become more meaningful and facilitate students to understand material. For further research, we suggest to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning modification to mathematics achievement.

  4. Designing learning apparatus to promote twelfth grade students’ understanding of digital technology concept: A preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlius; Kaniawati, I.; Feranie, S.

    2018-05-01

    A preliminary learning design using relay to promote twelfth grade student’s understanding of logic gates concept is implemented to see how well it’s to adopted by six high school students, three male students and three female students of twelfth grade. This learning design is considered for next learning of digital technology concept i.e. data digital transmition and analog. This work is a preliminary study to design the learning for large class. So far just a few researches designing learning design related to digital technology with relay. It may due to this concept inserted in Indonesian twelfth grade curriculum recently. This analysis is focus on student difficulties trough video analysis to learn the concept. Based on our analysis, the recommended thing for redesigning learning is: students understand first about symbols and electrical circuits; the Student Worksheet is made in more detail on the assembly steps to the project board; mark with symbols at points in certain places in the circuit for easy assembly; assembly using relays by students is enough until is the NOT’s logic gates and the others that have been assembled so that effective time. The design of learning using relays can make the relay a liaison between the abstract on the digital with the real thing of it, especially in the circuit of symbols and real circuits. Besides it is expected to also enrich the ability of teachers in classroom learning about digital technology.

  5. Emotional labour: learning from the past, understanding the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Chris

    2017-10-26

    The number of nurses considering leaving the profession has continued to rise, and in many areas there is a nursing shortfall. For many of those leaving the profession, the decision results from workplace stress. This article examines the concept of emotional labour, which has been linked to compassion fatigue and subsequent burnout. Emotional labour is the term used to describe the process of displaying outward emotion that may not match our internal emotion; this dissonance can lead to highly stressful situations. The concept is explored from a genealogical perspective, specifically focusing on how gender, socio-political and health cultures have influenced the evolution of the discourse that defines how emotional labour is perceived, understood and valued. This article will identify what has shaped the discourse and how the historical influences have influenced perceptions. The article identifies that emotional labour has traditionally been viewed as women's work and has been undervalued. The influence of male nurses and the gradual decline of heavy industry has served to improve the understanding and value of the concept. Lessons from the past can inform the management of the stresses of emotional labour. Emotional labour is a recognised component of workplace stress and this article makes a number of recommendations for further research or management strategies, which may assist in the recognition and management of the stresses nurses face when delivering emotionally demanding care.

  6. Endogenous Learning and Consensual Understanding in Multilateral Negotiations: Arguing and Bargaining in the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    People at home and trade negotiators in Geneva cannot bargain what they do not understand, and what they bargain must be based on consensual understanding among the relevant actors, whether or not they agree on what to do about it. Consensual understanding is endogenous, arising in an argumentative process of learning structured by constitutive principles of a regime. In a departure from both rationalist and constructivist approaches to negotiation analysis in political science, my goal in th...

  7. How online learning modules can improve the representational fluency and conceptual understanding of university physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, H.

    2015-07-01

    The use of online learning resources as core components of university science courses is increasing. Learning resources range from summaries, videos, and simulations, to question banks. Our study set out to develop, implement, and evaluate research-based online learning resources in the form of pre-lecture online learning modules (OLMs). The aim of this paper is to share our experiences with those using, or considering implementing, online learning resources. Our first task was to identify student learning issues in physics to base the learning resources on. One issue with substantial research is conceptual understanding, the other with comparatively less research is scientific representations (graphs, words, equations, and diagrams). We developed learning resources on both these issues and measured their impact. We created weekly OLMs which were delivered to first year physics students at The University of Sydney prior to their first lecture of the week. Students were randomly allocated to either a concepts stream or a representations stream of online modules. The programme was first implemented in 2013 to trial module content, gain experience and process logistical matters and repeated in 2014 with approximately 400 students. Two validated surveys, the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE) and the Representational Fluency Survey (RFS) were used as pre-tests and post-tests to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided further insights. While both streams of OLMs produced similar positive learning gains on the FMCE, the representations-focussed OLMs produced higher gains on the RFS. Conclusions were triangulated with student responses which indicated that they have recognized the benefit of the OLMs for their learning of physics. Our study shows that carefully designed online resources used as pre-instruction can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding and representational fluency in physics, as well as make them more aware

  8. Prospective ESL/EFL Teachers’ Perceptions towards Writing Poetry in a Second Language: Difficulty, Value, Emotion, and Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to explore how 18 M.A. TESOL students, who are prospective or experienced ESL/EFL teachers, perceive poetry writing in a second language. A qualitative interview-based design was utilized. Following Iida’s (2012a analytical framework in examining EFL students’ perceptions toward writing haiku in English, this current study investigates 18 prospective ESL/EFL teachers’ perspectives through the lens of difficulty, value, emotion, and attitude. In order to validate the coding of the interviews, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC test was computed among three interview coders including the primary researcher, which yields a great agreement rate at .86. The results indicate that while these prospective ESL/EFL teachers understand writing poetry in a second language involves various difficulties, they acknowledge the values of utilizing poetry writing in second language classrooms. The results also show that writing poetry in a second language contains both positive and negative emotions, but positive ones are more frequently addressed. Most importantly, the data suggests that writing poetry in a second language is considered as an applicable practice in ESL/EFL language classrooms.

  9. The Effects of Using Multimodal Approaches in Meaning-Making of 21st Century Literacy Texts among ESL Students in a Private School in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Malina; Seetharam, Saundravalli A/P

    2016-01-01

    In today's globalised digital era, students are inevitably engaged in various multimodal texts due to their active participation in social media and frequent usage of mobile devices on a daily basis. Such daily activities advocate the need for a transformation in the teaching and learning of ESL lessons in order to promote students' capabilities…

  10. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  11. Second-Language Learning through Imaginative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Egan's (1997) work on imagination can enrich our understanding of teaching English as a second language (ESL). Much has been written on ESL teaching techniques; however, some of this work has been expounded in a standard educational framework, which is what Egan calls an assembly-line model. This model can easily underlie…

  12. Learning difficulties of senior high school students based on probability understanding levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggara, B.; Priatna, N.; Juandi, D.

    2018-05-01

    Identifying students' difficulties in learning concept of probability is important for teachers to prepare the appropriate learning processes and can overcome obstacles that may arise in the next learning processes. This study revealed the level of students' understanding of the concept of probability and identified their difficulties as a part of the epistemological obstacles identification of the concept of probability. This study employed a qualitative approach that tends to be the character of descriptive research involving 55 students of class XII. In this case, the writer used the diagnostic test of probability concept learning difficulty, observation, and interview as the techniques to collect the data needed. The data was used to determine levels of understanding and the learning difficulties experienced by the students. From the result of students' test result and learning observation, it was found that the mean cognitive level was at level 2. The findings indicated that students had appropriate quantitative information of probability concept but it might be incomplete or incorrectly used. The difficulties found are the ones in arranging sample space, events, and mathematical models related to probability problems. Besides, students had difficulties in understanding the principles of events and prerequisite concept.

  13. Development of the living thing transportation systems worksheet on learning cycle model to increase student understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, E.; Nurohman, S.; Widowati, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to know: 1) the feasibility LKPD review of aspects of the didactic requirements, construction requirements, technical requirements and compliance with the Learning Cycle. 2) Increase understanding of learners with Learning Model Learning Cycle in SMP N 1 Wates in the form LKPD. 3) The response of learners and educators SMP N 1 Wates to quality LKPD Transportation Systems Beings. This study is an R & D with the 4D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate). Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis in the form of advice description and assessment scores from all validates that was converted to a scale of 4. While the analysis of quantitative data by calculating the percentage of materializing learning and achievement using the standard gain an increased understanding and calculation of the KKM completeness evaluation value as an indicator of the achievement of students understanding. the results of this study yield LKPD IPA model learning Cycle theme Transportation Systems Beings obtain 108.5 total scores of a maximum score of 128 including the excellent category (A). LKPD IPA developed able to demonstrate an improved understanding of learners and the response of learners was very good to this quality LKPD IPA.

  14. Employing STEM Curriculum in an ESL Classroom: A Chinese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. MacKinnon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed methods action research was undertaken in a grade 6 classroom in Shanghai, China to identify the challenges of implementing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM curriculum in an English Second Language (ESL classroom. The research has shown that while students are well-motivated to learn through a child-centred problem-based approach, the schooling context has measurable deterrents linked directly to an assessment driven system. It was further determined that the language barrier sometimes mitigated the use of higher-order terminology to promote critical thinking as defined by Bloom’s taxonomy.

  15. Influence of the temperature on materials electric behaviour: Understanding and students’ learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Carmona

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we defend that in the teaching/learning of the electricity, its contents must be associa ted with contents concerning the structure and behaviour of the matter. Thus, it is possible to understand some electricity topics as the influence of the temperature on electric behaviour of materials. In this sense, we propose a conceptual framework for its teaching, coherent with the Spanish Physics and Chemistry curriculum of Secondary Education. Likewise, we show the results of a research carried out with 60 pupils (age 14-15, about theirs understanding levels and theirs learning difficulties regarding considered topic.

  16. The ESL classroom teaching, critical practice, and community development

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Brian D

    1998-01-01

    Brian Morgan uses his own teaching experience in Canada and China to investigate the complexities of teaching English as a second language to those newly arrived in Canada and to suggest ways of becoming a more effective ESL teacher.

  17. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Use of a Monolingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monolingual dictionaries by Hong Kong advanced Cantonese ESL learners in the production of .... (COBUILD6), and one using Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 5th ...... A Contrastive Study of Pocket Electronic Diction- aries and ...

  18. Cybernetics: A Model for Feedback in the ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Vivian

    1981-01-01

    Examines cybernetics as a model which provides framework with which to view communicators and the communications in the ESL classroom because it implies the kind of feedback the learner can assimilate and act upon. (Author/BK)

  19. A Rural South African Experience of an ESL Computer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dieperink

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a case study that explored the effect of an English-as-Second Language (ESL computer program at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT, South Africa. The case study explored participants’ perceptions, attitudes and beliefs regarding the ESL reading enhancement program, Reading Excellence™. The study found that participants experienced the program in a positive light. They experienced improved ESL reading as well as listening and writing proficiency. In addition, they experienced improved affective well-being in the sense that they generally felt more comfortable using ESL. This included feeling more self-confident in their experience of their academic environment. Interviews as well as document review resulted in dissonance, however: data pointed towards poor class attendance as well as a perturbing lack of progress in terms of reading comprehension and speed.

  20. Understanding the Need of Mobile ICT Learning as an Elderly Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanches Lam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a rapid deployment of mobile devices, mobile learning gives rise to new possibilities for extending learning opportunities. Nevertheless, current research on mobile learning has mostly been aimed at enhancing learning of school or college students. In this light, the paper seeks to throw light on the potential of mobile learning for elderly. We describe in this paper a research study for examining needs that determine the adoption and usage of mobile devices by elderly population. The elderly are an often neglected group in product development and marketing, but they are the only growing age group in most developed societies. By using semi-structured interviews with a number of different stakeholders interested in elderly people, we identify a set of issues that need to be taken into account when designing strategy for the elderly learners. The results of our study indicate that elderly people are interested in using mobile devices and services, but these services need to deliver real value for them.

  1. Exploring Multi-Modal and Structured Representation Learning for Visual Image and Video Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    As the explosive growth of the visual data, it is particularly important to develop intelligent visual understanding techniques for dealing with a large amount of data. Many efforts have been made in recent years to build highly effective and large-scale visual processing algorithms and systems. One of the core aspects in the research line is how to learn robust representations to better describe the data. In this thesis we study the problem of visual image and video understanding and specifi...

  2. An analysis for understanding the process of textual deconstruction as a motivator for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Delia Barrera Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the potential of the process of textual understanding and construction, for the development of motivation towards learning in teacher trainees for Preuniversities. In this direction it advocates in the first place, to understand the dynamic relationship established between the process of textual attribution and production and the motivational one, which provides the indispensable condition for promoting the work with the text from all the subjects in the curriculum.

  3. "Ten Things" to Enhance Learning and Fun in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2016-01-01

    This Teaching Technique introduces a fun, versatile game that gets students thinking, talking, and working together in the English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom. It is easy to prepare, and it is a fun and efficient way to enhance learning. The game can be adapted to almost any grade level or ESL/EFL…

  4. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  5. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  6. Workshop on Friction: Understanding and Addressing Students' Difficulties in Learning Science through a Hermeneutical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sangwoo; Lee, Gyoungho; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Hermeneutics is useful in science and science education by emphasizing the process of understanding. The purpose of this study was to construct a workshop based upon hermeneutical principles and to interpret students' learning in the workshop through a hermeneutical perspective. When considering the history of Newtonian mechanics, it could be…

  7. The Inquiry, Communication, Construction and Expression (ICCE) Framework for Understanding Learning Experiences in Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research frameworks that focus on aiding game selection and use, analyzing the game as a holistic system, and studying learner experiences in games. There is a need for frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games and facilitating knowledge construction and motivation to…

  8. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  9. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  10. A Study to Understand the Role of Visual Arts in the Teaching and Learning of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Saroja; Kanapathy, Ravi; Mastan, Jamilah

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to understand the role of visual arts in the teaching and learning of science among Grade 3 teachers and students. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research design was used to discover the different perceptions of both teachers and students on the role of visual arts in science. The data for the research was…

  11. A framework for understanding outcomes of mutual learning situations in IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2012-01-01

    How do we analyse and understand design decisions derived from mutual learning (ML) situations and how may practitioners take advantage of these in IT projects? In the following we present a framework of design decisions inferred from ML situations that occurred between end-users and stakeholders...

  12. Tell us our story : Understanding 'religion and violence' in multiple contexts of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liere, Lucien

    2014-01-01

    This article raises the question about how definitions of religion and violence can be understood as links to the context in which they are formulated. The focus is on the context of academic learning. Understanding a definition as a micro-narrative that reflects the cultural 'archive', the author

  13. Enhancing Laos Students' Understanding of Nature of Science in Physics Learning about Atom for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengdala, Phoxay; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of Grade 12 students' understanding of nature of science in learning about atom for peace through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 51 Grade 12 who study in Thongphong high school Vientiane Capital City Lao PDR, 1st semester of 2012 academic year. This research regarded interpretive…

  14. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Nature of Science and Perceptions of the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated prospective elementary teachers' understandings of the nature of science and explored associations with their guided-inquiry science learning environment. Over 500 female students completed the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Survey (NSKS), although only four scales were analyzed-Creative, Testable, Amoral, and Unified. The…

  15. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  16. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  17. Modelling and Simulating Electronics Knowledge: Conceptual Understanding and Learning through Active Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twissell, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract electronics concepts are difficult to develop because the phenomena of interest cannot be readily observed. Visualisation skills support learning about electronics and can be applied at different levels of representation and understanding (observable, symbolic and abstract). Providing learners with opportunities to make transitions…

  18. Keeping conceptual boundaries distinct between decision making and learning is necessary to understand social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mens, Gaël

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al. make the deliberate choice to blur the distinction between learning and decision making. This obscures the social influence mechanisms that operate in the various empirical settings that their map aims to categorize. Useful policy prescriptions, however, require an accurate understanding of the social influence mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of popularity.

  19. Improving Marking Reliability of Scientific Writing with the Developing Understanding of Assessment for Learning Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Fiona L.; Yucel, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The Developing Understanding of Assessment for Learning (DUAL) programme was developed with the dual aims of improving both the quality and consistency of feedback students receive and the students' ability to use that feedback to improve. DUAL comprises a range of processes (including marking rubrics, sample reports, moderation discussions and…

  20. Effect of Writing-to-Learn Strategy on Undergraduates' Conceptual Understanding of Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Sengül

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of Writing-to-Learn (WTL) strategy on undergraduates' conceptual understanding of electrostatics. The sample of the study was 54 university students registered at elementary school mathematics education department. While the experimental group was asked to conduct WTL activities like explanatory…

  1. Understanding and Influencing Teaching and Learning Cultures at University: A Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxa, Torgny; Martensson, Katarina; Alveteg, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Academic cultures might be perceived as conservative, at least in terms of development of teaching and learning. Through a lens of network theory this conceptual article analyses the pattern of pathways in which culture is constructed through negotiation of meaning. The perspective contributes to an understanding of culture construction and…

  2. Apology Strategies of Iranian ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Parsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study, which is of the most important and most frequent speech acts used in multicultural settings, is the speech act of apology. It probes native Persian-speaking ESL university students’ apology and non-apology strategies based on Cohen and Olshtain’s (1981 frame work to evince variations ascribed to gender, mother tongue, and culture. The results of this survey reveal that Iranian male and female respondents use different percentages of apology and non-apology strategies. Considering significance levels, in general, except for a few strategies, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups considering the number and type of strategies used.

  3. Understanding the impact of eating disorders: using the reflecting team as a learning strategy for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Alicia; Evans, Nicola; Evans, Anne-Marie

    2018-02-08

    This article outlines how the application of a reflecting team from systemic family therapy practice was used as a learning strategy for a postgraduate programme for healthcare students. The programme was designed to increase the students' skills, knowledge and awareness of the needs of people with eating disorders, and their families. There were some benefits to this learning strategy. Students reported that the use of a reflecting team enabled them to gain a deep understanding of the emotional impact of eating disorders on individuals and their carers. However, as this method of learning was new to the students, they needed some initial instruction on the approach. During the programme of study, it became evident that the health professionals were deeply affected by the experiences of people with eating disorders. This would suggest that possibly it was the presence of the sufferers themselves as part of the reflecting team that provided the pivotal learning opportunity, rather than the reflecting team per se.

  4. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Maya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.751.231-250

  5. Innovative learning model for improving students’ argumentation skill and concept understanding on science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafsiati Astuti, Rini

    2018-04-01

    Argumentation skill is the ability to compose and maintain arguments consisting of claims, supports for evidence, and strengthened-reasons. Argumentation is an important skill student needs to face the challenges of globalization in the 21st century. It is not an ability that can be developed by itself along with the physical development of human, but it must be developed under nerve like process, giving stimulus so as to require a person to be able to argue. Therefore, teachers should develop students’ skill of arguing in science learning in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to obtain an innovative learning model that are valid in terms of content and construct in improving the skills of argumentation and concept understanding of junior high school students. The assessment of content validity and construct validity was done through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), using the content and construct validation sheet, book model, learning video, and a set of learning aids for one meeting. Assessment results from 3 (three) experts showed that the learning model developed in the category was valid. The validity itself shows that the developed learning model has met the content requirement, the student needs, state of the art, strong theoretical and empirical foundation and construct validity, which has a connection of syntax stages and components of learning model so that it can be applied in the classroom activities

  6. Comments on Elsa Roberts Auerbach's "Reexamining English Only in the ESL Classroom."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene; Auerbach, Elsa Roberts

    1994-01-01

    Arguments for students' use of their first language as well as English in the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom are reexamined. Pedagogical and political aspects of ESL instruction are noted. (LB)

  7. The improvement of reading skills of L1 and ESL children using a Response to Intervention (RtI) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Orly; Siegel, Linda S

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the development of literacy skills in children in a district that used a Response to Intervention (RTI) model. The district included children whose first language was English and children who were learning English as a second language (ESL). Tasks measuring phonological awareness, lexical access, and syntactic awareness were administered when the children entered school in kindergarten at age 5. Reading, phonological processing, syntactic awareness, memory, and spelling were administered in grade 7. When the children entered school, significant numbers of them were at risk for literacy difficulties. After systematic instruction and annual monitoring of skills, their reading abilities improved to the extent that only a very small percentage had reading difficulties. The results demonstrated that early identification and intervention and frequent monitoring of basic skills can significantly reduce the incidence of reading problems in both the ESL and language majority children.

  8. Factors Inhibiting ESL Learners from Passing California High School Exit Examination: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    The problem was that Hispanic English Second Language (ESL) students enrolled in the ESL program had consistently failed the California High School Exit Examination (CASHEE) in greater numbers than their cohorts. The purpose of this qualitative narrative inquiry was to explore the life stories of Hispanic ESL students in identifying the factors…

  9. Strangers and Professionals: Positioning Discourse in ESL Teachers' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Mari; Nespor, Jan

    2013-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) usually spend most of the school day with regular classroom teachers. The ability of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) teachers to help these students, then, depends in part on their ability to influence how the classroom teachers think of ELL students and ESL itself. One way ESL teachers do this is through…

  10. 28 CFR 544.41 - Applicability: Who must attend the ESL program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability: Who must attend the ESL... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.41 Applicability: Who must attend the ESL program. (a) All Federal prisoners who have limited English proficiency skills...

  11. The Short Circuit Hypothesis of ESL Reading--Or when Language Competence Interferes with Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Mark A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines a sampling of current ESL reading instruction practices, addressing the concern that the lack of a generally accepted theory of L2 reading constitutes a major obstacle to teaching and testing ESL reading skills. Summarizes the results of two studies and discusses their implications for ESL teachers. (MES)

  12. Assessing Understanding of Sampling Distributions and Differences in Learning amongst Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Jennifer Leigh Sloan

    2013-01-01

    Research has found that students successfully complete an introductory course in statistics without fully comprehending the underlying theory or being able to exhibit statistical reasoning. This is particularly true for the understanding about the sampling distribution of the mean, a crucial concept for statistical inference. This study…

  13. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

  14. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Understanding PGCE Student Teacher Learning in the Wild Coast Rural Schools' Partnership Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennefather, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a theoretical model that I am developing in order to understand student teacher learning in a rural context and the enabling conditions that can support this learning. The question of whether a supervised teaching practice in a rural context can contribute to the development of student teacher professional learning and…

  15. Can a model of study activity increase didactic dialogue and students' understanding of learning in IPE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    at Metropolitan University College. Since 2013 all UCS have worked with a nationally decided study activity model. The model outlines four different types of learning activities. Students are introduced to courses via the model to heighten their understanding of course design and the expectations...... combining quantitative surveys, interviews, observation and focus groups. Comparisonldiscussion: The presentation will discuss the ambition to optimize dialogue about learning between lecturers and students by using a model of study activity. Results related to the value and potential of the model as seen...... by both lecturers and students will be presented. Findings/results/outcomes/effects: Students point out that the model can be a useful tool to gain an overview of learning activities and the amount of time they are expected to spend in courses. When lecturers introduce courses via the model it deepens...

  16. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…

  17. Understanding the Influence of Learners' Forethought on Their Use of Science Study Strategies in Postsecondary Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Karee E.; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding self-regulation in science learning is important for theorists and practitioners alike. However, very little has been done to explore and understand students' self-regulatory processes in postsecondary science courses. In this study, the influence of science efficacy, learning value, and goal orientation on the perceived use of…

  18. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. The effect of technology-enabled active learning on undergraduate students understanding of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dori, Y.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman physics carried out in a specially redesigned classroom to facilitate group interaction. These technology-based learning materials are especially useful in electromagnetism to help students conceptualize phenomena and processes. This study analyzes the effects of the unique learning environment of the Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project project on students cognitive and affective outcomes. The assessment of the project included examining students conceptual understanding before and after studying electromagnetism in a media-rich environment. We also investigated the effect of this environment on students preferences regarding the various teaching methods. As part of the project, we developed pre- and post-tests consisting of conceptual questions from standardized tests, as well as questions designed to assess the effect of visualizations and experiments. The research population consisted of 811 undergraduate students. It consisted of a small- and a large-scale experimental groups and a control group. Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project students improved their conceptual understanding concepts of the subject matter to a significantly higher extent than their control group peers. A majority of the students in the small-scale experiment noted that they would recommend the Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project course to fellow students, indicating the benefits of inter activity, visualization, and hands-on experiments, which the technology helped enable. In the large-scale implementation students expressed both positive and negative attitudes in the course survey

  20. Through the eyes of professional developers: Understanding the design of learning experiences for science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Tara Eileen

    Professional development is important for improving teacher practice and student learning, particularly in inquiry-oriented and technology-enhanced science instruction. This study examines professional developers' practices and their impact on teachers' classroom instruction and student achievement. It analyzes professional developers designing and implementing a five-year professional development program designed to support middle school science teachers. The professional developers are four university-based researchers who worked with sixteen science teachers over three years, setting program goals, facilitating workshops, providing in-classroom support for teachers, and continually refining the program. The analysis is guided by the knowledge integration perspective, a sociocognitive framework for understanding how teachers and professional developers integrate their ideas about teaching and learning. The study investigates the professional developers' goals and teachers' interpretations of those goals. It documents how professional developers plan teacher learning experiences and explores the connection between professional development activities and teachers' classroom practice. Results are based on two rounds of interviews with professional developers, audio recordings of professional developers' planning meetings and videotaped professional development activities. Data include classroom observations, teacher interviews, teacher reflections during professional development activities, and results from student assessments. The study shows the benefit of a professional development approach that relies on an integrated cycle of setting goals, understanding teachers' interpretations, and refining implementation. The professional developers based their design on making inquiry and technology accessible, situating professional development in teachers' work, supporting collaboration, and sustaining learning. The findings reflect alignment of the design goals with the

  1. Innovation Learning: Audio Visual and Outdoor Study to Enhance Student's Understanding of Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Furqan, M. Hafizul; Maryani, Enok; Ruhimat, Mamat

    2017-01-01

    Education is functioned to prepare human to compete in overcoming various challenges. One of challenge faced by Indonesian nation is natural disaster. The effective method to reduce the risk of natural disaster (disaster mitigation) is by enhancing understanding of disaster in each individual. Aceh Tsunami Museum (ATM) is one of important site which is build to remember the big disaster event which happened in 2004 in Aceh and as disaster learning source. This study is aimed to find out the...

  2. Measuring striving for understanding and learning value of geometry: a validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye; Aydınyer, Yurdagül

    2017-11-01

    The current study aimed to construct a questionnaire that measures students' personality traits related to striving for understanding and learning value of geometry and then examine its psychometric properties. Through the use of multiple methods on two independent samples of 402 and 521 middle school students, two studies were performed to address this issue to provide support for its validity. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis indicated the two-factor model. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis indicated the better fit of two-factor model compared to one or three-factor model. Convergent and discriminant validity evidence provided insight into the distinctiveness of the two factors. Subgroup validity evidence revealed gender differences for striving for understanding geometry trait favouring girls and grade level differences for learning value of geometry trait favouring the sixth- and seventh-grade students. Predictive validity evidence demonstrated that the striving for understanding geometry trait but not learning value of geometry trait was significantly correlated with prior mathematics achievement. In both studies, each factor and the entire questionnaire showed satisfactory reliability. In conclusion, the questionnaire was psychometrically sound.

  3. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie

    2018-02-20

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  4. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Rowe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  5. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitness, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement. PMID:29461487

  6. The Errors of Our Ways: Understanding Error Representations in Cerebellar-Dependent Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Laurentiu S; Streng, Martha L; Hewitt, Angela L; Ebner, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    The cerebellum is essential for error-driven motor learning and is strongly implicated in detecting and correcting for motor errors. Therefore, elucidating how motor errors are represented in the cerebellum is essential in understanding cerebellar function, in general, and its role in motor learning, in particular. This review examines how motor errors are encoded in the cerebellar cortex in the context of a forward internal model that generates predictions about the upcoming movement and drives learning and adaptation. In this framework, sensory prediction errors, defined as the discrepancy between the predicted consequences of motor commands and the sensory feedback, are crucial for both on-line movement control and motor learning. While many studies support the dominant view that motor errors are encoded in the complex spike discharge of Purkinje cells, others have failed to relate complex spike activity with errors. Given these limitations, we review recent findings in the monkey showing that complex spike modulation is not necessarily required for motor learning or for simple spike adaptation. Also, new results demonstrate that the simple spike discharge provides continuous error signals that both lead and lag the actual movements in time, suggesting errors are encoded as both an internal prediction of motor commands and the actual sensory feedback. These dual error representations have opposing effects on simple spike discharge, consistent with the signals needed to generate sensory prediction errors used to update a forward internal model.

  7. English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing student success: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mary Angela

    2012-01-01

    Many English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students struggle in nursing school for a multitude of reasons. The purpose of this critical review of the literature is to identify barriers and discover bridges to ESL nursing student success. Twenty-five articles were identified for the review. Language barriers were identified as the single most significant obstacle facing the ESL nursing student. Bridges to ESL nursing student success include enhancing language development and acculturation into the American mainstream culture. A broad range of strategies to promote student success are outlined and the role of the nurse educator in ESL nursing student success is also addressed.

  8. Machine Learning for Big Data: A Study to Understand Limits at Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Del-Castillo-Negrete, Carlos Emilio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report aims to empirically understand the limits of machine learning when applied to Big Data. We observe that recent innovations in being able to collect, access, organize, integrate, and query massive amounts of data from a wide variety of data sources have brought statistical data mining and machine learning under more scrutiny, evaluation and application for gleaning insights from the data than ever before. Much is expected from algorithms without understanding their limitations at scale while dealing with massive datasets. In that context, we pose and address the following questions How does a machine learning algorithm perform on measures such as accuracy and execution time with increasing sample size and feature dimensionality? Does training with more samples guarantee better accuracy? How many features to compute for a given problem? Do more features guarantee better accuracy? Do efforts to derive and calculate more features and train on larger samples worth the effort? As problems become more complex and traditional binary classification algorithms are replaced with multi-task, multi-class categorization algorithms do parallel learners perform better? What happens to the accuracy of the learning algorithm when trained to categorize multiple classes within the same feature space? Towards finding answers to these questions, we describe the design of an empirical study and present the results. We conclude with the following observations (i) accuracy of the learning algorithm increases with increasing sample size but saturates at a point, beyond which more samples do not contribute to better accuracy/learning, (ii) the richness of the feature space dictates performance - both accuracy and training time, (iii) increased dimensionality often reflected in better performance (higher accuracy in spite of longer training times) but the improvements are not commensurate the efforts for feature computation and training and (iv) accuracy of the learning algorithms

  9. Literature: A Natural Source for Teaching English in ESL/ EFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ali Chalikendy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which literature function as a source and as a meaningful context for teaching and learning English as a second language or foreign language. It claims that literature is an authentic, stimulating and appealing material to the learners. Therefore, it encourages interaction, promotes language development and motivates learners in the process of learning. Traditionally it is taught as an academic subject without considering its potential in ESL/EFL classrooms. The paper argues that literature can be used as an effective source for teaching English language and the target culture; furthermore, it is used as a natural context for integrating language skills and systems. This paper demonstrates how a poem is used as a natural source or a material for developing English language and integrating the four language skills, grammar and vocabulary through communicative tasks and activities.

  10. A model for understanding and learning of the game process of computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    This abstract focuses on the computer game design process in the education of engineers at the university level. We present a model for understanding the different layers in the game design process, and an articulation of their intricate interconnectedness. Our motivation is propelled by our daily...... teaching practice of game design. We have observed a need for a design model that quickly can create an easily understandable overview over something as complex as the design processes of computer games. This posed a problem: how do we present a broad overview of the game design process and at the same...... time make sure that the students learn to act and reflect like game designers? We fell our game design model managed to just that end. Our model entails a guideline for the computer game design process in its entirety, and at same time distributes clear and easy understandable insight to a particular...

  11. The use of multi representative learning materials: definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic, and practice in analyzing students’ concept understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningsih, E.; Wulandari, C.; Supartono; Kasmui; Alighiri, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to compose learning material which contains definitive macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic to analyze students’ conceptual understanding in acid-base learning materials. This research was conducted in eleven grade, natural science class, senior high school 1 (SMAN 1) Karangtengah, Demak province, Indonesia as the low level of students’ conceptual understanding and the high level of students’ misconception. The data collecting technique is by test to assess the cognitive aspect, questionnaire to assess students’ responses to multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and observation to assess students’ macroscopic aspects. Three validators validate the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic). The results of the research show that the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopes, symbolic) being used is valid in the average score 62 of 75. The data is analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The results of the research show that 72.934 % students understand, 7.977 % less understand, 8.831 % do not understand, and 10.256 % misconception. In comparison, the second experiment class shows 54.970 % students understand, 5.263% less understand, 11.988 % do not understand, 27.777 % misconception. In conclusion, the application of multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic) can be used to analyze the students’ understanding of acid-base materials.

  12. DEVELOPING ESL/EFL LEARNERS’ PUBLIC SPEAKING SKILLS THROUGH PECHA KUCHA PRESENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo A. Mabuan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century workplace, there has been an increasing demand for graduates to possess communicative competence particularly in speaking. Anchored on the 21st Century Learning Framework (Partnership for 21st Century Skills or P21, 2006 and the TPACK Framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2009, this study reports findings on the pedagogical viability of utilizing Pecha Kucha 20x20 Presentations in developing students’ competence and confidence while presenting in the language classroom. Research participants include 43 English as Second Language (ESL learners taking Speech Communication classes in a private university in Manila, the Philippines during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. Research data from students’ reflections, interviews, survey, and focus group discussion (FGD suggest that despite some format and technological limitations, delivering Pecha Kucha presentations may help students develop their English speaking and oral presentation skills, build their confidence in speaking before an audience, and practice their English macro skills such as listening and reading. In the light of these findings, pedagogical implications are provided for ESL (English as a second language and EFL (English as a foreign language teachers, communication educators, and researchers.

  13. Prosody as a Tool for Assessing Reading Fluency of Adult ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seftirina Evina Sinambela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prosodic features in reading aloud assignment has been associated with the students’ decoding skill. The goal of the present study is to determine the reliability of prosody for assessing reading fluency of adult ESL students in Indonesia context. The participants were all Indonesian natives, undergraduate students, adult females and males who have learned English in school (at the very least twice a week for more than 12 years. Text reading prosody was assessed by reading aloud task and the students’ speaking manner was taped and measured by using the Multidimensional Fluency Scale, as for text comprehension was assessed with a standardized test. It was discovered by the current study that prosody is a reliable sign to determine reading fluency and also reading comprehension. The student who did not read the text prosodically (with appropriate expression actually showed that he/she failed to comprehend the text. This study also revealed that a struggling reader was also having low comprehension capacity in listening spoken texts. The ESL students’ common problems to acquire prosodic reading skill are low exposure to the target language and do not have a good model to imitate prosodic reading.

  14. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2010-01-01

    Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both

  15. Tools for Science Inquiry Learning: Tool Affordances, Experimentation Strategies, and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wieman, Carl; Blikstein, Paulo

    2017-12-01

    Manipulative environments play a fundamental role in inquiry-based science learning, yet how they impact learning is not fully understood. In a series of two studies, we develop the argument that manipulative environments (MEs) influence the kind of inquiry behaviors students engage in, and that this influence realizes through the affordances of MEs, independent of whether they are physical or virtual. In particular, we examine how MEs shape college students' experimentation strategies and conceptual understanding. In study 1, students engaged in two consecutive inquiry tasks, first on mass and spring systems and then on electric circuits. They either used virtual or physical MEs. We found that the use of experimentation strategies was strongly related to conceptual understanding across tasks, but that students engaged differently in those strategies depending on what ME they used. More students engaged in productive strategies using the virtual ME for electric circuits, and vice versa using the physical ME for mass and spring systems. In study 2, we isolated the affordance of measurement uncertainty by comparing two versions of the same virtual ME for electric circuits—one with and one without noise—and found that the conditions differed in terms of productive experimentation strategies. These findings indicate that measures of inquiry processes may resolve apparent ambiguities and inconsistencies between studies on MEs that are based on learning outcomes alone.

  16. Mapping the Evolution of eLearning from 1977–2005 to Inform Understandings of eLearning Historical Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chen Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While there have been very limited studies of the educational computing literature to analyze the research trends since the early emergence of educational computing technologies, the authors argue that it is important for both researchers and educators to understand the major, historical educational computing trends in order to inform understandings of current and future eLearning trends. This study provides the findings of an analysis of 2,694 journal articles published between 1977 and 2005 in four major, international educational computing journals. It provides the platform for a subsequent analysis for the period 2006–2014 and beyond, as future educational computing research is published. The journal articles analyzed were categorized according to their research themes. Subsequently, clustering analysis, multi-dimension scale analysis, and research diversity analysis were performed on the categorized results to explore the research trends. The research literature analysis confirmed that there were identifiable evolutionary trends dating from 1977, and, importantly, the analysis highlighted that each key breakthrough in technology was accompanied by increased educational research about those technologies to inform educational practices. Importantly, two major driving forces of the historical trends identified were technologies and pedagogical approaches. The paper concludes with explanations of how these trends from 1977–2005 have shaped the current focus on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK needed for effective current and future eLearning.

  17. Development and validation of a method for measuring depth of understanding in constructivist learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Lucia Falsetti

    A method for measuring depth of understanding of students in the middle-level science classroom was developed and validated. A common theme in the literature on constructivism in science education is that constructivist pedagogy, as opposed to objectivist pedagogy, results in a greater depth of understanding. Since few instruments measuring this construct exist at the present time, the development of such a tool to measure this construct was a significant contribution to the current body of assessment technologies in science education. The author's Depth of Understanding Assessment (DUA) evolved from a writing measure originally designed as a history assessment. The study involved 230 eighth grade science students studying a chemical change unit. The main research questions were: (1) What is the relationship between the DUA and each of the following independent variables: recall, application, and questioning modalities as measured by the Cognitive Preference Test; deep, surface, achieving, and deep-achieving approaches as measured by the Learning Process Questionnaire; achievement as measured by the Chemical Change Quiz, and teacher perception of student ability to conceptualize science content? (2) Is there a difference in depth of understanding, as measured by the DUA, between students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy and students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy favoring the constructivist group? (3) Is there a gender difference in depth of understanding as measured by the DUA? (4) Do students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy perceive their learning environment as more constructivist than students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy? Six out of nine hypothesis tests supported the validity of the DUA. The results of the qualitative component of this study which consisted of student interviews substantiated the quantitative results by providing additional information and insights. There was a significant difference in depth of

  18. Learning science in small groups: The relationship of conversation to conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Tarleton

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conversation and conceptual understanding of erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' conceptions of erosion changed while they used stream tables and worked in groups of four within an inquiry-based curriculum. This study used symbolic interactionism and sociocognitive frameworks to interpret science learning in the elementary classroom. The research focused on the conceptual understanding of the focal group students, their use of classroom discourse to talk about their understandings of erosion, and the expertise that emerged while using stream tables. This study took place over a one-semester long study on erosion. Key informants were eight fifth graders. The data sources consisted of children's journals; transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the key informants before, during, and after the erosion unit; transcripts of videotapes of the students using the stream tables; and field notes recording children's discourse and activity. Individual and group cases were constructed during the study. The knowledge of the eight focal group children was placed on a hierarchy of conceptual understanding that contained 8 components of the erosion process. All four of the students whose ideas were examined in depth gained in their conceptual understanding of erosion. Students' individual expertise enhanced their own conceptual understanding. The contribution of classroom discourse and expertise to conceptual understanding differed between the two focal groups. Group 1 used essential expertise to sustain generative conversations, maximizing their learning opportunities. Students in Group 1 got along with one another, rotated assigned roles and jobs, and were able to start their own generative conversations. Members of Group 1 asked generative questions, connected stream table events to real life situations, and involved everyone in the group. Group 2 engaged in a

  19. Understanding students' and clinicians' experiences of informal interprofessional workplace learning: an Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Crampton, Paul; Kent, Fiona; Brown, Ted; Hood, Kerry; Leech, Michelle; Newton, Jennifer; Storr, Michael; Williams, Brett

    2018-04-17

    While postgraduate studies have begun to shed light on informal interprofessional workplace learning, studies with preregistration learners have typically focused on formal and structured work-based learning. The current study investigated preregistration students' informal interprofessional workplace learning by exploring students' and clinicians' experiences of interprofessional student-clinician (IPSC) interactions. A qualitative interview study using narrative techniques was conducted. Student placements across multiple clinical sites in Victoria, Australia. Through maximum variation sampling, 61 participants (38 students and 23 clinicians) were recruited from six professions (medicine, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedicine and physiotherapy). We conducted 12 group and 10 individual semistructured interviews. Themes were identified through framework analysis, and the similarities and differences in subthemes by participant group were interrogated. Six themes relating to four research questions were identified: (1) conceptualisations of IPSC interactions; (2) context for interaction experiences; (3) the nature of interaction experiences; (4) factors contributing to positive or negative interactions; (5) positive or negative consequences of interactions and (6) suggested improvements for IPSC interactions. Seven noteworthy differences in subthemes between students and clinicians and across the professions were identified. Despite the results largely supporting previous postgraduate research, the findings illustrate greater breadth and depth of understandings, experiences and suggestions for preregistration education. Educators and students are encouraged to seek opportunities for informal interprofessional learning afforded by the workplace. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Understanding students’ and clinicians’ experiences of informal interprofessional workplace learning: an Australian qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Kent, Fiona; Brown, Ted; Hood, Kerry; Leech, Michelle; Newton, Jennifer; Storr, Michael; Williams, Brett

    2018-01-01

    Objectives While postgraduate studies have begun to shed light on informal interprofessional workplace learning, studies with preregistration learners have typically focused on formal and structured work-based learning. The current study investigated preregistration students’ informal interprofessional workplace learning by exploring students’ and clinicians’ experiences of interprofessional student-clinician (IPSC) interactions. Design A qualitative interview study using narrative techniques was conducted. Setting Student placements across multiple clinical sites in Victoria, Australia. Participants Through maximum variation sampling, 61 participants (38 students and 23 clinicians) were recruited from six professions (medicine, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedicine and physiotherapy). Methods We conducted 12 group and 10 individual semistructured interviews. Themes were identified through framework analysis, and the similarities and differences in subthemes by participant group were interrogated. Results Six themes relating to four research questions were identified: (1) conceptualisations of IPSC interactions; (2) context for interaction experiences; (3) the nature of interaction experiences; (4) factors contributing to positive or negative interactions; (5) positive or negative consequences of interactions and (6) suggested improvements for IPSC interactions. Seven noteworthy differences in subthemes between students and clinicians and across the professions were identified. Conclusions Despite the results largely supporting previous postgraduate research, the findings illustrate greater breadth and depth of understandings, experiences and suggestions for preregistration education. Educators and students are encouraged to seek opportunities for informal interprofessional learning afforded by the workplace. PMID:29666140

  1. Improvements in Students' Understanding from Increased Implementation of Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors are hesitant to implement active learning strategies in their introductory astronomy classrooms because they are not sure which techniques they should use, how to implement those techniques, and question whether the investment in changing their course will really bring the advertised learning gains. We present an example illustrating how thoughtful and systematic implementation of active learning strategies into a traditionally taught Astro 101 class can translate into significant increases in students' understanding. We detail the journey of one instructor, over several years, as she changes the instruction and design of her course from one that focuses almost exclusively on lecture to a course that provides an integrated use of several active learning techniques such as Lecture-Tutorials and Think-Pair-Share questions. The students in the initial lecture-only course achieved a low normalized gain score of only 0.2 on the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), while the students in the re-designed learner-centered course achieved a significantly better normalized gain of 0.43. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS), and Grant No. 0847170, a PAARE Grant for the Calfornia-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  2. Cognitive neuroepigenetics: the next evolution in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul; Bredy, Timothy W.

    2016-07-01

    A complete understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of learning and memory continues to elude neuroscientists. Although many important discoveries have been made, the question of how memories are encoded and maintained at the molecular level remains. So far, this issue has been framed within the context of one of the most dominant concepts in molecular biology, the central dogma, and the result has been a protein-centric view of memory. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for neuroepigenetic mechanisms, which constitute dynamic and reversible, state-dependent modifications at all levels of control over cellular function, and their role in learning and memory. This neuroepigenetic view suggests that DNA, RNA and protein each influence one another to produce a holistic cellular state that contributes to the formation and maintenance of memory, and predicts a parallel and distributed system for the consolidation, storage and retrieval of the engram.

  3. Effect of Collaborative Learning in Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD on Student Conceptual Understanding of Motion Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erees Queen B. Macabebe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess effectively the influence of peer discussion in understandingconcepts, and to evaluate if the conceptual understanding through Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD and collaborative learning can be translated to actual situations, ten (10 questions on human and carts in motion were presented to 151 university students comprising mostly of science majors but of different year levels. Individual and group predictions were conducted to assess the students’ pre-conceptual understanding of motion graphs. During the ILD, real-time motion graphs were obtained and analysed after each demonstration and an assessment that integrates the ten situations into two scenarios was given to evaluate the conceptual understanding of the students. Collaborative learning produced a positive effect on the prediction scores of the students and the ILD with real-time measurement allowed the students to validate their prediction. However, when the given situations were incorporated to create a scenario, it posted a challenge to the students. The results of this activity identified the area where additional instruction and emphasis is necessary.

  4. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Second Grade Junior Students’ Mathematics Conceptual Understanding on Polyhedron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suarsana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior high school students’ conceptual understanding on polyhedron. This study was conducted by using post-test only control group quasi-experimental design. The subjects of this study were 148 students that divided into three classes. Two classes were taken as sample by using cluster random sampling technique. One of the classes was randomly selected as an experimental group and the other as control group. There were 48 students in experimental group and 51 students in control group. The data were collected with post-test which contained mathematical conceptual understanding on fractions. The post-test consisted of 8 essay question types.  The normality and variance homogeny test result showed that the scores are normally distributed and have no difference in variance. The data were analyzed by using one tailed t-test with significance level of 5%. The result of data analysis revealed that the value of t-test = 6,7096 greater than t-table = 1,987, therefore; the null hypothesis is rejected. There is positive effect of of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior students’ conceptual understanding in polyhedron.

  5. The disposition to understand for oneself at university: integrating learning processes with motivation and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel; McCune, Velda

    2013-06-01

    A re-analysis of several university-level interview studies has suggested that some students show evidence of a deep and stable approach to learning, along with other characteristics that support the approach. This combination, it was argued, could be seen to indicate a disposition to understand for oneself. To identify a group of students who showed high and consistent scores on deep approach, combined with equivalently high scores on effort and monitoring studying, and to explore these students' experiences of the teaching-learning environments they had experienced. Re-analysis of data from 1,896 students from 25 undergraduate courses taking four contrasting subject areas in eleven British universities. Inventories measuring approaches to studying were given at the beginning and the end of a semester, with the second inventory also exploring students' experiences of teaching. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with differing patterns of response on the inventory scales, with a particular focus on students showing high, stable scores. One cluster clearly showed the characteristics expected of the disposition to understand and was also fairly stable over time. Other clusters also had deep approaches, but also showed either surface elements or lower scores on organized effort or monitoring their studying. Combining these findings with interview studies previously reported reinforces the idea of there being a disposition to understand for oneself that could be identified from an inventory scale or through further interviews. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Toward a Neurobiological Basis for Understanding Learning in University Modeling Instruction Physics Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brewe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling Instruction (MI for University Physics is a curricular and pedagogical approach to active learning in introductory physics. A basic tenet of science is that it is a model-driven endeavor that involves building models, then validating, deploying, and ultimately revising them in an iterative fashion. MI was developed to provide students a facsimile in the university classroom of this foundational scientific practice. As a curriculum, MI employs conceptual scientific models as the basis for the course content, and thus learning in a MI classroom involves students appropriating scientific models for their own use. Over the last 10 years, substantial evidence has accumulated supporting MI's efficacy, including gains in conceptual understanding, odds of success, attitudes toward learning, self-efficacy, and social networks centered around physics learning. However, we still do not fully understand the mechanisms of how students learn physics and develop mental models of physical phenomena. Herein, we explore the hypothesis that the MI curriculum and pedagogy promotes student engagement via conceptual model building. This emphasis on conceptual model building, in turn, leads to improved knowledge organization and problem solving abilities that manifest as quantifiable functional brain changes that can be assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We conducted a neuroeducation study wherein students completed a physics reasoning task while undergoing fMRI scanning before (pre and after (post completing a MI introductory physics course. Preliminary results indicated that performance of the physics reasoning task was linked with increased brain activity notably in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices that previously have been associated with attention, working memory, and problem solving, and are collectively referred to as the central executive network. Critically, assessment of changes in brain activity during the physics

  7. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  8. Mixing methodologies in ESL: Cumulative or contradictory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Absalom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that an eclectic approach to teaching a second language is desirable, as no single method can be regarded as universally ideal. Such a mixed methodologies approach was adopted in an ESL course at the University of Newcastle in Australia, deliberately incorporating the use of CALL techniques to enhance the success of a variety of other methods. Surprisingly, students who reported to have enjoyed the CALL classes and testified to their practical usefulness fared worse in the examinations than students in the previous five years, when CALL techniques were not used The. writer speculates on the possible reasons for this unexpected finding, and cites a further example of the lack of success of a mixed methodologies approach. Dit word dikwe/s aangeneem dat 'n eklektiese benadering tot tweedetaalonde"ig wenslik is, aangesien dit aanvaar word dat geen onde"igmetode as universeel ideaal beskou kan word nie. Met die aanname in gedagte, is 'n gemengde metodologiese benadering gebruik vir die aanbieding van 'n Engels tweedetaalkursus aan die Universiteit van Newcastle in Australie. Die kursus het, bo en behalwe die gewone tweedetaalonde"igmetodes, ook gebruik gemaak van CALL-tegnieke (dw.s. rekenaar-ondersteunde leertegnieke met die bedoeling om die taalverwerwingsproses op die wyse te bevorder. Teen die verwagting in het studente wat aangedui het dat die rekenaarklasse genotvol en waardevol was, swakker in die eindeksamen gevaar as die gemiddelde student wat geen CALL-onderrig in dieseifde kursus oor die vorige vyf jaar ontvang het nie. Die skrywer spekuleer oor die moontlike redes vir hierdie onverwagte swak vertoning en ve~s na nog 'n voorbeeld van onsuksesvol/e resultate na die gebruik van 'n gemengde-metode-benadering.

  9. Understanding dopamine and reinforcement learning: the dopamine reward prediction error hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-09-13

    A number of recent advances have been achieved in the study of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Understanding these advances and how they relate to one another requires a deep understanding of the computational models that serve as an explanatory framework and guide ongoing experimental inquiry. This intertwining of theory and experiment now suggests very clearly that the phasic activity of the midbrain dopamine neurons provides a global mechanism for synaptic modification. These synaptic modifications, in turn, provide the mechanistic underpinning for a specific class of reinforcement learning mechanisms that now seem to underlie much of human and animal behavior. This review describes both the critical empirical findings that are at the root of this conclusion and the fantastic theoretical advances from which this conclusion is drawn.

  10. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  11. The Changing Social Content of ESL Textbooks in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas W.

    An analysis of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks published in the United States from the 1950s through the 1980s focuses on incidental but pervasive social messages contained in their content, including restriction to middle class populations and values, stereotyped sex roles, lack of visibility of minorities, negative messages about…

  12. Prenatal Care: A Content-Based ESL Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Elissa Anne

    A content-based curriculum in English as a Second Language (ESL) focusing on prenatal self-care is presented. The course was designed as a solution to the problem of inadequate prenatal care for limited-English-proficient Mexican immigrant women. The first three sections offer background information on and discussion of (1) content-based ESL…

  13. The Construction of Collective Identity in Malaysian ESL Secondary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Faizah; Nazri, Nas Idayu Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the construction of collective identity in ESL classroom among students in a secondary school in Selangor, Malaysia. Identity construction can be helpful in supporting students academically and socially, especially in the English language classrooms. Being non-native speakers, students may have the tendency to feel…

  14. ESL Readers' Comprehension Performance: The Chinese Secondary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Juliana; Wu, Winnie; Chen, Julia; Lughmani, Shari

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in reading comprehension in Western settings has focused on collecting evidence from reading tests that would measure relevant ESL reading constructs to inform reading instruction and assessment. Similar studies in non-Western contexts, however, remain under-reported. This study involved 958 senior secondary Hong Kong (Chinese)…

  15. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Case Study of ESL Teacher Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siping

    2013-01-01

    This single-case study focuses on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of a university faculty member teaching Second Language Acquisition to elementary teacher candidates. The research questions address the pattern and development of PCK for ESL teaching. Based on data from classroom observation, interviews and document review, the study finds…

  16. The Emergent Nature of Strategic Mediation in ESL Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kuldip

    2015-01-01

    This article concentrates on a practitioner-driven approach to teacher education aimed at advancing ESL teachers' instructional knowledge about writing. Based on activity-centred interaction between a group of Malaysian English teachers and their teacher educator, the discussion demonstrates (1) the emergent, unplanned nature of strategic…

  17. Investigating ESL Students' Performance on Outcomes Assessments in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Joni M.; Elliott, Diane Cardenas; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes assessments are gaining great attention in higher education because of increased demand for accountability. These assessments are widely used by U.S. higher education institutions to measure students' college-level knowledge and skills, including students who speak English as a second language (ESL). For the past decade, the increasing…

  18. Arab ESL Secondary School Students' Spelling Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobhi, Bandar Mohammad Saeed; Rashid, Sabariah Md; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah; Darmi, Ramiza

    2017-01-01

    English spelling has always been described by many language researchers and teachers as a daunting task especially for learners whose first language is not English. Accordingly, Arab ESL learners commit serious errors when they spell out English words. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the types as well as the causes of spelling…

  19. Automated Error Detection for Developing Grammar Proficiency of ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Hsien; Saricaoglu, Aysel; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to natural language processing technologies, computer programs are actively being used not only for holistic scoring, but also for formative evaluation of writing. CyWrite is one such program that is under development. The program is built upon Second Language Acquisition theories and aims to assist ESL learners in higher education by…

  20. Thinking in English: A New Perspective on Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muciaccia, John B.

    2011-01-01

    "Thinking in English" represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of…

  1. Oral Communication in ESL through Improvisations, Playwriting and Rehearsals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Chamkaur

    2013-01-01

    The application of drama strategies which focus more on meaning than on form can provide an impetus for ESL learners to be more confident about speaking, thereby increasing the quantity of their spoken English. This paper discusses existing research and the author's own experiences in an attempt to highlight the positive effects of improvisations,…

  2. What Makes Critical Thinking Critical for Adult ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miekley, Joshua P.

    2014-01-01

    Critical-thinking skills help to prepare adult education students for a successful transition to college degree programs and for job advancement. Yet fostering critical thinking poses a challenge to ESL instructors. Brookfield (2012) provides a way forward for adult educators when he explains that the crux of critical thinking is to discover one's…

  3. Rational Deletion Cloze Processing Strategies: ESL and Native English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Explores cloze sensitivity to global comprehension by means of retrospective interview techniques. No significant differences were found between English as a second language (ESL) college students (N=14) and native English-speaking students (N=14) in their processing strategies. (Author/CB)

  4. Teacher's Approaches in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustakim, Siti Salina; Mustapha, Ramlee; Lebar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the approaches employed by teachers in teaching Contemporary Children's Literature Program to upper primary school. Using classroom observations and interview as research instruments, this paper evaluates the approaches of five ESL teachers teaching Year 5 students and examines the various challenges faced by them in…

  5. Anxiety and Academic Reading Performance among Malay ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd. Zin, Zuhana; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2010-01-01

    Research into the factors that contribute to reading performance decrement in L2 reading among ESL university students is still being extensively researched in the context of ELT. This is because successful academic performance is highly dependent on good reading ability. While it is widely accepted that poor reading performance is due to lack of…

  6. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Use of a Monolingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the results of a research study which investigated the use of monolingual dictionaries by Hong Kong advanced Cantonese ESL learners in the production of target language sentences. Thirty-one English majors participated in a sentence completion task and a sentence construction task with and ...

  7. Adult Learners' Understanding in Learning Islam Using Andragogy Approach: A Study in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Kadir, Mohd Amin; Arifin, Syamsul; Latipun; Fuad, Ahmad Nur

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners' understanding in learning Islam using andragogy approach in which the study was conducted in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) educate his companions of who are adults from the shackles of "jahiliyyah," spiritual and intellectual…

  8. A Pilot Study: Facilitating Cross-Cultural Understanding with Project-Based Collaborative Learning in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three aspects: how project-based collaborative learning facilitates cross-cultural understanding; how students perceive project-based collaborative learning implementation in a collaborative cyber community (3C) online environment; and what types of communication among students are used. A qualitative case study approach…

  9. Structuring Assignments to Improve Understanding and Presentation Skills: Experiential Learning in the Capstone Strategic Management Team Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Marilyn M.; Whitesell, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    In the strategic management course, students select, analyze, and present viable future alternatives based on information provided in cases or computer simulations. Rather than understanding the entire process, the student's focus is on the final presentation. Chickering's (1977) research on active learning suggests students learn more effectively…

  10. A Process-Philosophical Understanding of Organizational Learning as "Wayfinding": Process, Practices and Sensitivity to Environmental Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to articulate a practice-based, non-cognitivist approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the potential contribution of a process-based "practice turn" in social theory for understanding organizational learning. Findings: In complex, turbulent environments, robust…

  11. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  12. Case based learning: a method for better understanding of biochemistry in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sandhya Pillai; Shah, Trushna; Seth, Shruti; Pandit, Niraj; Shah, G V

    2013-08-01

    Health professionals need to develop analytic and diagnostic thinking skills and not just a mere accumulation of large amount of facts. Hence, Case Based Learning (CBL) has been used in the medical curriculum for this reason, so that the students are exposed to the real medical problems, which helps them in develop analysing abilities. This also helps them in interpreting and solving the problems and in the course of doing this, they develop interest. In addition to didactic lectures, CBL was used as a learning method. This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, S.B.K.S.M.I and R.C, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth ,Piparia, Gujarat, India. A group of 100 students were selected and they were divided into two groups as the control group and the study group. A total of 50 students were introduced to case based learning, which formed the study group and 50 students who attended didactic lectures formed the control group. A very significant improvement (pmedical curriculum for a better understanding of Biochemistry among the medical students.

  13. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Okazaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from educators’ perspectives have seldom been explored. The data collection takes place in three major Brazilian universities. In total, 446 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Our structural equation modeling reveals that ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant antecedents of attitude, which in turn affects intention. However, unlike the original TAM, perceived usefulness is not a direct driver of intention. In terms of moderation, gender affects three relationships: (1 ease of use –› perceived usefulness; (2 perceived usefulness –› attitude, and (3 intention –› actual behavior. The analysis is carried out in a single country; thus, caution should be taken in generalization of the results. The findings will help academics, educators, and policy makers to better understand the mechanism of e-learning adoption in Brazil.

  14. Nuclear Security Summit and Workshop 2015: Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Workshop 2015 "Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents"--lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima Distribution Statement...by the factor to get the U.S. customary unit. “Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents” – lessons learned from Chernobyl ...and Fukushima NUCLEAR SECURITY SUMMIT & WORKSHOP 2015 2 Background The 1986 Chernobyl and the 2011 Fukushima accidents provoked world-wide concern

  15. INTEGRATING MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN ESL CLASSROOMS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Manigandan; N. Santha Kumar; B. Devi

    2017-01-01

    It’s the right time to know more about mobile technology and mobile learning in the present digital era where mobile phones have become an integral part of everyone’s life. In recent years there have been amazing advances in mobile technology. Mobile learning has enabled various institutions, colleges and schools throughout the world in order to modernize aspects of teaching, learning and training. The key words in mobile learning are “facilitate, support, enhance, extend”.

  16. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Lidya Ayuni

    2013-01-01

    Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the…

  17. Examining oral reading fluency among Grade 5 rural English Second Language (ESL learners in South Africa? An analysis of NEEDU 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Draper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to read for meaning and pleasure is arguably the most important skill children learn in primary school. One integral component of learning to read is Oral Reading Fluency (ORF, defined as the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with meaningful expression. Although widely acknowledged in the literature as important, to date there have been no large-scale studies on ORF in English in South Africa, despite this being the language of learning and teaching for 80% of ESL students from Grade 4 onwards. We analyze data provided by the National Education and Evaluation Development Unit (NEEDU of South Africa, which tested 4667 Grade 5 English Second Language (ESL students from 214 schools across rural areas in South Africa in 2013. This included ORF and comprehension measures for a subset of 1772 students. We find that 41% of the sample were non-readers in English (<40 Words Correct Per Minute, WCPM and only 6% achieved comprehension scores above 60%. By calibrating comprehension levels and WCPM rates we develop tentative benchmarks and argue that a range of 90-100 WCPM in English is acceptable for Grade 5 ESL students in South Africa. In addition we outline policy priorities for remedying the reading crisis in the country.

  18. Understanding the long-term influence of EIA on organisational learning and transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Megan, E-mail: 31836179@student.murdoch.edu.au [Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia, Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)

    2017-05-15

    This research is an attempt to verify the notion postulated by Robert Bartlett and Lynton Caldwell that the full benefits of environmental impact assessment (EIA) would take decades to be realized. While EIA is intended to directly influence decision-making regarding new development proposals, the process is also expected to lead to organisational learning and transformation over time. Our aim was to examine the influence of EIA on a single Western Australian proponent with sustained experience in the process to understand how EIA is used within the organisation and to seek evidence of transformation of the organisation's purpose and mission. The research reviewed literature in order to identify key influences of EIA on organisations, along with semi-structured staff interviews and document analysis for the case study organisation. Ascertaining causality that involvement in EIA processes influences or effects organisational learning and transformation is a challenge in the face of other societal events. Document analysis and interviewee data indicates that the action-forcing nature of EIA did influence proponent behavior through the creation of internal processes seeking to ensure robust design of new projects that would satisfy environmental protection expectations, without the need to trigger formal EIA. Evidence of EIA values and thinking were apparent within internal documentation, including the evolving mission statement. Our research indicates that participation in the EIA process can positively influence organisational learning and transformation by guiding internal change for decision-making. - Highlights: • The long-term influence of EIA on a proponent organisation is investigated. • EIA promotes internal organisational learning and transformation. • Analysis of mission statements can indicate the influence of EIA on organisations. • Organisations aligned with EIA values can reduce the need to engage in formal EIA.

  19. Understanding the long-term influence of EIA on organisational learning and transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Megan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2017-01-01

    This research is an attempt to verify the notion postulated by Robert Bartlett and Lynton Caldwell that the full benefits of environmental impact assessment (EIA) would take decades to be realized. While EIA is intended to directly influence decision-making regarding new development proposals, the process is also expected to lead to organisational learning and transformation over time. Our aim was to examine the influence of EIA on a single Western Australian proponent with sustained experience in the process to understand how EIA is used within the organisation and to seek evidence of transformation of the organisation's purpose and mission. The research reviewed literature in order to identify key influences of EIA on organisations, along with semi-structured staff interviews and document analysis for the case study organisation. Ascertaining causality that involvement in EIA processes influences or effects organisational learning and transformation is a challenge in the face of other societal events. Document analysis and interviewee data indicates that the action-forcing nature of EIA did influence proponent behavior through the creation of internal processes seeking to ensure robust design of new projects that would satisfy environmental protection expectations, without the need to trigger formal EIA. Evidence of EIA values and thinking were apparent within internal documentation, including the evolving mission statement. Our research indicates that participation in the EIA process can positively influence organisational learning and transformation by guiding internal change for decision-making. - Highlights: • The long-term influence of EIA on a proponent organisation is investigated. • EIA promotes internal organisational learning and transformation. • Analysis of mission statements can indicate the influence of EIA on organisations. • Organisations aligned with EIA values can reduce the need to engage in formal EIA.

  20. Motivation, amount of interaction, length of residence and ESL learners’ pragmatic competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre R Eslami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how motivation for learning English, the amount of contact with English, and length of residence in the target language area affects Korean graduate students’ English pragmatic skills. The study attempted to account for differential pragmatic development among 50 graduate-level Korean students in relation to individual factors mentioned above. The data were collected using three types of elicitation instruments: a written background questionnaire, a discourse completion test, and the mini-Attitude/Motivation Test Battery. Descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation coefficients, and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that (a the level of motivation had a positive and moderate relationship with the ESL learners’ L2 pragmatic competence and (b the amount of L2 contact and length of residence had only a weak and insignificant impact on the participants’ pragmatic competence.

  1. I Listen and I Believe, I See and I Understand: A Collective Reflection Approach to Understanding Children's Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The project on which this report is based set out to establish how exploring children's musicality might encourage adults to consider their engagement with the musical play and learning of children under the age of five. Through reflection and evaluation the participants became aware that they were challenging their own teaching style in response…

  2. Could laser-assisted dissection of the pre-epiglottic space affect functional outcome after ESL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolin, Andy; Lionello, Marco; Russo, Simone; Rizzotto, Giuseppe; Lucioni, Marco

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of preepiglottic space (PES) dissection in the endoscopic supraglottic laryngectomy (ESL). A retrospective cohort study. We retrospectively compared 15 patients who underwent ESL with 15 patients matched for clinical stage who underwent open partial horizontal laryngectomy (OPHL). The functional outcomes were assessed in terms of hospital stay; need for nasal feeding tube (NFT) and tracheostomy, as well as duration of their use; postoperative complications; aspiration pneumonia rates; voice quality; and dysphagia. Among the ESL cases, combined dissection of the epiglottis and PES (type III) had a negative impact on functional outcomes. ESL patients experienced shorter hospital stays, as well as shorter use of NFT and tracheostomy, than patients who had OPHL. Combined dissection of the epiglottis and PES (ESL type III) negatively affected functional outcome in patients undergoing ESL, a procedure generally related to significantly better functional outcomes than OPHL type I. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:1371-1378, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Literature review: issues surrounding education of English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Liza Lai Shan

    2005-07-01

    Examined in this article are the challenges faced by English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) nursing students. Nursing faculties need to address these challenges to meet the increasing diversity of the health care system. A key concern is the ability of ESL nursing students to communicate effectively in English. The Cummins model for English language acquisition provides a template for ESL nursing students to bridge this communication barrier. The literature suggests some particular needs of ESL nursing students can be met through modification of nursing programs. Further research into factors affecting the quality of nursing education for ESL students is warranted. A quantitative analysis is required to see if there exists a positive correlation between improved English language acquisition and academic success by ESL nursing students.

  4. Understanding the Behavioral Intention to Play Austronesian Learning Games: From the Perspectives of Learning Outcome, Service Quality, and Hedonic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Kuo-Lun; Huang, Tien-Chi; Chen, Mu-Yen; Chiang, Nien-Ting

    2018-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning is a novel and creative teaching approach, two key issues inhibit its success overall: a lack of appropriate learning strategies regarding learning objectives, and ineffective learning tools for receiving knowledge regarding the chosen subjects. To address these issues, we develops and designs a game-based educational…

  5. Self-Regulated Learning in the Museum: Understanding the Relationship of Visitor's Goals, Learning Strategies, and Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) in the museum was explored by 2 investigations. The first one investigated 233 visitors on their goals and intended learning strategies by questionnaire before they visited the science museum. Results indicated visitors' learning goals can predict their intended deep-learning strategy. Moreover, visitors can be…

  6. Understanding adult neurogenesis beyond its role in learning and memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Latif Wani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a shift in the understanding of brain, neurons, and their functional role over the last two decades. Earlier it was believed that the brain was a static organ and was not subject to any change throughout life. An understanding was developed later that brain reorganizes its structure by a specific property called neuroplasticity. Recent research shows that the brain generates new neurons even in the adult stage, and this process is called adult neurogenesis. Although researchers still not have all the answers about the newborn neurons, and why and how they are generated, and what is their role, some have highlighted the importance of these in learning and memory formation, and even in memories of fear and spatial navigation. A wide range of environmental experience influences the generation of newborn neurons and their functional variability. There are questions about how different environmental experiences cause the differences in the generation of new neurons. Recently the field of optogenetics attempted to answer the questions on adult neurogenesis. However there are still questions about adult neurogenesis which needs a more naturalistic approach, for their better understanding.

  7. Fostering Cross-Cultural Understanding Through E-Learning: Russian-American Forum Case-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Talalakina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The importance of cross-cultural understanding is accelerated nowadays by globalization and joint efforts of different countries in the face of global challenges. Countries’ educational systems display attempts to incorporate cross-cultural studies in their curricula across all stages of formal learning. Many higher education institutions offer special courses aimed at promoting cross-cultural studies. One of the tools used to facilitate the process is e-learning. The present article examines the case study of an internet-based collaboration between two higher education institutions – State University Higher School of Economics in Russia and Champlain College in the USA – in fostering cross-cultural understanding. The project is based on the study of individualistic and collectivistic values within the framework of two corresponding courses studied at both institutions. The topicality of the study is determined by the growing importance of the cooperation of two countries on the international affairs arena, on the one hand, and the fundamental differences of the countries’ underlying value system, on the other. In particular, a post-soviet Russia is generally viewed as a developing democracy representing the collectivistic end of the value spectrum, whereas the USA is considered as an extreme case of individualistic value system. The comparison and contrast of the two systems conducted simultaneously by the representatives of both cultures (students of the two universities within a specifically built internet forum comprises the base of the project. The case study covers the project’s objectives, its background, the rationale behind its content choice, the design of the e-learning tool, the profile of the participants of the project, its implementation stages and its outcome. The major findings of the case study deal with the process of building cross-cultural awareness, reinforcing students’ analytical skills and

  8. "Bigger Number Means You Plus!"--Teachers Learning to Use Clinical Interviews to Understand Students' Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Mary Anne; Sudarshan, Akhila

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the perceptions and understandings of ten grades 1 and 2 Singapore mathematics teachers as they learned to use clinical interviews (Ginsburg, "Human Development" 52:109-128, 2009) to understand students' mathematical thinking. This study challenged teachers' pedagogical assumptions about what it means to teach for…

  9. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  10. Understanding Organizational Learning via Knowledge Management in Government-Link Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Asleena; Ahmad, Zainal Ariffin; Hung, Daisy Kee Mui

    The knowledge management or KM discipline conjures a host of understanding and impact upon the global business community albeit commercially or socially. Regardless of the different approach to KM, it has inarguably brought about changes in viewing the knowledge capabilities and capacities of organizations. Peter Drucker (1998) argued that knowledge has become the key economic resource and the only source of competitive advantage. Hence organizational learning is an integral part of KM initiatives and has been widely practiced in many large organizations and across nations such as Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Thus, this paper explores the KM initiatives of government link companies (GLCs) in Malaysia via synergizing knowledge strategy and capabilities in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  11. Clinical practice guidelines as learned treatises: understanding their use as evidence in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2008-01-01

    It is important for forensic experts to understand how clinical practice guidelines may enter the courtroom, what role they may play in a trial, and how they relate to expert testimony. Guidelines enter the record in several different ways and in several types of cases, typically with the assistance of an expert witness. A common vehicle for their introduction is the learned-treatise exception to the hearsay rule. Case law before and after Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. helps to elucidate the scrutiny that courts may direct toward medical texts proffered as evidence. This article discusses the implications of different rules and relevant case law for the forensic psychiatrist. The discussion notes important considerations for the expert witness, such as how guidelines may affect the expert's role, concerns about the reliability and relevance of scientific evidence, and questions about whether guidelines will be used for inculpatory or exculpatory purposes in medical malpractice trials.

  12. Understanding psychiatric disorder by capturing ecologically relevant features of learning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jacqueline; Klein-Flügge, Miriam

    2017-09-28

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models to help parse complex behaviours into specific component mechanisms. Here we propose that using computational models with tasks that capture ecologically relevant learning and decision-making processes may provide a critical advantage for capturing the mechanisms underlying symptoms of disorders in psychiatry. As a result, it may help develop mechanistic approaches towards diagnosis and treatment. We begin this review by mapping out the basic concepts and models of learning and decision-making. We then move on to consider specific challenges that emerge in realistic environments and describe how they can be captured by tasks. These include changes of context, uncertainty, reflexive/emotional biases, cost-benefit decision-making, and balancing exploration and exploitation. Where appropriate we highlight future or current links to psychiatry. We particularly draw examples from research on clinical depression, a disorder that greatly compromises motivated behaviours in real-life, but where simpler paradigms have yielded mixed results. Finally, we highlight several paradigms that could be used to help provide new insights into the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Competences and learning outcomes: a panacea for understanding the (new role of Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wagenaar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The competence and learning outcomes approach, which intends to improve effective performance of academic staff and students, is becoming dominant in today’s higher education. This was quite different 15 years ago. This contribution aims to offer insight in the reforms initiated and implemented, by posing and answering the questions why the time was appropriate — by identifying and analysing the underlying conditions — and in what way the change was shaped — by focusing on terminology required and approaches developed. Central here is the role the Tuning project — launched in 2000-2001 — played in this respect. The contribution starts with contextualising the situation in the 1990s: the recession and growing unemployment in many European countries on the one hand and the development of a global society and the challenges the higher educational sector faced at the other. It offers the background for initiating the Tuning project, and the discourse on which its approach is based. In particular, attention is given to choosing the concept of competences, distinguishing subject specific and general/generic ones, as an integrating approach of knowledge, understanding, skills, abilities and attitudes. The approach should serve as a means of integrating a number of main goals as part of the learning and teaching process: strengthening employability and preparing for citizenship besides personal development of the student as a basis for the required educational reform. Tuning’s unique contribution is the alignment of this concept to learning outcomes statements as indicators of competence development and achievement and by relating both concepts to profiling of educational programmes.

  14. Understanding ill-structured engineering ethics problems through a collaborative learning and argument visualization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason

    2014-03-01

    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills.

  15. STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING AND CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING IN LEARNING INTODUCTION TO LITERATURE TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS MORALITY AND MULTICULTURAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminto Siminto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously the paradigm change was done from the teacher centered to the student centered in teaching learning process. It was expected to be able to encourage the students to be involved in building their knowledge, attitude, and character. Besides that, English learners did not understand about the native culture and morality values to the language that they are learning. Cross cultural understanding knowledge is very useful to improve the students‘ ability in recognizing the dissimilarity culture and live together in the middle of the dissimilarity culture. This research was based on the qualitative research principle. The research type used was qualitative study by using action research design. Subject of this research was the fourth semester students who have programmed Introduction to Literature in English Study Program at Palangkaraya State Islamic Institute in academic year 2014/2015, consisted of two learning group. Based on the research findings, by implementing of student-centered learning and cross cultural understanding, it showed that they can increase: (1 the students‘ readiness, being active, seriousness in analyzing English literature text; (2 the students‘ performance in doing of tasks given to each students to be able to share their understanding about English literature text to the other students; (3 the students‘ learning quality, academic achievement, interest, response in learning of Introduction to Literature related to literature text analysis concept mastering; (4 the students‘ morality and multicultural values. It could be seen from the students‘ study result, literature text analysis result, and the students‘ character.

  16. The Effect of Constructivist Learning Using Scientific Approach on Mathematical Power and Conceptual Understanding of Students Grade IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmaryono, Imam; Suyitno, Hardi

    2016-02-01

    This study used a model of Concurrent Embedded with the aim of: (1) determine the difference between the conceptual understanding and mathematical power of students grade fourth who take the constructivist learning using scientific approach and direct learning, (2) determine the interaction between learning approaches and initial competence on the mathematical power and conceptual of understanding, and (3) describe the mathematical power of students grade fourth. This research was conducted in the fourth grade elementary school early 2015. Data initial competence and mathematical power obtained through tests, and analyzed using statistical tests multivariate and univariate. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) There are differences in the concept of understanding and mathematical power among the students who follow the scientifically-based constructivist learning than students who take the Direct Learning in terms of students initial competency (F = 5.550; p = 0.007 problem solving and contributes tremendous increase students' math skills. Researcher suggested that the learning of mathematics in schools using scientifically- based constructivist approach to improve the mathematical power of students and conceptual understanding.

  17. Understanding digital natives' learning experiences Conhecendo as experiências de aprendizagem de nativos digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio de Paiva Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a better understanding of digital natives' perspectives on English learning. The present case study analyzes data from a group of Brazilian learners of English who study at a federal, public high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data collection includes: (a a questionnaire to examine the profile of the participants and (b learner narratives. This study privileges an interpretive approach based on Complexity Theory in an attempt to understand participants' learning experiences from a more holistic, whole-systems approach. Results indicate that the complex adaptive learning system of digital natives is self-organizing and chaotic. Moreover, the final remarks stress a pressing concern regarding English teaching in Brazil and suggest that the current pedagogical practices no longer serve the needs of the digital generation.Este trabalho tem por objetivo fornecer uma melhor compreensão das perspectivas de nativos digitais sobre a aprendizagem de inglês. O presente estudo de caso analisa dados de um grupo de aprendizes brasileiros de inglês que estudam em uma escola federal de Ensino Médio, localizada no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coleta de dados é feita por meio de (a um questionário para traçar o perfil dos participantes, e (b as narrativas dos alunos. Este estudo privilegia uma abordagem interpretativa com base na teoria da complexidade, de modo a tentar entender as experiências de aprendizagem dos participantes a partir de uma forma mais holística, de sistemas. Os resultados indicam que o sistema adaptativo complexo de aprendizagem de nativos digitais é auto-organizante e caótico. Além disso, as considerações finais destacam uma preocupação séria com o ensino de inglês no Brasil e sugerem que as atuais práticas pedagógicas já não atendem às necessidades da geração digital.

  18. THE TYPES OF REQUEST EXPRESSIONS USED IN NOVEL “HARRY POTTER AND THE CHAMBER OF SECRETS”: Their Appropriateness to ESL/EFL Teaching for Junior High School Students in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzulul Isna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Novels can be authentic sources for learning ESL/EFL, especially in non-English speaking countries. They may present reliable learning references in the absence of native speakers. This article aims to identify the types of request expressions originated in novel “Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets” as well as their appropriateness for teaching ESL/EFL in aligment to current applied curriculum (2006 curriculum in junior high school level in Indonesia. This research employed a qualitative research which was based on content analysis methodology. The data analysis revealed the types of request expressions (Tsui, 1989 generated out of 110 items uttered by the characters in the novel. 65.5% of the finding matched the nine request expressions learning materials embedded in the 2006 curriculum. Indeed, this finding may significantly contribute to the addition of authentic English learning source, especially in teaching speaking skill.

  19. Chemistry teachers’ understanding of science process skills in relation of science process skills assessment in chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Yamtinah, S.; Ashadi; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    A Science process skill (SPS) is a fundamental scientific method to achieve good knowledge. SPS can be categorized into two levels: basic and integrated. Learning SPS helps children to grow as individuals who can access knowledge and know how to acquire it. The primary outcomes of the scientific process in learning are the application of scientific processes, scientific reasoning, accurate knowledge, problem-solving, and understanding of the relationship between science, technology, society, and everyday life’s events. Teachers’ understanding of SPS is central to the application of SPS in a learning process. Following this point, this study aims to investigate the high school chemistry teachers’ understanding of SPS pertains to their assessment of SPS in chemistry learning. The understanding of SPS is measured from the conceptual and operational aspects of SPS. This research uses qualitative analysis method, and the sample consists of eight chemistry teachers selected by random sampling. A semi-structured interview procedure is used to collect the data. The result of the analysis shows that teachers’ conceptual and operational understanding of SPS is weak. It affects the accuracy and appropriateness of the teacher’s selection of SPS assessment in chemistry learning.

  20. Understanding the Causal Path between Action, Learning, and Solutions: Maximizing the Power of Action Learning to Achieve Great Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, H. Skipton

    2015-01-01

    Clients and practitioners alike are often confused about the ultimate purpose of action learning (AL). Because of the title of the method, many believe the primary goal of AL is to generate learning. This article clarifies the relationship between action, learning, and solutions. It also provides historical evidence to support the conclusion that…

  1. Understanding the Construction of Personal Learning Networks to Support Non-Formal Workplace Learning of Training Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Workers in the 21st century workplace are faced with rapid and constant developments that place a heavy demand on them to continually learn beyond what the Human Resources and Training groups can meet. As a consequence, professionals must rely on non-formal learning approaches through the development of a personal learning network to keep…

  2. The Model of Strategic e-Learning: Understanding and Evaluating Student e-Learning from Metacognitive Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Model of Strategic e-Learning to explain and evaluate student e-learning from metacognitive perspectives. An in-depth interview, pilot study and main study are employed to construct the model and develop an instrument--the Online Learning Strategies Scale (OLSS). The model framework is constructed and illustrated by four…

  3. ACTIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING FOR ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Dewi Pratama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Cultural Understanding (CCU is one of required courses in English Language Teaching which aims at connecting language and culture so that language learners can use foreign language appropriately, i.e. appropriate forms of language for appropriate context of situation. However, some obstacles usually occur during the course, for examples: students’ lack of understanding that lead to opinions stating that this is a boring and useless course, and large number of students within a class where lecturer must teach more than 40 students in one class. Considering the importance of CCU course as well as the needs to overcome the problems during this course, this paper proposes some particular teaching strategies to help students in apprehending CCU materials through students’ active participations. Active learning strategies are preferred by means of raising students’ participation and critical thinking so that the class would run more effectively. Other consideration in composing the strategies is to prepare English Education students to be future English language teachers by training their ability in teaching performance as well as connecting language and culture in English Language Teaching (ELT.   Keywords: language, culture, strategies, media, ELT

  4. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  5. Research on Eye Movement Tracking in ESL Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlian ZHAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement behavior in reading can reflect on-line cognitive process. Through the on-line measure of eye movement, under relatively natural reading condition, data of the reader’ s eye movement in the text can be obtained in processing information, and thus help to reveal the internal cognitive mechanisms in reading. With the development of intelligentization, serialization and portable direction in eye tracker, there exist great number of studies on eye movement tracking, but studies on eye movement features in ESL reading are rare. In such circumstances, this paper mainly illustrates eye movement patterns, the relationship between eye movement and perceptual processing, and eye movement control in ESL reading.

  6. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  7. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  8. Can Executive Functions Help to Understand Children with Mathematical Learning Disorders and to Improve Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie; De Weerdt, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Working memory, inhibition and naming speed was assessed in 22 children with mathematical learning disorders (MD), 17 children with a reading learning disorder (RD), and 45 children without any learning problems between 8 and 12 years old. All subjects with learning disorders performed poorly on working memory tasks, providing evidence that they…

  9. Oral Communication in ESL Through Improvisations, Playwriting And Rehearsals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamkaur Gill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of drama strategies which focus more on meaning than on form can provide an impetus for ESL learners to be more confident about speaking, thereby increasing the quantity of their spoken English. This paper discusses existing research and the author’s own experiences in an attempt to highlight the positive effects of improvisations, playwriting and rehearsals on the oral output of learners in relation to communicative English.

  10. Using Appreciative Pedagogy to Teach Literature to ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chang Liao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how college literature instructors can use appreciative pedagogy in teaching students of English as a Second Language (ESL how to appreciate works of literature. The study of literature can be used as a channel for college students to access a wealth of human experience and to develop their sensitivity, empathy, and compassion toward other human beings. However, most ESL students in Taiwan are used to following their teachers’ interpretations and lack the confidence or experience to use their hearts to appreciate literature works. Appreciative pedagogy can be used in teaching literature. Through using the steps of the Discovery-DreamDesign-Delivery cycle designed by Cooperrider and Whitney (1999 in the practice of appreciative pedagogy, students can form a positive attitude towards their characteristics, values, and past experiences, thereby developing their self-confidence and competencies in studying literature. The quantitative instruments used were an English reading proficiency test and a student satisfaction survey. A fourteen-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of using appreciative pedagogy with ESL students studying literature. The research results revealed that students instructed with appreciative pedagogy had improved English reading proficiency and greater satisfaction with their class.

  11. Understanding the essential elements of work-based learning and its relevance to everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    To critically review the work-based learning literature and explore the implications of the findings for the development of work-based learning programmes. With NHS budgets under increasing pressure, and challenges to the impact of classroom-based learning on patient outcomes, work-based learning is likely to come under increased scrutiny as a potential solution. Evidence from higher education institutions suggests that work-based learning can improve practice, but in many cases it is perceived as little more than on-the-job training to perform tasks. The CINAHL database was searched using the keywords work-based learning, work-place learning and practice-based learning. Those articles that had a focus on post-registration nursing were selected and critically reviewed. Using the review of the literature, three key issues were explored. Work-based learning has the potential to change practice. Learning how to learn and critical reflection are key features. For effective work-based learning nurses need to take control of their own learning, receive support to critically reflect on their practice and be empowered to make changes to that practice. A critical review of the literature has identified essential considerations for the implementation of work-based learning. A change in culture from classroom to work-based learning requires careful planning and consideration of learning cultures. To enable effective work-based learning, nurse managers need to develop a learning culture in their workplace. They should ensure that skilled facilitation is provided to support staff with critical reflection and effecting changes in practice. CONTRIBUTION TO NEW KNOWLEDGE: This paper has identified three key issues that need to be considered in the development of work-based learning programmes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A Resource-Oriented Functional Approach to English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that investigates the learning preferences and strategies of Chinese students learning English as a second language (ESL) in Canadian school settings. It focuses on the interaction between second language (L2) learning methods that the students have adopted from their previous learning experience in China and…

  13. MoREK: The learning media to improve students understanding about electrical circuit in informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianto; Nur Indah Susanti, Meilia; Arianto, Rakhmat

    2018-03-01

    The needs for labor in the world is already increasing especially in Indonesia. According to the World Bank, Indonesia is a country that ranks 9th in the world’s largest economic growth. To meet that needs, Indonesia needs 55 million workers who are experts in the field of electricity. Therefore, it takes a lot of human resources and has been equipped with knowledge and expertise in the field of electricity. To be able to meet these needs, it takes a better method of learning to increase knowledge and expertise in the field of electricity since college, especially in the field of informatics. Prototype of Electrical Module (The MoREK) requires a Prototype method for the Practicum Module to be created as desired. This method is often used in the real world or it could be said Prototype method is part of the product that expresses the logic and physical external interface that is displayed. For data retrieval is used Pre-experimental method where students will be given pre-test and post-test. The Design of Electrical Module has a purpose to improve the students understanding of Electric Circuit Engineering Courses with the creation of The MoREK so that students are more competent to the course and can meet the needs of manpower or Human Resources (SDM) in the field of electricity. By using The Morek, the score of student learning outcomes increased by 7.8% and informatics students who conduct research in the field of electricity increased to 21%.

  14. Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miccoli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.

  15. Understanding the Influence of Learners' Forethought on Their Use of Science Study Strategies in Postsecondary Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Karee E.; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding self-regulation in science learning is important for theorists and practitioners alike. However, very little has been done to explore and understand students' self-regulatory processes in postsecondary science courses. In this study, the influence of science efficacy, learning value, and goal orientation on the perceived use of science study strategies was explored using structural equation modeling. In addition, the study served to validate the first two stages of Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulation and to address the common methodological weakness in self-regulation research in which data are all collected at one point after the learning cycle is complete. Thus, data were collected across the learning cycle rather than asking students to reflect upon each construct after the learning cycle was complete. The findings supported the hypothesized model in which it was predicted that self-efficacy would significantly and positively influence students' perceived science strategy use, and the influence of students' valuation of science learning on science study strategies would be mediated by their learning goal orientation. The findings of the study are discussed and implications for undergraduate science instructors are proposed.

  16. Malaysian Tertiary Level ESL Students’ Perceptions toward Teacher Feedback, Peer Feedback and Self-assessment in their Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayatri Vasu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, teacher feedback is highly preferred by students, who often believe that teachers know best. Teacher feedback shows them their teacher’s idea of an ideal writing. However, excessive dependence on teachers adds to their workload. Therefore, teachers are increasingly promoting two other alternative methods that are gradually gaining importance. These methods are peer feedback and self-assessment. This study investigates ESL students’ perceptions toward teacher feedback, peer feedback and self-assessment in students’ writing process. Questionnaires, adapted from the instruments in the literature, were administered to 107 randomly selected students in a private local university in Malaysia. Students found feedback given to the content and organization of their writing more useful than feedback provided for their vocabulary and grammar. It was also found that students perceived feedback from teacher, peers and self-assessment all as highly useful. Additionally the results indicated while there was no significant difference (p > .05 between the students’ perceptions toward teacher feedback and self-assessment, they were both perceived as significantly more useful (p < .001 than peer feedback. The students also perceived explicit feedback as significantly more useful (p < .001 than implicit feedback. The results of this study have implications for English language learning-teaching practitioners and researchers. They shed light on the options preferred by students in revising their writing in ESL writing classrooms. Future research on the effects of teacher feedback, peer feedback and self-assessment on students’ writing performance will provide better insight on the preferred methods in ESL writing classrooms in similar settings.

  17. Food Sauces to Understand Volcanoes: a Learning Sequence in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccioni, Fabio; Bonaccorsi, Elena; Gioncada, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Some volcanic processes occur at pressures and temperatures very different from daily experience. Such extreme conditions, unreproducible in the classroom, can lead children to build concepts about volcanic phenomena very different from the reality (Greca & Moreira, 2000; Dove, 1998). The didactic goals of this learning sequence concern the relationships between the viscosity of magmas and types of erupted materials and their consequences on volcano shapes, to favour pupils' comprehension of what a volcano is. Viscosity and its temperature dependence can be easily experimented in class with analogue materials at room temperature (Baker et al., 2004). Our research aims are to observe the development of the thought of pupils of middle schools on volcanic phenomena; this allowed to put in evidence the benefits of this approach and to give suggestions to avoid possible critical points. We have experimented a hands-on learning sequence about volcanoes in four third classes of Tuscan middle schools, for an amount of 95 pupils, 48 females and 47 males. Sharing the principles of constructivism, we think useful that pupils start from their own direct experience for understanding natural phenomena not directly observable. Therefore, we start from the experiences and knowledge of children to build a inquiry-based itinerary (Minner et al., 2010; Pieraccioni et al., 2016). The learning sequence begins with a practical activity in which we employ common and well-known materials to introduce the concept of viscosity in order to relate various kinds of magma to the shape of volcanoes. One of the benefits of this approach is to overcome the problems of introducing complex concepts such as acidity of magmas or silica content, far from the pupils' experience and knowledge. These concepts are often used in Italian middle school textbooks to describe and classify volcanoes. The result is a list of names to learn by heart. On the contrary, by using oil, ketchup, peanut butter or honey

  18. Engaged to Learn Ways of Engaging ESL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Tomlinson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I am going to argue that our most important role as language teachers is to provide potentially engaging materials for our learners and then to make use of them in optimally engaging ways. If we do not engage our learners most of the time no amount of exposure, teaching, practice or use of the language will help them to achieve sufficient language acquisition and development.

  19. Cultural Factors Affecting Chinese ESL Students' Academic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyan; Brown, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Confucianism meets Constructivism in North American universities and our classrooms are failing to meet the educational expectations of Chinese students. Specifically, students from the People's Republic of China mentioned six areas where they feel discomfort: (a) They feel uncomfortable with the classroom behavior of North American students; (b)…

  20. Understanding Mathematic Concept in Relation and Function Method through Active Learning Type Group to Group Distributed LKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudri, F.; Rahmi, R.; Haryono, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This research is motivated by the lack of understanding of mathematical concepts students and teachers have not familiarize students discussed in groups. This researchaims to determine whether an understanding of mathematical concepts junior class VIII SMPN 2 in Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat by applying active learning strategy group to group types with LKS better than conventional learning. The type of research is experimental the design of randomized trials on the subject. The population in the study were all students VIII SMPN 2 Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat in year 2012/2013 which consists of our class room experiment to determine the grade and control class with do nerandomly, so that classes VIII1 elected as a experiment class and class VIII4 as a control class. The instruments used in the test empirically understanding mathematical concepts are shaped by the essay with rt=0,82 greater than rt=0,468 means reliable tests used. The data analysis technique used is the test with the help of MINITAB. Based on the results of the data analisis known that both of the sample are normal and homogenity in real rate α = 0,05, so the hypothesis of this research is received. So, it can be concluded students’ understanding mathematical concept applied the active Group to Group learning strategy with LKS is better than the students’ understanding mathematical concept with Conventional Learning.

  1. Community in a Hurry: Social Contracts and Social Covenants in Short-Term ESL Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2009-01-01

    Like many adult ESL instructors, the author has felt firsthand the challenges of creating community in short-term courses. Through his experience, he has noticed that in order to successfully build community in short-term ESL courses, teachers need to lay a foundation for social contracts and social covenants from the first day of the course and…

  2. Principled Eclecticism: Approach and Application in Teaching Writing to ESL/EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Sultan H.

    2017-01-01

    The principal purpose of this paper is to critically examine and evaluate the efficacy of the principled eclectic approach to teaching English as second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) writing to undergraduate students. The paper illustrates that this new method adapts mainstream writing pedagogies to individual needs of learners of ESL/EFL in order to…

  3. The Conflation of Adult ESL and Literacy: The Views of Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Douglas; René, Carène Pierre; Bangou, Francis; Sarwar, Gul Shahzad

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the links between English as a second language (ESL) instruction and literacy instruction through an examination of viewpoints from eight teachers in two Canadian provinces. Four of these teachers worked in government--funded adult ESL and literacy education programs for a large urban school district in the province of…

  4. Mainstream Teacher Candidates' Perspectives on ESL Writing: The Effects of Writer Identity and Rater Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook; Veitch, Hillary

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which the ethnic identity of a writer and the background (gender and area of teaching) of a rater can influence mainstream teacher candidates' evaluation of English as a second language (ESL) writing, using a matched-guise method. A one-page essay was elicited from an ESL learner enrolled in an intensive English…

  5. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  6. The Experiences in Processing Policies and Contracts by Adult ESL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiog, Evalyn B.

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the experiences of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) readers in processing legal texts prior to entering a financial agreement. A preliminary survey was conducted to determine the commonly read policies and contracts of adult ESL reader-consumers, which revealed those of banks and life-insurance companies; hence,…

  7. Tuning In: Using the News for a Content-Based ESL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Vast amounts of daily news content are widely available and easily accessible, and they can be converted into materials for intermediate and advanced ESL classes. This article will describe the why and how for integrating news media sources into a multiskills ESL classroom. Through the news, students are immediately engaged with the material…

  8. Perceptions of ESL Program Management in Canadian Higher Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    ESL programs at post-secondary institutions must often generate revenue in addition to teaching students English. Institutions often impose explicit expectations on these programs to generate profit, creating unique challenges for those who administer them. This qualitative case study investigated challenges faced by ESL program directors at one…

  9. Career Development and Professional Attrition of Novice ESL Teachers of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeo, Antonella; Faez. Farahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Research and development in language teacher education and, more recently, teacher accreditation has had enormous impact on the professional lives of ESL teachers in Canada. There has been less interest, however, in examining the career development and employment experiences of accredited ESL teachers as they transition from TESL programs to ESL…

  10. Counting Words: Successful Sentences for Beginning ESL Adult Learners Using the Product Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The majority of correctional students of English as a second language (ESL) in Maryland come to school with limited formal education in their first language. Education has not been prioritized, and formal writing ability is absent. It then becomes a challenge to motivate students to successful writing, as is required by the state. ESL students at…

  11. Developing Reading Comprehension Modules to Facilitate Reading Comprehension among Malaysian Secondary School ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to develop a set of 6 Reading Comprehension Modules (RCMs) for Malaysian ESL teachers to facilitate different reading abilities of ESL students effectively. Different skill categories were selected for developing the RCMs. This article describes how and why diverse texts of varying length were adopted and adapted from various…

  12. Placement of English as a Second Language (ESL) Student Learners in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Immigration into the U.S. will continue to increase in the coming years, thereby increasing the postsecondary enrollment of ESL students. Yet there is still a limited amount of research designed to evaluate which ESL placement programs are most effective. This study was designed to determine if the use of correct testing instruments would ensure…

  13. Becoming "Local" in ESL: Racism as Resource in a Hawai'i Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmy, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Drawn from a 2.5 year critical ethnography in the ESL program of a Hawai'i public high school (Tradewinds High), this article examines racializing and racist conduct directed at Micronesian students by a group of old-timer ESL students, primarily of East/Southeast Asian inheritance. Racialization and racism directed at Micronesians positioned them…

  14. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  15. Differences in Less Proficient and More Proficient ESL College Writing in the Philippine Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustilo, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing what skilled or more proficient ESL college writing is in the Philippine setting through a contrastive analysis of three groups of variables identified from previous studies: resources, processes, and performance of ESL writers. Based on Chenoweth and Hayes' (2001; 2003) framework, the resource level…

  16. Hidden Losses: How Demographics Can Encourage Incorrect Assumptions about ESL High School Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kelleen; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2008-01-01

    Data from ESL students' records in Vancouver are examined in the light of the BC Ministry of Education's claim that ESL high school students are more successful than students whose first language is English. We argue that the academic achievement of well-to-do students whose parents are skilled workers or entrepreneurs may mask the completion…

  17. Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary Acquisition, Language Usage, and Meaning for Mainland Chinese ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Brand, Manny

    2009-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, this study examined the relative effectiveness of varying the use of songs (lyrics and music) on vocabulary acquisition, language usage, and meaning for adult ESL students in the People's Republic of China. While the use of songs is generally enthusiastically endorsed by ESL teachers, few empirical studies have…

  18. Cultural Competence in Alberta Schools: Perceptions of ESL Families in Four Major School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hieu V.

    2012-01-01

    Complex linguistic, acculturative, and social needs of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners challenge the K-12 education system to develop cultural competence in working with culturally diverse families. This study surveyed 242 self-identified ESL students and their parents from four of Alberta's major school boards. Results of the survey…

  19. A Review of the Four Most Widely-Used ESL Texts by LLA/LVA Affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelleri, Maria

    This report reviews four English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks, using criteria developed for volunteer-based organizations (VBOs). It illustrates the process that VBOs need to undertake prior to ESL textbook selection. The four texts include the following: "Laubach Way to English" (J. Macero and M. Lane), which focuses on linguistic rather…

  20. Empirical Study on Learners' Self-Efficacy in ESL/EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of learner-oriented approach in language teaching, research on learners is gaining more and more importance. This paper attempts to review the empirical researches on self-efficacy in the ESL/EFL settings during the past 10 years with the purpose of depicting the extent to which the self-efficacy research in ESL/EFL has…

  1. Using Facebook-Based e-Portfolio in ESL Writing Classrooms: Impact and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrot, Jessie S.

    2016-01-01

    In English as a second language (ESL) writing pedagogy, much attention has been given to electronic portfolio (e-portfolio) assessment via social networking sites. However, little is known about how Facebook can be used as an e-portfolio platform. Hence, this paper describes the impact of Facebook-based e-portfolio on ESL students' writing…

  2. You Are Not Logged In: Context and Interpersonal Meaning of Instructions and Links in a typical Learning Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem Olafemi Ogunmuyiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that the incorporation of Learning Management Systems (LMS in ESL/EFL instruction has enhanced learners understanding of the language just as it has helped teachers in monitoring students’ progress. However, the use of these eLearning platforms can be quite challenging for EFL learners who are yet to be proficient in the English language. This is because all course information and instructions are offered in the language. Following the notion of context and language metafunctions by Halliday (1985 and his followers, analysis of some linguistic expressions in typical learning management systems is conducted. I show how context and interpersonal meanings are established, and how they can enhance learners’ comprehension of information and instructions. The linguistic expressions used as data are sourced from student-specific pages of the web-based Learning Management System (Blackboard and the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle as adapted in colleges and institutes in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  4. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H.E. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  5. Using iterative learning to improve understanding during the informed consent process in a South African psychiatric genomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Megan M; Susser, Ezra; Mall, Sumaya; Mqulwana, Sibonile G; Mndini, Michael M; Ntola, Odwa A; Nagdee, Mohamed; Zingela, Zukiswa; Van Wyk, Stephanus; Stein, Dan J

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants' understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC) was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls. We address two questions: firstly, whether research participants' understanding of the research study improved through iterative learning; and secondly, what were predictors for better understanding of the research study at the initial screening? During screening 290 (55%) cases and 172 (33%) controls scored below the 14.5 cut-off for acceptable understanding of the research study elements, however after iterative learning only 38 (7%) cases and 13 (2.5%) controls continued to score below this cut-off. Significant variables associated with increased understanding of the consent included the psychiatric nurse recruiter conducting the consent screening, higher participant level of education, and being a control. The UBACC proved an effective tool to improve understanding of research study elements during consent, for both cases and controls. The tool holds utility for complex studies such as those involving genomics, where iterative learning can be used to make significant improvements in understanding of research study elements. The UBACC may be particularly important in groups with severe mental illness and lower education levels. Study recruiters play a significant role in managing the quality of

  6. Using iterative learning to improve understanding during the informed consent process in a South African psychiatric genomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Campbell

    Full Text Available Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants' understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls. We address two questions: firstly, whether research participants' understanding of the research study improved through iterative learning; and secondly, what were predictors for better understanding of the research study at the initial screening? During screening 290 (55% cases and 172 (33% controls scored below the 14.5 cut-off for acceptable understanding of the research study elements, however after iterative learning only 38 (7% cases and 13 (2.5% controls continued to score below this cut-off. Significant variables associated with increased understanding of the consent included the psychiatric nurse recruiter conducting the consent screening, higher participant level of education, and being a control. The UBACC proved an effective tool to improve understanding of research study elements during consent, for both cases and controls. The tool holds utility for complex studies such as those involving genomics, where iterative learning can be used to make significant improvements in understanding of research study elements. The UBACC may be particularly important in groups with severe mental illness and lower education levels. Study recruiters play a significant role in managing

  7. Understanding How Young Children Learn: Bringing the Science of Child Development to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Because little kids can't tell you how their minds work and what makes them learn, you need this book about new scientific discoveries that explain how young children learn and what teachers can do to use those findings to enhance classroom teaching. Discover where the desire to learn comes from and what occurs during children's development to…

  8. "Peeling an onion": Layering as a methodology to understand learning as an embodied assemblage of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers science learning as an embodied assemblages of practices and seeks to propose a methodology to systematically analyze the multiple layers that shape how students’ do and learn science. Science learning as an embodied assemblage of practices sensitizes us towards the dimension...

  9. Examining and Understanding Transformative Learning to Foster Technology Professional Development in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Maurice Schols

    2012-01-01

    Educators are increasingly encouraged to practice life-long learning. Learning to cope with emerging technologies for educational purposes is, for most educators, a complex process. Consequently, educators engage in critical reflective processes, and consider new views as they learn new knowledge

  10. Understanding and Preventing Learned Helplessness in Children Who Are Congenitally Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, S. B.

    1998-01-01

    Links the literature on learned helplessness with best practices in teaching children who are deaf-blind. Defines "learned helplessness" and "mastery motivation;" considers identification of learned helplessness; and offers suggestions such as rewarding independent rather than dependent behaviors and integrating orientation, mobility, and…

  11. Leveraging Faculty Reflective Practice to Understand Active Learning Spaces: Flashbacks and Re-Captures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Guo, Xiuyan; Pursel, Barton K.

    2017-01-01

    Although learning spaces research is not new, research approaches that target the specific teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students who occupy active learning classrooms (ALCs) is nascent. We report on two novels data collection approaches: Flashbacks and Re-Captures. Both leverage faculty reflective practice and provide windows…

  12. Reciprocal Exchange: Understanding the Community Partner Perspective in Higher Education Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Alexis Nicolle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates service-learning from the community partners' perspective, especially in terms of reciprocity. As a central construct in the theory of service-learning, reciprocity for community partners is virtually unknown. Little scholarship exists that explains or explores the benefits and opportunity costs of service-learning. One…

  13. Conceptual Understanding and Representation Quality through Multi-representation Learning on Newton Law Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Furwati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Students who have good conceptual acquisition will be able to represent the concept by using multi representation. This study aims to determine the improvement of students' understanding of the concept of Newton's Law material, and the quality of representation used in solving problems on Newton's Law material. The results showed that the concept acquisition of students increased from the average of 35.32 to 78.97 with an effect size of 2.66 (strong and N-gain of 0.68 (medium. The quality of each type of student representation also increased from level 1 and level 2 up to level 3. Key Words: concept aquisition, represetation quality, multi representation learning, Newton’s Law Abstrak: Siswa yang memiliki penguasaan konsep yang baik akan mampu merepresentasikan konsep dengan menggunakan multi representasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan pemahaman konsep siswa SMP pada materi Hukum Newton, dan kualitas representasi yang digunakan dalam menyelesaikan masalah pada materi Hukum Newton. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penguasaan konsep siswa meningkat dari rata-rata 35,32 menjadi 78,97 dengan effect size sebesar 2,66 (kuat dan N-gain sebesar 0,68 (sedang. Kualitas tiap jenis representasi siswa juga mengalami peningkatan dari level 1 dan level 2 naik menjadi level 3. Kata kunci: hukum Newton, kualitas representasi, pemahaman konsep, pembelajaran multi representasi

  14. Understanding the Effects of Time on Collaborative Learning Processes in Problem Based Learning: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J.; Van den Bossche, P.; de Grave, W.; Bos, G.; Schuwirth, L.; Scherpbier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known how time influences collaborative learning groups in medical education. Therefore a thorough exploration of the development of learning processes over time was undertaken in an undergraduate PBL curriculum over 18 months. A mixed-methods triangulation design was used. First, the quantitative study measured how various learning…

  15. Learning and Cognition: The Interplay between The Subject and The Group Understanding The Processes of Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Kim Malmbak Meltofte; Fast, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationship between learning, epistemology, and intersubjectivity in the context of problem-based learning and project-oriented work at a university level. It aims to show how the collaboration of students in a group over a long period of time can put emphasis on the knowledge-practice discussion, and…

  16. ESL Teacher and ICT: Teachers' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chua Pei; Yunus, Melor Md.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of Information Communication and Technologies (ICTs) has made tremendous changes in the twenty-first century. ICT is said to bring a variety of benefits in facilitating the teaching and learning process. Therefore, ICT has been the emphasis in school and higher institutions of education nowadays. However, to integrate ICT in…

  17. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  18. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  19. Three-dimensional printing model improves morphological understanding in acetabular fracture learning: A multicenter, randomized, controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfei Huang

    Full Text Available Conventional education results in unsatisfactory morphological understanding of acetabular fractures due to lack of three-dimensional (3D details and tactile feedback of real fractures. Virtual reality (VR and 3D printing (3DP techniques are widely applied in teaching. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of physical model (PM, VR and 3DP models in education of morphological understanding of acetabular fractures. 141 students were invited to participate in this study. Participants were equally and randomly assigned to the PM, VR and 3DP learning groups. Three-level objective tests were conducted to evaluate learning, including identifying anatomical landmarks, describing fracture lines, identifying classification, and inferring fracture mechanism. Four subjective questions were asked to evaluate the usability and value of instructional materials. Generally, the 3DP group showed a clear advantage over the PM and VR groups in objective tests, while there was no significant difference between the PM and VR groups. 3DP was considered to be the most valuable learning tool for understanding acetabular fractures. The findings demonstrate that 3DP modelling of real fractures is an effective learning instrument that can be used to understand the morphology of acetabular fractures and promote subjective interest.

  20. Long will they live, work and learn : A scheme for understanding and influencing employability during the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Aukje; de Lange, Annet H.; Gortz, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Long will they live, work and learn. A scheme for understanding and influencing employability during the life span A. Nauta, A. H. de Lange en S. Gortz, Gedrag & Organisatie, volume 23, June 2010, nr. 2, pp. 136-157 To stimulate employees' employability until high age, knowledge is needed about what