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Sample records for understanding early immunological

  1. The early history of Stanford Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia P; Herzenberg, Leonore A

    2014-05-01

    From its 1960 beginnings in a pair of windowless Genetics Department laboratories under the Stanford Medical School Dean's Office to its current broad-based program, which joins faculty members from departments across the Medical School, the Stanford Immunology Program has played a central role in shaping both basic and clinical immunology thinking. In this article, we tell the story of the beginnings of this odyssey in a reminiscence-based format that brings the flavor of the time in the words of people who lived and built the history.

  2. Understanding immunology: fun at an intersection of the physical, life, and clinical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how the immune system works is a grand challenge in science with myriad direct implications for improving human health. The immune system protects us from infectious pathogens and cancer, and maintains a harmonious steady state with essential microbiota in our gut. Vaccination, the medical procedure that has saved more lives than any other, involves manipulating the immune system. Unfortunately, the immune system can also go awry to cause autoimmune diseases. Immune responses are the product of stochastic collective dynamic processes involving many interacting components. These processes span multiple scales of length and time. Thus, statistical mechanics has much to contribute to immunology, and the oeuvre of biological physics will be further enriched if the number of physical scientists interested in immunology continues to increase. I describe how I got interested in immunology and provide a glimpse of my experiences working on immunology using approaches from statistical mechanics and collaborating closely with immunologists.

  3. Understanding Immunology via Engineering Design: The Role of Mathematical Prototyping

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    David J. Klinke

    2012-01-01

    type 1 diabetes and the dynamics of dendritic cells in the lung. This paper is intended to illustrate some of the nuances associated with applying mathematical modeling to improve understanding of the dynamics of disease progression in humans.

  4. Maintaining Intestinal Health: The Genetics and Immunology of Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseSummary

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    Judith R. Kelsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD younger than 5 years of age represent a unique form of disease, termed very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD, which is phenotypically and genetically distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression, and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal inflammation and promote tissue repair. Here, we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation. Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Whole Exome Sequencing, Mucosal Immunology

  5. A history of fish immunology and vaccination I. the early days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.

    2008-01-01

    This historic review describes the people that were involved in studying some aspect of fish immunology and vaccination from as early as 1854. Between 1850 and 1940, most scientists were looking at fish from the angle of comparative anatomy, embryology, physiology, taxonomy and fish diseases. Most

  6. Maintaining intestinal health: the genetics and immunology of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD occurring before the age of 5 represent a unique form of disease, termed Very Early Onset (VEO)-IBD, which is phenotypically- and genetically-distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies, and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal disease. Here we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation.

  7. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  8. A history of fish immunology and vaccination I. The early days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Muiswinkel, Willem B

    2008-10-01

    This historic review describes the people that were involved in studying some aspect of fish immunology and vaccination from as early as 1854. Between 1850 and 1940, most scientists were looking at fish from the angle of comparative anatomy, embryology, physiology, taxonomy and fish diseases. Most publications from this early period are describing the morphology of blood cells and hemopoietic or lymphoid organs. The first publications on specific immune responses and vaccination of fish were found in the period 1935-1938. However, the immune mechanisms behind protective immunization were largely unknown in those days. In the period after 1940, the first researchers can be found devoting their whole career to fish immunology. This paper has been organized largely by individuals and not so much by accomplishments. It is not the intent of this review to evaluate the scientific merit of the work discussed, but to provide the reader with information that was - at least in part - lost to the scientific community. Publications from before 1940 or in languages other than English (e.g. Russian) are usually not found by today's database searches on the Internet.

  9. Early Non-Immunological Post Transplant complications: A Single Center Experience

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    Jabur Wael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess non-immunological complications affecting renal transplant patients in the first six months after transplantation in Al-Karama hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, we studied 68 patients (49 males, 19 females attending the clinic during the year 2006. Forty six (67% patients received kidneys from related and 22 (33% from unrelated donors. The patients revealed the following complications: post transplant hypertension in 28 (41% patient, infection (mostly bacterial in 27 (37%, new onset diabetes in 11 (16%, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity in 10 (14%, anemia in 8 (12%, surgical complications in 7 (10%, slow graft recovery in 4 (6%, cardiovascular complications in 3 (4%, and Kaposi sarcoma in 2 (2.9%.Transient hyperglycemia, hypertension, infection and diabetes mel-litus were the commonest early complications of renal transplantation. The incidence of complications is comparable to the average reported in the literature, especially in this region of the world.

  10. Early hematological and immunological alterations in gasoline station attendants exposed to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Angela M; Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele F; Sauer, Elisa; Freitas, Fernando; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Campanharo, Sarah; Linden, Rafael; Souza, Ana P; Bonorino, Cristina; Moresco, Rafael; Pilger, Diogo; Gioda, Adriana; Farsky, Sandra; Duschl, Albert; Garcia, Solange C

    2015-02-01

    Elucidation of effective biomarkers may provide tools for the early detection of biological alterations caused by benzene exposure and may contribute to the reduction of occupational diseases. This study aimed to assess early alterations on hematological and immunological systems of workers exposed to benzene. Sixty gasoline station attendants (GSA group) and 28 control subjects were evaluated. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene exposure was performed in blood and urine. The potential effect biomarkers evaluated were δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity, CD80 and CD86 expression in lymphocytes and monocytes, and serum interleukin-8 (IL-8). The influence of confounding factors and toluene co-exposure were considered. Although exposures were below ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) limits, reduced ALA-D activity, decreased CD80 and CD86 expression in monocytes and increased IL-8 levels were found in the GSA group compared to the control subjects. Furthermore, according to multiple linear regression analysis, benzene exposure was associated to a decrease in CD80 and CD86 expression in monocytes. These findings suggest, for the first time, a potential effect of benzene exposure on ALA-D activity, CD80 and CD86 expression, IL-8 levels, which could be suggested as potential markers for the early detection of benzene-induced alterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nagy, Zoltan, A.: A history of modern immunology: the path toward understanding.

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    Dembic, Zlatko

    2014-11-29

    This book provides a detailed survey of the major advances made in the field of immunology in a period corresponding approximately to the last third of the twentieth century. In the first chapter, referred to as Pre-History, the Author, an experienced senior immunologist, briefly summarizes the preceding era often called "immunological revolution", in which the foundations of a new science, immunobiology, were laid down. The subsequent chapters (The History) then deal in detail with a number of topics within immunobiology, such as, the generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, the major histocompatibility complex, antigen presentation, T cell biology, self tolerance, and autoimmunity. The fact that the Author contributed himself to most of these topics lends the text more depth and authenticity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Systems-synthetic biology in understanding the complexities and simple devices in immunology.

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    Soni, Bhavnita; Nimsarkar, Prajakta; Mol, Milsee; Saha, Bhaskar; Singh, Shailza

    2018-03-23

    Systems and synthetic biology in the coming era has the ability to manipulate, stimulate and engineer cells to counteract the pathogenic immune response. The inherent biological complexities associated with the creation of a device allow capitalizing the biotechnological resources either by simply administering a recombinant cytokine or just reprogramming the immune cells. The strategy outlined, adopted and discussed may mark the beginning with promising therapeutics based on the principles of synthetic immunology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Immunological Predictors of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekmullica, Jutarat; Brouwers, Pim; Charurat, Manhattan; Paul, Mary; Shearer, William; Mendez, Hermann; Diaz, Clemente; Read, Jennifer S.; Mondal, Prosanta; Smith, Renee; McIntosh, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Background. A previous analysis of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the Women and Infants Transmission Study showed a strong correlation between low activated CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the first 2 months of life and good immunological prognosis. We sought to extend these

  14. Understanding Early Educators' Readiness to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shira M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the fields of humanistic psychology, counseling, organizational change, and implementation science have been asking a question that is at the heart of today's early care and education quality improvement efforts: When it comes to changing one's behavior, what makes a person ready to change? Although the concept of readiness to…

  15. The discovery and early understanding of leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.

    The early history of leukemia reaches back 200 years. In 1811, Peter Cullen defined a case of splenitis acutus with unexplainable milky blood. Alfred Velpeau defined the leukemia associated symptoms, and observed pus in the blood vessels (1825). Alfred Donne detected a maturation arrest of the white

  16. Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.

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    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early understanding and production of graphic symbols.

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    Callaghan, T C

    1999-01-01

    Young children's ability to understand and produce graphic symbols within an environment of social communication was investigated in two experiments. Children aged 2, 3, and 4 years produced graphic symbols of simple objects on their own, used them in a social communicative game, and responded to experimenter's symbols. In Experiment 1 (N = 48), 2-year-olds did not effectively produce symbols or use the experimenter's symbols in the choice task, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds improved their drawings following the game and performed above chance with the experimenter's symbols. Ability to produce an effective graphic symbol was correlated with success on a task that measured understanding of the experimenter's symbols, supporting the claim that children's ability to produce a graphic symbol rests on the understanding of the symbolic function of pictures. In Experiment 2, 32 children aged 3 and 4 years improved their third set of drawings when they received feedback that their drawings were not effective communications. The results suggest that production and understanding of graphic symbols can be facilitated by the same social factors that improve verbal symbolic abilities, thereby raising the question of domain specificity in symbolic development.

  18. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

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    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  19. Exposure to Mercury and Aluminum in Early Life: Developmental Vulnerability as a Modifying Factor in Neurologic and Immunologic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Dórea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ethylmercury (EtHg and adjuvant-Al are the dominating interventional exposures encountered by fetuses, newborns, and infants due to immunization with Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs. Despite their long use as active agents of medicines and fungicides, the safety levels of these substances have never been determined, either for animals or for adult humans—much less for fetuses, newborns, infants, and children. I reviewed the literature for papers reporting on outcomes associated with (a multiple exposures and metabolism of EtHg and Al during early life; (b physiological and metabolic characteristics of newborns, neonates, and infants relevant to xenobiotic exposure and effects; (c neurobehavioral, immunological, and inflammatory reactions to Thimerosal and Al-adjuvants resulting from TCV exposure in infancy. Immunological and neurobehavioral effects of Thimerosal-EtHg and Al-adjuvants are not extraordinary; rather, these effects are easily detected in high and low income countries, with co-exposure to methylmercury (MeHg or other neurotoxicants. Rigorous and replicable studies (in different animal species have shown evidence of EtHg and Al toxicities. More research attention has been given to EtHg and findings have showed a solid link with neurotoxic effects in humans; however, the potential synergic effect of both toxic agents has not been properly studied. Therefore, early life exposure to both EtHg and Al deserves due consideration.

  20. Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

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    Nicol, Janni; Taplin, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Steiner Waldorf High Scope Approach. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of the Steiner Waldorf Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years…

  1. Understanding the Reggio Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Second Edition. Understanding the... Approach

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    Thornton, Linda; Brunton, Pat

    2009-01-01

    "Understanding the Reggio Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Reggio Approach. Analysing the essential elements of the Reggio Approach to early childhood and its relationship to quality early years practice, this new edition is fully updated with the…

  2. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS WITH CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION MANIFESTATION IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD

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    L. V. Limareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To optimize the management of postoperative renal allograft recipients through the introduction of methods for predicting risk of manifestation of cytomegalovirus infection on the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the clinical and immunological status. Materials and methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 303 patients with end-stage renal disease, among them – were the recipients of renal allograft – 136, among whom 29 within 2 months after the operation had clinical signs of CMV infection. Assessable "CMV syndrome", laboratory evidence of CMV infection, the incidence of antigens (genes of HLA A, B and DRB *1, calculated goodness of fit χ2 and relative risk RR, changes MCP-1 in urine. Results. In renal allograft recipients with clinical and laboratory evidence of CMV infection in the early postoperative period, significantly more (χ2 > 3,8 met antigen B35. A positive association with CMV infection was detected also for DRB1 * 08, B21, B22, B41, A24 (9, B51 (5, DRB1*14 and DRB1*15. Protective effects possessed antigens / alleles of genes A26 (10, B14, B38 (16 B61 (40 and DRB1*16. MCP-1 levels in this group of recipients were raised to 2174,7 ± 296,3 pg/ml with a strong negative correlation with the levels of urea and creatinine in serum (r = 0,9, p < 0.001. Conclusion. Immunological markers of risk manifestation of CMV infection in recipients of kidneys in the early postoperative period are: the carriage of В35 и В55,56(22, В49(21, В41, DRB1*08 и DRB1*15, an increase of levels of MCP-1 in urine without increasing the levels of urea and creatinine in the serum. 

  3. SPECT gallium-67 scanning in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Failure of scanning abnormalities to correlate with immunologic staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, G.T.; Timmons, J.H.; Johnson, J.E.; Blanton, H.M.; Hartshorne, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    The use of gallium scanning in the treatment of patients with AIDS has been well described. In this study, 27 HIV-infected patients (Walter Reed Staging Classification I-V) with normal chest roentgenograms were evaluated to determine the occurrence of thoracic gallium abnormalities in early HIV infection. SPECT was used for gallium scanning. Patients received gallium injection on day 1 and bronchoalveolar lavage on day 2, and scanning was performed on day 3. Twenty-eight scans in 27 patients were performed. Mean nodal SPECT activity was compared with corresponding values for lung parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts, and peripheral blood T4 lymphocyte counts. No relationship between nodal and parenchymal activity and cell counts was observed. Although visual scan interpretation was unaffected, gallium activity was significantly increased in the region of bronchoalveolar lavage compared with uptake in other lung regions. It is concluded that SPECT gallium scanning demonstrates significant gallium avidity in recently lavaged lung areas, although no impact on visual scan interpretation was seen. Further, no correlation was seen between the degree of nodal uptake and the immunologic status of these patients with early HIV infection

  4. Immunological effects of reduced mucosal integrity in the early life of BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja Maria Bangsgaard; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Certain stimuli at the gut barrier may be necessary in early life to establish a proper balance of immune tolerance. We evaluated a compromised barrier in juvenile mice in relation to microbiota and local and systemic immunity. BALB/c mice were treated with a low dose of dextran sulfate sodium (D...

  5. Immunological reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Materials on comparative characteristics of state of some immunological parameters under the effect of toxic radioactive and non-radioactive chemical substances on organism of experimental animas as well as data on possible role of disclosed immunological changes are presented. Data on the possible role of immunological mechanisms in shortening life span and distortions of reproduction function are given

  6. Specific cutaneous histologic and immunologic features in a case of early lupus erythematosus scarring alopecia

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Immunoreactants detected by direct immunofluorescence (DIF in the skin of patients with lupus erythematosus represent an important tool in the diagnosis of this disorder. Case report: A 46 year old African American female presented complaining of hair loss and scarring in her scalp.Methods: Biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E examination, as well as for direct immunofluorescence (DIF were performed.Results: The histologic features were representative of early lupus erythematosus. DIF demonstrated immune deposits of several immunoglobulins and complement, primarily around skin appendageal structures(hair follicles and sweat glands. Deposits of immunoglobulin D were seen in several areas of the epidermis.Conclusion: In lupus erythematosus, evaluation of immune reactions against cutaneous appendageal structures may be crucial in differentiating this disorder from other autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases.

  7. Immunological aspects predicting metastatic sentinel lymph node in early breast cancer patients.

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    Bordea, C; Bordea, M; Totan, A; Condrea, I; Voinea, S; Sandru, A; Plesca, M; Blidaru, A

    2012-12-15

    Tumour antigens are poorly expressed, heterogeneous and they modulate rapidly. As a result, their recognition and elimination by the immune system is very difficult. There are several mechanisms, by means of which, the host can neutralize oncogenesis and prevent it from occurring. The sentinel lymph node concept has brought about a revolution in the surgical treatment of the regional lymphatic basin while preserving the prognostic value of the regional lymph node status in breast cancer. This prospective study included 93 women with early breast cancer with initial indication for surgery in whom the sentinel lymph node technique was employed. Cell immune response was assessed prior to surgery by means of in vitro mononuclear cells blastic transformation assay (BLT), of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) measurements. The results were correlated with tumour size, presence of positive sentinel lymph node, tumour proliferation and growth markers (Ki-67, c-erbB2, bcl-2). Even in its less advanced stages, breast cancer is more aggressive and associates with an increased rate of sentinel lymph node metastases in patients below 50 years old, the tumour size exceeds 20 mm, with the presence of peritumoral lymphocytic infiltrate, positive Ki-67 and bcl-2, an alteration of T helper (Th) lymphocytes function, increased immune suppression through IL-2 decrease, signalled by blastic transformation indexes modifications and a drop in IL-2 production (p<0.01).

  8. Adherence to drug-refill is a useful early warning indicator of virologic and immunologic failure among HIV patients on first-line ART in South Africa.

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    Ziad El-Khatib

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affordable strategies to prevent treatment failure on first-line regimens among HIV patients are essential for the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO recommends using routinely collected data such as adherence to drug-refill visits as early warning indicators. We examined the association between adherence to drug-refill visits and long-term virologic and immunologic failure among non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI recipients in South Africa.In 2008, 456 patients on NNRTI-based ART for a median of 44 months (range 12-99 months; 1,510 person-years were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study in Soweto. Charts were reviewed for clinical characteristics before and during ART. Multivariable logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis assessed associations with virologic (two repeated VL>50 copies/ml and immunologic failure (as defined by WHO.After a median of 15 months on ART, 19% (n = 88 and 19% (n = 87 had failed virologically and immunologically respectively. A cumulative adherence of <95% to drug-refill visits was significantly associated with both virologic and immunologic failure (p<0.01. In the final multivariable model, risk factors for virologic failure were incomplete adherence (OR 2.8, 95%CI 1.2-6.7, and previous exposure to single-dose nevirapine or any other antiretrovirals (adj. OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2-3.9, adjusted for age and sex. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the virologic failure rate by month 48 was 19% vs. 37% among adherent and non-adherent patients respectively (logrank p value = 0.02.One in five failed virologically after a median of 15 months on ART. Adherence to drug-refill visits works as an early warning indicator for both virologic and immunologic failure.

  9. Making sense of early false-belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina A; Strickland, Brent; Jacob, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    We address the puzzle about early belief ascription: young children fail elicited-response false-belief tasks, but they demonstrate spontaneous false-belief understanding. Based on recent converging evidence, we articulate a pragmatic framework to solve this puzzle. Young children do understand the contents of others' false belief, but they are overwhelmed when they must simultaneously make sense of two distinct actions: the instrumental action of a mistaken agent and the experimenter's communicative action. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Hummer, Tom A; Yung, Matthew G; Francis, Michael M; Lysaker, Paul H; Breier, Alan

    2015-06-29

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis.

  11. Predicting Early Viral Control under Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Using Pretreatment Immunological Markers

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    James A. Hutchinson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA treatment has revolutionized care of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Regrettably, the high cost of DAA treatment is burdensome for healthcare systems and may be prohibitive for some patients who would otherwise benefit. Understanding how patient-related factors influence individual responses to DAA treatment may lead to more efficient prescribing. In this observational study, patients with chronic HCV infection were comprehensively monitored by flow cytometry to identify pretreatment immunological variables that predicted HCV RNA negativity within 4 weeks of commencing DAA treatment. Twenty-three patients [genotype 1a (n = 10, 1b (n = 9, and 3 (n = 4] were treated with daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir (SOF (n = 15, ledipasvir plus SOF (n = 4, or ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir (n = 4. DAA treatment most prominently altered the distribution of CD8+ memory T cell subsets. Knowing only pretreatment frequencies of CD3+ and naive CD8+ T cells allowed correct classification of 83% of patients as “fast” (HCV RNA-negative by 4 weeks or “slow” responders. In a prospective cohort, these parameters correctly classified 90% of patients. Slow responders exhibited higher frequencies of CD3+ T cells, CD8+ TEM cells, and CD5high CD27− CD57+ CD8+ chronically activated T cells, which is attributed to bystander hyperactivation of virus-non-specific CD8+ T cells. Taken together, non-specific, systemic CD8+ T cell activation predicted a longer time to viral clearance. This discovery allows pretreatment identification of individuals who may not require a full 12-week course of DAA therapy; in turn, this could lead to individualized prescribing and more efficient resource allocation.

  12. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging for understanding brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I

    2015-01-03

    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination.

  14. Impact of Early Enteral Nutrition on Nutritional and Immunological Outcomes of Gastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Gastrostomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikniaz, Zeinab; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Nagashi, Shahnaz; Nikniaz, Leila

    2017-07-01

    The present systematic review and meta-analysis study evaluated the impact of early enteral nutrition (EN) on postoperative nutritional and immunological outcomes of gastric cancer (GC) patients. The databases of PubMed, Embase, Springer, and Cochrane library were searched till September 2016 to identify studies which evaluated the effects of EN compared with parenteral nutrition (PN) on postoperative immunological and nutritional status and hospitalization time in GC patients. Mean difference (MD) or standard mean difference (SMD) was calculated and I-square statistic test was used for heterogeneity analysis. The present systematic review and meta-analysis have consisted of seven trials, containing 835 GC patients. According to the result of meta-analysis, compared with PN, EN significantly resulted in more increase in the level of albumin [MD = 2.07 (0.49, 3.64)], prealbumin [MD = 9.41 (049, 33.55)], weight [MD = 1.52 (0.32, 2.72)], CD3+ [SMD = 1.96 (1.50, 2.43)], CD4+ [SMD = 2.45 (1.97, 2.93)], natural killers [MD = 5.80 (3.75, 7.85)], and also a decrease in the hospitalization time [MD=-2.39 (-2.74, -2.03)]. The results demonstrated that early administration of EN is more effective in improving postsurgical nutrition status and immune index in GC patients. So, based on these results, postoperative early administration of EN is recommended for GC patients where possible.

  15. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. The microbiome in allergic disease: Current understanding and future opportunities-2017 PRACTALL document of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yvonne J; Marsland, Benjamin J; Bunyavanich, Supinda; O'Mahony, Liam; Leung, Donald Y M; Muraro, Antonella; Fleisher, Thomas A

    2017-04-01

    PRACTALL is a joint initiative of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology to provide shared evidence-based recommendations on cutting-edge topics in the field of allergy and immunology. PRACTALL 2017 is focused on what has been established regarding the role of the microbiome in patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. This is complemented by outlining important knowledge gaps regarding its role in allergic disease and delineating strategies necessary to fill these gaps. In addition, a review of progress in approaches used to manipulate the microbiome will be addressed, identifying what has and has not worked to serve as a baseline for future directions to intervene in allergic disease development, progression, or both. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Reproductive immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2013-01-01

    pathological pregnancy are suggested to predispose to adaptive immunological processes against alloantigens on the trophoblast that may further increase the risk of pathological pregnancy outcome. The best documented adaptive immune reaction against fetal alloantigens is directed against male-specific minor...

  18. Immunology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Baron, P.A.; Drake, G.A.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Wilson, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The following studies were conducted in the field of immunology; a model system to determine toxic effects on the immune system using 3 H-uridine uptake by Feells of rats; and survival in lethally irradiatd mice receiving allogenic fetal liver and thymus

  19. Immunologic lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references

  20. Systems immunology: just getting started.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark M; Tato, Cristina M; Furman, David

    2017-06-20

    Systems-biology approaches in immunology take various forms, but here we review strategies for measuring a broad swath of immunological functions as a means of discovering previously unknown relationships and phenomena and as a powerful way of understanding the immune system as a whole. This approach has rejuvenated the field of vaccine development and has fostered hope that new ways will be found to combat infectious diseases that have proven refractory to classical approaches. Systems immunology also presents an important new strategy for understanding human immunity directly, taking advantage of the many ways the immune system of humans can be manipulated.

  1. Understanding Early Childhood Mental Health: A Practical Guide for Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…

  2. The immunological mechanisms that control pneumococcal carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Jochems

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the human nasopharynx by pneumococcus is extremely common and is both the primary reservoir for transmission and a prerequisite for disease. Current vaccines targeting the polysaccharide capsule effectively prevent colonization, conferring herd protection within vaccinated communities. However, these vaccines cover only a subset of all circulating pneumococcal strains, and serotype replacement has been observed. Given the success of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV in preventing colonization in unvaccinated adults within vaccinated communities, reducing nasopharyngeal colonization has become an outcome of interest for novel vaccines. Here, we discuss the immunological mechanisms that control nasopharyngeal colonization, with an emphasis on findings from human studies. Increased understanding of these immunological mechanisms is required to identify correlates of protection against colonization that will facilitate the early testing and design of novel vaccines.

  3. Early term birth: understanding the health risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Debra Vela

    2012-01-01

    Early term birth, which occurs at 37 to 38 weeks gestation, is often elective and can carry significant health risks to infants, including short-term and long-term health outcomes. Nurses and other health care providers involved in the care of pregnant women and infants need to be aware of these infants' physiologic vulnerability and potential short- term and long-term care requirements. Nurses can educate patients and raise awareness of the risks associated with early term birth. © 2012 AWHONN.

  4. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  5. Understanding the Characteristics of Early and Late Adopters of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobbin, Peter Ebo; Adjei, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    on the existing literature on consumer innovativeness is thus presented. The model is tested via a survey instrument from a population of earlier adopters of mobile money services in Ghana and analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-test techniques in SPSS. The results showed that early adopters...

  6. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  7. Language understanding and vocabulary of early cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L; Busch, GW; Sandahl, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level.......The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....

  8. Unwanted Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnytskyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the role of antigenic imprin­ting phenomena and antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in epidemic, infectious and postvaccinal processes. Based on published experimental data, it is shown that both phenomena are directly related to the laws of development and course of epide­mics, the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and safe use of vaccines. Their ignoring by researchers has led to failures in the design of vaccines against HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, influenza, malaria, hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. These data show that, without taking into account the two phenomena, the further development of immunology and epidemiology in the direction of breakthrough discoveries in there areas of science are impossible.

  9. Current Approaches to the Understanding of Early Infantile Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, David L.

    This review of the literature provides summaries of the genetic, neurophysiological, and biochemical approaches to understanding autism, with special reference to neuroanatomic, cognitive, and neuropsychological studies of this disorder. Available instruments for the assessment of autism and various treatment alternatives including drug therapy,…

  10. Brief Communication: Understanding disasters and early-warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaños, H.; Lomnitz, C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses some methodological questions on understanding disasters. Destructive earthquakes continue to claim thousands of lives. Tsunamis may be caused by recoil of the upper plate. Darwin's twin-epicenter hypothesis is applied to a theory of tsunamis. The ergodicity hypothesis may help to estimate the return periods of extremely rare events. A social science outline on the causation of the Tôhoku nuclear disaster is provided.

  11. A comment on Warburg's early understanding of biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höxtermann, Ekkehard

    2007-04-01

    The early history of biochemistry was characterized by changing moods. The discovery of cell free fermentation (1897) led to the optimistic belief that all life processes were carried out by intracellular enzymes, being definite proteins with special catalytic properties. But, the persistent failure to isolate pure enzymes raised doubts. When Otto Warburg found cell respiration to be a membrane-bound iron catalysis (1914), he renewed the old position that biocatalysis was caused by surface forces and ferments could be heavy metal ions adsorbed on colloidal membrane carriers. This alternative view became popular when Warburg started his research in photosynthesis and explained his peculiar "photolyte" model. Neither the suggestion of surface-active colloidal ferments, nor the idea of "photolyte" stood the test of time and have now been rejected, but their history is of importance to how concepts evolve and die.

  12. A review on tumor immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lalitha Kaja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of immune system to detect and destroy the altered/abnormal cells may inhibit the development of various cancers. The immune system had been proposed as a tactic in sustaining nonneoplastic state and also for the development of immunotherapy against cancer. Although the immune system exerts a protective role, under certain circumstances, it could be damaging in terms of modulating the oncogenic process. The failure of host's immunological responses against tumor growth and dissemination implicated that both immunologic and nonimmunologic factors may work together to affect tumorigenesis. Hence, understanding the aspects pertaining to tumor immunology which deals with the complex interactions between the host's immune system and neoplasm is essential. The current review focuses on the aspects concerned with tumor immunology, steps involved, and cancer immunotherapy as a probable therapeutic tool.

  13. Early human communication helps in understanding language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti Boero, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities.

  14. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90

  15. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    -Bissau of early BCG vs the usual postponed BCG, a subgroup was bled 4 weeks after randomization. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured from whole-blood assays stimulated with innate agonists to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4...... or -7/8, or purified protein derivative (PPD). RESULTS:  Among 467 infants, BCG significantly increased the in vitro cytokine responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD), as expected. BCG was also associated with increased responses to heterologous innate stimulation......, particularly of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. CONCLUSION:  Four weeks after immunization, BCG-vaccinated infants have a significantly increased production of cytokines upon heterologous challenge, particularly T helper cell type 1 polarizing and typically monocyte-derived pro...

  16. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  17. Regenerative immunology: the immunological reaction to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravedi, Paolo; Farouk, Samira; Angeletti, Andrea; Edgar, Lauren; Tamburrini, Riccardo; Duisit, Jerome; Perin, Laura; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Regenerative medicine promises to meet two of the most urgent needs of modern organ transplantation, namely immunosuppression-free transplantation and an inexhaustible source of organs. Ideally, bioengineered organs would be manufactured from a patient's own biomaterials-both cells and the supporting scaffolding materials in which cells would be embedded and allowed to mature to eventually regenerate the organ in question. While some groups are focusing on the feasibility of this approach, few are focusing on the immunogenicity of the scaffolds that are being developed for organ bioengineering purposes. This review will succinctly discuss progress in the understanding of immunological characteristics and behavior of different scaffolds currently under development, with emphasis on the extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained decellularized animal or human organs which seem to provide the ideal template for bioengineering purposes. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  18. [Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis of newborns with and without infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccon, M E; Diníz, E M; Carneiro-Sampaio, M M; Arslanian, C; Diogo, C L; Ramos, J L; Vaz, F A

    1998-01-01

    Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total Complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis between newborns with and without infection. Rev. Hosp. Clín. Fac. Med. S. Paulo, 53(6): 303-310, 1998. The objective of this study was to verify the immunological behavior of the newborn infant in front of an infection. We studied 60 newborn infants that had risk factors for early onset sepsis (premature rupture membranes, clinic amnionitis or tract urinary infection) from de immunological and infection point of view. They were classified into three gestational age groups: or = 37 weeks. Sepsis diagnosis was done through clinical and laboratorial data and we also included the followings exams: Immunological types (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) obtained from the newborn at birth and on the fifth day of life. We could verify that 15 newborns (25%) presented early sepsis. There was a statistical association between perinatal asfixia and infection in the group with gestational age < 34 weeks and this same group presented statistical association between infection and death. The serical levels of IgG and CH50 were directly related to the gestational age and there were significant statistical differences between levels of IgG, IgM and total Complement between infected and not infected newborns within the same group os gestional age. We observed that the infection was associated to low levels of IgG and CH50, at birth and on the fifth day, mainly in the group of infected newborns with gestional age < 34 weeks, being this group, therefore, the one that would mostly benefit from an immunological support in front of and infection.

  19. Immune Components in Human Milk Are Associated with Early Infant Immunological Health Outcomes: A Prospective Three-Country Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munblit, Daniel; Treneva, Marina; Peroni, Diego G; Colicino, Silvia; Chow, Li Yan; Dissanayeke, Shobana; Pampura, Alexander; Boner, Attilio L; Geddes, Donna T; Boyle, Robert J; Warner, John O

    2017-05-24

    The role of breastfeeding in improving allergy outcomes in early childhood is still unclear. Evidence suggests that immune mediators in human milk (HM) play a critical role in infant immune maturation as well as protection against atopy/allergy development. We investigated relationships between levels of immune mediators in colostrum and mature milk and infant outcomes in the first year of life. In a large prospective study of 398 pregnant/lactating women in the United Kingdom, Russia and Italy, colostrum and mature human milk (HM) samples were analysed for immune active molecules. Statistical analyses used models adjusting for the site of collection, colostrum collection time, parity and maternal atopic status. Preliminary univariate analysis showed detectable interleukin (IL) 2 and IL13 in HM to be associated with less eczema. This finding was further confirmed in multivariate analysis, with detectable HM IL13 showing protective effect OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.04-0.92). In contrast, a higher risk of eczema was associated with higher HM concentrations of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) 2 OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.06) per ng/mL. Parental-reported food allergy was reported less often when IL13 was detectable in colostrum OR 0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.83). HM hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was protective for common cold incidence at 12 months OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.04-0.92) per ng/mL. Data from this study suggests that differences in the individual immune composition of HM may have an influence on early life infant health outcomes. Increased TGFβ2 levels in HM are associated with a higher incidence of reported eczema, with detectable IL13 in colostrum showing protective effects for food allergy and sensitization. HGF shows some protective effect on common cold incidence at one year of age. Future studies should be focused on maternal genotype, human milk microbiome and diet influence on human milk immune composition and both short- and long-term health outcomes in the infant.

  20. The impact of transient combination antiretroviral treatment in early HIV infection on viral suppression and immunologic response in later treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Nikos; Touloumi, Giota; Meyer, Laurence; Olson, Ashley; Costagliola, Dominique; Kelleher, Anthony D; Lutsar, Irja; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Fisher, Martin; Moreno, Santiago; Porter, Kholoud

    2016-03-27

    Effects of transient combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) initiated during early HIV infection (EHI) remain unclear. We investigate whether this intervention affects viral suppression and CD4 cell count increase following its reinitiation in chronic infection (CHI). Longitudinal observational study. We identified adult patients from Concerted Action of Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe who seroconverted after 1/1/2000, had a 12 months or less HIV test interval and initiated cART from naive. We classified individuals as 'pretreated in EHI' if treated within 6 months of seroconversion, interrupted for at least 12 weeks, and reinitiated during CHI. Statistical analysis was performed using survival analysis methods and mixed models. Pretreated and initiated in CHI groups comprised 202 and 4263 individuals, with median follow-up after CHI treatment 4.5 and 3 years, respectively. Both groups had similar virologic response and relapse rates (P = 0.585 and P = 0.206) but pretreated individuals restarted treatment with higher baseline CD4 cell count (∼80 cells/μl; P treatment (re)initiation. Assuming common baseline CD4 cell count, differences in CD4 cell count slopes were nonsignificant. Immunovirologic response to CHI treatment was not associated with timing or duration of the transient treatment. Although treatment interruptions are not recommended, stopping cART initiated in EHI does not seem to reduce the chance of a successful outcome of treatment in CHI.

  1. A history of pediatric immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E Richard; Johnston, Richard B

    2005-03-01

    Immunology has played a prominent role in the history of medicine. Pediatric immunologists have focused on immune aberrations in pediatric disorders, particularly those involving host defense mechanisms. These efforts have paid rich dividends in terms of fundamental knowledge of the immune system and major therapeutic advances, including 1) i.v. immunoglobulin therapy, 2) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 3) gene therapy. Pediatric immunology as an organized discipline emerged in the early 1950s, when pediatricians and their basic scientist colleagues began to focus on clinical and basic research related to immunodeficiency. Since then, key organizations and infrastructure have been developed to support this research and the clinical care of immunodeficient patients. We review here the evolution of contemporary pediatric immunology, particularly in North America, from its roots in 19th-century Europe to its current expression as one of the fundamental scientific and clinical disciplines of pediatrics.

  2. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

  3. Allergy-immunology glossary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahmed

    Allergy-immunology glossary. Zeinab A. El-Sayed, Nesrine Radwan. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Unit, Children's Hospital, Ain-Shams University. Towards a clear designation of some of the terms used in allergology and immunology. Natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells account for up to 15% of peripheral blood.

  4. Towards an understanding of the role of the environment in the development of early callous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Trentacosta, Christopher; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2015-01-01

    Key to understanding the long-term impact of social inequalities is identifying early behaviors that may signal higher risk for later poor psychosocial outcomes, such as psychopathology. A set of early-emerging characteristics that may signal risk for later externalizing psychopathology is Callous-Unemotional (CU) behavior. CU behavior predict severe and chronic trajectories of externalizing behaviors in youth. However, much research on CU behavior has focused on late childhood and adolescence, with little attention paid to early childhood when preventative interventions may be most effective. In this paper, we summarize our recent work showing that: (1) CU behavior can be identified in early childhood using items from common behavior checklists; (2) CU behavior predicts worse outcomes across early childhood; (3) CU behavior exhibits a distinct nomological network from other early externalizing behaviors; and (4) malleable environmental factors, particularly parenting, may play a role in the development of early CU behaviors. We discuss the challenges of studying contextual contributors to the development of CU behavior in terms of gene-environment correlations and present initial results from work examining CU behavior in an adoption study in which gene-environment correlations are examined in early childhood. We find that parenting is a predictor of early CU behavior even in a sample in which parents are not genetically related to the children. PMID:26291075

  5. An Investigative Case Study into Early Childhood Educators' Understanding about "Belonging"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Valerie; Wong, Sandie

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a small exploratory study examining eight diversely qualified early childhood (EC) educators' understandings about belonging. Data from interviews were analysed drawing on 10 dimensions and 3 axes of belonging. Findings from this study demonstrate that educators had a strong sense of social, emotional, spatial and…

  6. Early Childhood Spirituality in Education: Towards an Understanding of the Distinctive Features of Young Children's Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kate; Bull, Rebecca; Maynes, Mary-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Early years education is a holistic endeavour, with some education policies including spiritual development as part of that approach. However, studies exploring the spirituality of young children are scarce, which limits understanding of the phenomenon and its full application in educational settings. Furthermore, nurturing children's spiritual…

  7. Early false-belief understanding in traditional non-Western societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, H Clark; Broesch, Tanya; Scott, Rose M; He, Zijing; Baillargeon, Renée; Wu, Di; Bolz, Matthias; Henrich, Joseph; Setoh, Peipei; Wang, Jianxin; Laurence, Stephen

    2013-03-22

    The psychological capacity to recognize that others may hold and act on false beliefs has been proposed to reflect an evolved, species-typical adaptation for social reasoning in humans; however, controversy surrounds the developmental timing and universality of this trait. Cross-cultural studies using elicited-response tasks indicate that the age at which children begin to understand false beliefs ranges from 4 to 7 years across societies, whereas studies using spontaneous-response tasks with Western children indicate that false-belief understanding emerges much earlier, consistent with the hypothesis that false-belief understanding is a psychological adaptation that is universally present in early childhood. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used three spontaneous-response tasks that have revealed early false-belief understanding in the West to test young children in three traditional, non-Western societies: Salar (China), Shuar/Colono (Ecuador) and Yasawan (Fiji). Results were comparable with those from the West, supporting the hypothesis that false-belief understanding reflects an adaptation that is universally present early in development.

  8. [Chronologic annotation on the development of allergology and clinical immunology in Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvoriscec, Branimir; Lipozencić, Jasna; Marković, Asja Stipić; Palecek, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This issue of Acta Medica Croatica is dedicated to historical development and role of allergology and clinical immunology in Croatia. Also listed are the names of experts who have historically marked allergology and contributed to its development. Understanding the origin of allergies as immune phenomena occurred in Croatia simultaneously to many other European countries. The origin and development of institutions established in the early 1920s constituted the backbone of a solid vertical line, crucial for the development of allergology and immunology in Croatia during the past century. Interest of allergology experts from various medical specialties has resulted in the establishment of Allergy Section at the Croatian Medical Association in 1952, now Croatian Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology of the Croatian Medical Association. It turned out that the work of institutions and physicians, as well as cooperation with the Croatian Immunological Society and other scientific institutions during the second half of the 20th century provided solid foundation for contemporary research, design and development of allergy subspecialty centers and units at various medical institutions all over Croatia. Members of the Croatian Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology have played an important role in educating new generations of physicians and in the organization of numerous research projects, symposia, congresses and seminars. Continuous, scientific and professional work has resulted in active Society membership in the European Academy of Clinical Immunology and Allergology.

  9. How early do children understand gesture-speech combinations with iconic gestures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Carmen; Williamson, Rebecca; Ozçalişkan, Seyda

    2014-03-01

    Children understand gesture+speech combinations in which a deictic gesture adds new information to the accompanying speech by age 1;6 (Morford & Goldin-Meadow, 1992; 'push'+point at ball). This study explores how early children understand gesture+speech combinations in which an iconic gesture conveys additional information not found in the accompanying speech (e.g., 'read'+BOOK gesture). Our analysis of two- to four-year-old children's responses in a gesture+speech comprehension task showed that children grasp the meaning of iconic co-speech gestures by age three and continue to improve their understanding with age. Overall, our study highlights the important role gesture plays in language comprehension as children learn to unpack increasingly complex communications addressed to them at the early ages.

  10. Immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2014-12-01

    This review aims to recap recent published data on immunological mechanisms underlying sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Although several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy, local intraoral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be safe and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists, especially in Europe as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Within the recent decades, much scientific effort focused on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Among these studies, several investigated detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network in which the protolerogenic character of local antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells play a central role. Moreover, immune responses to SLIT have also been studied in nasal and bronchial mucosa as well as on the systemic T cell immune alterations. Altogether, exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more basic research is necessary to further uncover key mechanisms of SLIT.

  11. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  12. Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Using physiology and behaviour to understand the responses of fish early life stages to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, K A; McNeil, P L

    2012-12-01

    The use of early life stages of fishes (embryos and larvae) in toxicity testing has been in existence for a long time, generally utilizing endpoints such as morphological defects and mortality. Behavioural endpoints, however, may represent a more insightful evaluation of the ecological effects of toxicants. Indeed, recent years have seen a considerable increase in the use of behavioural measurements in early life stages reflecting a substantial rise in zebrafish Danio rerio early life-stage toxicity testing and the development of automated behavioural monitoring systems. Current behavioural endpoints identified for early life stages in response to toxicant exposure include spontaneous activity, predator avoidance, capture of live food, shoaling ability and interaction with other individuals. Less frequently used endpoints include measurement of anxiogenic behaviours and cognitive ability, both of which are suggested here as future indicators of toxicant disruption. For many simple behavioural endpoints, there is still a need to link behavioural effects with ecological relevance; currently, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie toxicant effects on behaviour so early in life has received far less attention, perhaps because physiological measurements can be difficult to carry out on individuals of this size. The most commonly established physiological links with behavioural disruption in early life stages are similar to those seen in juveniles and adults including sensory deprivation (olfaction, lateral line and vision), altered neurogenesis and neurotransmitter concentrations. This review highlights the importance of understanding the integrated behavioural and physiological response of early life stages to toxicants and identifies knowledge gaps which present exciting areas for future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  15. Immunology Research in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-14

    leukemia virus transformation. lergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is genet- Mozes et al. are studying interleukin- ically controlled, both in guinea pigs ... experimental autoimmune I. Pecht (Department of Chemical myasthenia gravis (EAMG). These anti- " Immunology, Weizmann Institute) and his bodies block...production and expansion; genetics of autoimmunity and cancer; lymphokines and comple- ment; autoiminunity; tumor immunology; transplantation and tissue

  16. An Asymmetrical Trade: Trade in the Exotic and Our Understanding of Axes and Early Neolithic Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Clare

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea that the movement of axes away from their source of procurement, such as those of Group VI, reflects in part an invisible trade in perishable goods. In particular, it hypothesises that the pattern of movement was stimulated in the early Neolithic by the dispersal of those exotic goods required to establish farming. The evidence for and the implications of this are explored, and it is suggested that in order to facilitate understanding of both the 'trade' in ston...

  17. Understanding the cognitive underpinnings of functional impairments in early dementia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Challis, David; Montaldi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Early dementia is marked by cognitive and functional impairments, and although studies indicate an association between these, detailed analyses exploring this relationship are rare. It is crucial to understand how specific cognitive deficits underlie functional deficits to develop successful cognitive interventions. This paper reviews the evidence of impairment in everyday functioning and in working, long-term and prospective memory in early dementia. Findings are evaluated with respect to the relationship between cognitive and functional impairments. From the literature searches, 17 studies on everyday functioning and 40 studies on memory were obtained. Studies were only included if patients had an official diagnosis and were in the early stages of dementia. Complex instrumental activities of daily living were subject to greater impairment than basic activities of daily living. In particular, early dementia patients struggle with finance tasks; a deficit linked to impaired working memory. Regarding cognition, long-term memory is the earliest form of memory to decline as is well recognised. Evidence also indicates deficits in working and prospective memory, with inconsistent evidence about impairments of the former. A major limitation of the literature is a lack of studies assessing individual everyday activities and the associated error patterns that might occur. This review critically assesses the status of translational research for everyday activities in early dementia, an area with critical implications for cognitive-based rehabilitation. Further research is required into the detailed assessment of individual everyday activity and specific memory deficits, in order to effectively map cognitive functions onto functional performance.

  18. Understanding student early departure from a Master of Public Health programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dlungwane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Student departure from university without completing a qualification is a major concern in higher education. Higher Education South Africa reported that in undergraduate studies, 35% of students depart after the first year and only 15% of students who enrol complete their degree within the minimum permissible time. At postgraduate level, the departure from Masters programmes in South Africa (SA ranged from 30% to 67% in 2010. Early departure refers to students who leave an academic programme within the first semester of commencing their studies. At one SA university, there were a total of 109 first-time Master of Public Health (MPH student registrations in 2013 and 2014. By the end of the first semester in the respective years, a total of 27 students actively deregistered from the programme and 11 students did not sit the first-semester examinations, representing an aggregate 35% rate of early departure. The factors associated with early departure at the University of KwaZulu-Natal are not well understood. Objective. To understand factors associated with early departure in the MPH programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Method. A mixed-methods design was implemented. Students who departed within the first semester of commencing the MPH programme in 2013/2014 were followed up. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results. Failure to balance work and academic obligations with poor time management, stress and academic demands related to the programme, and insufficient academic progress were found to be associated with student early departure from the MPH programme. Conclusion. Student early departure from the MPH programme was influenced by multifaceted factors. Senior students can mentor new students as early as possible in their programme. The orientation block should include development activities such as time management, stress management and effective study skills to assist

  19. Theory of mind and children’s understanding of teaching and learning during early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlin Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional attempt to change others’ knowledge state. Theory of mind (ToM facilitates children’s understanding of knowledge state and change as well as teaching and learning intention in various aspects, including knowing you do not know; knowing what other people know; knowing that other people do not know what you know; and knowing how knowledge comes about. This paper highlights the integral relation between children’s ToM development and their teaching and learning concept based on review of empirical research and discusses the implication for early childhood education and school transition.

  20. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  1. Development of radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi; Dang Bingrong; Bing Tao; Zhang Hong; Li Wenjian; Liu Bing

    2005-01-01

    Radiation immunology as a new subject has made a great progress in recent years, especially in the radiation hormesis. At the same time, the research of radiobiological effect on heavy ions has played an important role in the cancer therapy, especially on the radiation immunology of heavy ions in the outer space. In this review, the authors summarized the status and development of radiation-immunology, and try to find out some better ways which can increase efficient killing on tumours, but reduce the damages on normal tissues. (authors)

  2. Essential Neuroscience in Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Sangeeta S; Tracey, Kevin J

    2017-05-01

    The field of immunology is principally focused on the molecular mechanisms by which hematopoietic cells initiate and maintain innate and adaptive immunity. That cornerstone of attention has been expanded by recent discoveries that neuronal signals occupy a critical regulatory niche in immunity. The discovery is that neuronal circuits operating reflexively regulate innate and adaptive immunity. One particularly well-characterized circuit regulating innate immunity, the inflammatory reflex, is dependent upon action potentials transmitted to the reticuloendothelial system via the vagus and splenic nerves. This field has grown significantly with the identification of several other reflexes regulating discrete immune functions. As outlined in this review, the delineation of these mechanisms revealed a new understanding of immunity, enabled a first-in-class clinical trial using bioelectronic devices to inhibit cytokines and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients, and provided a mosaic view of immunity as the integration of hematopoietic and neural responses to infection and injury. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Pathogenesis of Ovarian Serous Carcinoma as the Basis for Immunologic Directed Diagnosis and Treatment. Project 2 - Identification of Autologous Antigens in Early Stage Serous Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurman, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Our goal is to develop an early detection screening test for serous carcinoma. Specific aim 1: Obtain cDNAs of autologous tumor antigens recognized by sera of patients with early stage serous carcinoma, but not controls...

  4. Toward Understanding How Early-Life Stress Reprograms Cognitive and Emotional Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-01-01

    methodologies. Because early-life adversity is a powerful determinant of subsequent vulnerabilities to emotional and cognitive pathologies, understanding the underlying processes will have profound implications for the world's current and future children. PMID:26105143

  5. Roitt's essential immunology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delves, Peter J; Roitt, Ivan M

    2011-01-01

    ... of the immune system, the hallmark easy-reading style of Roitt's Essential Immunology clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of immunity to clinical applications...

  6. A prospective, single-centre, randomised study evaluating the clinical, imaging and immunological depth of remission achieved by very early versus delayed Etanercept in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (VEDERA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Raluca B; Horton, Sarah; Hodgson, Richard; Wakefield, Richard J; Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Emery, Paul; Buch, Maya H

    2016-02-05

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis, with significant impact on quality of life and functional status. Whilst biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARD) such as tumour necrosis factor-inhibitor (TNFi) agents have revolutionised outcomes in RA, early diagnosis with immediate conventional therapy, titrated in a treat to target approach is also associated with high remission rates. The main aim of the VEDERA study (Very Early versus Delayed Etanercept in Rheumatoid Arthritis) is to assess the depth of remission, sustainability of remission and immunological normalisation induced by very early TNFi with etanercept (ETN) or standard of care +/- delayed ETN. VEDERA is a pragmatic, phase IV single-centre open-label randomised superiority trial of 120 patients with early, treatment-naive RA. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to first-line ETN and methotrexate (MTX) or MTX with additional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (sDMARDs) according to a treat to target (TT) protocol with further step up to ETN and MTX after 24 weeks if remission is not achieved. Participants will have regular disease activity assessments and imaging evaluation including musculoskeletal ultrasound and MRI. The main objective of this study is to assess the proportion of patients with early RA that achieve clinical remission at 48 weeks, following either treatment strategy. In addition, the participants are invited to take part in a cardio-vascular sub-study (Coronary Artery Disease in RA, CADERA), which aims to identify the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in early RA. The hypothesis underlining this study is that very early treatment with first-line ETN increases the proportion of patients with rheumatoid arthritis achieving clinical remission, in comparison to conventional therapy. NCT02433184 , 23/04/2015.

  7. Exposure to violence predicting cortisol response during adolescence and early adulthood: understanding moderating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, Sophie M; Heinze, Justin E; Miller, Alison L; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-07-01

    Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers' support, or fathers' support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers' support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk.

  8. Experiences in early stage Alzheimer's disease: understanding the paradox of acceptance and denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Colleen R

    2005-09-01

    A wealth of information about the biomedical aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent dementia among people over age 65, stands in counterpoint to the lack of systematic inquiry around the lived experiences of people with AD. Thirteen (four women, nine men) people, recently diagnosed with early stage AD, participated in this 6-month longitudinal study. This paper reports on AD participant's interviews which focussed on their experiences of AD symptoms, relationships with family and friends, and thoughts about the future. The transcribed interviews, analysed using methodological hermeneutics, revealed a constitutive theme of agency versus objectification and explained the paradox of why people with AD use both acceptance and denial when speaking about their experiences. Participants simultaneously acknowledged and resisted aspects of their disease in order to maintain agency in the face of cognitive losses. Acknowledgement was expressed through the themes involving acceptance of the disease and its symptoms, expression of feelings about the disease, and strategies to cope with the symptoms. Resistance was expressed in themes involving denial, minimization, normalization, and reminiscence about achievements and experiences of competence. Longitudinal analyses of the narratives indicated themes held across time. This research contributes to understanding how people live with early stage AD. Living with AD should not be described as either denial or acceptance, but rather as a paradox of understanding that includes both acknowledgement and resistance.

  9. Learning from epidemiological, clinical, and immunological studies on Mycobacterium africanum for improving current understanding of host–pathogen interactions, and for the development and evaluation of diagnostics, host-directed therapies, and vaccines for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Zumla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium africanum comprises two phylogenetic lineages within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. M. africanum was first described and isolated in 1968 from the sputum of a Senegalese patient with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and it has been identified increasingly as an important cause of human TB, particularly prevalent in West Africa. The restricted geographical distribution of M. africanum, in contrast to the widespread global distribution of other species of MTBC, requires explanation. Available data indicate that M. africanum may also have important differences in transmission, pathogenesis, and host–pathogen interactions, which could affect the evaluation of new TB intervention tools (diagnostics and vaccines–those currently in use and those under development. The unequal geographical distribution and spread of MTBC species means that individual research findings from one country or region cannot be generalized across the continent. Thus, generalizing data from previous and ongoing research studies on MTBC may be inaccurate and inappropriate. A major rethink is required regarding the design and structure of future clinical trials of new interventions. The West, Central, East, and Southern African EDCTP Networks of Excellence provide opportunities to take forward these pan-Africa studies. More investments into molecular, epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and immunological studies across the African continent are required to enable further understanding of host–M. africanum interactions, leading to the development of more specific diagnostics, biomarkers, host-directed therapies, and vaccines for TB.

  10. Forests and Phenology: Designing the Early Warning System to Understand Forest Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, T.; Phillips, M. B.; Hargrove, W. W.; Dobson, G.; Hicks, J.; Hutchins, M.; Lichtenstein, K.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetative phenology is the study of plant development and changes with the seasons, such as the greening-up and browning-down of forests, and how these events are influenced by variations in climate. A National Phenology Data Set, based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite images covering 2002 through 2009, is now available from work by NASA, the US Forest Service, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This new data set provides an easily interpretable product useful for detecting changes to the landscape due to long-term factors such as climate change, as well as finding areas affected by short-term forest threats such as insects or disease. The Early Warning System (EWS) is a toolset being developed by the US Forest Service and the University of North Carolina-Asheville to support distribution and use of the National Phenology Data Set. The Early Warning System will help research scientists, US Forest Service personnel, forest and natural resources managers, decision makers, and the public in the use of phenology data to better understand unexpected change within our nation’s forests. These changes could have multiple natural sources such as insects, disease, or storm damage, or may be due to human-induced events, like thinning, harvest, forest conversion to agriculture, or residential and commercial use. The primary goal of the Early Warning System is to provide a seamless integration between monitoring, detection, early warning and prediction of these forest disturbances as observed through phenological data. The system consists of PC and web-based components that are structured to support four user stages of increasing knowledge and data sophistication. Building Literacy: This stage of the Early Warning System educates potential users about the system, why the system should be used, and the fundamentals about the data the system uses. The channels for this education include a website, interactive tutorials, pamphlets, and other technology

  11. Rebooting Human Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark M; Brodin, Petter

    2018-02-28

    Recent progress in both conceptual and technological approaches to human immunology have rejuvenated a field that has long been dominated by the inbred mouse model. This is a healthy development both for the clinical relevance of immunology and for the fact that it is a way to gain access to the wealth of phenomenology in the many human diseases that involve the immune system. This is where we are likely to discover new immunological mechanisms and principals, especially those involving genetic heterogeneity or environmental influences that are difficult to model effectively in inbred mice. We also suggest that there are likely to be novel immunological mechanisms in long-lived, less fecund mammals such as human beings since they must remain healthy far longer than short-lived rodents in order for the species to survive. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 36 is April 26, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  12. Systems Theory in Immunology

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Gino; Koch, Giorgio; Strom, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    This volume collects the contributions presented at the "Working Conference on System Theory in Immunology", held in Rome, May 1978. The aim of the Conference was to bring together immunologists on one side and experts in system theory and applied mathematics on the other, in order to identify problems of common interest and to establish a network of joint effort toward their solution. The methodologies of system theory for processing experimental data and for describing dynamical phenomena could indeed contribute significantly to the under­ standing of basic immunological facts. Conversely, the complexity of experimental results and of interpretative models should stimulate mathematicians to formulate new problems and to design appropriate procedures of analysis. The multitude of scientific publications in theoretical biology, appeared in recent years, confirms this trend and calls for extensive interaction between mat- matics and immunology. The material of this volume is divided into five sections, along ...

  13. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  14. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from countries…

  15. GPs views and understanding of PSA testing, screening and early detection; survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J; Melia, J; Kirby, M; Graffy, J; Moss, S

    2016-05-01

    There is currently no national prostate cancer screening programme in the UK. However, patients 50 years and older are entitled to a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, if informed on the advantages and disadvantages of testing and their risk of cancer. The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP) provides this guidance. The aim of this study was to access GPs' views and understanding of PSA testing, prostate cancer screening and early detection. A total of 708 questionnaires were returned by GPs across two English regions in 2013 and the GP questionnaire responses were quantitatively analysed. In the 699 completed questionnaires, the majority of GPs were well informed about PSA testing, screening and early detection. Only 32% used guidelines for referral, 14% knew all age-specific PSA referral levels, 71% that Black men have a higher prostate cancer risk than White men (22% correctly answered threefold increase) and 82% that family history is a risk factor. A further 78% thought electronic prompts during consultation would encourage PCRMP guideline usage and 75% had never been offered a PSA test and prostate cancer educational course, of which 73% would like to attend a course. Only 23% were aware of the latest PSA screening evidence and 94% would like an update. Participating GPs seem to be well informed but need more information and tools to help follow recommended guidance. In particular, increased awareness of PCRMP guidelines especially by automated methods, further educational courses and evidence updates would be beneficial. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of triploidy induction on physiological and immunological characteristics of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at early developmental stages (fertilized eggs, eyed eggs and fry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimian, Shekoofeh; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Salati, Amir Parviz; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein; Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare effects of triploidy induction on basal physiological and immunological characteristics in rainbow trout at three developmental stages including fertilized eggs, eyed eggs and fry. Eggs and milt were taken from eight females and six males. The gametes were pooled to minimize the individual differences. After insemination, the eggs were incubated at 10°C for 10min. Half of the fertilized eggs were then subjected to heat shock for 10min submerged in a 28°C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder were incubated normally and used as diploid controls. Three batches of eggs were randomly selected from each group and were incubated at 10-11°C under the same environmental conditions in hatchery troughs until the fry stage. The first-feeding offspring were also reared under the same environmental and nutritional conditions for 38 days. Triplicate samples of 30 eggs (10 eggs per trough) from each group were selected 1.5h post-fertilization and at the eyed stage. Based on red blood cell analysis, nine diploid and nine triploid fish were also selected for study. The triploidy induction success rate was 87.1%. While diploid fish had greater body weights than those in the heat-shock treatment group, weight gain (WG%) was not different between the fry of the diploid and heat-shock treatment groups. Of thyroid hormones measured, 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) was less (Pfry of the heat-shock treatment group as compared to those that were diploid. Cortisol concentration was greater in fry of the heat-shock treatment group as compared to those that were diploid suggesting that fry in the triploid state may be more susceptible to stressors. Concentrations of immune variables (lysozyme, ACH50, albumin, IgM, total protein, globulin and complement) were either comparable or greater in fry of the heat-shock treatment group suggesting that the immune system is not impaired in fish as a result of triploidy induction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  17. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life

  18. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau: A Randomized-controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, K.J.; Larsen, N.; Biering-Sorensen, S.; Andersen, A.; Eriksen, H.B.; Monteiro, I.; Hougaard, D.; Aaby, P.; Netea, M.G.; Flanagan, K.L.; Benn, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS: Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in

  19. Immunology & Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    This monograph was designed for the high school biology curriculum. The first section reviews the major areas of importance in immunology. Section three contains six instructional activities for the high school classroom and the second section contains teacher's materials for those activities. The activities address for students some of the major…

  20. The immunological synapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Lars Ostergaard; Geisler, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    . A distinct 3-dimensional supramolecular structure at the T cell/APC interface has been suggested to be involved in the information transfer. Due to its functional analogy to the neuronal synapse, the structure has been termed the "immunological synapse" (IS). Here, we review molecular aspects concerning...

  1. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  2. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  3. Refresher Course in Immunology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. Refresher Course in Immunology. Information and Announcements Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 92-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0092-0092. Resonance – Journal ...

  4. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  5. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  6. Local immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2011-12-01

    To summarize novel insights into the immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Within the recent decades, several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), of which intra-oral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be well tolerated and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative option to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Although detailed immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated, much scientific effort has been made to shed some light on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Only a few studies focused on the detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network. Within this network, the pro-tolerogenic properties of local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells - which are able to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms and to induce T-cell immune responses - play a central role. Further on, basic research focused not only on the immune response in nasal and bronchial mucosa but also on the systemic T-cell immune response. Thus, much exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more investigations are necessary to uncover further exciting details on the key mechanisms of SLIT.

  7. Early introduction of allergenic foods for the prevention of food allergy from an Asian perspective-An Asia Pacific Association of Pediatric Allergy, Respirology & Immunology (APAPARI) consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elizabeth Huiwen; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Van Bever, Hugo Ps; Vichyanond, Pakit; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary Wk; Lee, Bee Wah

    2018-02-01

    Emerging evidence for the early introduction of allergenic foods for the prevention of food allergies, such as peanut allergy in Western populations, has led to the recent publication of guidelines in the USA and Europe recommending early peanut introduction for high-risk infants with severe eczema or egg allergy. Peanut allergy is, however, much less prevalent in Asia compared to the West. Varying patterns of food allergy are seen even within Asian countries-such as a predominance of wheat allergy in Japan and Thailand and shellfish allergy in Singapore and the Philippines. Customs and traditions, such as diet and infant feeding practices, also differ between Asian populations. Hence, there are unique challenges in adapting guidelines on early allergenic food introduction to the Asian setting. In this paper, we review the evidence and discuss the possible approaches to guide the timely introduction of allergenic food in high-risk infants in Asia. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  8. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention.

  9. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    cultural settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention.

  10. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural settings commonly endorse norms that perpetuate gender inequalities, and that parents and peers are especially central in shaping such attitudes. Programs to promote equitable gender attitudes thus need to move beyond a focus on individuals to target their interpersonal relationships and wider social environments. Such programs need to start early and be tailored to the unique needs of sub-populations of boys and girls. Longitudinal studies, particularly from low-and middle-income countries, are needed to better understand how gender attitudes unfold in adolescence and to identify the key points for intervention. PMID:27341206

  11. UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NORMAL EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Liam; Kim, Dong-Woo; Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    2018-01-01

    The hot interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies (ETG's) provides crucial insight into the understanding of their formation and evolution. Mechanisms such as type Ia supernovae heating, AGN feedback, deepening potential depth through dark matter assembly and ramp-pressure stripping are known to affect the structure of the ISM. By using temperature maps and radial temperature profiles of the hot ISM from ~70 ETG's with archival Chandra data, it is possible to classify the galaxy's ISM into common structural types. This is extended by using 3D fitting of the radial temperature profile in order to provide models that further constrain the structural types. Five structural types are present, negative (temperature decreases with radii), positive (temperature increases with radii), hybrid-dip (temperature decreases at small radii and increases at large radii), hybrid-bump (inverse of hybrid-dip) and quasi-isothermal (temperature is constant at all radii). This work will be continued by 1) determining which mechanisms are present in which galaxies and 2) analysing the model parameters between galaxies within each structural type to determine whether each type can be described by a single set of model parameters, indicating that the same physical processes are responsible for creating that structural type.

  12. Metabolomics in Immunology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Bart

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that metabolic processes and individual metabolites can shape the function of immune cells and thereby play important roles in the outcome of immune responses. In this respect, the use of MS- and NMR spectroscopy-based platforms to characterize and quantify metabolites in biological samples has recently yielded important novel insights into how our immune system functions and has contributed to the identification of biomarkers for immune-mediated diseases. Here, these recent immunological studies in which metabolomics has been used and made significant contributions to these fields will be discussed. In particular the role of metabolomics to the rapidly advancing field of cellular immunometabolism will be highlighted as well as the future prospects of such metabolomic tools in immunology.

  13. Helminths and immunological tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunolo...

  14. Some notes on radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sado, Toshihiko

    1977-01-01

    Immunological movement related to radiation immunology were reviewed. Basic items about cell mechanism of immunological reaction were explained, and then, relationship between immunity and radiation was given an outline. As to radiation effects on immunological lymphatic system, radiosensitivity of lymphocytes and immunological reaction, radiation effects on T and B cells, and radiosensitivity of lymphatic system, especially thymus were mentioned, and furthermore, delayed effects of radiation on immunological system were described. Radiation effects on relationship between bone marrow transplantation and genesis of reticulum cell tumor and delayed effects of radiation on them were mentioned, and genetic resistance against hematopoietic cell transplantation and its radiosensitivity were also described. Relationship between carcinogenesis due to radiation and immunity, and a state of specific immunological in an individual non-responsiveness having cancer, were also referred to. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Immunology in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J; Salter, Russell D

    2006-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine has a long tradition of excellence in immunology research and training. Faculty, students, and postdoctoral fellows walk through hallways that are pictorial reminders of the days when Dr. Jonas Salk worked here to develop the polio vaccine, or when Dr. Niels Jerne chaired the Microbiology Department and worked on perfecting the Jerne Plaque Assay for antibody-producing cells. Colleagues and postdoctoral fellows of Professor Salk are still on the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh Medical School as are graduate students of Professor Jerne. A modern research building, the 17 story high Biomedical Science Tower, is a vivid reminder of the day when Dr. Thomas Starzl arrived in Pittsburgh and started building the most prominent solid-organ-transplant program in the world. The immunology research that developed around the problem of graft rejection and tolerance induction trained numerous outstanding students and fellows. Almost 20 yr ago, the University of Pittsburgh founded the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) with the renowned immunologist Dr. Ronald Herberman at its helm. This started a number of new research initiatives in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. A large number of outstanding young investigators, as well as several well-established tumor immunologists, were recruited to Pittsburgh at that time.

  16. Immunology of Bee Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh Ali Komi, Daniel; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Zwiener, Ricardo D

    2017-01-20

    Bee venom is a blend of biochemicals ranging from small peptides and enzymes to biogenic amines. It is capable of triggering severe immunologic reactions owing to its allergenic fraction. Venom components are presented to the T cells by antigen-presenting cells within the skin. These Th2 type T cells then release IL-4 and IL-13 which subsequently direct B cells to class switch to production of IgE. Generating venom-specific IgE and crosslinking FcεR1(s) on the surface of mast cells complete the sensitizing stage in allergic individuals who are most likely to experience severe and even fatal allergic reactions after being stung. Specific IgE for bee venom is a double-edged sword as it is a powerful mediator in triggering allergic events but is also applied successfully in diagnosis of the venom allergic patient. The healing capacity of bee venom has been rediscovered under laboratory-controlled conditions using animal models and cell cultures. The potential role of enzymatic fraction of bee venom including phospholipase A2 in the initiation and development of immune responses also has been studied in numerous research settings. Undoubtedly, having insights into immunologic interactions between bee venom components and innate/specific immune cells both locally and systematically will contribute to the development of immunologic strategies in specific and epitope-based immunotherapy especially in individuals with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

  17. Immunology and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hraba, Tomáš

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985 a small international meeting of scientists took place at the recreation resort of the Polish Academy of Sci­ ences in Mogilany, near Cracow, Poland. The initiative for holding the workshop came from a working meeting on mathematical immunology and related topics at the International Institute for Applied Sys­ tems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, in November 1983. In addition to representatives of IIASA, delegates of the IIASA National Member Organizations (NMO) of Czechoslovakia, Italy, and the soviet Union took part in that working meeting. The participants came to the conclusion that IIASA could play an important role in facilitating the development of research in this field. The first step that they recommended to I IASA was to organize a workshop on mathematical immunology. The purpose of the workshop was to review the progress that has been made in applying mathematics to problems in immunology and to explore ways in which further progress might be achieved, especially by more efficie...

  18. The immunology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Abigail; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was initially thought to cause only mild, self-limiting symptoms. However, recent outbreaks have been associated with the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome and causally linked to a congenital malformation known as microcephaly. This has led to an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. A comprehensive understanding of the immunology of ZIKV infection is required to aid in the design of such a vaccine. Whilst details of both innate and adaptive immune responses to ZIKV are emerging, further research is needed. As immunopathogenesis has been implicated in poor outcomes following infection with the related dengue virus, identification of cross-reactive immune responses between flaviviruses and the impact they may have on disease progression is also of high importance.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5160 - Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system. 866.5160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5160 Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system. (a) Identification. A beta-globulin immunological test system is a...

  20. Hematology and immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.

    1977-01-01

    A coordinated series of experiments were conducted to evaluate immunologic and hemotologic system responses of Skylab crewmen to prolonged space flights. A reduced PHA responsiveness was observed on recovery, together with a reduced number of T-cells, with both values returning to normal 3 to 5 days postflight. Subnormal red cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit values also returned gradually to preflight limits. Most pronounced changes were found in the shape of red blood cells during extended space missions with a rapid reversal of these changes upon reentry into a normal gravitational environment.

  1. Mucosal immunology and virology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyring, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... A third chapter focuses on the proximal end of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. the oral cavity). The mucosal immunology and virology of the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract is covered in the chapter on the anogenital mucosa. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) plays a role in protection against all viral (and other) infections except those that enter the body via a bite (e.g. yellow fever or dengue from a mosquito or rabies from a dog) or an injection or transfusion (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B). ...

  2. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section......This textbook is based on the curricula for dental students in the Nordic countries, and the authors teach the subject at three universities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Although primarily for undergraduates, the book may also appeal to Ph.D. students and general practitioners. In addition...

  3. Understanding Alterations in Cell Nano-architecture during Early Carcinogenesis using Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, Dhwanil

    elucidate the role of chromatin architecture (specifically histone deacetylase2) in determining nanoscale nuclear disorder. Finally, we develop an image-analysis technique to extract native 3-dimensional-mass-density correlation function of biological cells (cheek cells) using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) without staining or sectioning. This technique can be used in future to corroborate PWS results. Overall, this work signifies the potential of PWS nanocytology in a clinical setting and establishes it as an important minimally-invasive tool for early cancer detection as well as for better biological understanding of a disease.

  4. Helminths and immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-27

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunological tolerance in animal models of transplantation, but translation into routine clinical practice remains elusive. Helminth parasites may provide novel strategies toward achieving this goal. Helminths are remarkably successful parasites: they currently infect more than one quarter of the world's population. It is now well established that the parasites' success is the result of active immunomodulation of their hosts' immune response. Although this primarily secures ongoing survival of the parasites, helminth-induced immunomodulation can also have a number of benefits for the host. Significant reductions in the prevalence of allergy and autoimmune conditions among helminth-infected populations are well recognized and there is now a significant body of evidence to suggest that harmful immune responses to alloantigens may be abrogated as well. Here, we review all existing studies of helminth infection and transplantation, explore the mechanisms involved, and discuss possible avenues for future translation to clinical practice.

  5. Tungsten Partitioning in Silicates. A Key to Understanding the Early Evolution of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Righter, K.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the partitioning behavior of W in a variety of silicates that may have been stable during LMO crystallization, evaluate their role in generating W isotopic signatures, and speculate about the early differentiation of the Moon.

  6. Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

    2012-02-01

    Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population.

  7. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  8. Theory of Mind and Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional…

  9. The role of gestures in achieving understanding in Early English teaching in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa; Eskildsen, Søren Wind

    of several resources to make their talk more comprehensible, not only obvious ones such as translations to the L1 and providing pictures or realia, but also gestures. This paper investigates gestures employed by the teacher in the pursuit of intersubjectivity in early English teaching in a private primary...... brings this established agreement on the importance of gestures in classroom interaction to bear on early foreign language learning: Whereas prior work on gestures in L2 classrooms has predominantly dealt with adult L2 learners, this paper investigates the extent to which a teacher makes use of gestures...... in early child foreign language teaching. Using multimodal conversation analysis of three hours of classroom instruction in a Danish primary school, we uncover how a teacher uses gestures to enhance the comprehension of his L2 talk when teaching English in the 1st and 3rd grade, both of which are beginning...

  10. Ideernes epidemiologi og kulturens immunologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    , suggested by Sperber, is extended by an ‘immunology of cultural systems’. In addition to the selective forces described by Sperber and Boyer, the immunological approach argues that the relative success of new representations is largely dependent on how well they fit already existing cultural models...

  11. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  12. [Immunological theory of senescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drela, Nadzieja

    2014-01-01

    Senescence can result from decreased potential of the immune system to respond to foreign and self antigens. The most common effect is the inhibition to destroy dying and cancer cells and the decrease of the immune response to pathogens. Aging is closely related to inflammatory phenotype, which facilitate the development of age-related diseases. The mammal immune system is highly organized and adapted to react to a wide range of antigens. According to the immunological theory, the causative agents of senescence are multilevel changes of development and functions of immune cells. Some of changes can be beneficial for the maintenance of homeostasis and lifespan in continuously changing endogenous environment and immune history of the organism.

  13. Immunology of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Luiza da Gama Coelho; Santulli, Pietro; Marcellin, Louis; Abrão, Mauricio Simões; Batteux, Frederic; Chapron, Charles

    2018-02-08

    The pathophysiology of endometriosis is not completely understood, but an aberrant immune response in the peritoneal environment seems to be crucial for the proliferation of ectopic endometrial cells - as those cells escape apoptosis and peritoneal cavity immunosurveillance. The growth of endometrial implants leads to the recruitment of a large number and diversity of immune cells and intense inflammation with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and angiogenesis. There is substantial evidence of aberrant function of almost all types of immune cells in women with endometriosis: decreased T cell reactivity and NK cytotoxicity, polyclonal activation of B cells and increased antibody production, increased number and activation of peritoneal macrophages, and changes in inflammatory mediators. New clinical treatments for endometriosis are an urgent need, especially nonhormonal drugs. The study of immunology may clarify its role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Developments in Children's Understanding of Number: Inferences about Numerosity and One-to-One Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophian, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    The main finding that three- and four-year-old children can make inferences relating numerosity and one-to-one correspondence information implicate more mathematical knowledge than Piaget attributed to young children. Their knowledge does not appear to be as closely tied to counting and other action schemas as other accounts of early numerical…

  15. Really New Stories : The Effect of Early Concept Narratives on Consumer Understanding and Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Hende, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Really New Stories typically describe a use setting and a main character - the hero - who is using a really new product. In this doctoral thesis, Ellis van den Hende explains why early consumer input during the development of really new products can be remarkably frustrating to new product managers

  16. Contextualizing Distributed Leadership within Early Childhood Education: Current Understandings, Research Evidence and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikka, Johanna; Waniganayake, Manjula; Hujala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to establish a new research agenda on distributed leadership by linking early childhood and school leadership research. It begins with a discussion of how distributed leadership is conceptualized, including a discussion of the main features and meanings of distributed leadership as defined by key scholars who have maintained a…

  17. Has growth mixture modeling improved our understanding of how early change predicts psychotherapy outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Early change in psychotherapy predicts outcome. Seven studies have used growth mixture modeling [GMM; Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class-latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sawyers (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291-322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] to identify patient classes based on early change but have yielded conflicting results. Here, we review the earlier studies and apply GMM to a new data set. In a university-based training clinic, 251 patients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire-45 [Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., Umphress, V., Lunnen, K., Okiishi, J., Burlingame, G., … Reisinger, C. W. (1996). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2). Wilmington, DE: American Professional Credentialing Services] at each psychotherapy session. We used GMM to identify class structure based on change in the first six sessions and examined trajectories as predictors of outcome. The sample was best described as a single class. There was no evidence of autoregressive trends in the data. We achieved better fit to the data by permitting latent variables some degree of kurtosis, rather than to assume multivariate normality. Treatment outcome was predicted by the amount of early improvement, regardless of initial level of distress. The presence of sudden early gains or losses did not further improve outcome prediction. Early improvement is an easily computed, powerful predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The use of GMM to investigate the relationship between change and outcome is technically complex and computationally intensive. To date, it has not been particularly informative.

  18. Immunological Approaches to Biomass Characterization and Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Zhang, Tiantian; Cardenas, Claudia L; Hahn, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass is the major renewable feedstock resource for sustainable generation of alternative transportation fuels to replace fossil carbon-derived fuels. Lignocellulosic cell walls are the principal component of plant biomass. Hence, a detailed understanding of plant cell wall structure and biosynthesis is an important aspect of bioenergy research. Cell walls are dynamic in their composition and structure, varying considerably among different organs, cells, and developmental stages of plants. Hence, tools are needed that are highly efficient and broadly applicable at various levels of plant biomass-based bioenergy research. The use of plant cell wall glycan-directed probes has seen increasing use over the past decade as an excellent approach for the detailed characterization of cell walls. Large collections of such probes directed against most major cell wall glycans are currently available worldwide. The largest and most diverse set of such probes consists of cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies (McAbs). These McAbs can be used as immunological probes to comprehensively monitor the overall presence, extractability, and distribution patterns among cell types of most major cell wall glycan epitopes using two mutually complementary immunological approaches, glycome profiling (an in vitro platform) and immunolocalization (an in situ platform). Significant progress has been made recently in the overall understanding of plant biomass structure, composition, and modifications with the application of these immunological approaches. This review focuses on such advances made in plant biomass analyses across diverse areas of bioenergy research.

  19. Ratio of Circulating IFNγ+ “Th17 Cells” in Memory Th Cells Is Inversely Correlated with the Titer of Anti-CCP Antibodies in Early-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Based on Flow Cytometry Methods of the Human Immunology Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kotake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune disease with chronic joint inflammation characterized by activated T cells. IL-17 and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Recently, plasticity in helper T cells has been demonstrated; Th17 cells can convert to Th1 cells. However, it remains to be elucidated whether this conversion occurs in the early phase of RA. Here, we validated the methods of the Human Immunology Project using only the cell-surface marker through measuring the actual expression of IL-17 and IFNγ. We also evaluated the expression of CD161 in human Th17 cells. We then tried to identify Th17 cells, IL-17+Th17 cells, and IFNγ+Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients using the standardized method of the Human Immunology Project. Our findings validated the method and the expression of CD161. The ratio of IFNγ+Th17 cells in memory T cells was inversely correlated to the titers of anti-CCP antibodies in the early-onset RA patients. These findings suggest that Th17 cells play important roles in the early phase of RA and that anti-IL-17 antibodies should be administered to patients with early phase RA, especially those with high titers of CCP antibodies.

  20. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail.

  1. Lead isotope approach to the understanding of early Japanese bronze culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, H.; Hirao, Y.

    1985-01-01

    For several years, the authors have used lead isotope analysis to investigate extensively the provenance of ancient bronze or copper artifacts which had been excavated mainly from Japanese archaeological sites. The results have been published item by item in several relevant Japanese journals. This review is intended to give an account which will review the whole work relating early Japanese bronze culture to Chinese and Korean cultures through lead isotope study. (author)

  2. The Role of Foreign Influences in Early Terrorism: Examples and Implications for Understanding Modern Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Lutz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has been linked with outbreaks of political violence and terrorism in the modern world. An analysis of Judean revolts against Rome and the Seleucid Greeks, individual suicide attacks in South and Southeast Asia in the 17th century to the early 20th century, and the Boxer Rebellion in China suggest that the intrusion of foreign influences had similar effects in the past.

  3. Quality in South African early learning centres: Mothers’ and teachers’ views and understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Van Heerden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how quality in early learning centres (preschools in South Africa was experienced and perceived by mothers and teachers. A theoretical framework, based on a model of quality development by Woodhead (1996, informed the study. This framework that consists of input (structural, process and outcome quality indicators is a well-established model for quality development, which has been used in developing countries. The findings generated from a thematical analysis of interview data showed that aspects perceived by mothers and teachers as quality indicators in early learning centres were predominantly process indicators and hard to ‘measure’ in a quantitative way. For mothers and teachers, children’s social-emotional well-being, holistic development, a normative foundation for values and respect, effective infrastructure and accountable learning indicated quality. A quality school climate enhances emotional and social well-being, and the findings suggest that for mothers and teachers quality concerns were not about that which the early learning centres have provided in terms of facilities (input indicators, but rather about the process indicators where centres promote children’s holistic well-being. The only outcome indicator that was regarded as extremely important by mothers and important, but not to the same extent, by teachers, is whether children are happy and content and enjoying school.

  4. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Chapter 17: Occupational immunologic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Bradley R; Grammer, Leslie C

    2012-01-01

    Occupational immunologic lung disease is characterized by an immunologic response in the lung to an airborne agent inhaled in the work environment and can be subdivided into immunologically mediated occupational asthma (OA) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Irritant-induced OA, a separate nonimmunologic entity, can be caused by chronic exposure to inhaled irritants or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome, defined as an asthma-like syndrome that persists for >3 months and occurs abruptly after a single exposure to a high concentration of an irritating industrial agent. High-risk fields for OA include farmers, printers, woodworkers, painters, plastic workers, cleaners, spray painters, electrical workers, and health care workers. OA can be triggered by high molecular weight (HMW) proteins that act as complete allergens or low molecular weight (LMW) sensitizers that act as haptens. HMW proteins (>10 kDa) are generally derived from microorganisms (such as molds and bacteria, including thermophilic actinomycetes), plants (such as latex antigens and flour proteins), or animals (such as animal dander, avian proteins, and insect scales) and are not specifically regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). LMW haptens that bind to proteins in the respiratory mucosa include some OSHA-regulated substances such as isocyanates, anhydrides, and platinum. HP can present in an acute, a chronic, or a subacute form. The acute, subacute, and early chronic form is characterized by a CD4(+) T(H)1 and CD8(+) lymphocyte alveolitis. Classically, the bronchoalveolar lavage will show a CD4/CD8 ratio of <1.

  6. Consensus statement understanding health and malnutrition through a systems approach: the ENOUGH program for early life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaput, J.; Ommen, van B.; Kremer, B.; Priami, C.; Pontes Monteiro, J.; Morine, M.; Pepping, F.; Diaz, Z.; Fenech, M.; He, Y.; Albers, R.; Drevon, C.A.; Evelo, C.T.; Hancock, R.E.W.; Ijsselmuiden, C.; Lumey, L.H.; Minihane, A.M.; Muller, M.R.; Murgia, C.; Radonjic, M.; Sobral, B.W.S.; West Jr., K.P.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition research, like most biomedical disciplines, adopted and often uses experimental approaches based on Beadle and Tatum’s one gene—one polypeptide hypothesis, thereby reducing biological processes to single reactions or pathways. Systems thinking is needed to understand the complexity of

  7. The Interaction of Procedural Skill, Conceptual Understanding and Working Memory in Early Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Gilmore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large individual differences in children’s mathematics achievement are observed from the start of schooling. Previous research has identified three cognitive skills that are independent predictors of mathematics achievement: procedural skill, conceptual understanding and working memory. However, most studies have only tested independent effects of these factors and failed to consider moderating effects. We explored the procedural skill, conceptual understanding and working memory capacity of 75 children aged 5 to 6 years as well as their overall mathematical achievement. We found that, not only were all three skills independently associated with mathematics achievement, but there was also a significant interaction between them. We found that levels of conceptual understanding and working memory moderated the relationship between procedural skill and mathematics achievement such that there was a greater benefit of good procedural skill when associated with good conceptual understanding and working memory. Cluster analysis also revealed that children with equivalent levels of overall mathematical achievement had differing strengths and weaknesses across these skills. This highlights the importance of considering children’s skill profile, rather than simply their overall achievement.

  8. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  9. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse...

  10. Early Understandings of Simple Food Chains: A Learning Progression for the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Aspects of preschoolers' ecological understandings were explored in a cross-age, quantitative study that utilised a sample of seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, their concepts of feeding relationships were determined by presenting physical models of three-step food chains during structured interviews. A majority of children,…

  11. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. Aim To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. Results A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Conclusion Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity. PMID:22520910

  12. Immunological methods for gentamicin determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugers Dagneauz, P.G.L.C.; Olthuis, F.M.F.G.

    1979-01-01

    For immunoassay, an antibody against the substance to the determined, the pure substance itself, and a labelled form or derivative of the substance are required. The principles and problems of the preparation of antibodies are discussed, some methods for the preparation of derivatives labelled with radioactive tracers or enzymes are reviewed, and homologous enzyme-immunological determination of gentamicin is discussed in detail. A comparison is mae of three radio-immunological determination methods, and the most suitable radio-immunological method is compared with two microbiological techniques. The results are found to be comparable. (Auth.)

  13. Immunology of Yersinia pestis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase. In contrast, the host also utilizes its immune system to eliminate the invading bacteria. Neutrophil and macrophage are the first defense against Yersinia pestis invading through phagocytosis and killing. Other innate immune cells also play different roles, such as dendritic cells which help to generate more T helper cells. After several days post infection, the adaptive immune response begins to provide organism-specific protection and has a long-lasting immunological memory. Thus, with the cooperation and collaboration of innate and acquired immunity, the bacterium may be eliminated from the host. The research of Yersinia pestis and host immune systems provides an important topic to understand pathogen-host interaction and consequently develop effective countermeasures.

  14. Understanding predictors of functional recovery and outcome 30 months following early childhood head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki A; Catroppa, Cathy; Dudgeon, Paul; Morse, Sue A; Haritou, Flora; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in school-age children; however, recovery in early childhood is less well understood. Some argue that such injuries should lead to good outcome, because of the plasticity of the developing brain. Other purport that the young brain is vulnerable, with injury likely to result in a substantial impairment (H. G. Taylor & J. Alden, 1997). The aim of this study was to examine outcomes following TBI during early childhood, to plot recovery over the 30 months postinjury, and to identify predictors of outcome. The study compared 3 groups of children sustaining mild, moderate, and severe TBI, ages 2.0 to 6.11 years at injury, with healthy controls. Groups were comparable for preinjury adaptive and behavioral function, psychosocial characteristics, age, and gender. Results suggested a strong association between injury severity and outcomes across all domains. Further, 30-month outcome was predicted by injury severity, family factors, and preinjury levels of child function. In conclusion, children with more severe injuries and lower preinjury adaptive abilities, and whose families are coping poorly, are at greatest risk of long-term impairment in day-to-day skills, even several years postinjury.

  15. Understanding Early Technology Adoption by the Emergent Older Adults in Dharavi

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Shaon; Sarcar, Sayan; Joshi, Anirudha

    2017-01-01

    Part 9: Field Trips; International audience; This field trip proposes a two-day program to understand and evaluate technology adoption of digital wallets among the elderly population in one of the urban slums of Mumbai, through training, probes and shadowing. The aim of the study is to analyse perceived challenges, influences & motivations, barriers to adoption and issues faced during wallet transactions. The findings from this study will be interpreted to formulate design recommendations and...

  16. Understanding attributional biases, emotions and self-esteem in 'poor me' paranoia: findings from an early psychosis sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornells-Ambrojo, M; Garety, P A

    2009-06-01

    Trower and Chadwick's (1995) theory of two types of paranoia ('poor me' and 'bad me') provides a framework for understanding the seemingly contradictory evidence on persecutory delusions. Paranoia has been argued to defend against low self-esteem, but people with persecutory delusions report high levels of emotional distress and, in some instances, low self-worth. The current study investigates attributions and emotions in a sample of people with early psychosis who have persecutory delusions. 'Poor me' paranoia has been found to be more frequent than 'bad me' paranoia in the early stages of psychosis. Anger and a tendency to blame other people are hypothesized to characterize 'poor me' paranoia. The study had a cross-sectional design. Twenty individuals with early psychosis, 21 clinical controls with depression and 32 healthy volunteers completed a thorough assessment of emotions and attributions. The 'poor me' paranoia group showed higher levels of anger, anxiety and depression than the non-clinical control group. Self-esteem and guilt were however preserved. A tendency to blame others but not themselves was characteristic of the 'poor me' paranoia group whereas people in the clinical control group tended to self-blame for failures. Anger, but not self-esteem, was associated with an attributional bias characterized by blaming other people instead of oneself. In conclusion, anger, a previously overlooked emotion in the study of persecutory delusions, warrants further attention. The other-directed nature of this emotion highlights the potential role of interpersonal schemas in understanding paranoia.

  17. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos.

  18. Understanding landowner intentions to create early successional forest habitat in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Ashley A.; Stedman, Richard C.; Allred, Shorna B.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2016-01-01

    Early successional forest habitat (ESH) and associated wildlife species in the northeastern United States are in decline. One way to help create early successional forest conditions is engaging private forest landowners in even-aged forest management because their limited participation may have contributed to declines in ESH for wildlife species of high conservation concern. We applied the reasoned action approach from social psychology to predict intentions of landowners in the 13-county Southern Tier of New York State, USA, to conduct patch-cuts, which is a type of even-aged forest management. We tested the predictive ability of the model using data from a mail survey of landowners conducted from November 2010 to January 2011. Landowner intention to conduct patch-cuts was high (55% of respondents), with attitude being the strongest direct predictor of behavioral intention. Our results suggest that patch-cutting intentions are most likely expressed by landowners who think the behavior is good for their land and wildlife, believe in positive outcomes of land and wildlife management, belong to a game wildlife organization, and have conducted patch-cuts in the past. Strategies to engage more landowners in ESH management will have the highest likelihood of success if outreach efforts focus on influencing behavioral beliefs and subsequently attitudes, possibly working with game wildlife organizations to communicate a unified message for habitat conservation, including the importance of maintaining and creating ESH. Our results demonstrate the importance of social science research to increase the likelihood that conservation targets for declining wildlife species are met. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Panel 5: Microbiology and immunology panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M

    2013-04-01

    The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media.

  20. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  1. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  2. Navigating social distance in foundational clinical encounters: Understanding medical students' early experiences with diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-MacDonald, Miesha; Razack, Saleem

    2018-01-15

    Social distance between patients and physicians has been shown to affect the quality of care that patients receive. Little is known about how social distance between students and patients is experienced by learners during early clinical exposures in medical school. This study aims to explore students' stories of experiencing social distance with patients with concordant and discordant social characteristics as themselves, respectively, as well as students' needs from medical curricula regarding developing social competence. Semi-structured interviews of medical students [n = 16] were performed, and a post-interview survey and a visual analog scale were completed. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The written transcripts were coded using the constant comparison method and analyzed for emerging themes. Students experience social distance with patients; yet, they are not taught explicitly by their preceptors how to manage these experiences. Students identified their needs for the curriculum in regard to developing social competence and proposed various strategies and curriculum recommendations. Our results support that students believe that social competence training is important for their professional development to improve relationship-building with diverse patients. As such, it would be valuable to incorporate student recommendations in the formation of a social competence curriculum.

  3. Early Holocene hydroclimate of Baffin Bay: Understanding the interplay between abrupt climate change events and ice sheet fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M. C.; Thomas, E. K.; Castañeda, I. S.; Briner, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the causes of ice sheet fluctuations resulting in sea level rise is essential in today's warming climate. In high-latitude ice-sheet-proximal environments such as Baffin Bay, studying both the cause and the rate of ice sheet variability during past abrupt climate change events aids in predictions. Past climate reconstructions are used to understand ice sheet responses to changes in temperature and precipitation. The 9,300 and 8,200 yr BP events are examples of abrupt climate change events in the Baffin Bay region during which there were multiple re-advances of the Greenland and Laurentide ice sheets. High-resolution (decadal-scale) hydroclimate variability near the ice sheet margins during these abrupt climate change events is still unknown. We will generate a decadal-scale record of early Holocene temperature and precipitation using leaf wax hydrogen isotopes, δ2Hwax, from a lake sediment archive on Baffin Island, western Baffin Bay, to better understand abrupt climate change in this region. Shifts in temperature and moisture source result in changes in environmental water δ2H, which in turn is reflected in δ2Hwax, allowing for past hydroclimate to be determined from these compound-specific isotopes. The combination of terrestrial and aquatic δ2Hwax is used to determine soil evaporation and is ultimately used to reconstruct moisture variability. We will compare our results with a previous analysis of δ2Hwax and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, a temperature and pH proxy, in lake sediment from western Greenland, eastern Baffin Bay, which indicates that cool and dry climate occurred in response to freshwater forcing events in the Labrador Sea. Reconstructing and comparing records on both the western and eastern sides of Baffin Bay during the early Holocene will allow for a spatial understanding of temperature and moisture balance changes during abrupt climate events, aiding in ice sheet modeling and predictions of future sea level

  4. Return rates from intertidal foraging from Blombos Cave to Pinnacle Point: Understanding early human economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vynck, Jan C; Anderson, Robert; Atwater, Chloe; Cowling, Richard M; Fisher, Erich C; Marean, Curtis W; Walker, Robert S; Hill, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The south coast of South Africa provides the earliest evidence for Middle Stone Age (MSA) coastal resource exploitation by early Homo sapiens. In coastal archaeology worldwide, there has been a debate over the general productivity of intertidal foraging, leading to studies that directly measure productivity in some regions, but there have been no such studies in South Africa. Here we present energetic return rate estimates for intertidal foraging along the southern coast of South Africa from Blombos Cave to Pinnacle Point. Foraging experiments were conducted with Khoi-San descendants of the region, and hourly caloric return rates for experienced foragers were measured on 41 days near low tide and through three seasons over two study years. On-site return rates varied as a function of sex, tidal level, marine habitat type and weather conditions. The overall energetic return rate from the entire sample (1492 kcal h(-1)) equals or exceeds intertidal returns reported from other hunter-gatherer studies, as well as measured return rates for activities as diverse as hunting mammals and plant collecting. Returns are projected to be exceptionally high (∼ 3400 kcal h(-1) for men, ∼ 1900 kcal h(-1) for women) under the best combination of conditions. However, because of the monthly tidal cycle, high return foraging is only possible for about 10 days per month and for only 2-3 h on those days. These experiments suggest that while intertidal resources are attractive, women and children could not have subsisted independently, nor met all their protein-lipid needs from marine resources alone, and would have required substantial additional energy and nutrients from plant gathering and/or from males contributing game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of clinical, immunological and irological failure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is increasing evidence that the current clinical and immunological monitoring tools are not sufficient to identify early enough patients who are failing on treatment. Development of resistance to the limited treatment options for children and premature switching are the dangers. The objective of this study ...

  6. prevalence of clinical, immunological and virological failure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: There is increasing evidence that the current clinical and immunological monitoring tools are not sufficient to identify early enough patients who are failing on treatment. Development of resistance to the limited treatment options for children and premature switching are the dangers. The objective of ...

  7. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  8. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be properly fabricated to deliver the cargo into the targeted cells through effective endocytosis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the selective penetration of gold nanoparticles into immune cells. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cell receptors is discussed. As distinct from other published reviews, we present a summary of the immunological properties of gold nanoparticles. This review also summarizes what is known about the application of gold nanoparticles as an antigen carrier and adjuvant in immunization for the preparation of antibodies in vivo . For each of the above topics, the basic principles, recent advances, and current challenges are discussed. Thus, this review presents a detailed analysis of data on interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cells. Emphasis is placed on the systematization of data over production of antibodies by using gold nanoparticles and adjuvant properties of gold nanoparticles. Specifically, we start our discussion with current data on interaction of various gold nanoparticles with immune cells. The next section describes existing technologies to improve production of antibodies in vivo by using gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands. Finally, we describe what is known about adjuvant properties of bare gold or functionalized nanoparticles. In the Conclusion section, we present a short summary of reported data and some challenges and perspectives.

  9. Towards a better understanding of caregiver distress in early psychosis: a systematic review of the psychological factors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Gleeson, John; Cotton, Sue

    2015-02-01

    We sought to review empirical studies of psychological factors accounting for distress in caregivers of young people with early psychosis. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we included studies that empirically tested psychological models of caregiver distress in early psychosis by searching the following databases up until March 2014: PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). This was followed by additional manual searches of reference lists and relevant journals. The search identified 15 papers describing 13 studies together comprising 1056 caregivers of persons with early psychosis. The mean age of caregivers was 47.2years (SD=9.8), of whom 71.5% were female and 74.4% were parents. Nine different psychological variables were examined in the included studies, which were categorised in the following non-mutually exclusive groups: coping, appraisal/attribution and interpersonal response. There was considerable data to support the link between distress and psychological factors such as avoidant coping, appraisal and emotional over-involvement. However, the possibilities of drawing conclusions were limited by a number of methodological issues, including cross-sectional data, small sample sizes, confounding variables not being accounted for, and a wide variation in outcome measures. The strengths of the review were the systematic approach, the exclusion of non-empirical papers and the rating of methodological quality by two independent raters. Limitations were that we excluded studies published in languages other than English, that data extraction forms were developed for this study and hence not tested for validity, and that there was a potential publication bias in favour of significant findings. A better grasp of the psychological factors accounting for caregiver distress early in the course of illness may help us understand the trajectory of distress. This is an important step in preventing long-term distress in caregivers and

  10. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The report on the influence of seasonal factors on thymic size in early life describes a pattern of ultrasonographically measured thymic growth in Gambian infants including the finding of a smaller thymus in the hungry season. These factors raise a number of important questions: Is the size...... of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  11. Immunologic Regulation in Pregnancy: From Mechanism to Therapeutic Strategy for Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Jou Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunologic interaction between the fetus and the mother is a paradoxical communication that is regulated by fetal antigen presentation and/or by recognition of and reaction to these antigens by the maternal immune system. There have been significant advances in understanding of abnormalities in the maternal-fetal immunologic relationship in the placental bed that can lead to pregnancy disorders. Moreover, immunologic recognition of pregnancy is vital for the maintenance of gestation, and inadequate recognition of fetal antigens may cause abortion. In this paper, we illustrate the complex immunologic aspects of human reproduction in terms of the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA, immune cells, cytokines and chemokines, and the balance of immunity in pregnancy. In addition, we review the immunologic processes of human reproduction and the current immunologic therapeutic strategies for pathological disorders of pregnancy.

  12. Citizens unite for computational immunology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Orrin S; Baker, Sarah Catherine; Baker, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    Recruiting volunteers who can provide computational time, programming expertise, or puzzle-solving talent has emerged as a powerful tool for biomedical research. Recent projects demonstrate the potential for such 'crowdsourcing' efforts in immunology. Tools for developing applications, new funding opportunities, and an eager public make crowdsourcing a serious option for creative solutions for computationally-challenging problems. Expanded uses of crowdsourcing in immunology will allow for more efficient large-scale data collection and analysis. It will also involve, inspire, educate, and engage the public in a variety of meaningful ways. The benefits are real - it is time to jump in! Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunologic reaction and viability of cryopreserved homografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischlein, T; Schütz, A; Haushofer, M; Frey, R; Uhlig, A; Detter, C; Reichart, B

    1995-08-01

    Homograft cell viability after cryopreservation was investigated and cytoimmunologic monitoring was performed during the early postoperative course to research possible immunologic reactions after allograft aortic valve replacement. After cryopreservation, morphologic observations were made, a nonradioactive cell proliferation assay was used, and prostaglandin I2 secretion of the remaining endothelial cells was determined. Cytoimmunologic monitoring was performed daily within the first 3 weeks postoperatively. An increase of the activation index greater than 1 was rated as an immunologic reaction. Maintained metabolic activity of graft endothelial cells after cryopreservation was confirmed by prostaglandin I2 release (9.24 +/- 3.48 ng/cm2 basic release and 20.1 +/- 5.76 ng/cm2 when stimulated with 25 mumol/L Na arachidonic acid). Cell proliferation was indicated after graft incubation with the nonradioactive viability kit (0.27 +/- 0.9 at 450 nm). Cytoimmunologic examinations (n = 861) after homograft implantation showed a more intense activation in patients with ABO-incompatible grafts (activation index 2.1 +/- 1.6, n = 16) than in those with ABO-compatible grafts (activation index 1.3 +/- 0.8, n = 17). In these groups, the duration of activation by cytoimmunologic monitoring was 2.8 +/- 1.5 days and 1.3 +/- 0.6 days, respectively (p < 0.041). No activation was observed in 8 patients after xenograft valve replacement (p < 0.01). Our data indicate that cryopreservation of homograft valves represents a cell- and tissue-protective preservation method. Postoperatively, all homograft valves caused immunologic reactions, which were reversible without immunosuppression treatment.

  14. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  15. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N

    2012-02-03

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  16. The immunological consequences of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Choileain, N; Redmond, H P

    2006-02-01

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  17. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary immunologists have expanded understanding of the immune systems for our companion animals and developed new vaccines and therapeutics. This manuscript summarizes the highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto,...

  19. Peptide modification in T cell immunology - from molecule to animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Ellen Christine de

    2003-01-01

    Chemical knowledge can be applied in the field of immunology. It provides a better understanding of how a peptide interacts with proteins and cells of the immune system. However, it is not possible to predict the outcome of peptide administration in an animal. Peptides are used in experimental

  20. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient.

  1. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient.

  2. Immunologic Targeting Of Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.; Chen, M. R.; Linden, R.

    1989-06-01

    A number of laboratories have demonstrated that immunoconjugates may have potential in phototherapy of cancer. The phototoxic effectiveness of these conjugates may be increased by manipulation of irradiation parameters and by biochemical and immunologic modulation. Results from experiments aimed at potentiation of immunoconjugate photosensitization are presented.

  3. CCL8 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of CCL8.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  4. Immunological aspects of Graves' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. van Ouwerkerk (Marcel)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractAssuming an autoimmune interested to know whether apart from restoring the immunologic parameters. Freshly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease were all similarly treated with MMI 10 mg t.i.d. and when euthyroidism was achieved, with substitution of thyroid hormone. At

  5. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Joint Congress Mark your calendars and head to Orlando for the premier event in allergy/immunology. You ... Of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Life Spectrum of Asthma Meeting School-based Asthma Management Program – (SAMPRO TM ) This ...

  6. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Psychological status and immunological parameters of institutionalized aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, C; Guidi, L; Antico, L; Pariante, C M; Di Giovanni, A; Pili, R; Cursi, F; Tricerri, A; Tempesta, E; Frasca, D

    1991-01-01

    In the elderly, an impairment of the immune system could lead to increased incidence of infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases; on the other hand, depression, which is the most common psychiatric problem in aged people, seems to be linked with alterations in immunological function. Thirteen institutionalized elderly subjects were studied to investigate the relationship between depression and immunological parameters. These subjects were selected as "healthy" according to the SENIEUR-EURAGE protocol and they belonged to a population already evaluated by our group--one year before--for psychological, endocrinological and immunological parameters. The lymphocyte mitotic response to PHA was greatly diminished in aged subjects, when compared to the adult controls. Depressed elderly showed impaired immunological function as compared with nondepressed ones, either "in vitro" or "in vivo". Lymphocyte stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), T cell growth factor (TCGF) production (induced by stimulation with PHA) and cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity (CDH) were reduced in depressed aged subjects. As far as lymphocyte proliferation with PHA in the whole group were concerned, no differences were found comparing the present results with those obtained in a former study. Although it is difficult to understand the significance of the immune imbalance associated with depression in the elderly, our results suggest that psychological status could influence the immunological functions in old people.

  8. Immunologic assessment of patients with pulmonary metaplasia and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.L.; Saccomanno, G.; Smith, D.M.; Saunders, R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Immune profiles have been obtained on 206 individuals including 57 controls, 50 lung cancer patients, and 99 uranium miners with well-defined sputum cytologies ranging from normal to carcinoma in situ. Little effect of smoking, uranium mining or a combination of mining plus smoking on immune function was observed if sputum cytology was normal. In heavy smokers there was a suggestion that total T cells are increased while T cell function is slightly depressed. Immunologic abnormalities were noted in the moderate atypia group where 40% had one or more abnormal immunologic parameters. Immunologic abnormalities were detected in 68 to 70 patients with marked atypia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma. Further sequential study of the uranium miner population is necessary to define more precisely the predictive value of immunologic testing, and the role of early identification of high risk individuals in the early institution of definitive therapy, such as surgery or immunotherapy. Long-term prospective analysis of this population may also provide the answer to the question of whether alterations in immune function precede, or result from the appearance of cells committed to the development of neoplasia

  9. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  10. 42 CFR 493.921 - Diagnostic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic immunology. 493.921 Section 493.921... Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.921 Diagnostic immunology. The subspecialties under the specialty of immunology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are syphilis...

  11. How advances in immunology provide insight into improving vaccine efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, Mark K.; Amanna, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines represent one of the most compelling examples of how biomedical research has improved society by saving lives and dramatically reducing the burden of infectious disease. Despite the importance of vaccinology, we are still in the early stages of understanding how the best vaccines work and how we can achieve better protective efficacy through improved vaccine design. Most successful vaccines have been developed empirically, but recent advances in immunology are beginning to shed new light on the mechanisms of vaccine-mediated protection and development of long-term immunity. Although natural infection will often elicit lifelong immunity, almost all current vaccines require booster vaccination in order to achieve durable protective humoral immune responses, regardless of whether the vaccine is based on infection with replicating live-attenuated vaccine strains of the specific pathogen or whether they are derived from immunization with inactivated, non-replicating vaccines or subunit vaccines. The form of the vaccine antigen (e.g., soluble or particulate/aggregate) appears to play an important role in determining immunogenicity and the interactions between dendritic cells, B cells and T cells in the germinal center are likely to dictate the magnitude and duration of protective immunity. By learning how to optimize these interactions, we may be able to elicit more effective and long-lived immunity with fewer vaccinations. PMID:24709587

  12. Neurodevelopmental consequences of pediatric cancer and its treatment: applying an early adversity framework to understanding cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A; Iadipaolo, Allesandra S; Harper, Felicity W; Elrahal, Farrah; Taub, Jeffrey W; Goldberg, Elimelech; Rabinak, Christine A

    2017-12-22

    Today, children are surviving pediatric cancer at unprecedented rates, making it one of modern medicine's true success stories. However, we are increasingly becoming aware of several deleterious effects of cancer and the subsequent "cure" that extend beyond physical sequelae. Indeed, survivors of childhood cancer commonly report cognitive, emotional, and psychological difficulties, including attentional difficulties, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Cognitive late- and long-term effects have been largely attributed to neurotoxic effects of cancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, surgery) on brain development. The role of childhood adversity in pediatric cancer - namely, the presence of a life-threatening disease and endurance of invasive medical procedures - has been largely ignored in the existing neuroscientific literature, despite compelling research by our group and others showing that exposure to more commonly studied adverse childhood experiences (i.e., domestic and community violence, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) strongly imprints on neural development. While these adverse childhood experiences are different in many ways from the experience of childhood cancer (e.g., context, nature, source), they do share a common element of exposure to threat (i.e., threat to life or physical integrity). Therefore, we argue that the double hit of early threat and cancer treatments likely alters neural development, and ultimately, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. In this paper, we (1) review the existing neuroimaging research on child, adolescent, and adult survivors of childhood cancer, (2) summarize gaps in our current understanding, (3) propose a novel neurobiological framework that characterizes childhood cancer as a type of childhood adversity, particularly a form of early threat, focusing on development of the hippocampus and the salience and emotion network (SEN), and (4) outline future directions for

  13. Historical overview of immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ronald H

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the "process of immunological tolerance." This article provides an introductory historical overview to these various mechanisms, which are discussed in greater detail throughout this collection, and then briefly describes what happens when this process fails, a state referred to as "autoimmunity."

  14. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  15. Understanding Intrabasinal Organic Carbon Records: A New Carbon Isotope Record for the Early Cretaceous Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suwaidi, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Aptian-Albian (~125-100 Ma, Early Cretaceous) is considered to be an interval of elevated greenhouse gases, intensified hydrologic cycle, limited polar ice, and elevated high latitude temperatures, with evidence for Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE) as recorded by organic matter and carbonate δ13C perturbations in both the marine and continental realm (Jenkyns et al., 2004; Poulsen, 2004; Robinson & Hesselbo, 2004 and Ufnar et al., 2004). In this study four cores from Aptian­-Albian marine sediments from a single offshore basin in Abu Dhabi, UAE were examined petrographically and samples were collected to generate a high resolution organic carbon δ13C chemostratigraphic profile. The cores represent sediments from the Early Cretaceous upper most Thamama and lowermost Wasia Group and represent interbedded shale and limestone units from the Arabian Shelf. Three of the cores, cores A­-C, show a 3‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg with values of -28‰ occurring with a concurrent increase in organic carbon, likely indicative of Aptian OAE 1a. These cores also show a transition from more oxic to euxinic waters as recorded in the pyrite framboid mean diameter. The remaining core, D, shows relatively isotopically light average δ13Corg values of -26‰, with an intervening positive isotope excursion and values of -23‰, and may represent a different event either earlier or later in the sequence, but due to limited biostratigraphic data could not easily be correlated using C-Isotopes alone with the other three cores. The four cores come from different localities within a single basin and highlight issues pertaining to correlating cores across a single basin for the same time interval, as well as variability in organic matter burial and oxygenation within a single basin, and may provide a useful case study specifically related to separating regional signals from global carbon isotope signals for the Aptian-Albian, and understanding how ancient Mesozoic basins are affected

  16. Current status of immunologic studies in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.L.

    1978-06-01

    Several aspects of the immunology of human malignancy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on relevant findings in lung cancer. The existence of tumor-specific cell-mediated immune responses in patients with cancer has been demonstrated in numerous tumor types. Of more relevance in clinical situations is the association of generalized immunologic depression with malignancy. In the vast majority of cases, progressive declines in both tumor-specific and nonspecific immunologic parameters are observed with advancing disease. The approach to the immunologic evaluation of cancer patients and the potential usefulness of this approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, management, and assessment of therapeutic response are discussed. Evidence aimed at elucidating the mechanism of immunosuppression in malignancy, such as serum-blocking factors, immunoregulatory alpha globulins, and suppressor cells, is presented. Finally, emphasis is placed on the various forms of immunotherapy, including both specific active methods such as tumor cell or tumor antigen vaccines and nonspecific active immunotherapy involving agents like Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and levamisole. Early results from clinical immunotherapeutic trials are discussed.

  17. Genetic and immunologic aspects of autoimmune poliendocrine syndrome type I: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Rachel Bandeira de Araújo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS-1, also known as candidiasis ectodermal-autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-dystrophy (APECED, it is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE. Therefore, it is immunologically characterized by cell attack and / or antibodymediated generating the destruction of target organs. Furthermore, it is characterized by the pathognomonic triad chronic candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and Addison's disease with many other endocrine and non-endocrine events. Soon, the diagnosis is made based on the presence of two of the three classic features and treatment aims to control the numerous deficiencies that patients may present. This literature review was aimed at understanding the involvement of AIRE gene in relation to immunological aspects present and, consequently, clinical manifestations of this disease. Thus, evidence of the need to broaden the discussion about this disease, in order to improve the quality of life of patients by early diagnosis and treatment and are in accordance with the clinical manifestations of each patient. Thereby, qualitative research involved scientific articles from electronic journals LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean, SCIELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online and NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, between the years 2009 and 2016. Pursuant to, there is the relevance of this review, it is noted that, although the authors converge on views on this syndrome, there are still many unclear matters with regard to the mechanisms of the disease. This highlights the need to promote more discussion on this topic.

  18. Immunological Demyelination Triggers Macrophage/Microglial Cells Activation without Inducing Astrogliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Cloutier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The glial scar formed by reactive astrocytes and axon growth inhibitors associated with myelin play important roles in the failure of axonal regeneration following central nervous system (CNS injury. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that immunological demyelination of the CNS facilitates regeneration of severed axons following spinal cord injury. In the present study, we evaluate whether immunological demyelination is accompanied with astrogliosis. We compared the astrogliosis and macrophage/microglial cell responses 7 days after either immunological demyelination or a stab injury to the dorsal funiculus. Both lesions induced a strong activated macrophage/microglial cells response which was significantly higher within regions of immunological demyelination. However, immunological demyelination regions were not accompanied by astrogliosis compared to stab injury that induced astrogliosis which extended several millimeters above and below the lesions, evidenced by astroglial hypertrophy, formation of a glial scar, and upregulation of intermediate filaments glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Moreover, a stab or a hemisection lesion directly within immunological demyelination regions did not induced astrogliosis within the immunological demyelination region. These results suggest that immunological demyelination creates a unique environment in which astrocytes do not form a glial scar and provides a unique model to understand the putative interaction between astrocytes and activated macrophage/microglial cells.

  19. Toward a new understanding of legacy of early attachments for future antisocial trajectories: Evidence from two longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    KOCHANSKA, GRAZYNA; KIM, SANGHAG

    2012-01-01

    Early parent–child attachment has been extensively explored as a contributor to children’s future adaptive or antisocial outcomes, but the specific developmental mechanisms remain to be fully understood. We examined long-term indirect developmental sequelae of early security in two longitudinal community samples followed from infancy to early school age: the Family Study (102 mothers, fathers, and infants) and the Parent–Child Study (112 mothers and infants). Constructs at multiple levels (ch...

  20. Development of the discipline of exercise immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the influence of exercise upon the human white cell population dates back more than a 100 years. Thus, when introducing the third meeting of the International Society of Exercise Immunology in Brussels, Dr. Bente Klarlund-Pedersen noted that Schulte had already described an exercise-induced leukocytosis as early as 1893. However, for much of the following century interest remained strictly clinical, with physicians assessing the possible changes in vulnerability to bacterial and viral diseases that were induced by various forms of physical activity. In the absence of specific remedies, bed rest was a common medical recommendation for infectious disease, and if the patient recovered from the immediate infection there was often a substantial residual loss of physical condition. Army hospitals in particular were thus anxious to know whether recovery would be compromised if physical activity were to be encouraged during convalescence. Prominent concerns of this era were the influence of exercise upon anterior poliomyelitis and viral hepatitis. The paralysis resulting from the anterior poliomyelitis virus was generally localized to body parts that had been active, and it seemed most likely to develop in those who continued to engage in vigorous exercise in the face of early symptoms (46, 57, 119, 120). Data on viral hepatitis also suggested a need for rest in the acute phase of the disease (1, 65, 115, 128), although most authors concluded that in this condition exercise could be resumed during convalescence, provided that the patient was no longer severely jaundiced (5, 32, 136).

  1. The Impact of Professional Development on Early Childhood Educators' Confidence, Understanding and Knowledge of Education for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; Davis, Julie M.; Nailon, Diane; Emery, Sherridan; Getenet, Seyum; McCrea, Nadine; Hill, Allen

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, Australia has recognised and enacted a range of initiatives at service, system and community levels that seek to embed sustainability into the early childhood sector. This paper explores the impact of a professional development (PD) session that provided opportunities for early childhood educators to learn and share ideas about…

  2. Understanding the Program Effectiveness of Early Mathematics Interventions for Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Environments: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aubrey H.; Firmender, Janine M.; Power, Joshua R.; Byrnes, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The early childhood years are critical in developing early mathematics skills, but the opportunities one has to learn mathematics tend to be limited, preventing the development of significant mathematics learning. By conducting a meta-analysis of 29 experimental and quasi-experimental studies that have been published since 2000,…

  3. Understanding factors associated with early therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment: adherence, childhood sexual abuse history, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stephanie M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history and poor social support may impede the development of early alliance in those receiving PTSD treatment. We sought to examine treatment adherence, CSA history, and social support as factors associated with early alliance in individuals with chronic PTSD who were receiving either prolonged exposure therapy (PE) or sertraline. At pretreatment, participants (76.6% female; 64.9% Caucasian; mean age = 37.1 years, SD = 11.3) completed measures of trauma history, general support (Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors), and trauma-related social support (Social Reactions Questionnaire). Over the course of 10 weeks of PE or sertraline, they completed early therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) and treatment adherence measures. Early alliance was associated with PE adherence (r = .32, p history was not predictive of a lower early alliance. Given the associations with adherence, clinicians may find it useful to routinely assess alliance early in treatment. Positive trauma support, not CSA history, may be particularly important in the development of a strong early therapeutic alliance. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Experimental photoimmunology: immunologic ramifications of UV-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daynes, R.A.; Bernhard, E.J.; Gurish, M.F.; Lynch, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of animal model systems to investigate the sequence of events which lead to the induction and progression of skin tumors following chronic ultraviolet light (UVL) exposure has clearly shown that the direct mutagenic effects of UVL is only one of the components involved in this process. In spite of the fact that overt carcinogenesis is only one of the many effects produced by UV light, most hypotheses as to the mechanism by which UVL can cause the mutations necessary to achieve the transformed phenotype have focused on the direct effects of UVL on DNA and the generation of carcinogenic compounds. Investigations during the last 5 yr, however, have clearly demonstrated that immunologic factors are also critically important in the pathogenesis of UV-induced skin cancers. A complete understanding of UV-carcinogenesis must therefore consider the mechanisms which allow the transformed cell to evade immunologic rejection by the host in addition to those aspects which deal with conversion of a normal cell to a cancer cell. It is the object of this review to provide both a historical account of the work which established the immunologic consequences of chronic UVL exposure and the results of recent experiments designed to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms by which UVL affects the immunologic apparatus. In addition, a hypothetical model is presented to explain the sequence of events which ultimately lead to the emergence of the suppressor T-cells which regulate antitumor immune responses

  5. Advances in mechanisms of asthma, allergy, and immunology in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, David H; Finkelman, Fred; Bochner, Bruce S; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2011-03-01

    2010 was marked by rapid progress in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation and asthma. Studies published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology described advances in our knowledge of cells associated with allergic inflammation (mast cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, and T cells), as well as IgE, cytokines, receptors, signaling molecules, and pathways. Studies used animal models, as well as human cells and tissues, to advance our understanding of mechanisms of asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis, food allergy, anaphylaxis and immediate hypersensitivity, mast cells and their disorders, atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Additional studies provided novel information about the induction and regulation of allergic inflammation and the genetic contribution to allergic inflammation. Critical features of these studies and their potential effects on human atopic disorders are summarized here. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Some advances in radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzheng

    1985-01-01

    This paper is an overview of some of the recent advances in the study of radiation effects on immunity with special emphasis on the relation between radiation immunology and radiation carcinogenesis. The first part of the paper discusses the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, emphasizing the heterogeneity of the lymphocyte population, the relative radiosensitivity of different lymphocyte subpopulations and their subsets, and the effect of the state of activation on lymphocyte radiosensitivity. The second part deals with the essentials of the theory of immunological surveillance, the specific and nonspecific components of anti-tumor immunity, and the effects of radiation on them. The last part of the paper is concerned with the phenomenon of radiation-induced augmentation of the immune response and the expression of radiation hormesis in the immune system with brief descriptions of some of the data from the author's laboratory. The need for a more sophisticated study of the possible hormetic effects of low level radiation on the immune system and other defense and adaptive functions of the body is stressed

  7. Overview of spaceflight immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight and analogues of spaceflight are discussed here and in nine accompanying articles. In this summary we present spaceflight studies with human subjects, animal subjects, and cell cultures and we review ground-based systems used to model the observed effects of spaceflight on the immune system. Human paradigms include bed rest, academic or psychological stress, physical stress, hypobaric or high altitude stress, and confinement. Animal models include antiorthostatic and orthostatic suspension, hypobarism, and confinement. The ten manuscripts in this collection were selected to provide a summary that should give the reader an overview of the various activities of spaceflight immunology researchers throughout the history of space travel. This manuscript identifies the major contributors to the study of spaceflight immunology, explains what types of studies have been conducted, and how they have changed over the years. Also presented is a discussion of the unusual limitations associated with spaceflight research and the efforts to develop appropriate ground-based surrogate model systems. Specific details, data, and mechanistic speculations will be held to a minimum, because they will be discussed in depth in the other articles in the collection.

  8. Ecological immunology and genetic diversity of the endangered Mauritius parakeet

    OpenAIRE

    Tollington, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Studies of avian ecological immunology attempt to describe the biotic and abiotic factors which explain natural variation in immune function within and among free-living bird species. Understanding this variation and the trade-offs associated with maintaining appropriate immune defences and individual life history variables has important implications for the conservation of endangered species, many of which are characterised by small population size and reduced genetic diversity. Such species...

  9. The immunology of Zika Virus [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Culshaw; Juthathip Mongkolsapaya; Gavin Screaton

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was initially thought to cause only mild, self-limiting symptoms. However, recent outbreaks have been associated with the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome and causally linked to a congenital malformation known as microcephaly. This has led to an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. A comprehensive understanding of the immunology of ZIKV infection is required to aid in the design of such a vaccine. Whilst details of both innate and adaptive immune responses...

  10. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andrea Sass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  11. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, F Andrea; Fuchs, Michael; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N; Perka, Carsten; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina

    2018-03-13

    Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  12. NIAID meeting report: improving malaria vaccine strategies through the application of immunological principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Annie X Y; Augustine, Alison Deckhut

    2014-02-26

    A highly efficacious vaccine to prevent malaria infection or clinical disease is still far from reality despite several decades of intensive effort and a growing global commitment in malaria vaccine development. Further understanding of the mechanisms required for induction of effective host immune responses and maintenance of long-term protective immunity is needed to facilitate rational approaches for vaccine design and evaluation. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducted a workshop on June 18-19, 2012 with experts in the fields of malaria vaccine development, malaria immunology, and basic immunology to address issues associated with improving our current understanding of malaria vaccine immunity. This report summarizes the discussion and major recommendations generated by the workshop participants regarding the application of recent advances in basic immunology and state-of-the-art immunological tools to improve progress and help address current challenges and knowledge gaps in malaria vaccine development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Multiscale Systems Immunology project: software for cell-based immunological simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer simulations are of increasing importance in modeling biological phenomena. Their purpose is to predict behavior and guide future experiments. The aim of this project is to model the early immune response to vaccination by an agent based immune response simulation that incorporates realistic biophysics and intracellular dynamics, and which is sufficiently flexible to accurately model the multi-scale nature and complexity of the immune system, while maintaining the high performance critical to scientific computing. Results The Multiscale Systems Immunology (MSI simulation framework is an object-oriented, modular simulation framework written in C++ and Python. The software implements a modular design that allows for flexible configuration of components and initialization of parameters, thus allowing simulations to be run that model processes occurring over different temporal and spatial scales. Conclusion MSI addresses the need for a flexible and high-performing agent based model of the immune system.

  14. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  15. Immunological monitoring of anticancer vaccines in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Chizuru; Aruga, Atsushi

    2013-08-01

    Therapeutic anticancer vaccines operate by eliciting or enhancing an immune response that specifically targets tumor-associated antigens. Although intense efforts have been made for developing clinically useful anticancer vaccines, only a few Phase III clinical trials testing this immunotherapeutic strategy have achieved their primary endpoint. Here, we report the results of a retrospective research aimed at clarifying the design of previously completed Phase II/III clinical trials testing therapeutic anticancer vaccines and at assessing the value of immunological monitoring in this setting. We identified 17 anticancer vaccines that have been investigated in the context of a completed Phase II/III clinical trial. The immune response of patients receiving anticancer vaccination was assessed for only 8 of these products (in 15 distinct studies) in the attempt to identify a correlation with clinical outcome. Of these studies, 13 were supported by a statistical correlation study (Log-rank test), and no less than 12 identified a positive correlation between vaccine-elicited immune responses and disease outcome. Six trials also performed a Cox proportional hazards analysis, invariably demonstrating that vaccine-elicited immune responses have a positive prognostic value. However, despite these positive results in the course of early clinical development, most therapeutic vaccines tested so far failed to provide any clinical benefit to cancer patients in Phase II/III studies. Our research indicates that evaluating the immunological profile of patients at enrollment might constitute a key approach often neglected in these studies. Such an immunological monitoring should be based not only on peripheral blood samples but also on bioptic specimens, whenever possible. The evaluation of the immunological profile of cancer patients enrolled in early clinical trials will allow for the identification of individuals who have the highest chances to benefit from anticancer vaccination

  16. Immunological pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear. Thus, IBD treatment is far from optimal, and patient outcomes can be unsatisfactory. As result of massive studying on IBD, T helper 17 (Th17 cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are investigated on their effects on IBD. A recent study of the plasticity of Th17 cells focused primarily on colitis. ILCs also emerging as novel cell family, which play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD immunopathogenesis is key to understanding the causes of IBD and can lead to the development of IBD therapies. The aim of this review is to explain the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on immunological factors and therapies.

  17. [Bilharzial granuloma - immunological aspects (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1981-01-01

    Living eggs of schistosoma are responsible for the tissular granulomatous reactions of the parasitized organism. It has been demonstrated that this process resorts to a reaction of delayed hypersensitivity related to the complex immunologic mechanisms involving egg specific antigens and immunocompetent cells (lympho-plasmocytic cells). In long duration infections, the granulomatous reaction disappears (endogenic desensitization by immunological processes).

  18. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  19. Autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An autoimmune cause and related immunological alterations resulting in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) have been suggested in patients with unknown etiology. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters among RSA patients and normal ...

  20. Information and Announcements Refresher Course in Immunology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Refresher Course in Immunology will be held for college/university teachers at the Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 from 25 November to 7 December 2002. The course will consist of lectures and group discussions both on basic and clinical aspects of immunology with special.

  1. A roadmap towards personalized immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, Sylvie; Bode, Sebastian F N; Balling, Rudi; Ollert, Markus; He, Feng Q

    2018-01-01

    Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative to tumor cells show a much higher degree of complexity in heterogeneity, dynamics, memory-capability, plasticity and "social" interactions. There is still a long way ahead on translating our capability to identify potentially targetable personalized biomarkers into effective personalized therapy in immune-centralized diseases. Here, we discuss the recent advances and successful applications in "Omics" data utilization and network analysis on patients' samples of clinical trials and studies, as well as the major challenges and strategies towards personalized stratification and treatment for infectious or non-communicable inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases or allergies. We provide a roadmap and highlight experimental, clinical, computational analysis, data management, ethical and regulatory issues to accelerate the implementation of personalized immunology.

  2. The immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelhan, Marc; Pfister, Dominik; O'Connor, Tracy; Pikarsky, Eli; Heikenwalder, Mathias

    2018-03-01

    In contrast to most other malignancies, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for approximately 90% of primary liver cancers, arises almost exclusively in the setting of chronic inflammation. Irrespective of etiology, a typical sequence of chronic necroinflammation, compensatory liver regeneration, induction of liver fibrosis and subsequent cirrhosis often precedes hepatocarcinogenesis. The liver is a central immunomodulator that ensures organ and systemic protection while maintaining immunotolerance. Deregulation of this tightly controlled liver immunological network is a hallmark of chronic liver disease and HCC. Notably, immunotherapies have raised hope for the successful treatment of advanced HCC. Here we summarize the roles of specific immune cell subsets in chronic liver disease, with a focus on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and HCC. We review new advances in immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of HCC and discuss the challenges posed by the immunotolerant hepatic environment and the dual roles of adaptive and innate immune cells in HCC.

  3. A roadmap towards personalized immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delhalle, Sylvie; Bode, Sebastian F N; Balling, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative......-centralized diseases. Here, we discuss the recent advances and successful applications in "Omics" data utilization and network analysis on patients' samples of clinical trials and studies, as well as the major challenges and strategies towards personalized stratification and treatment for infectious or non......-communicable inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases or allergies. We provide a roadmap and highlight experimental, clinical, computational analysis, data management, ethical and regulatory issues to accelerate the implementation of personalized immunology....

  4. Immunological consideration for some aspects of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makidono, Atsushi; Makidono, Tohoru; Yoshimoto, Kiichiro.

    1978-01-01

    What immunology should be in radiology was considered from the modern immunological and radioimmunological point of view. In order to evaluate an immunological response to radiation at a cellular level, radiosensitivities of macrophage, T-cell, and B-cell were selectively described from a modern immunological stand point. On the basis of this knowledge, radioimmunology was explained; and in clinical field, diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumor, radiotherapy for suppressing immuno-lymphatic system, and reactivators for making the treatment effective were described. Immunoreaction in homo-transplantation of organs, relationship between radiation and auto-immunization, and relationship between carcinogenesis of radiation and immunity were explained so that the way of considering immunology in radiology will be summarized. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Understanding Factors Associated with Early Therapeutic Alliance in PTSD Treatment: Adherence, Childhood Sexual Abuse History, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stephanie M.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as…

  6. Using cross-species comparisons and a neurobiological framework to understand early social deprivation effects on behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fleming, Alison S; Kraemer, Gary W; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-05-01

    Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal-infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence.

  7. Understanding the Authoritative Parenting-Early Adolescent Tobacco Use Link; The Mediating Role of Peer Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk-Robinette, Stacey L.; Fletcher, Anne C.; Wright, Kristie

    2002-01-01

    Studied the link between authoritative parenting style and early adolescent tobacco use through the self-reports of 156 eighth graders and independent reports on tobacco use from their friends. Results show that high levels of authoritative parenting are associated with lower levels of tobacco use among target adolescents. (SLD)

  8. Understanding the nuclear gas dispersion in early-type galaxies in the context of black hole demographics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, GAV; van der Marel, RP; Noel-Storr, J

    The majority of nearby early-type galaxies contain detectable amounts of emission-line gas at their centers. The nuclear gas kinematics form a valuable diagnostic of the central black hole (BH) mass. Here we analyze and model Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of a sample of 27 galaxies; 16

  9. Understanding minds: early cochlear implantation and the development of theory of mind in children with profound hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Annette; Lyxell, Björn; Jönsson, Radoslava; Heimann, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates how auditory stimulation from cochlear implants (CI) is associated with the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in severely and profoundly hearing impaired children with hearing parents. Previous research has shown that deaf children of hearing parents have a delayed ToM development. This is, however, not always the case with deaf children of deaf parents, who presumably are immersed in a more vivid signing environment. Sixteen children with CI (4.25 to 9.5 years of age) were tested on measures of cognitive and emotional ToM, language and cognition. Eight of the children received their first implant relatively early (before 27 months) and half of them late (after 27 months). The two groups did not differ in age, gender, language or cognition at entry of the study. ToM tests included the unexpected location task and a newly developed Swedish social-emotional ToM test. The tests aimed to test both cognitive and emotional ToM. A comparison group of typically developing hearing age matched children was also added (n=18). Compared to the comparison group, the early CI-group did not differ in emotional ToM. The late CI-group differed significantly from the comparison group on both the cognitive and emotional ToM tests. The results revealed that children with early cochlear implants solved ToM problems to a significantly higher degree than children with late implants, although the groups did not differ on language or cognitive measures at baseline. The outcome suggests that early cochlear implantation for deaf children in hearing families, in conjunction with early social and communicative stimulation in a language that is native to the parents, can provide a foundation for a more normalized ToM development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward a new understanding of legacy of early attachments for future antisocial trajectories: evidence from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2012-08-01

    Early parent-child attachment has been extensively explored as a contributor to children's future adaptive or antisocial outcomes, but the specific developmental mechanisms remain to be fully understood. We examined long-term indirect developmental sequelae of early security in two longitudinal community samples followed from infancy to early school age: the Family Study (102 mothers, fathers, and infants) and the Parent-Child Study (112 mothers and infants). Constructs at multiple levels (child characteristics, parent-child security, parental discipline, and child antisocial outcomes) were assessed using a range of methods (extensive behavioral observations in a variety of settings, informants' ratings). Both studies supported the proposed model of infant attachment as a potent catalyst that moderates future developmental socialization trajectories, despite having few long-term main effects. In insecure dyads, a pattern of coercion emerged between children who were anger prone as toddlers and their parents, resulting in parents' increased power-assertive discipline. Power assertion in turn predicted children's rule-breaking conduct and a compromised capacity to delay in laboratory paradigms, as well as oppositional, disruptive, callous, and aggressive behavior rated by parents and teachers at early school age. This causal chain was absent in secure dyads, where child anger proneness was unrelated to power assertion, and power assertion was unrelated to antisocial outcomes. Early insecurity appeared to act as a catalyst for the parent-child dyad embarking on a mutually adversarial path toward antisocial outcomes, whereas security defused such a maladaptive dynamic. The possible mechanisms of those effects were proposed.

  11. Czech Immunological Society (CIS): Immunological „enthusiasm“ that began in the 1950s and 60s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říhová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2012), s. 1658-1659 ISSN 0014-2980 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Czech Immunological Society * Immunology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.970, year: 2012

  12. Understanding Systems Change in Early Implementation of Housing First in Canadian Communities: An Examination of Facilitators/Barriers, Training/Technical Assistance, and Points of Leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worton, S Kathleen; Hasford, Julian; Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; MacLeod, Timothy; Tsemberis, Sam; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Goering, Paula; Aubry, Tim; Distasio, Jino; Richter, Tim

    2018-03-01

    We present interim findings of a cross-site case study of an initiative to expand Housing First (HF) in Canada through training and technical assistance (TTA). HF is an evidence-based practice designed to end chronic homelessness for consumers of mental health services. We draw upon concepts from implementation science and systems change theory to examine how early implementation occurs within a system. Case studies examining HF early implementation were conducted in six Canadian communities receiving HF TTA. The primary data are field notes gathered over 1.5 years and evaluations from site-specific training events (k = 5, n = 302) and regional network training events (k = 4, n = 276). We report findings related to: (a) the facilitators of and barriers to early implementation, (b) the influence of TTA on early implementation, and (c) the "levers" used to facilitate broader systems change. Systems change theory enabled us to understand how various "levers" created opportunities for change within the communities, including establishing system boundaries, understanding how systems components can function as causes of or solutions to a problem, and assessing and changing systems interactions. We conclude by arguing that systems theory adds value to existing implementation science frameworks and can be helpful in future research on the implementation of evidence-based practices such as HF which is a complex community intervention. Implications for community psychology are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  13. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Haematological and immunological indicators for radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehos, A.

    1990-01-01

    It is examined if haematological and immunological parameters can be used as biological indicators for radiation exposure. Additional criteria for biological indicators, apart from the dose dependence of the effect, are listed here. The state of the art concerning the development of haematological and immunological indicators is discussed. Several haematological indicators are currently used in diagnosis when excess radiation exposure has occurred (e.g., after the Chernobyl accident). However, further research work has to be done in the field of immunological indicators. (orig.) [de

  15. The immunological burden of human cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a persistent DNA virus that has evolved with humans to establish a finely balanced host-virus relationship. This balance is maintained by host immune surveillance since deficiencies in these processes can result in life-threatening disease, as observed in immunologically immature neonates and pharmacologically immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Both T cells and natural killer cells are intimately involved in maintaining asymptomatic infection by specific and non-specific recognition of infected cells. Under pressure from such host immune responses, CMV appears to have evolved elaborate strategies to subvert these responses in order to persist in the host. CMV target antigens are well characterized, with many CD8 T cell and CD4 T cell epitopes reported. This information is now being exploited to treat immunocompromised patients in order to boost virus-specific immunity. This review also discusses our current understanding of how virus carriage may skew lymphocyte populations in immunocompetent subjects and the association of CMV-seropositivity with immunosenescence.

  16. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Short-Term International Experience (STIE) and Students' Understanding of Quality Early Childhood Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Nishida, Yukiyo

    2018-01-01

    Exposing pre-service teachers to international professional experiences through a short-term visiting programme serves to challenge their understandings of good quality practice through disturbing assumptions and expectations previously formed through experiences in their own country/culture. Much of the research in international study focuses on…

  18. The immunology of animal papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, P K; Stanley, M A

    2000-02-25

    Papillomaviruses are species- and tissue-specific double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses cause epithelial tumours in many animals, including man. Typically, the benign warts undergo spontaneous, immune-mediated regression, most likely effected by T-cells (especially CD4, but also CD8 subsets), whereas humoral immunity can prevent new infections. Some papillomavirus infections fail to regress spontaneously and others progress to malignant epithelial tumours. Additionally, the impact of these lesions is greater in immunosuppressed individuals. Many therapies are ineffective, and there is much interest in the potential for immunological intervention in papillomavirus infections of man and animals. Vaccination can be achieved with 'live' virus, formalin-inactivated virus, synthetic virus-like particles, and DNA vaccination. There has been much recent progress in the development of such vaccines for papillomavirus infections in the rabbit, ox and dog. Success in these animal models suggests that similar approaches may prove useful for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination against the important human papillomaviruses involved in the development of cutaneous and anogenital warts, laryngeal papillomatosis, and cervical cancer.

  19. IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ENDOMETRIAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Slobodyanyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunological processes involving peritoneal macrophages could play a critical role in pathophysiology of external genital endometriosis.Aim: To assess levels of MCP-1, RANTES, and C-reactive protein and to identify their correlations with endometriosis.Materials and methods: Seventy two patients were evaluated: 26 healthy controls and 46 with endometriosis. Patients were divided into groups as follows: 17 with superficial endometriosis, 18 with endometriomas and 11 with deep infiltrative endometriosis. All patients underwent a laparoscopy during the proliferative phase of the cycle; levels of peritoneal and serum MCP-1, RANTES and C-reactive protein were measured using standard ELISA assays.Results: There were positive correlations between serum MCP-1 (p = 0.03 and C-reactive protein(p = 0.045 and severity of endometriosis, that could indicate malfunctioning of peritoneal macrophages in advanced stages of endometriosis. Conclusion: MCP-1 and C-reactive protein levels in peripheral blood can be used as markers of endometriosis activity.

  20. Immunological responses to parasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R W; Weintraub, J

    1987-03-01

    Parasitic arthropods are responsible for enormous economic losses to livestock producers throughout the world. These production losses may range from simple irritation caused by biting and non-biting flies to deaths and/or damage to carcass, fleece, or skin resulting from attack by myiasis flies. The estimated costs of these losses are colossal but even these usually include only direct losses and ignore those associated with pesticide application. In the USA alone (in 1976), these losses were conservatively estimated at more than 650 million US dollars. The long term use of chemical control measures for these pests has resulted in many serious problems including residues in meat and milk products, rapid development of insecticide resistance, the destruction of non-target organisms, environmental pollution, and mortality and morbidity of livestock. These concerns have prompted researchers to seek alternative methods of arthropod control, including the artificial induction of immunity. In this review, R. W. Baron and J. Weintraub discuss several examples of ectoparasites that can induce immunological resistance in the host, including Sarcoptes and Demodex mites, the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus), Anopluran lice and myiasis-causing flies such as Hypoderma.

  1. Evasion of immunologic defenses and emerging viral threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, R M

    1996-01-01

    New viruses and virus strains appear at irregular but frequent intervals in the human population. Those that represent a widespread serious threat to human populations have evolved mechanisms for either short-term or longer-term evasion of immunologic recognition and neutralization. These mechanisms include (1) antigenic shift, (2) intracellular transport, (3) intracellular latency, (4) direct infection and destruction of cells of the immune system, (5) infection in utero or early infancy so the developing immune system regards it as part of the host repertoire of antigens, and probably (6) nonantigenicity. In this article, I discuss these mechanisms and their relationship to the threat constituted by emerging viral agents.

  2. The bishop and anatomist Niels Stensen (1638-1686) and his contributions to our early understanding of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Mortazavi, Martin M; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2011-01-01

    Many physicians are familiar with the parotid duct and the Danish physician/anatomist's name associated with it. However, most are unaware of Niels Stensen's life and his significant contributions to the early study of the brain. This physician of the Medici court was clearly ahead of his time and found errors in the publications of such giants as Varolius and Willis. The present review discusses the life of this seventeenth century anatomist, physician, and priest/bishop and highlights his contributions to neuroanatomy.

  3. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking

  5. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Immunological and hematological reference values for apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    negative adults in Bahir Dar Town,. Ethiopia. Bayeh Abera1, Atnaf Alem2, Ambahun Cherenet2, Mulugeta Kibret3. Abstract. Background: Immunological and hematological reference values differ among different human beings with respect to.

  7. The pluripotent history of immunology. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja Sankaran

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of immunology since 1999 is reviewed, in part as a response to claims by historians such as Thomas Söderqvist the field was still immature at the time (Söderqvist & Stillwell 1999. First addressed are the difficulties, past and present, surrounding the disciplinary definition of immunology, which is followed by a commentary on the recent scholarship devoted to the concept of the immune self. The new literature on broad immunological topics is examined and assessed, and specific charges leveled against the paucity of certain types of histories, e.g. biographical and institutional histories, are evaluated. In conclusion, there are compelling indications that the history of immunology has moved past the initial tentative stages identified in the earlier reviews to become a bustling, pluripotent discipline, much like the subject of its scrutiny, and that it continues to develop in many new and exciting directions.

  8. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna eVerma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  9. Biosensors in immunology: the story so far

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathak, S.S.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Optical biosensors are finding a range of applications in immunology. They enable biomolecular interactions to be characterized in real time without the need to label reactants, and, because individual binding steps can be visualized, are particularly suited to complex assays

  10. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Immunological and toxicological risk assessment of e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the long-term toxicological and immunological effects of e-cigarette (e-cig aerosols remains elusive due to the relatively short existence of vaping. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of articles published in public databases and analysed the research evidence in order to provide critical information regarding e-cig safety. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (or e-cigs are an alternative to traditional cigarettes for the delivery of nicotine and are typically filled with glycerol or propylene glycol-based solutions known as e-liquids. Though present in lower quantities, e-cig aerosols are known to contain many of the harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke. However, due to the paucity of experimental data and contradictory evidence, it is difficult to draw conclusive outcomes regarding toxicological, immunological and clinical impacts of e-cig aerosols. Excessive vaping has been reported to induce inflammatory responses including mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and nuclear factor-κB signalling, similar to that induced by tobacco smoke. Based on recent evidence, prolonged exposure to some constituents of e-cig aerosols might result in respiratory complications such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and inflammation. Future studies are warranted that focus on establishing correlations between e-cig types, generations and e-liquid flavours and immunological and toxicological profiles to broaden our understanding about the effects of vaping.

  13. Immunology of root resorption: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

  14. Unique immunologic patterns in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Frederick G; Gavin, Igor M; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Lindgren, Valerie; Gaitonde, Sujata; Gashkoff, Peter A; Gillis, Bruce S

    2012-12-17

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic pain and allodynia. The diagnosis of FM has been one of exclusion as a test to confirm the diagnosis is lacking. Recent data highlight the role of the immune system in FM. Aberrant expressions of immune mediators, such as cytokines, have been linked to the pathogenesis and traits of FM. We therefore determined whether cytokine production by immune cells is altered in FM patients by comparing the cellular responses to mitogenic activators of stimulated blood mononuclear cells of a large number of patients with FM to those of healthy matched individuals. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 110 patients with the clinical diagnosis of FM and 91 healthy donors. Parallel samples of PBMC were cultured overnight in medium alone or in the presence of mitogenic activators; PHA or PMA in combination with ionomycin. The cytokine concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1β , MCP-1, and MIP1-α in plasma as well as in cultured supernatants were determined using a multiplex immunoassay using bead array technology. Cytokine levels of stimulated PBMC cultures of healthy control subjects were significantly increased as compared to matched non-stimulated PBMC cultures. In contrast, the concentrations of most cytokines were lower in stimulated samples from patients with FM compared to controls. The decreases of cytokine concentrations in patients samples ranged from 1.5-fold for MIP-1β to 10.2-fold for IL-6 in PHA challenges. In PMA challenges, we observed 1.8 to 4-fold decreases in the concentrations of cytokines in patient samples. The cytokine responses to mitogenic activators of PBMC isolated from patients with FM were significantly lower than those of healthy individuals, implying that cell-mediated immunity is impaired in FM patients. This novel cytokine assay reveals unique and valuable immunologic traits, which, when combined with clinical patterns, can offer

  15. Early vascular alterations in SLE and RA patients--a step towards understanding the associated cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Santos

    Full Text Available Accelerated atherosclerosis represents a major problem in both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, and endothelial damage is a key feature of atherogenesis. We aimed to assess early endothelial changes in SLE and RA female patients (127 SLE and 107 RA without previous CV events. Biomarkers of endothelial cell activation (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1, thrombomodulin (TM, and tissue factor (TF were measured and endothelial function was assessed using peripheral artery tonometry. Reactive hyperemia index (RHI, an indicator of microvascular reactivity, and augmentation index (AIx, a measure of arterial stiffness, were obtained. In addition, traditional CV risk factors, disease activity and medication were determined. Women with SLE displayed higher sICAM-1 and TM and lower TF levels than women with RA (p = 0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. These differences remained significant after controlling for CV risk factors and medication. Serum levels of vascular biomarkers were increased in active disease and a moderate correlation was observed between sVCAM-1 levels and lupus disease activity (rho = 0.246 and between TF levels and RA disease activity (rho = 0.301. Although RHI was similar across the groups, AIx was higher in lupus as compared to RA (p = 0.04. Also in active SLE, a trend towards poorer vasodilation was observed (p = 0.06. In conclusion, women with SLE and RA present with distinct patterns of endothelial cell activation biomarkers not explained by differences in traditional CV risk factors. Early vascular alterations are more pronounced in SLE which is in line with the higher CV risk of these patients.

  16. Understanding the early effects of team-based learning on student accountability and engagement using a three session TBL pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anita; Janke, Kristin K; Larson, Andrea; Peter, Wendy St

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the early effects of a team based learning (TBL) pilot, including differences in student engagement with TBL compared to lectures, and student accountability, preferences, and satisfaction with TBL. Three TBL sessions were delivered in the nephrology section of pharmacotherapy and then students completed the team-based learning student assessment instrument (TBL-SAI), which assesses TBL relative to lecture on three subscales (i.e., student accountability, preferences, and satisfaction). Students also completed a modified engagement instrument for a lecture and again for a TBL session. All students (160) participated in the survey (100% response rate). When comparing TBL and lecture engagement, five of eight statements were statistically significantly different. In TBL, students reported the strongest agreement with statements related to contributions (i.e., contributing fair share [mean 3.97], contributing meaningfully [mean 3.96]). Using the TBL-SAI, the mean score for accountability (30.64) was higher than neutral (24) indicating a higher level of accountability with TBL. Student satisfaction with TBL was neutral (mean 26.62, neutral = 27). In a three-session pilot, TBL had positive effects on engagement and accountability. Early positive effects could aid programs in building and maintaining momentum with the TBL approach while working towards outcomes that may take longer to achieve, such as changes in professionalism or teamwork. Duration of exposure and perseverance through the transition to TBL may be important in developing preferences and satisfaction. This study provides insights to programs and instructors about student perceptions and attitudes as TBL is introduced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Cholera in pregnancy: Clinical and immunological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful I; Chowdhury, Fahima; Leung, Daniel T; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and immunological features of cholera in pregnancy. Women of reproductive age presenting to the icddr,b Dhaka hospital with cholera, and enrolled as part of a larger cohort study, were tested for pregnancy on admission. We compared initial clinical features and immune responses of pregnant patients with non-pregnant female patients at days 2, 7 and 21 after infection. Among reproductive age women enrolled between January 2001 and May 2006, 9.7% (14/144) were pregnant. The duration of diarrhoea prior to admission tended to be higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant patients (p=0.08), but other clinical characteristics did not differ. Antibody responses to cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB), toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA), Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serum vibriocidal antibody responses, were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. There were no deaths among the pregnant cases or non-pregnant controls, and no adverse foetal outcomes, including stillbirths, during 21 days of follow up of pregnant cases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses in pregnant women with cholera. We found that pregnant woman early in pregnancy has comparable clinical illness and subsequent immune responses compared to non-pregnant women. These findings suggest that the evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines in pregnancy should be an area of future investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and HBsAg kinetics during pegylated interferon-alfa therapy via mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Jeremie; Rotman, Yaron; Cotler, Scott J.; Koh, Christopher; Schmid, Peter; Albrecht, Jeff; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Liang, Jake T.; Hoofnagle, Jay H.; Heller, Theo; Dahari, Harel

    2014-01-01

    There is little information on the early kinetics of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during interferon-α therapy. Here a mathematical model was developed and fitted to frequent HDV and HBsAg kinetic data from 10 patients during the first 28 weeks of pegylated-interferon-α2a (peg-IFN) therapy. Three patients achieved a complete virological response (CVR), defined as undetectable HDV 6 months after treatment stopped with loss of HBsAg and anti-HBsAg seroconversion. After initiation of therapy a median delay of 9 days (interquartile range IQR:[5;15]) was observed with no significant changes in HDV level. Thereafter, HDV declined in a biphasic manner, where a rapid first-phase lasting for 25 days (IQR:[23;58]) was followed by a slower or plateau second-phase. The model predicts that the main effect of peg-IFN is to reduce HDV production/release with a median effectiveness of 96% (IQR:[93;99.8]). Median serum HDV half-life (t1/2) was estimated to 2.9 days (IQR:[1.5;5.3]) with pretreatment production and clearance of about 1010 (IQR:[109.8-1010.8]) virions/day. None of the patients with flat 2nd phase in HDV achieved CVR. HBsAg kinetics of decline paralleled the second-phase of HDV decline consistent with HBsAg-productive-infected cells being the main source of production of HDV, with a median t1/2 of 135 days (IQR:[20-460]. The interferon lambda-3 polymorphism (rs12979860) was not associated with kinetic parameters. Conclusions Modeling results provide insights into HDV-host dynamics, the relationship between serum HBsAg levels and HBsAg-infected cells, IFN's mode of action and its effectiveness. The observation that a flat second phase in HDV and HBsAg kinetics was associated with failure to achieve CVR provides the basis to develop early stopping rules during peg-IFN treatment in HDV-infected patients. PMID:25098971

  19. BCG-associated heterologous immunity, a historical perspective: experimental models and immunological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyne, Bridget; Marchant, Arnaud; Curtis, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials indicate that bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has beneficial heterologous ('non-specific') effects on mortality in high mortality settings. These findings have stimulated interest in understanding the immunological mechanisms underlying these effects in the hope of harnessing them to reduce all-cause mortality. This line of investigation is especially important in light of BCG being discontinued in some countries as the prevalence of TB falls. Stopping routine BCG in this situation may have the unintended consequence of depriving children of the beneficial immune modulating effects of this vaccine. BCG has been recognized as a potent immunomodulator for decades. This review details experimental studies involving BCG and any heterologous antigen that aimed to interrogate potential immunological mechanisms. To provide a historical perspective, the evidence is presented chronologically. The lines of immunological enquiry can be seen to mirror the evolution of our understanding of cell-mediated immunity and its components. As new clinical trials to investigate the heterologous effects of BCG are undertaken, an understanding of the history of BCG-induced immunity against heterologous antigens may provide information on immunological pathways worthy of further interrogation using modern immunological methods. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Fake news of baby booms 9months after major sporting events distorts the public's understanding of early human development science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Masukume, Gwinyai

    2017-12-01

    In France on 27/6/16, Iceland's men's national football team won 2-1, knocking England out of the UEFA European Championship. Nine months after this momentous Icelandic victory, Ásgeir Pétur Þorvaldsson a medical doctor in Iceland, posted a tweet in jest suggesting that a baby boom had occurred as a result of increased celebratory coital activity following the win. The media covered this widely but statistical analysis shows otherwise and this was confirmed by the original tweet source. Given the increase in fake scientific news, it is especially important for scientists to correct misinformation lest the public loses trust in science or gains a distorted understanding of known facts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Unique immunologic patterns in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behm Frederick G

    2012-12-01

    immunologic traits, which, when combined with clinical patterns, can offer a diagnostic methodology in FM.

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis: immunology and prospects for a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, P M; Aebischer, T

    2011-10-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is the most severe clinical form of a spectrum of neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Caused mainly by L. donovani and L. infantum/chagasi, HVL accounts for more than 50 000 deaths every year. Drug therapy is available but costly, and resistance against several drug classes has evolved. Here, we review our current understanding of the immunology of HVL and approaches to and the status of vaccine development against this disease. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Immunology 101 at poxvirus U: immune evasion genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, B; Shisler, J L

    2001-02-01

    Poxviruses, unlike some other large DNA viruses, do not undergo a latent stage but rely on the expression of viral proteins to evade host immune responses. Of the many poxviral evasion genes identified, most target cytokines or other innate immune defenses. Resistance to interferons appears to be a priority as there are viral proteins that prevent their induction, receptor binding, and action. Additional poxviral proteins inhibit complement activation, chemokines, IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor. The identification of viral immune evasion genes and the determination of their roles in virus survival and spread contribute to our understanding of immunology and microbiology. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Non-immunological hydrops fetalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chance of discovering this problem antenatally is by a liberal policy of scanning patients with other problems, especially hydramnios. Antenatal diagnosis is important, since early deli- very before fetal death occurs in utero will frequently be the only hope of the infant's surviving. Having discovered that a fetus is affected, it is ...

  5. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  6. Do clinical and translational science graduate students understand linear regression? Development and early validation of the REGRESS quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Although regression is widely used for reading and publishing in the medical literature, no instruments were previously available to assess students' understanding. The goal of this study was to design and assess such an instrument for graduate students in Clinical and Translational Science and Public Health. A 27-item REsearch on Global Regression Expectations in StatisticS (REGRESS) quiz was developed through an iterative process. Consenting students taking a course on linear regression in a Clinical and Translational Science program completed the quiz pre- and postcourse. Student results were compared to practicing statisticians with a master's or doctoral degree in statistics or a closely related field. Fifty-two students responded precourse, 59 postcourse , and 22 practicing statisticians completed the quiz. The mean (SD) score was 9.3 (4.3) for students precourse and 19.0 (3.5) postcourse (P REGRESS quiz was internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.89). The initial validation is quite promising with statistically significant and meaningful differences across time and study populations. Further work is needed to validate the quiz across multiple institutions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Understanding the biology of bone sarcoma from early initiating events through late events in metastasis and disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin eZhu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The two most common primary bone malignancies, osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are both aggressive, highly metastatic cancers that most often strike teens, though both can be found in younger children and adults. Despite distinct origins and pathogenesis, both diseases share several mechanisms of progression and metastasis, including neovascularization, invasion, anoikis resistance, chemoresistance and evasion of the immune response. Some of these processes are well-studies in more common carcinoma models, and the observation from adult diseases may be readily applied to pediatric bone sarcomas. Neovascularization, which includes angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, is a clear example of a process that is likely to be similar between carcinomas and sarcomas, since the responding cells are the same in each case. Chemoresistance mechanisms also may be similar between other cancers and the bone sarcomas. Since osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are mesenchymal in origin, the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation is largely absent in bone sarcomas, necessitating different approaches to study progression and metastasis in these diseases. One process that is less well-studied in bone sarcomas is dormancy, which allows micrometastatic disease to remain viable but not growing in distant sites – typically the lungs – for months or years before renewing growth to become overt metastatic disease. By understanding the basic biology of these processes, novel therapeutic strategies may be developed that could improve survival in children with osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma.

  8. Inflammation, Self-Regulation, and Health: An Immunologic Model of Self-Regulatory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-07-01

    Self-regulation is a fundamental human process that refers to multiple complex methods by which individuals pursue goals in the face of distractions. Whereas superior self-regulation predicts better academic achievement, relationship quality, financial and career success, and lifespan health, poor self-regulation increases a person's risk for negative outcomes in each of these domains and can ultimately presage early mortality. Given its centrality to understanding the human condition, a large body of research has examined cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of self-regulation. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to specific biologic processes that may underlie self-regulation. We address this latter issue in the present review by examining the growing body of research showing that components of the immune system involved in inflammation can alter neural, cognitive, and motivational processes that lead to impaired self-regulation and poor health. Based on these findings, we propose an integrated, multilevel model that describes how inflammation may cause widespread biobehavioral alterations that promote self-regulatory failure. This immunologic model of self-regulatory failure has implications for understanding how biological and behavioral factors interact to influence self-regulation. The model also suggests new ways of reducing disease risk and enhancing human potential by targeting inflammatory processes that affect self-regulation.

  9. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Immunologic Aspects of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2013-08-01

    Thus, the results of studies in recent years have substantially broadened our understanding of the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. At the moment, at the cellular and molecular level there has been proved important, and perhaps even the key role of immune factors in the development of osteoporosis-related bone disorders with estrogen deficiency.

  11. NEW LABORATORY METHODS - DNA IMMUNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor fungi present potential, although as yet not fully defined, health risks to the occupants of heavily contaminated buildings due to their production of allergens, and a wide range of mycotoxins. A better understanding of the health risks posed by these organisms will requ...

  12. [Immunological surrogate endpoints to evaluate vaccine efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengfei; Li, Jingxin; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Fengcai

    2015-12-01

    An immunological surrogate endpoints is a vaccine-induced immune response (either humoral or cellular immune) that predicts protection against clinical endpoints (infection or disease), and can be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy in clinical vaccine trials. Compared with field efficacy trials observing clinical endpoints, immunological vaccine trials could reduce the sample size or shorten the duration of a trial, which promote the license and development of new candidate vaccines. For these reasons, establishing immunological surrogate endpoints is one of 14 Grand Challenges of Global Health of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. From two parts of definition and statistical methods for evaluation of surrogate endpoints, this review provides a more comprehensive description.

  13. Comparative anatomy of phagocytic and immunological synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNiedergang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.

  14. Immunologic Abnormalities, Treatments, and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....

  15. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Educational Card Game for Learning How Human Immunology Is Regulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, TzuFen; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Lin, Shu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of an educational card game we developed for learning human immunology. Two semesters of evaluation were included to examine the impact of the game on students' understanding and perceptions of the game-based instruction. Ninety-nine senior high school students (11th graders)…

  16. An Educational Game for Learning Human Immunology: What Do Students Learn and How Do They Perceive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Su, TzuFen; Huang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Jhih-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The scientific concepts of human immunology are inherently complicated and extremely difficult to understand. Hence, this study reports on the development of an educational game entitled "Humunology" and examines the impact of using "Humunology" for learning how the body's defense system works. A total of 132 middle school…

  17. Re-evaluation of the immunological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2014-11-03

    Classically the immunological 'Big Bang' of adaptive immunity was believed to have resulted from the insertion of a transposon into an immunoglobulin superfamily gene member, initiating antigen receptor gene rearrangement via the RAG recombinase in an ancestor of jawed vertebrates. However, the discovery of a second, convergent adaptive immune system in jawless fish, focused on the so-called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), was arguably the most exciting finding of the past decade in immunology and has drastically changed the view of immune origins. The recent report of a new lymphocyte lineage in lampreys, defined by the antigen receptor VLRC, suggests that there were three lymphocyte lineages in the common ancestor of jawless and jawed vertebrates that co-opted different antigen receptor supertypes. The transcriptional control of these lineages during development is predicted to be remarkably similar in both the jawless (agnathan) and jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, suggesting that an early 'division of labor' among lymphocytes was a driving force in the emergence of adaptive immunity. The recent cartilaginous fish genome project suggests that most effector cytokines and chemokines were also present in these fish, and further studies of the lamprey and hagfish genomes will determine just how explosive the Big Bang actually was. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other s...

  19. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Immunology of Paratuberculosis Infection and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of host immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is complicated by a number of factors, including the protracted nature of the disease and the stealthy nature of the pathogen. Improved tools for the measurement of immunologic responses in ruminant species, par...

  1. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  2. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  3. The Immunological Relationship between Typanosoma evansi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax show very high cross-reactivity in serology. This suggests that there is a close immunological relationship between the two parasite species and the possibility that antiserum against one species contains lytic antibodies against the other species was investigated. T. evansi and ...

  4. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot muscle antigens of the diploid Bulinus nala/ensis from Lake Sibayi showed complete immunological correspondence with antiserum prepared from foot muscle tissues of the diploid B. Iropicus. On the other hand, strong "non-identity" reactions occurred when B. nala/ensis antigens were tested with the antiserum ...

  5. Immunological and hematological reference values for apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunological and hematological reference values differ among different human beings with respect to sex, ethnicity, nutrition, altitude and health conditions. These could not be exceptional in the Ethiopian heterogeneous population. However, there are no nationally established reference values. Objective: ...

  6. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  7. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  8. Comparative immunology of Galapagos iguana hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P J; Rand, C S

    1975-09-01

    The antigenic properties of the major hemoglobin component of the Galapgaos iguanas were studied using second-approximation qualitative and quantitative immunochemical techniques. Phylogenetic distances, relative to the Galapagos marine iguana. Amblyrhynchus cristatus, were established on the basis of immunological cross-reactions.

  9. Haematological and immunological effect of coadministration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and Azadirachta indica Linn.(AI) on haemapoietic and immunological indices of normal and diabetic rats. White blood cells which were non-significantly decreased (p>0.05) in diabetic control rats relative to the normal control, ...

  10. Trypanosoma evansi : A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the clinical, parasitological and immunological effects of a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) throughout in experimentally inoculated rabbits over the course of infection and compared them with the same aspect in healthy animals. Body temperature was recorded in degrees Celsius, animal ...

  11. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2012-08-13

    Aug 13, 2012 ... “Mal des Cadeiras” in Brazil, “Derrengadera” in. Venezuela (Desquesnes, 2004). In South America T. evansi principally affects equines although the ..... immunological response of the host and the migration of the parasites to various tissues within the organism. (Desquesnes, 2004). Regarding body weight ...

  18. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  19. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably

  20. Comparative analysis of plant finds from Early Roman graves in Ilok (Cuccium) and Sćitarjevo (Andautonia), Croatia--a contribution to understanding burial rites in southern Pannonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostarić, Renata; Dizdar, Marko; Kusan, Dora; Hrsak, Vladimir; Mareković, Sara

    2006-06-01

    A comparative archaeobotanical analysis of the plant remains from the Early Roman incineration graves in Ilok and Sćitarjevo shows the existence of a complex burial ritual, but at the same time enables a better understanding of the agriculture and trade of the 1st/early 2nd century AD in southern Pannonia. Most of the cereals found (Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum, Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. aestivum i T. cf. spelta), the legumes (Lens culinaris, Vicia ervilia) and the fruit contributions (Cucumis melo/sativus, Malus/Pyrus sp., the Prunus avium group, P. domestica, Vitis vinifera) were probably grown in the vicinity of the investigated localities, but they might at the same time have been trade goods. Trade was undoubtedly well developed at that period, as shown by the remains of the fig (Ficus carica) and olive (Olea europaea), typically Mediterranean crops, in the finds. All the species of cereals, except millet (Panicum miliaceum) in Sćitarjevo, and of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) found in the Ilok grave were carbonised and were probably placed on the funeral pyre with the departed. The lentil (Lens culinaris) and the other fruit remains were non-carbonised and mineralised, which means that they were placed in the grave in fresh, dried or cooked form as food for the deceased (belief in an immortal soul), as remains of the funerary feast, or as a sacrifice to the goods.

  1. A Cost-Effective Approach to Producing Animated Infographics for Immunology Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Bellei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia resources such as video and animations are increasingly used to enhance student engagement and understanding, particularly when teaching cognitively complex concepts.  However, the creation of animation is time-consuming and hence, expensive compared to the creation of graphics. Recognizing this and the challenges students face in learning immunology, we describe here a process of a multi-disciplinary collaboration that produced a series of 3-minute animated infographics videos for tertiary-level immunology teaching within an Australian university. We evaluate the benefit of these and their merit as supplemental curriculum resources to enhance learning.

  2. Systems Biology in Immunology – A Computational Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Ronald N.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra; Fraser, Iain D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is an emerging discipline that combines high-content, multiplexed measurements with informatic and computational modeling methods to better understand biological function at various scales. Here we present a detailed review of the methods used to create computational models and conduct simulations of immune function, We provide descriptions of the key data gathering techniques employed to generate the quantitative and qualitative data required for such modeling and simulation and summarize the progress to date in applying these tools and techniques to questions of immunological interest, including infectious disease. We include comments on what insights modeling can provide that complement information obtained from the more familiar experimental discovery methods used by most investigators and why quantitative methods are needed to eventually produce a better understanding of immune system operation in health and disease. PMID:21219182

  3. INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE WITH A VERY EARLY ONSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kornienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has a tendency to manifest at earlier age. In childhood (< 6 years of age it has an especially severe course and is characterized by high grade inflammation, predominantly in the colon, by complication and extra-intestinal autoimmune injury. At younger age, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis require more aggressive treatment with frequently poor results. From genetic point of view, monogenic mutations controlling the immune response are characteristic for these diseases with an early onset; therefore, they are frequently associated with primary immunodeficiency. This implies various immunologic deficits, such as breakdown of the epithelial barrier, phagocytic dysfunction and dysfunction of Т and В lymphocytes and regulatory Т cells. Depending on this, a number of primary immunodeficiencies are identified associated with monogenic mutations of more than 50 genes. There some age-related specific features at manifestation. Thus, defects in interleukin 10 and FOXP3 manifest in the first months of life, whereas severe combined immunodeficiencies and phagocytosis defects become evident somewhat later. Virtually all 24 children with very early onset of inflammatory bowel disease, whom we examined, had immunologic defects and one child had a XIAP gene mutation. After identification of a specific immunologic defect, one can understand the mechanism of the disease and suspect one or another genetic defect with subsequent reasonable assessment of mutations in candidate genes. Detection of immunologic and genetic defects in children with a very early onset of inflammatory bowel disease allows for choosing an adequate strategy of non-conventional treatment that may differ depending on the mechanism of the disease.

  4. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home > Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About this journal. Journal Home > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Immunology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Manuela; Corpetti, Giorgia; Emma, Francesco; Vivarelli, Marina

    2018-04-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is as yet unknown, but several lines of evidence indicate that the immune system may play a crucial pathogenic role in non-genetic INS. The most important of these are, first, the effectiveness of therapy based on immunosuppression and, second, a vast body of data derived both from experimental models and from patient studies that implicate T cells and more recently B cells as major players in INS pathogenesis. However, recent findings also suggest a direct role of podocytes as drivers of the disease process, and the interplay between the glomerulus and the immune system is still being elucidated. In this review we provide an overview of current knowledge on the role of different components of the immune system in determining disease. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of INS may help drive new, more tailored therapeutic approaches.

  9. Methane producing bacteria: Immunological characterization: Progress report, April 1, 1984--June 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.J.L.; Wolin, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A major contribution of this research has been a significant advance of the immunology of methanogens and other archaebacteria (e.g., extreme halophiles). The foundations have been laid to begin the immunologic study of microbes which are non-methanogens themselves but are important for the fermentation process. This work helped to make clear that bacterial immunology goes beyond the study of pathogens for man, animals, or plants. Immunology can be applied successfully to the study of isolates of importance to understand evolution, phylogeny, ecology, bio-conversion systems, and to advance methanogenic biotechnology. Immunology holds considerable potential to aid in genetic and genetic engineering manipulations as well as in in situ handling of microbes relevant to methanogenesis. Thus, antibodies can help in the discovery of useful microbes, the generation of improved stains, the selection of desirable microorganisms, and in the monitoring and controlling of bioreactors. Immunogolic work in this new field should generate knowledge and devices relevant to areas such as Biological Energy Research, Ecology of Microorganisms, and Environmental (Sanitary) Engineering. In this regard, this work has contributed a comprehensive antiserum bank, a large panel of calibrated polyclonal antibody probes, and techniques for producing and utilizing these probes in the study of methanogens and related bacteria. 67 refs.

  10. Understanding of catalysis on early transition metal oxide-based catalysts through exploration of surface structure and chemistry during catalysis using in-situ approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Franklin [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-09-14

    Two main categories of heterogeneous catalysts are metal and metal oxide which catalyze 80% chemical reactions at solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces. Metal oxide catalysts are much more complicated than metal catalysts. The reason is that the cations of the metal atoms could exhibit a few different oxidation states on surface of the same catalyst particle such as Co3O4 or change of their oxidation states under different reactive environments. For a metal catalyst, there is only one oxidation state typically. In addition, surface of a metal oxide can be terminated with multiple surface functionalities including O atoms with different binding configurations and OH group. For metal, only metal atoms are exposed typically. Obviously, the complication of surface chemistry and structure of a metal oxide makes studies of surface of an oxide catalyst very challenging. Due to the complication of surface of a meal oxide, the electronic and geometric structures of surface of a metal oxide and the exposed species have received enormous attention since oxide catalysts catalyze at least 1/3 chemical reactions in chemical and energy industries. Understanding of catalytic reactions on early transition metal oxide-based catalysts is fundamentally intriguing and of great practical interest in energy- and environment-related catalysis. Exploration of surface chemistry of oxide-based catalysts at molecular level during catalysis has remained challenging though it is critical in deeply understanding catalysis on oxide-based catalysts and developing oxide-based catalysts with high activity and selectivity. Thus, the overall objective of this project is to explore surface chemistry and structure of early transition metal oxide-based catalysts through in-situ characterization of surface of catalysts, measurements of catalytic performances, and then build an intrinsic correlation of surface chemistry and structure with their catalytic performances in a few

  11. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the antimitochondrial antibodies in human serum. The measurements aid in the diagnosis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test...

  12. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, ...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  14. 42 CFR 493.833 - Condition: Diagnostic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Diagnostic immunology. 493.833 Section..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.833 Condition: Diagnostic immunology. The specialty of diagnostic immunology includes for purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of syphilis serology...

  15. America's first department of immunology: an informal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Noel R

    2010-07-01

    America's first organized department devoted to the study of immunology was founded at Johns Hopkins University in 1916 by William Henry Welch. It has since generated multiple centers distributed throughout the university, which continue to promote education and conduct research in immunology to the present day. A review of its history may foretell future developments and directions of immunology in this and other institutions.

  16. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, for maintaining ...

  17. Radioassay in allergy and immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluck, J.

    1983-01-01

    The discovering of IgE and the development of RIA to measure the amount of total IgE and assay IgE to specific allergens opened up a new dimension in the study of allergy. PRIST and RAST have been helpful in diagnosis as well as definition of new diseases and quality control of allergen extracts. A clinical diagnosis should not be based on an in vitro measurement alone, but must be combined with a clinical history, physical exam, and other diagnostic tests, such as skin tests. This combination of examinations is probably sufficient to make a diagnosis in the majority of cases, thus obviating the need for provocation testing, except where there are discrepancies in the data or no definitive results. Since provocation testing is time-consuming, uncomfortable, and potentially hazardous for the patient, any decrease in its frequency of use is significant. The standardization, purification, and separation of active fractions of allergens is essential to the further understanding and treatment of allergy and RAST is instrumental in this effort. It must always be kept in mind that the RAST is only as accurate and significant as the antigen that is linked to the disc. In cases where a purified, well-tested antigen is used, the results are excellent as with the codfish study. When the antigen is more variable and contains several proteins, results with RAST will be variable also. As more allergens are studied and purified, RAST will become a more important tool in allergy management

  18. Clinical and Immunological Characteristics of Acute Tonsillopharyngitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the pressing issues of timely diagnosis of acute tonsillopharyngitis in children. Particular attention is paid to early diagnosis of acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. As additional paraclinical criteria to confirm the streptococcal nature of acute tonsillopharyngitis, there were selected indicators of cellular immunity (content in peripheral blood of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD22. Sufficient indicators of sensitivity (80 % and specificity (81.3 % enable to use integrated clinical and immunological parameters, which include the contents of CD8-lymphocytes > 10 %, CD-3 lymphocytes > 30 %, CD22-lymphocytes < 18 % in the peripheral blood with a total evaluation of the clinical status by McIsaac’s scale ≥ 4 points to confirm the streptococcal nature of acute tonsillopharyngitis in children.

  19. Development of an Integrated Immunology and Vaccines Pharmacy Elective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie F James

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe an elective course on immunology and vaccines for pharmacy students that extends beyond basic immunization training. Design: A three credit-hour Immunology and Vaccines elective was developed and taught by an immunologist, policy research expert, and pharmacist. The learning objectives of the course included: understanding how the immune system works with vaccines to provide protection against infectious diseases, the history and policies involved in immunization practice, and how to counsel the vaccine hesitant individual. Classes were conducted using a variety of formats; group projects, lectures, films, literature reviews and guest speakers. An end-of-course evaluation was used to gauge student opinion on course value. Students were evaluated by four exams and a final group presentation. Conclusion: Students indicated that this course was valuable to their future pharmacy careers and provided insight into why people choose not to vaccinate and how they could use the course insight to properly educate such individuals. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Note

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  1. Safety studies of aluminum in vaccines lack immunotoxicity analysis of this immunological adjuvant: Ignorance or deception?

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugham, Vinu

    2017-01-01

    The safety studies most often referred by vaccine regulators when making claims about the safety of aluminum in vaccines, have ignored the immunotoxicity of aluminum. Vaccinologists admit that they neither understand the general immunological mechanisms involved in vaccination nor do they understand the mechanisms involved in aluminum adjuvant action. Thus vaccine regulators have no scientific basis to make vaccine safety claims. Given this situation one would expect that vaccine regu...

  2. Development of Early Conceptions in Systems Thinking in an Environmental Context: An Exploratory Study of Preschool Students' Understanding of Stocks & Flows, Behavior Over Time and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmeister, Kristina M.

    Systems thinking allows learners to look at the world as a series of interconnected parts of a whole. A debate exists in early childhood research literature about whether or not children have the capacity to hold systems thinking conceptions due to the complex thought processing needed for systems thinking. Additionally, many researchers question whether children have enough life experience or cognitive schema to participate fully in systems thinking. However, this study's findings indicate that young children do show signs of more complex understanding in systems thinking than what previous literature suggests a young child has the ability to do. This three part research study was conducted in a universal pre-kindergarten (UPK) classroom in a first-ring suburb of a rust-belt city in the Northeastern United States. The study was grounded in a desire to uncover young children's understanding of systems thinking through everyday classroom activities. Twenty students participated in this qualitative study which utilized read-aloud, water play and the interpretation and creation of graphs through associated structured and semi-structured interviews. Data from student's observations and interviews was transcribed, segmented, coded and analyzed. This student-centered process approach (Gotwals & Alonzo, 2012) allowed for children's ideas to emerge naturally during the research tasks. Data was analyzed according to a three step analysis process using a real-world lens, a systems thinking skills lens, and the development of lower anchors for future learning progressions lens. Across a group of 20 preschool children there was an overarching theme that the ability to think in systems and utilize simple systems thinking tools, such as stock-flow maps, feedback loops and behavior over time graphs, was present. Since children are ready to reason using rudimentary systems thinking, then systems thinking opportunities should be incorporated into their informal and formal learning

  3. Processing Demands Impact 3-Year-Olds' Performance in a Spontaneous-Response Task: New Evidence for the Processing-Load Account of Early False-Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rose M; Roby, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Prior to age four, children succeed in non-elicited-response false-belief tasks but fail elicited-response false-belief tasks. To explain this discrepancy, the processing-load account argues that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in infancy, as indicated by early success on non-elicited-response tasks, but that children's ability to demonstrate this capacity depends on the processing demands of the task and children's processing skills. When processing demands exceed young children's processing abilities, such as in standard elicited-response tasks, children fail despite their capacity to represent beliefs. Support for this account comes from recent evidence that reducing processing demands improves young children's performance: when demands are sufficiently reduced, 2.5-year-olds succeed in elicited-response tasks. Here we sought complementary evidence for the processing-load account by examining whether increasing processing demands impeded children's performance in a non-elicited-response task. 3-year-olds were tested in a preferential-looking task in which they heard a change-of-location false-belief story accompanied by a picture book; across children, we manipulated the amount of linguistic ambiguity in the story. The final page of the book showed two images: one that was consistent with the main character's false belief and one that was consistent with reality. When the story was relatively unambiguous, children looked reliably longer at the false-belief-consistent image, successfully demonstrating their false-belief understanding. When the story was ambiguous, however, this undermined children's performance: looking times to the belief-consistent image were correlated with verbal ability, and only children with verbal skills in the upper quartile of the sample demonstrated a significant preference for the belief-consistent image. These results support the processing-load account by demonstrating that regardless of whether a task involves an elicited

  4. Processing Demands Impact 3-Year-Olds’ Performance in a Spontaneous-Response Task: New Evidence for the Processing-Load Account of Early False-Belief Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rose M.; Roby, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Prior to age four, children succeed in non-elicited-response false-belief tasks but fail elicited-response false-belief tasks. To explain this discrepancy, the processing-load account argues that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in infancy, as indicated by early success on non-elicited-response tasks, but that children’s ability to demonstrate this capacity depends on the processing demands of the task and children’s processing skills. When processing demands exceed young children’s processing abilities, such as in standard elicited-response tasks, children fail despite their capacity to represent beliefs. Support for this account comes from recent evidence that reducing processing demands improves young children’s performance: when demands are sufficiently reduced, 2.5-year-olds succeed in elicited-response tasks. Here we sought complementary evidence for the processing-load account by examining whether increasing processing demands impeded children’s performance in a non-elicited-response task. 3-year-olds were tested in a preferential-looking task in which they heard a change-of-location false-belief story accompanied by a picture book; across children, we manipulated the amount of linguistic ambiguity in the story. The final page of the book showed two images: one that was consistent with the main character’s false belief and one that was consistent with reality. When the story was relatively unambiguous, children looked reliably longer at the false-belief-consistent image, successfully demonstrating their false-belief understanding. When the story was ambiguous, however, this undermined children’s performance: looking times to the belief-consistent image were correlated with verbal ability, and only children with verbal skills in the upper quartile of the sample demonstrated a significant preference for the belief-consistent image. These results support the processing-load account by demonstrating that regardless of whether a task

  5. Immunological effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogen traditionally used by indigenous groups of the northwest Amazon. In the last decade, the use of ayahuasca has spread from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite acute and long-term evidence of good tolerability and safety for ayahuasca administered in the laboratory or ritually consumed in religious contexts, little is known about the immunological impact of ayahuasca on humans. Since ayahuasca is used by an increasing number of consumers, and considering its therapeutic potential, more information is needed regarding ayahuasca potential risks. This article presents a brief overview of the available data regarding the immunological impact of ayahuasca in humans.

  6. Can myofascial techniques modify immunological parameters?

    OpenAIRE

    Fern??ndez-P??rez, Antonio Manuel; Peralta-Ram??rez, Mar??a Isabel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Pilat, Andrzej; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Villaverde-Guti??rrez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to determine the effect of myofascial techniques on the modulation of immunological variables. Design: Thirty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. Interventions: The experimental group underwent three manual therapy modalities: suboccipital muscle release, so-called fourth intracranial ventricle compression, and deep cervical fascia release. The control group remained in a resting position for the sa...

  7. History of immunology in Australia: events and identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, I R

    2006-06-01

    Immunology originated in Europe during the latter 1900s, and applications can be discerned in colonial Australia. The actual beginnings of immunology in Australia followed Burnet's enunciation of two fundamental principles: natural immune tolerance as an acquired characteristic in 1948 and clonal selection theory in 1957. Laboratory and clinical immunology flourished at various centres from the 1950s. The Australian Society of Immunology was founded in 1971. The merger of clinical immunology with allergy in 1991 created the Australian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, exemplary for the reamalgamation of these related specialties. Australian immunology over the past 50 years has become recognized nationally and abroad as a highly visible component of the academic, research and biomedical scene and is still on a rising trajectory.

  8. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed

  9. Immunological studies relating to the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, J.M.; Cruz, C.; Inclan, G.; Maclas, C.; Suarez, L.; Rivero, R.; Borres, I.M.; Ustariz, C.; Del Valle, L.; Villegas, R.; Martinez, E.; Rorrajero, I.; Guevara, V.; Leon, A.; Paz, L.; Pelaez, J.C.; Roque, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to know the effects of ultra-violet radiations on the integrity of their immunological system, a hematologic and immunological study was carried out in 30 clinically healthy children aged between 10 and 15; 15 of each sex, who come from a region in Bielorussia that was affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, and who received medical and recreational services at the 'Jose Marti' Pioneers'City, located Tarara Beach (Havana, Cuba) from July 9,1990 to August 27,1990. Data from the initial evaluations upon their arrival in Cuba were compared whit the final results before their return to Bielorussia, in the following variables: haemoglobin, leucocytes, platelets, absolute counts of lymphocytes and neutrophylous polymorphonuclears, levels of sericeus of Igs G, A, M, and E sericas and (CH50), as well as the presence of circulating immuno complexes; besides spot-forming cellular clusters (spontaneous, active, and medial by the receptor Fc in neutrophylous) and the cells identified with monoclonal antibodies against CD2, CD3, CD8 and CD4/CD8 quotient. Cutaneous response to antigen and lymphoblastic transformation in the presence of PHA and PwN were also assessed. Results of this research allow to infer that the adequate and monitored position against ultra-violet rays from the solar radiation in children exposed to low doses of ionizing irradiation does not deteriorate the human immunological system, and do favor its regulation and normal performance

  10. Can myofascial techniques modify immunological parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Antonio Manuel; Peralta-Ramírez, Maria Isabel; Pilat, Andrzej; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of myofascial techniques on the modulation of immunological variables. Thirty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent three manual therapy modalities: suboccipital muscle release, so-called fourth intracranial ventricle compression, and deep cervical fascia release. The control group remained in a resting position for the same time period under the same environmental conditions. Changes in counts of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and natural killer (NK) cells (as immunological markers) between baseline and 20 minutes post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time × groups interaction (F(1,35)=9.33; p=0.004) for CD19. There were no significant time × group interaction effects on CD3, CD4, CD8, or NK cell counts. Intrasubject analyses showed a higher CD19 count in the experimental group post-intervention versus baseline (t=-4.02; p=0.001), with no changes in the control group (t=0.526; p=0.608). A major immunological modulation, with an increased B lymphocyte count, was observed at 20 minutes after the application of craniocervical myofascial induction techniques.

  11. The parallel evolution of immunology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A

    2010-01-01

    Immunology is the systematic evaluation of the means through which human beings protect themselves and respond to the attack of internal and external agents, and Edward Jenner (1749-1823) and Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) are considered pioneers of this field. Jenner observed the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox and inoculated the cowpox in human beings to protect them from the often lethal smallpox. Pasteur developed in his laboratory a vaccine against rabies and elaborated methods for attenuating the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms while maintaining their immunogenicity. Pharmacology is the area of medical science dealing with drugs and their uses, and it was during the nineteenth century that it assumed its status of scientific specialty, mainly in German-speaking Europe, through the establishment of pharmacological institutes and dedicated laboratories. The discovery and the synthesis of drugs and the systematic evaluation of their activity have constituted through time a scientific field in which immunology and pharmacology have met and given origin to notable progress in the history of science. The development of chemotherapy, as well as of organ and tissue transplantation, in the twentieth century has been decisively promoted by both immunology and pharmacology. In the last three decades the relationship between these two scientific branches has become increasingly closer in basic research, clinical science, medical education and also editorial scientific activity, as documented by the Journal hosting this paper.

  12. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  13. [Hematologic and immunologic signs of lupus: the experience of the hospital of Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Fatou Samba Diango; Ka, M M; Fall, Seynabou; Dioum, Awa; Pouye, Abdoulaye; Moreira-Diop, Thérèse

    2011-01-01

    The systemic erythematosus lupus (SEL) or lupic disease is a systemic auto-immune pathology, characterized primarily by the presence of antibodies directed against native antibodies anti-DNA. The circumstances of discovery are variable and polymorphic. The hematologic signs and the immunological disorders constitute criteria of diagnosis of lupic disease. It is a multicentric retrospective study from January 1, 1997 to September 30, 2006. Patients were followed up in Internal medicine of Dakar. We appreciate the hematologic and immunological aspects appreciate their prognosis prevalence and their implications with the course the lupic disease. 142 lupic patients were included with 125 women and 17 men; the sex ratio is 0.13. The average age was 34 years with extremes of 6 and 72 years. Our patients had hematologic manifestations average in 32,4 % of the cases and immunological in 76,8 % of the cases. The immunological tests showed the presence, of antinuclear antibodies in 97,9 % of the cases, of native antibody anti-DNA in 45,7 % of the cases, the anti-ECT in 86,95 % (with the anti-RNP in 78,3 % of the cases, anti-Sm in 56,5 % and of anti-SSA in 87 % of the cases). Antibodies anti-DNA and anti-ECT were associated with the hematologic demonstrations respectively in 92,0 % and 95 % of the cases (p = 0,08). Total survival in 96 % of the cases is estimated to 7 years. The circumstances of discovery of the lupic disease are variable. The hematologic signs constitute criteria diagnosis of lupic disease. The accessibility of the hematologic and immunological assessment is necessary for an early diagnosis and an early treatment.

  14. Phytomonas serpens: immunological similarities with the human trypanosomatid pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André L S; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Elias, Camila G R; Vermelho, Alane B; Branquinha, Marta H

    2007-07-01

    The present review provides an overview of recent discoveries concerning the immunological similarities between Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, and human trypanosomatid pathogens, with special emphasis on peptidases. Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi express peptidases that are well-known virulence factors, named leishmanolysin and cruzipain. P. serpens synthesizes two distinct classes of proteolytic enzymes, metallo- and cysteine-type peptidases, that share common epitopes with leishmanolysin and cruzipain, respectively. The leishmanolysin-like and cruzipain-like molecules from P. serpens participate in several biological processes including cellular growth and adhesion to the salivary glands of Oncopeltus fasciatus, a phytophagous insect experimental model. Since previous reports demonstrated that immunization of mice with P. serpens induced a partial protective immune response against T. cruzi, this plant trypanosomatid may be a suitable candidate for vaccine studies. Moreover, comparative approaches in the Trypanosomatidae family may be useful to understand kinetoplastid biology, biochemistry and evolution.

  15. The immunology of Zika Virus [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Culshaw

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV was initially thought to cause only mild, self-limiting symptoms. However, recent outbreaks have been associated with the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome and causally linked to a congenital malformation known as microcephaly. This has led to an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. A comprehensive understanding of the immunology of ZIKV infection is required to aid in the design of such a vaccine. Whilst details of both innate and adaptive immune responses to ZIKV are emerging, further research is needed. As immunopathogenesis has been implicated in poor outcomes following infection with the related dengue virus, identification of cross-reactive immune responses between flaviviruses and the impact they may have on disease progression is also of high importance.

  16. The Conservative Physiology of the Immune System. A Non-Metaphoric Approach to Immunological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson M. Vaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, immunology emerged as a biomedical science, concerned with host defense and production of anti-infectious vaccines. In the late 50s, selective theories were proposed and from then on, immunology has been based in a close association with the neo-Darwinian principles, such as random generation of variants (lymphocyte clones, selection by extrinsic factors (antigens—and, more generally, on genetic determinism and functionalism. This association has had major consequences: (1 immunological jargon is full of “cognitive” metaphors, founded in the idea of “foreignness”; (2 the immune system is described with a random clonal origin, coupled to selection by random encounters; and (3 physiological events are virtually absent from immunological descriptions. In the present manuscript, we apply systemic notions to bring forth an explanation including systemic mechanisms able to generate immunological phenomena. We replace “randomness plus selection” and the notion of foreignness by a history of structural changes which are determined by the coherences of the system internal architecture at any given moment. The importance of this systemic way of seeing is that it explicitly attends to the organization that defines the immune system, within which it is possible to describe the conservative physiology of the immune system. Understanding immune physiology in a systemic way of seeing also suggests mechanisms underlying the origin of immunopathogeny and therefore suggests new insights to therapeutic approaches. However, if seriously acknowledged, this systemic/historic approach to immunology goes along with a global conceptual change which modifies virtually everything in the domain of biology, as suggested by Maturana.

  17. Understanding interannual variability in the distribution of, and transport processes affecting, the early life stages of Todarodes pacificus using behavioral-hydrodynamic modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Jin; Stockhausen, William; Kim, Suam; Cho, Yang-Ki; Seo, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Joon-Soo

    2015-11-01

    To understand interannual variability in the distribution of the early life stages of Todarodes pacificus summer spawning population, and to identify the key transport processes influencing this variability, we used a coupled bio-physical model that combines an individual-based model (IBM) incorporating ontogenetic vertical migration for paralarval behavior and temperature-dependent survival process with a ROMS oceanographic model. Using the distribution of paralarvae observed in the northern East China Sea (ECS) during several field cruises as an end point, the spawning ground for the summer-spawning population was estimated to extend from southeast Jeju Island to the central ECS near 29°N by running the model backwards in time. Running the model forward, interannual variability in the distribution of paralarvae predicted by the model was consistent with that observed in several field surveys; surviving individuals in the northern ECS were substantially more abundant in late July 2006 than in 2007, in agreement with observed paralarval distributions. The total number of surviving individuals at 60 days after release based on the simulation throughout summer spawning period (June-August) was 20,329 for 2006, compared with 13,816 for 2007. The surviving individuals were mainly distributed in the East/Japan Sea (EJS), corresponding to a pathway following the nearshore branch of the Tsushima Warm Current flowing along the Japanese coast during both years. In contrast, the abundance of surviving individuals was extremely low in 2007 compared to 2006 on the Pacific side of Japan. Interannual variability in transport and survival processes made a substantial impact on not only the abundance of surviving paralarvae, but also on the flux of paralarvae to adjacent waters. Our simulation results for between-year variation in paralarval abundance coincide with recruitment (year n + 1) variability of T. pacificus in the field. The agreement between the simulation and field

  18. Immunology and immunity against infection: General rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2005-12-01

    Simplified and generalizable rules of immune responses against infections or vaccines have been summarized into 20 statements previously (Scand. J. Immunol. 60 (2004) 9-13) and are restated in a slightly different form here. The key terms of immunology (e.g. specificity, tolerance and memory) are explained in terms of their co-evolutionary importance in the equilibrium between infectious agents and diseases with higher vertebrate hosts. Specificity is best defined by protective antibodies or protective activated T cells; e.g. serotype specific neutralizing antibodies against polio viruses represent the discriminatory power of an immune response very well indeed. Tolerance is reviewed in terms of reactivity rather than self-nonself discrimination. Immune respones are deleted against antigens expressed at sufficient levels within the lymphoheamopoetic system, but may well exist at both, the T and the B cell level against antigens strictly outside of secondary lymphatic organs. In this respect the immune system behaves identically against virus infections and against self antigens. Persistent virus infections delete responsive T cells, once eliminated immune T cell responses wane, if a virus keeps outside of secondary lymphatic tissues no immune response is induced. Immunological memory is usually defined as earlier and greater responses but this does not correlate with protective immunity stringently. It is summarized here that pre-existing titers of protective neutralizing antibodies or pre-existence of activated T cells are the correlates of protection acute cytopathic lethal infections and toxins or against intracellular parasites. It is concluded that many discrepancies and uncertainties in immunological research derive from model situations and experimental results that are correctly measured but cannot be related to co-evolutionary contexts, i.e. survival.

  19. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  20. Immunological Deregulation in Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Vetro, Calogero; Caocci, Giovanni; Greco, Marianna; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Di Raimondo, Francesco; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) has a unique histology since only a few neoplastic cells are surrounded by inflammatory accessory cells that in the last years have emerged as crucial players in sustaining the course of disease. In addition, recent studies suggest that the abnormal activity of these inflammatory cells (such as deregulation in regulatory T cells signaling, expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells, HLA-G signaling and natural killer cells dysfunction) may have prognostic significance. This review is focused on summarizing recent advanced in immunological defects in cHL with translational implications. PMID:24959336

  1. Immunology of the Uterine and Vaginal Mucosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jordan Z; Way, Sing Sing; Chen, Kang

    2018-04-01

    Along with the maintenance of symbiotic mutualism with commensal microbes and protection against invasive infections common to all mucosal barrier tissues, female reproductive tissues have additional, unique tasks that include dynamic cyclic cellular turnover in menstruation and immunological tolerance to genetically foreign fetal antigens in pregnancy. Here we review current knowledge on distinct features of the immune cells in female reproductive tissue with regard to antimicrobial host defense and adaptations to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy. Outstanding areas for future research to obtain new functional insights on this enigmatic mucosal barrier are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Lide Abu Kassim

    Full Text Available Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK, which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS, controlled use of health care services (HCS and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356 and university students from a local university (n = 147. Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits. Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001. However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001 and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001. These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on

  3. Primary immunodeficiencies: a pictorial immunology primer for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, D.E.; Sikka, S.; Reid, B.; Roifman, C.

    2000-01-01

    The immune response constitutes a complex array of interconnecting pathways and mechanisms that result in a sophisticated series of communicative reactions designed to protect against foreign substances. Recent advances in immunologic investigations have begun to unlock many of the previous mysteries underlying the body's defense mechanisms. The complexities of organ transplantation, the isolation of organisms that selectively impair the immune system, and the widespread use of sophisticated anti-neoplastic therapies have necessitated a more comprehensive understanding of underlying immune mechanisms by all physicians. This review presents a simplified view of the development of the immune response. We present strategic examples of primary (i.e., congenital) disorders of immune function to create a framework to understand the major mechanisms that constitute the various ''arms'' of the immune system. It is sometimes easier to understand complex mechanisms when one sees how disease processes interfere with these mechanisms. We have excluded many of the more detailed and complicated mechanisms involved in the immune response in an effort to maintain simplicity

  4. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...... guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology...

  5. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...... guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; American Academy of Pediatrics; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology...

  6. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food ntroduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...... guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; American Academy of Pediatrics; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology...

  7. From cell biology to immunology: Controlling metastatic progression of cancer via microRNA regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyon; Theodoratou, Evropi; Calin, George A; Shin, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the study of microRNAs has expanded our knowledge of the fundamental processes of cancer biology and the underlying mechanisms behind tumor metastasis. Extensive research in the fields of microRNA and its novel mechanisms of actions against various cancers has more recently led to the trial of a first cancer-targeted microRNA drug, MRX34. Yet, these microRNAs are mostly being studied and clinically trialed solely based on the understanding of their cell biologic effects, thus, neglecting the important immunologic effects that are sometimes opposite of the cell biologic effects. Here, we summarize both the cell biologic and immunologic effects of various microRNAs and discuss the importance of considering both effects before using them in clinical settings. We stress the importance of understanding the miRNA's effect on cancer metastasis from a "systems" perspective before developing a miRNA-targeted therapeutic in treating cancer metastasis.

  8. Immigrants in immunology: the benefits of lax borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagaman, Keaton; Martinez, Emily S; Guillemin, Karen

    2015-05-01

    The field of immunology has a long history of illuminating fundamental biological processes of critical importance to human health. From an outsider's perspective, the questions are profoundly philosophical and the experimental approaches are elegantly precise. Yet immunology can also appear impenetrable. Here we recount the experience of two graduate students from the fields of ecology and computer science, who have immigrated into immunological terrain attracted by systems-level questions. We argue that such migrations enrich the field of immunology, and that cultural and institutional changes are needed to promote more interdisciplinary explorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of 137Cs on immunological reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    An important role of 137 Cs as a new ecological factor was shown by analyzing 31 different studies. The radioisotope may at present be detected in the organisms of all inhabitants of this planet. The migration of 137 Cs along the chain lichen-deer-man leads to its accumulation in the organism of humans living in the Extreme North and taking venison in their food. Although the high sensitivity of immunological reactions to various unfavourable environmental factors is well known, data on the effect of incorporated 137 Cs on immunity are scanty. Experiments on animals showed changes in factors of nonspecific immunity (phagocytic reaction of blood neutrophils, bactericidal activity, lysozyme and complement titres of blood serum) and specific immunity (formation of antiviral antibodies). The blood of animals injured by the isotope displays complete and incomplete autoantibodies. The dependence of immunobiological changes on the dose absorbed by the organism is shown. The 137 Cs intake of inhabitants of the Extreme North who eat venison did not, with the absorbed dose equalling up to 50 Mrem per year, lead to changes in their immunological reactivity. (author)

  10. Emerging immunological drugs for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robak, Pawel; Smolewski, Piotr; Robak, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Over the last few years, several new immunological drugs, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), immunomodulatory drugs and B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway inhibitors have been developed and investigated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This article summarizes recent discoveries regarding their mechanism of action, pharmacological properties, clinical activity and toxicity, as well as the emerging role of these agents in CLL. A literature review of mAbs, BCR pathway inhibitors and immunomodulating drugs was conducted of the MEDLINE database via PubMed for articles in English. Publications from 2000 through February 2015 were scrutinized. The search terms used were alemtuzumab, BI 836826, duvelisib ibrutinib, idelalisib, lenalidomide, monoclonal antibodies, MEDI-551, MOR208, obinutuzumab, ocaratuzumab, ofatumumab, ONO-4059, otlertuzumab, spebrutinib, veltuzumab and XmAb5574 in conjunction with CLL. Conference proceedings from the previous 5 years of the American Society of Hematology, European Hematology Association, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and ACR/ARHP Annual Scientific Meetings were searched manually. Additional relevant publications were obtained by reviewing the references from the chosen articles. The use of mAbs, BCR inhibitors and immunomodulating drugs is a promising new strategy for chemotherapy-free treatment of CLL. However, definitive data from ongoing and future clinical trials will aid in better defining the status of immunological drugs in the treatment of this disease.

  11. Importance of exercise immunology in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, J C Rosa; Lira, F S; de Mello, M T; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T

    2011-11-01

    Chronic physical exercise with adequate intensity and volume associated with sufficient recovery promotes adaptations in several physiological systems. While intense and exhaustive exercise is considered an important immunosuppressor agent and increases the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), moderate regular exercise has been associated with significant disease protection and is a complementary treatment of many chronic diseases. The effects of chronic exercise occur because physical training can induce several physiological, biochemical and psychological adaptations. More recently, the effect of acute exercise and training on the immunological system has been discussed, and many studies suggest the importance of the immune system in prevention and partial recovery in pathophysiological situations. Currently, there are two important hypotheses that may explain the effects of exercise and training on the immune system. These hypotheses including (1) the effect of exercise upon hormones and cytokines (2) because exercise can modulate glutamine concentration. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that exercise may modulate immune functions and the importance of exercise immunology in respect to chronic illnesses, chronic heart failure, malnutrition and inflammation.

  12. Uncertainty of measurement: an immunology laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sarah C; Lock, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    'Measurement uncertainty of measured quantity values' (ISO15189) requires that the laboratory shall determine the measurement uncertainty for procedures used to report measured quantity values on patients' samples. Where we have numeric data measurement uncertainty can be expressed as the standard deviation or as the co-efficient of variation. However, in immunology many of the assays are reported either as semi-quantitative (i.e. an antibody titre) or qualitative (positive or negative) results. In the latter context, measuring uncertainty is considerably more difficult. There are, however, strategies which can allow us to minimise uncertainty. A number of parameters can contribute to making measurements uncertain. These include bias, precision, standard uncertainty (expressed as standard deviation or coefficient of variation), sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and verification. Closely linked to these are traceability and standardisation. In this article we explore the challenges presented to immunology with regard to measurement uncertainty. Many of these challenges apply equally to other disciplines working with qualitative or semi-quantitative data. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Growing fast or slow? : understanding the variety of paths and the speed of early growth of entrepreneurial science-based firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miozzo, Marcela; DiVito, Lori

    The paper explores the process of early growth of entrepreneurial science-based firms. Drawing on case studies of British and Dutch biopharmaceutical R&D firms, we conceptualize the speed of early growth of science-based firms as the time it takes for the assembly (or combined development) of three

  14. A systematic review of the importance of milk TGF-beta on immunological outcomes in the infant and young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H; Rosales, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Cytokines in milk like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have been shown to induce oral tolerance in experimental animal studies. However, human studies are less consistent with these findings. The primary objective of this review was to conduct a systematic review of published studies on the association between TGF-beta identified in human milk and immunological outcomes in infancy and early childhood. Human prospective clinical studies were identified through MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and Scopus. Selection criteria included: well described populations of mothers and infants, time of milk sampling, immunological outcome measures and analytical methods of TGF-beta determination. We considered a wide range of immunological outcomes in infancy and early childhood, such as wheeze, atopy, eczema and the immunoglobulin switch. Twelve human studies were included in the review and 67% showed a positive association with TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2 demonstrating protection against allergy-related outcomes in infancy and early childhood. High variability in concentrations of TGF-beta was noted between and within studies, some of it explained by maternal history of atopy or by consumption of probiotics. Human milk TGF-beta appears to be essential in developing and maintaining appropriate immune responses in infants and may provide protection against adverse immunological outcomes, corroborating findings from experimental animal studies. Further large clinical studies in diverse human populations are indicated to confirm these results. (c) 2009 Mead Johnson Nutrition Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S

  15. Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology, immunology, diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Peter R; Jarvis, Joseph N; Panackal, Anil A; Fisher, Matthew C; Molloy, Síle F; Loyse, Angela; Harrison, Thomas S

    2017-01-01

    HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent. Despite therapy, mortality rates in these groups are high. Over the past 5 years, advances have been made in rapid point-of-care diagnosis and early detection of cryptococcal antigen in the blood. These advances have enabled development of screening and pre-emptive treatment strategies aimed at preventing the development of clinical infection in patients with late-stage HIV infection. Progress in optimizing antifungal combinations has been aided by evaluation of the clearance rate of infection by using serial quantitative cultures of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Measurement and management of raised CSF pressure, a common complication, is a vital component of care. In addition, we now better understand protective immune responses in HIV-associated cases, immunogenetic predisposition to infection, and the role of immune-mediated pathology in patients with non-HIV associated infection and in the context of HIV-associated immune reconstitution reactions.

  16. Role of immunological surveillance in radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Toshihiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The immune system is known to be highly susceptible to various physical, chemical, and biological insults. The studies on the immediate and long-term effects of radiation on immune system of mice indicated very clearly that there was a dose-dependent reduction in the number of T and B cells, depression of antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses as well as proliferative responses of spleen cells to T and B cell mitogens shortly after irradiation, but they all recovered to the control level within a few months. Immunosuppression observed shortly after irradiation had little influence on the development of radiogenic tumors. The effects of radiation on the incidence of Friend leukemia virus (FLV)-induced leukemias are examined by using young adult B6C3F{sub 1} male mice which are normally resistant to FLV-induced leukemogenesis. There was a clear threshold dose of 2 Gy below which the development of FLV induced leukemias was not observed but after exposure to >3 Gy high incidence of leukemias was observed. Fractionated, weekly exposure of young C57BL strain mice to 1.6 Gy of X-rays for four successive weeks causes most of the exposed mice to develop thymic lymphomas between 3 and 10 months. However, when the exposed mice are grafted with bone marrow cells from normal donors, the development of thymic lymphomas on the exposed mice is greatly inhibited. There was a clear dose response relationship between the number of bone marrow cells injected and the inhibition of the development of thymic lymphomas. It now appears clear that T cell-mediated immunological surveillance against newly arising neoplasms conceived by Thomas and Burnet does not hold true anymore in the original form, although virus-infected host cells and other host cells expressing altered-self' markers on their cell surfaces are constantly monitored by the immunological surveillance mechanism. A surveillance function against newly arising neoplasms may be a property of surrounding normal tissue

  17. Children’s Environmental Health in the Digital Era: Understanding Early Screen Exposure as a Preventable Risk Factor for Obesity and Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Candice; Wolf, Seth; Weiss, Miriam; Nino, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    The quantity, accessibility and focus on child-targeted programming has exponentially increased since it entered American households in the early 1900s. It may have started with the television (TV), but technology has evolved and now fits in our pockets; as of 2017, 95% of American families own a smartphone. Availability and child-tailored content has subsequently led to a decrease in the age at initial screen exposure. The negative effects that accompany the current culture of early screen exposure are extensive and need to be considered as technology continues to enter the home and inundate social interactions. Increased levels of early screen exposure have been associated with decreased cognitive abilities, decreased growth, addictive behavior, poor school performance, poor sleep patterns, and increased levels of obesity. Research on the adverse effects of early screen exposure is mounting, but further epidemiological studies are still needed to inform prevention and regulation policies. PMID:29473855

  18. Children's Environmental Health in the Digital Era: Understanding Early Screen Exposure as a Preventable Risk Factor for Obesity and Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Candice; Wolf, Seth; Weiss, Miriam; Nino, Gustavo

    2018-02-23

    The quantity, accessibility and focus on child-targeted programming has exponentially increased since it entered American households in the early 1900s. It may have started with the television (TV), but technology has evolved and now fits in our pockets; as of 2017, 95% of American families own a smartphone. Availability and child-tailored content has subsequently led to a decrease in the age at initial screen exposure. The negative effects that accompany the current culture of early screen exposure are extensive and need to be considered as technology continues to enter the home and inundate social interactions. Increased levels of early screen exposure have been associated with decreased cognitive abilities, decreased growth, addictive behavior, poor school performance, poor sleep patterns, and increased levels of obesity. Research on the adverse effects of early screen exposure is mounting, but further epidemiological studies are still needed to inform prevention and regulation policies.

  19. Children’s Environmental Health in the Digital Era: Understanding Early Screen Exposure as a Preventable Risk Factor for Obesity and Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Wolf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantity, accessibility and focus on child-targeted programming has exponentially increased since it entered American households in the early 1900s. It may have started with the television (TV, but technology has evolved and now fits in our pockets; as of 2017, 95% of American families own a smartphone. Availability and child-tailored content has subsequently led to a decrease in the age at initial screen exposure. The negative effects that accompany the current culture of early screen exposure are extensive and need to be considered as technology continues to enter the home and inundate social interactions. Increased levels of early screen exposure have been associated with decreased cognitive abilities, decreased growth, addictive behavior, poor school performance, poor sleep patterns, and increased levels of obesity. Research on the adverse effects of early screen exposure is mounting, but further epidemiological studies are still needed to inform prevention and regulation policies.

  20. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the immunoglobulin antibodies in serum which react specifically with organic dust derived from fungal or animal protein sources. When these antibodies react with such dusts in the lung... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test...

  1. 42 CFR 493.837 - Standard; General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; General immunology. 493.837 Section 493.837 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.837 Standard; General immunology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  2. Veterinary Immunology Committee Toolkit Workshop 2010: Progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Toolkit Workshop took place at the Ninth International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Tokyo, Japan on August 18, 2020. The Workshop built on previous Toolkit Workshops and covered various aspects of reagent development, commercialisation an...

  3. Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1 Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: CD4+ T-lymphocyte count is an indicator of immune status used as the eligibility criterion for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and for monitoring of immunological response to ART in HIV-infected patients in resource limited settings. Objective: To describe the immunological response to ART in HIV-1 ...

  4. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  5. Effect of surgical and immunological castration on haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PCV and HB of dogs surgically castrated increased progressively up to16th week after castration but only up to10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Both PCV and HB decreased progressively after 10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Similarly, the WBC of dogs surgically castrated steadily increased ...

  6. Origins and evolution of reproductive immunology: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, W David

    2015-04-01

    This is a brief personal assessment of the origins and development of the field of reproductive immunology from the 19th century to the present day, with special reference to the founding of the Journal of Reproductive Immunology in 1979. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunological comparison of ovarian and colonic CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, P.; Gendron, M.C.; Maunoury, M.T.; Lamerz, R.; Schnabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ovarian and colonic CEA were compared immunologically by means of antisera prepared against each of them. CEAs of both origins were found identical by immunodiffusion methods. In radioimmunological experiments, slight differences were observed between some but not all ovarian CEAs and colonic CEAs and also between different preparations of colonic CEA: no organ specificity of ovarian CEA could be demonstrated. Finally, CEA level was measured in 41 sera of patients with ovarian carcinoma by two radioimmunoassays, one using colonic CEA as tracer and standard and anti-colonic CEA serum, the other using ovarian CEA and anti-ovarian CEA serum: the values given by the two assays were highly correlated (rsub(s) = 0.8107), meaning that an organ specific assay for ovarian CEA is not needed. (Auth.)

  8. [Current immunologic aspects of kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, V; Dreikorn, K; Opelz, G

    1982-09-01

    The results of clinical kidney transplantation are mainly dependent on immunologic factors many of which are unknown or of unspecified importance. Blood transfusions have a favorable effect on graft prognosis, although our knowledge about optimal transfusion protocols and transfusion-induced mechanisms is still incomplete. The value of HLA-typing is controversial: whereas compatibility of the "classical" HLA-A,B,C antigens improves graft survival only moderately, HLA-DR typing, routinely performed for the last 3 years only, might be of greater importance. In addition, non-HLA systems, such as endothelial/monocytic antigens or the Lewis blood group system, appear to play a role in graft rejection. The individual immune reactivity a recipient to a large extent determines the fate of a graft. The multifactorial dependence of graft prognosis is discussed in this report.

  9. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  10. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  12. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  13. Steps toward understanding the impact of early emotional experiences on disordered eating: The role of self-criticism, shame, and body image shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Cláudia; Mendes, Ana Laura

    2018-01-29

    In research, it has been suggested that early threatening emotional experiences, characterized by abuse, rejection, neglect or absence of affiliative signals may activate maladaptive defensive responses. Further, several studies have emphasised the association between the recall of early emotional experiences and eating psychopathology. However, this relationship does not seem to be direct. Thus, the current study explored the mediator roles of self-criticism and shame (general and body image-focused shame) in the link between early emotional experiences and the engagement in disordered eating, while controlling for the effect of body mass index. The sample of this study included 552 female participants, aged between 18 and 40 years old. The path analysis indicated that the absence of early positive emotional experiences was associated with disordered eating behaviours, through an increased perception of being negatively perceived as inferior or unattractive by others, self-critical attitudes, and body image-focused shame. The tested model accounted for 63% of body image shame and for 67% of disordered eating's variance, and showed an excellent model fit. These findings suggest that shame and self-criticism are defensive mechanisms associated with early threatening emotional experiences, which may trigger disordered eating behaviours. These data appear to offer important research and clinical implications supporting the development of intervention community programs for body and eating difficulties, that specifically target shame (general and body image-focused shame) and self-criticism, through the development of more adaptive emotional regulation strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Presumed hydrochlorothiazide-associated immunologic-hypersensitivity-induced pericardial effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Chaskes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian female presented for a second opinion regarding a newly diagnosed pericardial effusion. Seven months previously, hydrochlorothiazide was introduced into her pharmacologic regimen to aid in the management of her hypertension. A routine echocardiogram indicated a large pericardial effusion with signs of early cardiac tamponade. The patient subsequently underwent successful pericardiocentesis with complete drainage of the pericardial effusion. The effusion was empirically attributed to a viral etiology. Repeat echocardiograms showed recurrence of the pericardial effusion. Prior to undergoing a second pericardiocentesis with pericardial biopsy, as her physicians recommended, the patient sought a second opinion. While obtaining the patient’s history, an allergy to sulfa was elicited. The possibility that the pericardial effusion may be secondary to an immunologic-hypersensitivity reaction was considered. It was recommended the patient discontinue the use of hydrochlorothiazide. Nine days following discontinuation of hydrochlorothiazide and without any other intervention, an echocardiogram was reported to show the size of the pericardial effusion had subsided substantially. Nine weeks following discontinuation, almost complete resolution of the pericardial effusion was reported. It is hypothesized that when treated with hydrochlorothiazide, the patient had an immune response leading to the pericardial effusion.

  15. Zinc effect on the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immunological competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliara, Patrizia; Stabili, Loredana

    2012-10-01

    Pollution by heavy metals has become one of the most important problems in marine coastal areas as a consequence of anthropogenic inputs. Among metal contaminants, zinc, being considered not very toxic, is sometimes released into the sea in appreciable quantities and its concentration is loosely regulated. In this work we analyzed the effects of a high zinc concentration on the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immune system. In particular, after 24 h of zinc treatment, we evaluated coelomocytes morphology and composition as well as the zinc influence on some humoral parameters such as hemolysis, lysozyme-like activity and antibacterial activity on Vibrio alginolyticus. Our results evidenced that the presence of zinc affected both cellular and acellular components of the sea urchin immune system. The P. lividus coelomocytes changed in morphology and number; moreover, the amebocytes changed from a petaloid to a filipodial-like shape and the red spherula cells increased in number. Among the considered humoral effectors lysozyme-like activity and antibacterial activity on V. alginolyticus decreased in short-term to zinc treatment. The modifications in the sea urchin immunological competence might give an early indication of disease susceptibility thus suggesting to consider the examined defence mechanisms as potential biological indicators of metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ImmuneQuest: Assessment of a Video Game as a Supplement to an Undergraduate Immunology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L. Raimondi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of immunology, particularly in this day and age, is an integral aspect of the training of future biologists, especially health professionals. Unfortunately, many students lose interest in or lack true comprehension of immunology due to the jargon of the field, preventing them from gaining a true conceptual understanding that is essential to all biological learning. To that end, a new video game, ImmuneQuest, has been developed that allows undergraduate students to “be” cells in the immune system, finding and attacking pathogens, while answering questions to earn additional abilities. The ultimate goal of ImmuneQuest is to allow students to understand how the major cells in the immune system work together to fight disease, rather than focusing on them as separate entities as is more commonly done in lecture material. This work provides the first assessment of ImmuneQuest in an upper-level immunology course. Students had significant gains in learning of information presented in ImmuneQuest compared with information discussed in lecture only. Furthermore, while students found the game “frustrating” at times, they agreed that the game aided their learning and recommended it for future courses. Taken together, these results suggest that ImmuneQuest appears to be a useful tool to supplement lecture material and increase student learning and comprehension.

  17. Li-Isotope Fractionation into the Octahedral Framework of Clays: A Way to Understand the Weathering of Basalt in Early Mars Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa-Adams, E.; Gil-Lozano, C.; Bishop, J. L.; Hoser, A.; Davila, A. F.; Fairen, A. G.; Chevrier, V. F.; Gago-Duport, L.

    2017-10-01

    We track the use of lithium isotopes as a proxy to understand the degree and extent of basalt weathering in aqueous mediums, providing important information about the prevailing conditions during the formation of water bodies in the past of Mars.

  18. Understanding Early Childhood Socialisation in Immigrant Families: Malaysian-Chinese Parents' Perceptions on the Importance of Ethnic Identity and Cultural Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Shi Jing; Pearson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to shed light on Malaysian-Chinese parents' beliefs about ethnic identity and cultural maintenance in children's socialisation following migration. Three Malaysian-Chinese families residing in Sydney, Australia, with at least one child within the early childhood age range of 4-8 years, participated in the study.…

  19. Minority-World Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Contextually Appropriate Practice While Working in Majority-World Early Childhood Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid Akpovo, Samara; Nganga, Lydiah; Acharya, Diptee

    2018-01-01

    International field experiences in Kenya and Nepal supplied data for two collaborative ethnographic research projects that analyze, using the concept of contextually appropriate practice (CAP), how minority-world early childhood preservice teachers define "quality" practices. The term "minority-world" is used for educators who…

  20. Developing the Understanding of the Role of Interpersonal Interaction in Early Literacy Development: A Case Study of a Thai Public Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibthong, Sunanta

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of interpersonal interaction in early literacy development in one public preschool school in Bangkok, Thailand. Specifically, it explores and analyses the nature of interpersonal interaction and collaborative activities the teachers employ in teaching literacy to children. The study involves observation of 82…

  1. The Next Step in Understanding Impaired Reactive Balance Control in People With Stroke: The Role of Defective Early Automatic Postural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, D. de; Roelofs, J.M.B.; Bruijnes, A.; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postural muscle responses are often impaired after stroke. We aimed to identify the contribution of deficits in very early postural responses to poorer reactive balance capacity, with a particular focus on reactive stepping as a key strategy for avoiding falls. METHODS: A

  2. Prospects for Therapeutic Targeting of MicroRNAs in Human Immunological Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Marisa E; Muljo, Stefan A; Collins, Colm B

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous oligoribonucleotides with exciting therapeutic potential. Early studies established a clear role for miRNAs in leukocyte biology. The first miRNA-based therapy, miravirsen, is now in phase 2 clinical trials, making the reality of these therapies undeniable. The capacity for miRNAs to fine-tune inflammatory signaling make them attractive treatment targets for immunological diseases. Nonetheless, the degree of redundancy among miRNAs, coupled with the promiscuity of miRNA binding sites in the transcriptome, require consideration when designing miRNA-directed interventions. Altered miRNA expression occurs across a range of inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, and diabetes. However, very few studies successfully treated murine models of immunological diseases with miRNA-based approaches. While discussing recent studies targeting miRNAs to treat immunological conditions, we also reflect on the risks of miRNA targeting and showcase some newer delivery systems that may improve the pharmacological profile of this class of therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  4. Virological and Immunological Aspects of AIDS Pathogenesis

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    Brian Conway

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common and serious problem associated with long term antiretroviral therapy is waning efficacy over time. To date. a number of studies has suggested an association between drug resistance and clinical deterioration. However. a precise causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In a large American clinical trial. resistance to zidovudine (ZDV was predictive of subsequent disease progression if this therapy was continued. Surprisingly. this was also predictive of deterioration if therapy was changed to didanosine (ddl. This suggests that other factors (perhaps virological and immunological which may be present in addition to resistance. were as important (if not more so in predicting clinical outcomes. It is likely that viral load. resistance. viral phenotype and alterations in immune function interact in this regard. Proper· studies may allow us to determine a “threshold” for a composite virological and immunological parameter beyond which disease progression will occur. As more antiretroviral agents become available. we will be in a position to intervene to “improve” laboratory markers and monitor them prospectively. potentially to maintain clinical latency for an indefinite period of time. In the authors' laboratories, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the evaluation of circulating proviral load has been developed. In an initial study of 70 patients. proviral load/ 106 CD4 cells was clearly associated with the severity of immune disease. with up to 9.6% of cells being infected in subjects with CD4 cell counts below 200/µL. However. large variability in proviral load among individuals with comparable or dissimilar CD4 cell counts precludes the use of this measurement as an individual marker of the severity of immune disease. More recent work evaluated the combined use of proviral load (expressed as a dichotomous variable based on values above or below one copy/a03 CD4 cells and resistance in a prospective

  5. Modern Microbial Ecosystems are a Key to Understanding Our Biosphere's Early Evolution and its Contributions To The Atmosphere and Rock Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The survival of our early biosphere depended upon efficient coordination anion- diverse microbial populations. Microbial mats exhibit a 3.46-billion-year fossil record, thus they are the oldest known ecosystems. Photosynthetic microbial mats were key because, today, sunlight powers more than 99 percent of global primary productivity. Thus photosynthetic ecosystems have affected the atmosphere profoundly and have created the most pervasive, easily-detected fossils. Photosynthetic biospheres elsewhere will be most detectible via telescopes or spacecraft. As a part of the Astrobiology Institute, our Ames Microbial Ecosystems group examines the roles played by ecological processes in the early evolution of our biosphere, as recorded in geologic fossils and in the macromolecules of living cells: (1) We are defining the microbial mat microenvironment, which was an important milieu for early evolution. (2) We are comparing mats in contrasting environments to discern strategies of adaptation and diversification, traits that were key for long-term survival. (3) We have selected sites that mimic key environmental attributes of early Earth and thereby focus upon evolutionary adaptations to long-term changes in the global environment. (4) Our studies of gas exchange contribute to better estimates of biogenic gases in Earth's early atmosphere. This group therefore directly addresses the question: How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time Our studies strengthen the systematics for interpreting the microbial fossil record and thereby enhance astrobiological studies of martian samples. Our models of biogenic gas emissions will enhance models of atmospheres that might be detected on inhabited extrasolar planets. This work therefore also addresses the question: How can other biospheres be recogniZed" Our choice of field sites helps us explore Earth's evolving early environment. For example, modern mats that occupy thermal springs and certain freshwater

  6. A Review of the Physiological and Immunological Functions of Biliary Epithelial Cells: Targets for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Drug-induced Ductopenias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Te Wu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of biliary epithelial cells (BEC in physiobiology and immunology has steadily expanded. BEC transports IgA as well as IgM into bile, synthesizes and secretes various chemokines, cytokines, and expresses adhesion molecules involved in cell interaction and signal transduction. These then suggest a myriad of potential roles for BEC in defense from invading microorganisms as well as the pathogenesis of diverse immunologically driven diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, graft-versus-host disease, and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC. Despite the progress, there still remain many areas of BEC biology that require further investigation. Most importantly, it remains to be clarified that the extent to which the immunologic activities observed in BEC represent a BEC response to tissue injury or whether BEC themselves are the active participants in the pathogenesis of various cholestatic immunological diseases, including PBC and PSC.

  7. Ecological immunology mediated by diet in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael S; Mason, Peri A; Smilanich, Angela M

    2014-11-01

    A rapidly advancing area of ecological immunology concerns the effects of diet on animals' immunological responses to parasites and pathogens. Here, we focus on diet-mediated ecological immunology in herbivorous insects, in part because these organisms commonly experience nutritional limitations from their diets of plants. Nutritional immunology highlights nutrient-based trade-offs between immunological and other physiological processes as well as trade-offs among distinct immunological processes. This field reveals that nutrition influences the quality and quantity of immunological defense in herbivorous insects, and conversely that nutritional intake by herbivorous insects can be an adaptive response to the specific types of immune-challenge they face in the context of other physiological processes. Because the diets of herbivores challenge them physiologically with plants' secondary metabolites, another area of study analyzes constraints on immunological defense imposed by secondary metabolites of plants in the diets of herbivorous insects. Alternatively, some herbivores can use secondary metabolites as medicine against parasites or pathogens. Animal-medication theory makes an important contribution to ecological immunology by distinguishing prophylactic and therapeutic mechanisms of anti-parasite defense. Integrating ideas from animal-medication and nutritional immunology, we outline a conceptual framework in which the immunological role of the diet consists of mechanisms of prophylaxis, therapy, compensation, and combinations thereof. Then, we use this framework to organize findings from our own research on diet-mediated ecological immunology of woolly bear caterpillars. We show evidence that the woolly bear caterpillar, Grammia incorrupta (Hy. Edwards) (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, and Arctiinae), can employ both diet-mediated prophylaxis and therapy. First, increased consumption of carbohydrate-biased food prior to immune-challenge increased its melanization

  8. 50 years of Dutch immunology--founders, institutions, highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelig-Meyling, Frits H J; Meyaard, Linde; Mebius, Reina E

    2014-12-01

    At the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology (DSI, de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Immunologie), this contribution deals with some highlights of 50 years of Immunology in the Netherlands. It narrates about the founders and first board members of the DSI, their institutes, progeny and patrimony, describes major centers of immunological activities, mentions key persons in the field, and touches upon some events dear to the Society and its members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods for microbiological and immunological studies of space flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R. (Editor); Zaloguev, S. N. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identification of aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, yeast and yeastlike microorganisms, and filamentous fungi; methods for the bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus; and methods for determining the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics. Immunological methods using blood and immunological and biochemical methods using salivary parotid fluid are also described. Formulas for media and laboratory reagents used are listed.

  10. Immunology in the liver--from homeostasis to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Felix; Tacke, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The liver is a central immunological organ with a high exposure to circulating antigens and endotoxins from the gut microbiota, particularly enriched for innate immune cells (macrophages, innate lymphoid cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells). In homeostasis, many mechanisms ensure suppression of immune responses, resulting in tolerance. Tolerance is also relevant for chronic persistence of hepatotropic viruses or allograft acceptance after liver transplantation. The liver can rapidly activate immunity in response to infections or tissue damage. Depending on the underlying liver disease, such as viral hepatitis, cholestasis or NASH, different triggers mediate immune-cell activation. Conserved mechanisms such as molecular danger patterns (alarmins), Toll-like receptor signalling or inflammasome activation initiate inflammatory responses in the liver. The inflammatory activation of hepatic stellate and Kupffer cells results in the chemokine-mediated infiltration of neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells. The ultimate outcome of the intrahepatic immune response (for example, fibrosis or resolution) depends on the functional diversity of macrophages and dendritic cells, but also on the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory T-cell populations. As reviewed here, tremendous progress has helped to understand the fine-tuning of immune responses in the liver from homeostasis to disease, indicating promising targets for future therapies in acute and chronic liver diseases.

  11. The immunological balance between host and parasite in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroost, Katrien; Pham, Thao-Thy; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Van den Steen, Philippe E

    2016-03-01

    Coevolution of humans and malaria parasites has generated an intricate balance between the immune system of the host and virulence factors of the parasite, equilibrating maximal parasite transmission with limited host damage. Focusing on the blood stage of the disease, we discuss how the balance between anti-parasite immunity versus immunomodulatory and evasion mechanisms of the parasite may result in parasite clearance or chronic infection without major symptoms, whereas imbalances characterized by excessive parasite growth, exaggerated immune reactions or a combination of both cause severe pathology and death, which is detrimental for both parasite and host. A thorough understanding of the immunological balance of malaria and its relation to other physiological balances in the body is of crucial importance for developing effective interventions to reduce malaria-related morbidity and to diminish fatal outcomes due to severe complications. Therefore, we discuss in this review the detailed mechanisms of anti-malarial immunity, parasite virulence factors including immune evasion mechanisms and pathogenesis. Furthermore, we propose a comprehensive classification of malaria complications according to the different types of imbalances. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Relationship between CNS and immunology, in relation to psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Azhar, Asim; Ali, Ashraf; Rehan, Mohd; Zia, Qamar; Owais, Mohammad; Alexiou, Athanasios; Rauf, Ahmar; Ganash, Magdah; Kamal, Muhammad Amjad

    2018-01-29

    Higher animals, especially the human beings have the privilege of employing advanced central nervous system (CNS) as well as the evolved immune system to ward off various onslaughts throughout their life. Alterations in inflammatory and neural regulatory pathways lead to several disorders that are now becoming the cause of concern across the world. Deregulation in bidirectional network, particularly in aging population, leads to several neurodegenerative diseases such as having dementia as a one of the major characteristics. Interestingly, research updates have signified the role of abrupt immune regulation in several brain diseases, establishing a link between altered immune system and CNS related diseases. In the later period of life time, the role has altered the immune response in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders, which has become more visible. Recent research advances have indicated a close relationship between emotion and psychology to diseases and immunology, proclaiming the need of providing enhanced attention on mechanistic aspect of psychoneuroimmunological disorders. In the present manuscript, we present a synopsis on the linkage of CNS and immune system with respect to psychology, with the aim to further understand the biological machinery of psychoneuroimmunological disorders. The immune system of human beings plays an important role in keeping pathogen onslaughts on bay. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. HPV Infection: Immunological Aspects and Their Utility in Future Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimios Deligeoroglou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, and alterations in the microenvironment of the lesion. Inside the lesion, Toll-like receptors expression becomes irregular; Langerhans cells fail to present the antigens efficiently, tumor-associated macrophages aggregate resulting in an unsuccessful immune response by the host. HPV products also downregulate the expression of microenvironment components which are necessary for natural-killer cells response and antigen presentation to cytotoxic cells. Additionally HPV promotes T-helper cell 2 (Th2 and T-regulatory cell phenotypes and reduces Th1 phenotype, leading to suppression of cellular immunity and lesion progression to cancer. Humoral response after natural infection is inefficient, and neutralizing antibodies are not adequate in many women. Utilizing this knowledge, new endeavors, such as therapeutic vaccination, aim to stimulate cellular immune response against the virus and alter the milieu of the lesion.

  14. Systems immunology allows a new view on human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Joachim L; Aschenbrenner, Anna C

    2018-02-24

    As the most important antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells connect the innate and adaptive part of our immune system and play a pivotal role in our course of action against invading pathogens as well as during successful vaccination. Immunologists have therefore studied these cells in great detail using flow cytometry-based analyses, in vitro assays and in vivo models, both in murine models and in humans. Albeit, sophisticated, classical immunological, and molecular approaches were often unable to unequivocally determine the subpopulation structure of the dendritic cell lineage and not surprisingly, conflicting results about dendritic cell subsets co-existed throughout the last decades. With the advent of systems approaches and the most recent introduction of -omics approaches on the single cell level combined with multi-colour flow cytometry or mass cytometry, we now enter an era allowing us to define cell population structures with an unprecedented precision. We will report here on the most recent studies applying these technologies to human dendritic cells. Proper delineation of and definition of molecular signatures for the different human dendritic cell subsets will greatly facilitate studying these cells in the future: understanding their function under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunological factors correlated in radiation effect in cancer patients treated by radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy with combined chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shuji

    1981-01-01

    Local immunological factors are thought to be parenchymal reaction of normal and tumor tissues. Those were studied by morphological changes of angiographic findings and histological methods which included photomicroscopic, electromicroscopic and enzymic-histochemical studies. It was demonstrated that the effect of radiotherapy depended on not only local blood supply but also parenchymal reaction of the host. Especially, the parenchymal reaction at 2000 or 3000 rad irradiation was regarded as nonspecific tissue repair as well as immunological protective reactions brought about by enhancement of the tumor antigenicity. It was proved that T-cell system played a main role in this parenchymal reaction. Changes of systemic immunological factors were studied in 17 laryngeal cancer and 80 lung cancer patients treated by radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy with combined chemotherapy. Due to the fact that damages of the host before treatment were not so serious and integral dose given to the patients was a little in cases of laryngeal cancer immunological parameters such as absolute lymphocyte counts, PHA and PPD skin test activities, lymphocyte blastoid transformation with PHA, PWM and Con A, did not show significant change. However, as for lung cancer treated by large integral dose irradiation combined with chemotherapy, immunological parameters were depressed in inverse proportion to the dose of irradiation and chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover T-cell subsets (early E-rosette forming cells, IgG Fc-receptor positive cells), lymphocyte sub-populations, ADCC activity, serum immunoglobulins, and serum protein were also investigated in cases of lung cancer. We have evaluated the immunological parameters in relation to the therapeutic effect. As a result, it was suggested that several parameters should be needed to forecast the prognosis. (author)

  16. Immunologic evaluation of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Nam, Young-Hee; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-11-01

    Cefaclor is widely prescribed for various infectious diseases. As its consumption increases, the number of hypersensitivity reactions to cefaclor has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the immunologic findings of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor. We enrolled 47 patients with immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor from Ajou University Hospital and Asan Medical Center. Serum specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 antibodies to cefaclor-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most common phenotype was anaphylaxis (Group I, 78.7%), followed by urticaria (Group II, 21.3%). The detection of specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 to cefaclor-HSA conjugate by ELISA tended to be higher in Group I (40.5%, 41.7%, 21.6%) than in Group II (20.0%, 20.0%, 0%) with no statistical significance. Significant associations were found between specific IgE and IgG1 or IgG4 (pimmediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor was anaphylaxis, most of which was mediated by IgE; however, a non-IgE mediated direct basophil activation mechanism was suggested in a subset of anaphylaxis patients.

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gary W K; Li, Jing; Bao, Yi-Xiao; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Leung, Ting Fan; Li, Luan-Luan; Shao, Jie; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Liu, En-Mei; Shen, Kun-Ling; Chen, Yu-Zhi

    2018-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has enjoyed rapid economic development along with urbanization at a massive scale that the world has not experienced before. Such development has also been associated with a rapid rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. Because of the large childhood population in the country, the burden of childhood allergic disorders has become one of the major challenges in the healthcare system. Among the Chinese centers participating in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, the data clearly showed a continuing rise in the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema. However, the discipline of pediatric allergy in mainland China is still in its infancy due to the lack of formal training program and subspecialty certification. Clinicians and researchers are increasingly interested in providing better care for patients with allergies by establishing pediatric allergy centers in different regions of the country. Many of them have also participated in national or international collaborative projects hoping to answer the various research questions related to the discipline of pediatric allergy and immunology. It is our hope that the research findings from China will not only improve the quality of care of affected children within this country but also the millions of patients with allergies worldwide. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of hypergravity on immunologic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Koebel, D. A.; Davis, S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of hypergravity exposure (2g) with those of exposure to space flight in the Cosmos 2044 flight. To do so, rats were centrifuged continuously for 14 days. Two different experiments were carried out on tissue obtained from the centrifuged rats. In the first experiment, rat bone marrow cells were examined for their response to recombinant murine colony stimulating factor-granulocyte/monocyte (GM-CSF). In the second experiment, rat spleen and bone marrow cells were stained in with a variety of antibodies directed against cell surface antigenic markers. These cells were preserved and analyzed on a flow cytometer. The results of the studies indicated that bone marrow cells from centrifuged rats showed no significant change in response to GM-CSF as compared to bone marrow cells from control rats. Spleen cells from flown rats showed some statistically significant changes in leukocytes subset distribution, but no differences that appeared to be of biological significance. These results indicate that hypergravity did not greatly affect the same immunological parameters affected by space flight in the Cosmos 2044 mission.

  19. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kuriyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS between recipients (n = 11 of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P 0.05 increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01. The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.

  20. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) between recipients (n = 11) of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P aromatherapy and carrier massage, no difference between the aromatherapy and control massage was observed for STAI and SDS. Aromatherapy, in contrast to control massage, did not significantly reduce RBC count or hematocrit. However, aromatherapy massage showed a significant (P > 0.05) increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:15937558

  1. Louis Pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late 19th century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur’s remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  2. Immunological characterization of plant ornithine transcarbamylases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Williamson, C. L.; Poggenburg, C. A.; Lynes, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) antisera were used to investigate the immunological relatedness of several plant and animal OTC enzymes. The antisera immunoprecipitated OTC activity in all monocot and dicot species tested, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of immunoprecipitated protein revealed monomeric proteins ranging from 35,200 to 36,800 daltons in size. Pea OTC antisera did not recognize mammalian OTC protein. OTC activity and protein levels detected on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblots from homogenates of green leaf, etiolated epicotyl and cotyledon, and root tissues of pea were poorly correlated. This might result from differences in amounts of enzymatically active OTC protein in the homogenates. Alternatively, the antisera may fail to recognize different isozyme forms of OTC, which have been reported for some plant species. A putative cytosolic precursor OTC (pOTC) polypeptide exhibiting and Mr = 39,500 to 40,000 daltons was immunoprecipitated from in vitro translation mixtures of total pea leaf poly(A)+ RNA. The size of the pOTC polypeptide, as compared with mature OTC monomer (36,000 daltons), suggests that a 4 kilodalton N-terminal leader sequence, like that responsible for mitochondrial targeting of the mammalian enzyme, may be involved in organellar import of the plant enzyme.

  3. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  4. Polio, terror and the immunological worldview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2018-02-01

    This paper adopts a socio-historical perspective to explore when, how and why the eradication of poliomyelitis has become politicised to the extent that health workers and security personnel are targeted in drive-by shootings. Discussions of the polio crisis in Afghanistan and Pakistan have tended to focus on Taliban suspicions of a US-led public health intervention and the denunciation of 'modernity' by Islamic 'extremists'. In contrast, this paper considers a broader history of indigenous hostility and resistance to colonial immunisation on the subcontinent, suggesting how interconnected public health and political crises today have reactivated the past and created a continuity between events. The paper explores how the biomedical threat posed by polio has become intertwined with military and governmental discourses premised on the 'preemptive strike'. Here, the paper tracks the connections between biological immunity and a postcolonial politics that posits an immunological rationale for politico-military interventions. The paper concludes by reflecting on the consequences for global public health of this entanglement of infectious disease with terror.

  5. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  6. Understanding Interest and Self-Efficacy in the Reading and Writing of Students with Persisting Specific Learning Disabilities during Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert; Mickail, Terry; Richards, Todd; Renninger, K. Ann; Hidi, Suzanne E.; Beers, Scott; Berninger, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Three methodological approaches were applied to understand the role of interest and self-efficacy in reading and/or writing in students without and with persisting specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in literacy. For each approach students in grades 4 to 9 completed a survey in which they rated 10 reading items and 10 writing items on a Scale 1…

  7. "If I Had to Do It, Then I Would": Understanding Early Middle School Students' Perceptions of Physics and Physics-Related Careers by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and…

  8. Immunological commonalities and distinctions between airway and digestive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Jun; Nochi, Tomonori; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Airway and digestive tissues are the frontlines of the body's defense, being continuously exposed to the outside environment and encountering large numbers of antigens and microorganisms. To achieve immunosurveillance and immunological homeostasis in the harsh environments of the mucosal surfaces, the mucosal immune system tightly regulates a state of opposing but harmonized immune activation and quiescence. Recently, accumulating evidence has revealed that although the respiratory and intestinal immune systems share common mucosa-associated immunological features that are different from those of the systemic immune system, they also show distinctive immunological phenotypes, functions, and developmental pathways. We describe here the common and distinct immunological features of respiratory and intestinal immune systems and its application to the development of mucosal vaccines.

  9. The Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ImmPort system serves as a long-term, sustainable archive of immunology research data generated by investigators mainly funded through the NIAID/DAIT. The core...

  10. Tumor Biology and Immunology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor Biology and Immunology The Comparative Brain Tumor Consortium is collaborating with National Center for Advanced Translational Sciences to complete whole exome sequencing on canine meningioma samples. Results will be published and made publicly available.

  11. Peptide and Peptide-Dependent Motions in MHC Proteins: Immunological Implications and Biophysical Underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cory M; Corcelli, Steven A; Baker, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    Structural biology of peptides presented by class I and class II MHC proteins has transformed immunology, impacting our understanding of fundamental immune mechanisms and allowing researchers to rationalize immunogenicity and design novel vaccines. However, proteins are not static structures as often inferred from crystallographic structures. Their components move and breathe individually and collectively over a range of timescales. Peptides bound within MHC peptide-binding grooves are no exception and their motions have been shown to impact recognition by T cell and other receptors in ways that influence function. Furthermore, peptides tune the motions of MHC proteins themselves, which impacts recognition of peptide/MHC complexes by other proteins. Here, we review the motional properties of peptides in MHC binding grooves and discuss how peptide properties can influence MHC motions. We briefly review theoretical concepts about protein motion and highlight key data that illustrate immunological consequences. We focus primarily on class I systems due to greater availability of data, but segue into class II systems as the concepts and consequences overlap. We suggest that characterization of the dynamic "energy landscapes" of peptide/MHC complexes and the resulting functional consequences is one of the next frontiers in structural immunology.

  12. Less travelled roads in clinical immunology and allergy: drug reactions and the environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Carlo; Crotti, Chiara; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2013-08-01

    Allergy and clinical immunology are examples of areas of knowledge in which working hypotheses are dominant over mechanistic understanding. As such, sometimes scientific efforts follow major streams and overlook some epidemiologically prevalent conditions that thus become underestimated by the research community. For this reason, we welcome the present issue of Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology that is dedicated to uncommon themes in clinical immunology and allergy. First, comprehensive discussions are provided for allergy phenomena of large potential impact in clinical practice such as reactions to cephalosporins or aspirin-induced asthma and in everyday life such as allergies to food additives or legumes. Further, the issue addresses other uncommon themes such as urticaria and angioedema, cercarial dermatitis, or late-onset inflammation to soft tissue fillers. Last, there will be discussion on transversal issues such as olfactory defects in autoimmunity, interleukin 1 beta pathway, and the search for new serological markers in chronic inflammation. As a result, we are convinced that this issue will be of help to clinicians involved in internal medicine as well as to allergists and clinical immunologists. More importantly, we are convinced that these discussions will be of interest also to basic scientists for the numerous translational implications.

  13. Peptide and Peptide-Dependent Motions in MHC Proteins: Immunological Implications and Biophysical Underpinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory M. Ayres

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural biology of peptides presented by class I and class II MHC proteins has transformed immunology, impacting our understanding of fundamental immune mechanisms and allowing researchers to rationalize immunogenicity and design novel vaccines. However, proteins are not static structures as often inferred from crystallographic structures. Their components move and breathe individually and collectively over a range of timescales. Peptides bound within MHC peptide-binding grooves are no exception and their motions have been shown to impact recognition by T cell and other receptors in ways that influence function. Furthermore, peptides tune the motions of MHC proteins themselves, which impacts recognition of peptide/MHC complexes by other proteins. Here, we review the motional properties of peptides in MHC binding grooves and discuss how peptide properties can influence MHC motions. We briefly review theoretical concepts about protein motion and highlight key data that illustrate immunological consequences. We focus primarily on class I systems due to greater availability of data, but segue into class II systems as the concepts and consequences overlap. We suggest that characterization of the dynamic “energy landscapes” of peptide/MHC complexes and the resulting functional consequences is one of the next frontiers in structural immunology.

  14. Harnessing the properties of dendritic cells in the pursuit of immunological tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Horton

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the “holy grail” of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases. Whilst various cell types exhibiting a tolerogenic phenotype have been proposed for such a task, tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs are exquisitely adapted for antigen presentation and interact with many facets of the immune system: as such, they are attractive candidates for use in strategies for immune intervention. We review here our current understanding of tol-DC mediated induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance. Additionally, we discuss recent in vitro findings from animal models and clinical trials of tol-DC immunotherapy in the setting of transplantation, autoimmunity and allergy which highlight their promising therapeutic potential, and speculate how tol-DC therapy may be developed in the future.

  15. Towards global understanding of plant defence against aphids--timing and dynamics of early Arabidopsis defence responses to cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśnierczyk, Anna; Winge, Per; Jørstad, Tommy S; Troczyńska, Joanna; Rossiter, John T; Bones, Atle M

    2008-08-01

    Insect feeding on plants causes a complex series of coordinated defence responses. Little is known, however, about the time-dependent aspect of induced changes. Here we present a time series-based investigation of Arabidopsis thaliana Ler subjected to attack by a specialist pest of Brassicaceae species, Brevicoryne brassicae. Transcriptome and metabolome changes were studied at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after infestation to monitor the progress of early induced responses. The use of full-genome oligonucleotide microarrays revealed the initiation of extensive gene expression changes already during the first 6 h of infestation. Data indicated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium in early signalling, and salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in the regulation of defence responses. Transcripts related to senescence, biosynthesis of anti-insect proteins, indolyl glucosinolates (GS) and camalexin, as well as several uncharacterized to date WRKY transcription factors, were induced. Follow-up studies of defence-involved secondary metabolites revealed depositions of callose at the insects' feeding sites, a decrease in the total level of aliphatic GS, particularly 3-hydroxypropyl glucosinolate, and accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate 48 h after the attack. The novel role of camalexin, induced as a part of defence against aphids, was verified in fitness experiments. Fecundity of B. brassicae was reduced on camalexin-accumulating wild-type (WT) plants as compared with camalexin-deficient pad3-1 mutants. Based on experimental data, a model of plant-aphid interactions at the early phase of infestation was proposed.

  16. Remembrance of immunology past: conversations with Herman Eisen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Herman N; Schlesinger, Sondra

    2015-01-01

    Herman Eisen and Sondra Schlesinger spent several days together in September 2007 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, talking about immunology, focusing on his remembrances of the field over the more than 60 years of his involvement. This article is an abridged version of those discussions (the full version is available on the Annual Reviews website). It is both an oral history and a written memory of some important but selected areas of immunology.

  17. IMMUNOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIAS

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    Samo Zver

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. ALL is a malignant blood disease and lymphoblasts have origin in B or T lymphatic cell line. In 1997 established new World Health Organisation classification (WHO classification of malignant haematological diseases realizes the importance of cellular immunological markers (immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities (cytogenetics. Based on both findings we may distribute the patients in low, intermediate and high risk groups and the outcome of such distribution is risk adopted ALL treatment strategy. On Clinical department of haematology (CDH we have decided to overview immunophenotype characteristics of all ALL patients during the January 1, 1995–December 31, 2001 period.Methods and results. During the January 1, 1995–December 31, 2001 period on CDH we have treated 44 patients: 22 males and 22 females. With flow cytometer Coulter Epics XL MCS we have performed first primary antibody panel for acute leukemias antigens (CD2, CD7, CD10, CD19, CD34, cCD3, cCD13, cCD22, MPO, TdT, followed by secondary panel. The later have included antigen CD20, CD23, membrane and/or cytoplasmatic immunoglobulins or their light chains monoclonal antibodies for B-ALL and antigen CD3, CD4, CD5 and CD8 monoclonal antibodies for T-ALL subsets. Besides immunophenotyping we have evaluated all ALL patients also morphologically according to FAB classification (French-AmericanBritish classification, which is an old classification based solely on morphology.32/44 (73% patients have had immunophenotypic B-ALL, and 12/44 (27% T-ALL. Subgroups distribution of B-ALL immunophenotype were: pro-B 4/44 (9%, »common«-B 18/44 (41%, pre-B 5/44 (11.5% and mature B 5744 (11.5% and for T-ALL immunophenotype were: pro-T 2/44 (4.5%, pre-T 5/44 (11.5%, cortical-T 4/44 (9% and mature-T 1/44 (2%. Our results are quite comparable with the available data from the literature, despite the fact that newest immunological markers such as CD1a, CD79a and CD22 were not available

  18. Immunologic features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyonouchi, Soma; Orange, Jordan; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Krantz, Ian; Deardorff, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a genetic syndrome with multisystem abnormalities. Infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The goals of our study were to identify the frequency and types of infections in CdLS and to determine if underlying immunodeficiency contributes to the clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We assessed infectious histories in 45 patients with CdLS and evaluated conventional immunologic screening tests in 27 patients. Among these 27 subjects, additional phenotypic enumeration of T-cell subsets, expression of activation markers in T cells, and production of cytokines in response to T-cell stimulants were studied in 12 CdLS subjects compared with 12 normal case control subjects. Recurrent infections were reported at high frequency in CdLS patients and included chronic ear infections (53%), chronic viral respiratory infections (46%), pneumonia (42%), sinus infections (33%), oral candidiasis (13%), sepsis (6%), and bacterial skin infections (4%). Full immune evaluation in 27 subjects led to identification of 9 cases of antibody deficiency syndrome in patients with severe forms of CdLS. Subjects with CdLS had decreased percentages of T regulatory cells and T follicular helper cells compared with normal control subjects (P < .05). This study identified for the first time a high frequency of antibody deficiency in CdLS subjects, indicating a critical need for screening and management of immunodeficiency in CdLS patients with a history of well-documented severe or recurrent infections. Furthermore, our results indicate that impaired T-cell populations may be associated with antibody deficiency in CdLS.

  19. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Emily A. Dare; Gillian H. Roehrig

    2016-01-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based...

  20. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Dare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students’ perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  1. "Speak to the eyes, as well as the understanding": The pedagogy of science in Early American higher education, 1750--1830

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, Nicholas

    This dissertation describes the teaching methods and educational philosophies of natural philosophy instructors at several of the colleges in colonial and early national North America. It finds two distinct approaches: the demonstrative, in which the instructor centers the course on visually engaging lecture-demonstrations, and the catechetical, in which the course objective is to master a set of facts and definitions through memorization and repetition. The roots of the demonstrative approach lay in the culture of public lecture-demonstrations that emerged in western Europe during the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. The catechism, while having a much longer history as a religious teaching tool, gained new currency in the period through the concern for moral education. Ultimately, both approaches were intimately tied to European Enlightenment ideas about the place of science in the public sphere and the means by which the human mind learns new information. Individual schools, and even individual instructors, had great discretion in choosing which approach, or combination of approaches, to use. Instructors could present lecture-demonstrations as part of the social training of students, who as citizens would be expected to attend lectures and participate in scientifically-informed discussion. Catechetical lessons, however, would be more useful to instructors who favored keeping natural philosophy similar in appearance to other subjects. The catechism, with its systematic presentation and familiar format, was more readily adapted to examinations. Two instructors in particular---William Smith and John Ewing, both at the University of Pennsylvania---serve as exemplars of the demonstrative and catechetical methods, respectively. The recognition of these two approaches, and the larger recognition of the prominence of natural philosophy in the North American curriculum, has implications for the received narratives of both early American science and early American

  2. Preeclampsia and health risks later in life: an immunological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Sharma, Surendra

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has been now linked to higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several other disorders associated with vulnerable organs. Furthermore, the offspring born to preeclamptic mothers also exhibit an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mental disorders during adulthood. This suggests that preeclampsia not only exposes the mother and the fetus to complications during pregnancy but also programs chronic diseases in later life. The etiology of preeclampsia is thought to be primarily associated with poor placentation and entails excessive maternal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is well established now that the maternal immune system and the placenta are involved in a highly choreographed cross-talk that underlies adequate spiral artery remodeling required for uteroplacental perfusion and free flow of nutrients to the fetus. Since normal pregnancy is associated with a sequence of events represented by temporal events of inflammation (implantation), anti-inflammation (gestation), and inflammation (parturition), it is quite possible that unscheduled alterations in these regulatory responses may lead to pathologic consequences. Although it is not clear whether immunological alterations occur early in pregnancy, it is proposed that dysregulated systemic and placental immunity contribute to impaired

  3. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Shearer, William T

    2015-05-01

    Genetic identification of immunodeficiency syndromes has become more efficient with the availability of whole-exome sequencing, expediting the identification of relevant genes and complementing traditional linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping. New genes defects causing immunodeficiency include phophoglucomutase 3 (PGM3), cytidine 5' triphosphate synthase 1 (CTPS1), nuclear factor κB-inducing kinase (NIK), cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), phosphoinositide-3 kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1), IL21, and Jagunal homolog 1 (JAGN1). New case reports expanded the clinical spectrum of gene defects. For example, a specific recombination-activating gene 1 variant protein with partial recombinant activity might produce Omenn syndrome or a common variable immunodeficiency phenotype. Central and peripheral B-cell tolerance was investigated in patients with several primary immunodeficiencies, including common variable immunodeficiency and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, to explain the occurrence of autoimmunity and inflammatory disorders. The role of IL-12 and IL-15 in the enhancement of natural killer cell activity was reported. Newborn screening for T-cell deficiency is being implemented in more states and is achieving its goal of defining the true incidence of severe combined immunodeficiency and providing early treatment that offers the highest survival for these patients. Definitive treatment of severe immunodeficiency with both hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy was reported to be successful, with increasing definition of conditions needed for optimal outcomes. Progress in HIV infection is directed toward the development of an effective vaccine and the eradication of hidden latent virus reservoirs. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunologic and renal markers among photogravure printers exposed to toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, B; Cénée, S; Limasset, J C; Diebold, F; Michard, D; Druet, P; Hémon, D

    1998-08-01

    This study assessed immunologic and early renal effects of chronic toluene exposure. In a longitudinal study of 92 printers and 74 referents, 145 subjects had pre- and poststudy samples of blood and urine taken for the following measurements: immunoglobulin E (IgE), antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) and antilaminin (anti-LAM) antibodies in blood; creatinine and beta2-microglobulin in blood and urine; and microalbumin, N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and alanine-aminopeptidase in urine. Creatinine clearance was calculated according to the Cockroft-Gault formula. Eight-hour personal air samples were collected twice to assess present exposure to toluene. A job-exposure matrix was developed to estimate past cumulative exposure. Information about potential confounders was recorded by questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was performed to study dose-effect relations adjusted for age and smoking. No subject was positive for anti-GBM antibodies, and only 12 were positive for anti-LAM. No relation was observed between the markers studied and present exposure to toluene except that creatinine clearance was higher among the exposed subjects than among the referents. A dose-response relation was observed between cumulative toluene exposure and both IgE and NAG excretion. No interaction was observed between hypertension and exposure, but the relationship with NAG did not persist when subjects with hypertension were excluded. Past or present exposure did not alter the 2-year trend of any marker studied. According to the results of this study, toluene at 50 ppm is not related to detectable renal dysfunction. The increased IgE levels associated with present and past exposure require further investigation.

  5. Citrobacter rodentium Infection Model for the Analysis of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Mucosal Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catherine L; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2018-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse restricted pathogen that was originally isolated from laboratory mouse colonies and causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia, characterized by thickening of the colon and inflammation. As a natural pathogen of mice, the infection model has proven critical to the development of our understanding of the pathogenesis of enteric disease and the mucosal immune response. In addition to this, some features of disease such as dysbiosis, inflammation, and wound healing replicate features of human inflammatory bowel diseases. As such, the C. rodentium infection model has become a key tool in investigations of many aspects of mucosal immunology.

  6. Cholera in pregnancy: Clinical and immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraful I. Khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses in pregnant women with cholera. We found that pregnant woman early in pregnancy has comparable clinical illness and subsequent immune responses compared to non-pregnant women. These findings suggest that the evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines in pregnancy should be an area of future investigations.

  7. Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics during pegylated interferon-alpha therapy via mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Jeremie; Rotman, Yaron; Cotler, Scott J; Koh, Christopher; Schmid, Peter; Albrecht, Jeff; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Liang, T Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H; Heller, Theo; Dahari, Harel

    2014-12-01

    There is little information on the early kinetics of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during interferon-α therapy. Here a mathematical model was developed and fitted to frequent HDV and HBsAg kinetic data from 10 patients during the first 28 weeks of pegylated-interferon-α2a (peg-IFN) therapy. Three patients achieved a complete virological response (CVR), defined as undetectable HDV 6 months after treatment stopped with loss of HBsAg and anti-HBsAg seroconversion. After initiation of therapy, a median delay of 9 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 5-15) was observed with no significant changes in HDV level. Thereafter, HDV declined in a biphasic manner, where a rapid first phase lasting for 25 days (IQR: 23-58) was followed by a slower or plateau second phase. The model predicts that the main effect of peg-IFN is to reduce HDV production/release with a median effectiveness of 96% (IQR: 93-99.8). Median serum HDV half-life (t1/2 ) was estimated as 2.9 days (IQR: 1.5-5.3) corresponding to a pretreatment production and clearance of about 10(10) (IQR: 10(9.7) -10(10.7) ) virions/day. None of the patients with flat second phase in HDV achieved CVR. HBsAg kinetics of decline paralleled the second phase of HDV decline consistent with HBsAg-productive-infected cells being the main source of production of HDV, with a median t1/2 of 135 days (IQR: 20-460). The interferon lambda-3 polymorphism (rs12979860) was not associated with kinetic parameters. Modeling results provide insights into HDV-host dynamics, the relationship between serum HBsAg levels and HBsAg-infected cells, IFN's mode of action, and its effectiveness. The observation that a flat second phase in HDV and HBsAg kinetics was associated with failure to achieve CVR provides the basis to develop early stopping rules during peg-IFN treatment in HDV-infected patients. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. This article has been contributed to by U

  8. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine has been identified as the predominant signal transducer of mammalian milk, which stimulates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Leucine thus functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for mTORC1-dependent neonatal β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The mTORC1 target S6K1 plays a pivotal role in stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes and to induce insulin resistance. It is of most critical concern that infant formulas provide higher amounts of leucine in comparison to human milk. Exaggerated leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1 signalling induced by infant formulas may thus explain increased adipogenesis and generation of lifelong elevated adipocyte numbers. Attenuation of mTORC1 signalling of infant formula by leucine restriction to physiologic lower levels of human milk offers a great chance for the prevention of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:22523661

  9. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo C. Melnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine has been identified as the predominant signal transducer of mammalian milk, which stimulates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. Leucine thus functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for mTORC1-dependent neonatal β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The mTORC1 target S6K1 plays a pivotal role in stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes and to induce insulin resistance. It is of most critical concern that infant formulas provide higher amounts of leucine in comparison to human milk. Exaggerated leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1 signalling induced by infant formulas may thus explain increased adipogenesis and generation of lifelong elevated adipocyte numbers. Attenuation of mTORC1 signalling of infant formula by leucine restriction to physiologic lower levels of human milk offers a great chance for the prevention of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  10. From immunology to MRI data anlysis: Problems in mathematical biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Ryan Samuel

    This thesis represents a collection of four distinct biological projects rising from immunology and metabolomics that required unique and creative mathematical approaches. One project focuses on understanding the role IL-2 plays in immune response regulation and exploring how these effects can be altered. We developed several dynamic models of the receptor signaling network which we analyze analytically and numerically. In a second project focused also on MS, we sought to create a system for grading magnetic resonance images (MRI) with good correlation with disability. The goal is for these MRI scores to provide a better standard for large-scale clinical drug trials, which limits the bias associated with differences in available MRI technology and general grader/participant variability. The third project involves the study of the CRISPR adaptive immune system in bacteria. Bacterial cells recognize and acquire snippets of exogenous genetic material, which they incorporate into their DNA. In this project we explore the optimal design for the CRISPR system given a viral distribution to maximize its probability of survival. The final project involves the study of the benefits for colocalization of coupled enzymes in metabolic pathways. The hypothesized kinetic advantage, known as `channeling', of putting coupled enzymes closer together has been used as justification for the colocalization of coupled enzymes in biological systems. We developed and analyzed a simple partial differential equation of the diffusion of the intermediate substrate between coupled enzymes to explore the phenomena of channeling. The four projects of my thesis represent very distinct biological problems that required a variety of techniques from diverse areas of mathematics ranging from dynamical modeling to statistics, Fourier series and calculus of variations. In each case, quantitative techniques were used to address biological questions from a mathematical perspective ultimately providing

  11. Immunological monitoring of the tumor immunoenvironment for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyguine, Anatoli M; Strobl, Susan L; Shurin, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    Monitoring of immunotherapeutic clinical trials has undergone a considerable change in the last decade resulting in a general agreement that immune monitoring should guide the development of cancer vaccines. The emphasis on immune cell functions and quantitation of antigen-specific T cells have been playing a major role in the attempts to establish meaningful correlations between therapy-induced alterations in immune responses and clinical endpoints. However, one significant unresolved issue in modern immunotherapy is that when a tumor-specific cellular immune response is observed following the course of immunotherapy, it does not always lead to clinically proven cancer regression. This disappointing lack of a correlation between the tumor-specific cytotoxic immune responses and the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy may be explained, among other reasons, by the notion that the analysis of any single immunological parameter is not sufficient to provide clinically feasible information about the complex interactions between different cell subsets in the peripheral blood and immune, tumor, and stromal cells in the tumor milieu. By contrast, a systemic approach is required for improving the quality of a serial monitoring to ensure that it adequately and reliably measures potential changes induced in patients by administered vaccines or immunomodulators. Comprehensive evaluation of the balance between the immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive compartments of the immune system could be critical for a better understanding of how a given immunotherapy works or does not work in a particular clinical trial. New approaches to characterize tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, their phenotypic, biochemical, and genetic characteristics within the tumor microenvironment need to be developed and validated and should complement current monitoring techniques. These immune-monitoring assays for the local tumor immunoenvironment should be developed, validated, and standardized for

  12. Away with tobacco? On the early understandings of tobacco as a problem and the associated attempts at political regulation of tobacco in Norway 1900–1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sæbø Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - In the early 1900s, the industrialization of cigarette production rapidly created the first major expansion in tobacco consumption in modern times. AIMS - This article focuses on the “tobacco problem” as it was understood, debated and sought governed in Norway around the time of the First World War. I identify various attempts to define tobacco as a problem, including arguments put forward by the anti-tobacco movement, the medical profession and politicians. How were health, moral-aesthetic and economic conditions articulated and integrated in these arguments? What (if any addictive elements of smoking were in focus? I also discuss the association between perceptions of the tobacco problem and political attempts to regulate it. There were repeated calls for a state tobacco monopoly to be introduced and municipal licensing system for the sale of cigarettes. DATA - The data are sourced from the journals Tobakskampen (The Tobacco Fight, the journal of the norwegian medical association and parliamentary documents. FINDINGS - The findings suggest that a to the extent tobacco was perceived as a social problem, it was a moral one (vice, not a behavioural and dependency problem, which alcohol was perceived to be at the time; b proposals to establish a tobacco monopoly were based on economic arguments only, and lacked any firm connection to social issues, health and morality; and c the anti-tobacco movement was socially marginal and their commitment to the municipal licensing idea resulted in large regional variations in public support, too large in fact for the idea to be effective. Although the government did not introduce regulations in the 1920s, the industrialization of cigarettes and subsequent developments in advertising caused a “moral panic” among tobacco opponents and created the modern climate of opinion regarding tobacco.

  13. Understanding the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies based on newly developed single-burst stellar population synthesis models in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeck, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    whole optical and infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50000Å which are almost completely based on spectra of observed stars (apart from two gaps which were fitted with theoretical stellar spectra) . We analyze the behaviour of the near-infrared (J - K) and the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colour calculated from our models. For ages older than 3 Gyr, both colours depend only slightly on age and metallicity. However, for younger ages, both colours become redder which is caused by the asymptotic giant branch stars contributing significantly to the light in the infrared at ages between 0.1 and 3 Gyr. Furthermore, we find a satisfactory agreement between the optical and near-infrared colours measured from our models and the colours observed from various samples of globular clusters and early-type x galaxies. However, our model predictions are only able to reproduce correctly the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours of older, more massive galaxies that resemble a single-burst population. Younger, less massive and more metal-poor galaxies show redder colours than our models. This mismatch can be explained by a more extended star formation history of these galaxies which includes a metal-poor or/and young population. The Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours derived from our models also agree very well with those from most other models available in this wavelength range as long as they also correctly take into account a strong CO absorption band situated at 4.5 μm. The model predictions for colours in the near-infrared, such as (J - K), differ more between the different sets of models, depending on the underlying prescriptions for the asymptotic giant branch stellar evolutionary phase. Compared to other authors, we adopt only a moderate contribution of asymptotic giant branch stars to our models. Our stellar population models allow us also to determine mass-to-light ratios in different infrared bands. Consequently, we can confirm that the massto- light ratio determined in the Spitzer [3

  14. Blood transfusion; additional historical aspects. Part 1. The birth of transfusion immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, F E

    2013-12-01

    The decades around the turn of the 19th into the 20th centuries covered a seminal period in the history of transfusion medicine as there was an increasing appreciation of a potential role in the management of surgical and obstetric bleeding, and also in severe non-surgical anaemias. The main obstacles to transfusing human blood were first the occasional devastating adverse reactions due, we now know, to ABO blood group incompatibility; and second the awkward propensity of shed blood to clot. This article describes in more detail how the pioneers in human transfusion immunology in the late 19th century and early 20th century learnt to recognise and avoid ABO incompatibility, and includes some hitherto obscure and rarely cited material. A companion article (Boulton, 2013, Submitted for publication) describes early attempts to find suitable anticoagulants. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. Immunological condition in population living near Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ueda, Masafumi.

    1992-01-01

    This is the brief introduction of the immunological survey at Pavlodar, Kazakhstan SSR, a 300 km away from the Semipalatinsk test site, originally reported by Beysembaev E.A.,Valivach M.N. (Course of Clinical Immunology in Pavlodar Dzerzhynsky str., 166), Molochanov N.E. (Pavlodar Regional Hospital), Kazakav, V.M. (Radiologist Lab. of Regional Sanitary and Epidemiology Station), Ounusov B.A. and Osorodnikova O.P. (Clinical Immunology Centre in Pavlodar). The comparative investigations on (1) 150 preschool age children in Pavlodar before and 6 months after the cessation of nuclear tests, (2) 25 children suffering from frequent respiratory infections before the cessation and 25 analogous children after the cessation, and (3) 69 children (age 1 - 7) and 70 adults (age 28 - 58) inhabitants of Maysky district, where radioactivity is especially high, and 50 children and 50 adults of Pavlodar inhabitants, are reported. Erythrocyte rosette-forming cells, immunoglobulins G, A, and M, etc. are tested. (A.Y.)

  16. From Forecasters to the General Public: A Communication Tool to Understand Decision-making Challenges in Weather-related Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terti, G.; Ruin, I.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Sabbatini, T.; i Alonso, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies are currently adopted worldwide to improve weather forecasts and communication of the corresponding warnings to the end-users. "EnhANcing emergency management and response to extreme WeatHER and climate Events" (ANYWHERE) project is an innovating action that aims at developing and implementing a European decision-support platform for weather-related risks integrating cutting-edge forecasting technology. The initiative is built in a collaborative manner where researchers, developers, potential users and other stakeholders meet frequently to define needs, capabilities and challenges. In this study, we propose a role-playing game to test the added value of the ANYWHERE platform on i) the decision-making process and the choice of warning levels under uncertainty, ii) the management of the official emergency response and iii) the crisis communication and triggering of protective actions at different levels of the warning system (from hazard detection to citizen response). The designed game serves as an interactive communication tool. Here, flood and flash flood focused simulations seek to enhance participant's understanding of the complexities and challenges embedded in various levels of the decision-making process under the threat of weather disasters (e.g., forecasting/warnings, official emergency actions, self-protection). Also, we facilitate collaboration and coordination between the participants who belong to different national or local agencies/authorities across Europe. The game is first applied and tested in ANYWHERE's workshop in Helsinki (September, 2017) where about 30-50 people, including researchers, forecasters, civil protection and representatives of related companies, are anticipated to play the simulation. The main idea is to provide to the players a virtual case study that well represents realistic uncertainties and dilemmas embedded in the real-time forecasting-warning processes. At the final debriefing step the participants are

  17. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  18. Paul Ehrlich: the founding of pediatric immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, A M

    1996-11-25

    In 1892-93, Paul Ehrlich published a series of experiments on the passive transfer of maternal antibody to fetus and newborn that deserve to be better known. He pointed out the importance of mother's milk to neonatal well-being. He was the first to define the difference between active and passive immunity. He was the first to demonstrate immune elimination of antigen and to explain the significance of each phase of the kinetics of the anamnestic antibody response. We point out how elegant were these early experiments and how far in advance of their times.

  19. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-07-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  20. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-01-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

  1. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...

  2. Cancer Immunology in an Inducible Model of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0361 TITLE: Cancer Immunology in an Inducible Model of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Khashayarsha Khazaie, Ph.D...Leave blank) April 2005 Final (1 Apr 2002 - 31 Mar 2005) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cancer Immunology in an Inducible Model of Breast Cancer...ndont Pvn~rlrn~ntq Chen t al. PNAS I January 11, 2005 I vol. 102 I no. 2 I 421 a CT4400) "T26("-) b a % H- pem b man -sdal-n q!" N,~ CD8 T celia

  3. [Immunologic in vivo and in vitro studies on Echinacea extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, V R; Jurcic, K; Puhlmann, J; Wagner, H

    1988-02-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia roots were examined for immunological activity in the carbon clearance test with mice and in the granulocyte test. In the in vivo experiment all extracts, administered orally, were found to enhance phagocytosis significantly. These results correlate with the stimulation of phagocytosis in the in vitro granulocyte test. The lipophilic fractions of the extracts appeared to be more active than the polar fractions. All extracts were analyzed by HPLC in order to correlate the chemical constituents with the immunological activities.

  4. Investigating the effectiveness of an educational card game for learning how human immunology is regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, TzuFen; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Lin, Shu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of an educational card game we developed for learning human immunology. Two semesters of evaluation were included to examine the impact of the game on students' understanding and perceptions of the game-based instruction. Ninety-nine senior high school students (11th graders) were recruited for the first evaluation, and the second-semester group consisted of 72 students (also 11th graders). The results obtained indicate that students did learn from the educational card game. Moreover, students who learned from playing the game significantly outperformed their counterparts in terms of their understanding of the processes and connections among different lines of immunological defense (first semester: t = 2.92, p game-based instruction and its learning efficiency, and they felt the game-based instruction was much more interesting than traditional didactic lectures (first semester: t = 2.79, p game has potential to facilitate students' learning of how the immune system works. The implications and suggestions for future work are further discussed. © 2014 T. Su et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Rida, Wasima; Haddad, Lisa B; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Yang, Annie H; Latka, Mary H; Anzala, Omu; Sanders, Eduard J; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Edward, Vinodh A; Price, Matt A

    2017-03-01

    Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. From 2006 to 2011, women less than age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μl, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Immunologic progression was defined as two consecutive CD4s ≤350 cells/μl or a single CD4 ≤350 cells/μl followed by non-PMTCT ART initiation. Generalized estimating equations assessed changes in CD4 before and after pregnancy. Among 222 women, 63 experienced clinical progression during 783.5 person-years at risk (8.0/100). Among 205 women, 87 experienced immunologic progression during 680.1 person-years at risk (12.8/100). The association between pregnancy and clinical progression was adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.8. The association between pregnancy and immunologic progression was aHR = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3. Models controlled for age; human leukocyte antigen alleles A*03:01, B*45, B*57; CD4 set point; and HIV-1 subtype. CD4 measurements before versus after pregnancies were not different. In this cohort, pregnancy was not associated with increased clinical or immunologic HIV progression. Similarly, we did not observe meaningful deleterious associations of pregnancy with CD4s. Our findings suggest that HIV-positive women may become pregnant without harmful health effects occurring during the pregnancy. Evaluation of longer-term impact of pregnancy on progression is warranted.

  6. German Society for Immunology and Australasian Society for Immunology joint Workshop 3(rd) -4(th) December 2015 - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurts, Christian; Gottschalk, Catherine; Bedoui, Sammy; Heinzel, Susanne; Godfrey, Dale; Enders, Anselm

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Immunology (DGfI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology (ASI) hosted the first DGfI-ASI joint workshop from December 3-4, 2015 in Canberra, Australia. A delegation of 15 distinguished German immunologists discussed the workshop topic "immune regulation in infections and immune mediated diseases" with the aim to establish new German-Australasian collaborations, discuss new concepts in the field of immune regulation and build a scientific network to create more utilizable resources for excellent (trans-border) immunological research. The workshop was associated with the 45(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the ASI held from Nov 29-Dec 3, 2015, opening up even more opportunities for finding new collaboration partners. A return meeting will be linked to the annual DGfI meeting that will take place in 2017 in Erlangen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Understanding Family Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, G

    2012-01-01

    This essential text will help students and those already working with children to understand both theoretically and practically, what may constitute a ‘family’. It explores how to build relationships with a child’s family to ensure early years settings and schools are working in partnership with children’s home environments, thereby supporting the best possible learning outcomes for children. It will help the reader to develop their skills, knowledge and understanding of their professional pr...

  8. Immunological effects and tolerability of a new fast updosed immunologically enhanced subcutaneous immunotherapy formulation with optimized allergen/adjuvant ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Jung, K; Wolf, H; Decot, E; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Klimek, L; Wüstenberg, E

    2012-05-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) traditionally includes an updosing phase injecting increasing doses of allergen over a period of several weeks, followed by a maintenance phase. To establish shorter and more convenient updosing schedules, a fast updosed immunologically enhanced SCIT formulation has been developed by optimizing the allergen/adjuvant (aluminium hydroxide) ratio. In a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial, patients with grass pollen induced rhinoconjunctivitis with/without asthma were treated with an immunologically enhanced SCIT formulation (AVANZ, ALK, Denmark). The trial included updosing with five injections (300, 600, 3000, 6000 and 15,000 SQ+) injected either in weekly interval (Group 1) or in 3-4 days interval (Group 2) followed by two maintenance injections (15,000 SQ+), approximately 10 weeks treatment. The immunological effects (primary endpoint) and tolerability (secondary endpoint) of the updosing schedules were evaluated. Four hundred patients were treated (Group 1: 201, Group 2: 199). In both groups, an immunological response with statistically significant increases in levels of IgE-blocking factor, IgG(4) and IgE (P trial. Most frequently reported adverse events were local injection site reactions such as injection site swellings (Group 1: 30% of patients, Group 2: 41% of patients). Other frequently reported adverse events included systemic reactions (Group 1: 21% of patients, Group 2: 33% of patients), primarily mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Fast updosed immunologically enhanced SCIT with an optimized allergen/adjuvant ratio induced significant immunological effects and had an acceptable safety profile. Clinical efficacy will be investigated in future clinical trials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Paul Ehrlich: pathfinder in cell biology. 1. Chronicle of his life and accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, F H

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the life of Paul Ehrlich and his biomedical accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy. Ehrlich achieved renown as an organic chemist, histologist, hematologist, immunologist, and pharmacologist. He disliked the formality of school but managed to excel in Latin and mathematics. His role model was an older cousin, Carl Weigert, who became a lifelong friend. Ehrlich studied medicine at Breslau, Strasbourg, Freiburg, and Leipzig, coming under the influence of Wilhelm Waldeyer, Julius Cohnheim, Rudolf Heidenhein, and Ferdinand Cohn. As a medical student, Ehrlich was captivated by structural organic chemistry and dyes. When he was 23, his first paper was published on selective staining. His doctoral thesis, "Contribution to the Theory and Practice of Histological Staining" contained most of the germinal ideas that would guide his future career. Most of his early work was centered in Berlin at Charite Hospital, where he did pioneering studies on blood and intravital staining, and at Robert Koch's Institute for Infectious Diseases, where he undertook important investigations in immunology. Ehrlich became an authority on antitoxin standardization and developed the "side-chain theory" of antibody formation for which he was later awarded the Nobel Prize. He became director of an Institute for Experimental Therapy in Frankfurt where he continued research in immunology and carried out routine serum testing. He developed new lines of investigation in cancer research and originated the field of chemotherapy. Using principles developed in his early work with dyes, he successfully treated certain experimental trypanosomal infections with azo dyes. His crowning accomplishment was discovering that the compound Salvarsan could control human syphilis. Ehrlich's legacy in immunology and chemotherapy is discussed and an intimate portrait is drawn of Ehrlich the person.

  10. Understanding macrophage activation in the adipose tissue: at the crossroads of immunology and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutens, Lily

    2018-01-01

    Macrophages and their monocyte precursors continuously patrol the bloodstream and tissues, ready to eliminate unwelcome visitors such as pathogens or foreign particles. Tissue-resident macrophages are crucial during development and for maintaining tissue homeostasis as well. The engulfment of

  11. The Role of PPARs in Placental Immunology: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hutter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a state of immunotolerance, and pregnancy outcome is strongly linked to the correct activation and balancing of the maternal immune system. Besides abortion as possible result of improper early pregnancy development, other pregnancy associated conditions like preeclampsia (PE, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, preterm labour, or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are linked to immunologic overactivation and dysregulation. Both the innate and the adaptive immune system, and therefore B and T lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NK, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs are all involved in trophoblast invasion, pregnancy maintenance, and development of pregnancy disorders. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs are nuclear transcription factors with three known isotypes: PPAR, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. They are expressed in most human organs and their function extends from regulating metabolism, homeostasis, and carcinogenesis to immune response. In the recent years, PPARs have been identified in most reproductive tissues and in all lines of immune cells. Only in few cases, the role of PPARs in reproductive immunology has been elucidated though the role of PPARs in immune answer and immunotolerance is evident. Within this paper we would like to give an update on today’s knowledge about PPARs and immune cells in reproduction and highlight interesting interferences in regard of future therapeutic targets.

  12. Prevalence of immunological failure and durability of first line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all patients on ART from 2005 attending BMC CTC clinic. Using standard data collection form all demographic data, adherence levels, and CD4 + counts were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 11.5 computer software to determine the prevalence and predictors of immunological failure. Results: A total of 2975 patients ...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular nuclear... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866.5100 Section 866.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5660 - Multiple autoantibodies immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues) in serum and other body fluids... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple autoantibodies immunological test system. 866.5660 Section 866.5660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. Allergy-immunology glossary | El-Sayed | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a clear designation of some of the terms used in allergology and immunology. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  16. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Contact: Professor Ihab Z. El-Hakim. Email ihab.elhakim@gmail.com. Phone +201111224974. Fax … +202 33045060. Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University, Ramses Street, Abbassiya, Cairo 11566, Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology ...

  17. Immunological studies on the mechanism of resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using laboratory rodents as models for immunological studies of onchocerciasis. Living adult Onchocerca (O.) armillata and O. volvulus were surgically transplanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats, after initial immunizations or transplantations, in order to investigate ...

  18. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  19. Immunological and Virological Response to HAART in HIV-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the countries highly endemic for viral hepatitis, Nigeria is found. Information on how triple infected persons (HIV, HBV, and HCV) fare on HAART in the country is lacking. Laboratory based investigation was carried out to assess the virological and immunological parameters of HIV-1 infected patients ...

  20. Immunological cross-reactivity of venoms from some Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunological cross-reactivity among the Elapidae, Viperidae and Buthidae venoms was detected in dot blot and western blot assays and quantified in ELISA as percentage of absorbance of heterologous versus homologous reaction. Mutual cross-reactivity between the Elapidae and Viperidae venoms was ...

  1. The immunological response of South African Bulinus natalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot muscle antigens of the diploid Bulinus natalensis from Lake Sibayi showed complete immunological correspondence with antiserum prepared from foot muscle tissues of the diploid B. tropicus. On the other hand, strong “non-identity” reactions occurred when B. natalensis antigens were tested with the antiserum ...

  2. Evaluation of HIV therapeutic agents on immunological, lipid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of these therapeutic agents on weight, immunological, lipid and lipoprotein changes as well as the atherogenic indices of Ghanaian HIV-1 infected patients. This observational study was carried out at the ART clinic of the Regional Hospital, Bolgatanga in the Upper-East region of ...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system...

  4. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  5. The pattern of immunologic and virologic responses to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve the goals of ART, national ART programmes focus on the vital patient monitoring systems including clinical, immunologic, virologic, adherence, lost to follow-up and mortality. Objectives: This review is aimed at addressing the profile of immunovirological responses to HAART and the factors associated with, with ...

  6. Influence of gut microbiota on immunological maturation in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    8+ T-cells as well as NK-cells similar to those found in adult mice, while splenocytes expressed severely reduced levels of these markers and were impaired in their ability to proliferate in response to anti-CD3/anti-CD28. To further characterize the development of immunological maturation...

  7. Immunologic and haematologic effects of methanolic stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the weight, haematologic and immunologic effects of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Azadihiracta indica stem bark on vaccinated chickens experimentally challenged with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus. One hundred day old cockerels were randomly divided into four equal ...

  8. Baseline values of immunologic parameters in the lizard Salvator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aim of established baseline values for four immunologic biomarkers widely used, 36 tegu lizards were evaluated tacking into account different age classes and both sexes. Total leukocyte counts were not different between age classes. Of the leucocytes count, eosinophils levels were higher in neonates compared ...

  9. Allergy-immunology glossary | El-Sayed | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of Immunological failure among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the magnitude and factors associated with immunological failure among HIV infected patients on HAART. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical centre HIV care and treatment centre between February-July 2011, involving HIV-infected patients on first line ART ...

  11. Immunological response in the mouse melanoma model after local hyperthemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubeš, J.; Svoboda, Jan; Rosina, J.; Starec, M.; Fišerová, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2008), s. 459-465 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020403; GA AV ČR IAA500200620 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : local hyperthermia * melanoma * monocytes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  12. Regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu

    2015-12-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin and is well-known as a co-factor for 5 indispensable carboxylases. Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the biotinylation of carboxylases and other proteins, whereas biotinidase catalyzes the release of biotin from biotinylated peptides. Previous studies have reported that nutritional biotin deficiency and genetic defects in either HLCS or biotinidase induces cutaneous inflammation and immunological disorders. Since biotin-dependent carboxylases involve various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, metabolic abnormalities may play important roles in immunological and inflammatory disorders caused by biotin deficiency. Transcriptional factors, including NF-κB and Sp1/3, are also affected by the status of biotin, indicating that biotin regulates immunological and inflammatory functions independently of biotin-dependent carboxylases. An in-vivo analysis with a murine model revealed the therapeutic effects of biotin supplementation on metal allergies. The novel roles of biotinylated proteins and their related enzymes have recently been reported. Non-carboxylase biotinylated proteins induce chemokine production. HLCS is a nuclear protein involved in epigenetic and chromatin regulation. In this review, comprehensive knowledge on the regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin and its potential as a therapeutic agent is discussed.

  13. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University ...

  14. CHARGE syndrome : a review of the immunological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Monica T. Y.; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.; Lambeck, Annechien J. A.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.

    2015-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is caused by a dominant variant in the CHD7 gene. Multiple organ systems can be affected because of haploinsufficiency of CHD7 during embryonic development. CHARGE syndrome shares many clinical features with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Immunological abnormalities have been

  15. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological ...

  16. Brain aging in normal Egyptians: cognition, education, personality, genetic and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Osamah; Madkour, Obsis; Elwan, Fadia; Mostafa, Mervat; Abbas Helmy, Azza; Abdel-Naseer, Maged; Abdel Shafy, Sanaa; El Faiuomy, Nervana

    2003-07-15

    Studying the cognitive and immunological changes that occur in old age as well as genetic function have been considered an important subject to differentiate between normal brain aging and early dementia especially Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to stress on age-related neuropsychological and electrophysiological (P(300)) changes in normal Egyptian subjects, to throw light on the value of genetic (Apo-E(4) genotype) and immunological markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) in the serum] as tools used in early detection of cognitive decline in cerebral aging. Ninety-four normal Egyptian subjects (below and above 60 years) were submitted to the following: (1) neuropsychological tests for testing memory, perception, psychomotor performance and attention, (2) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality traits, (3) event-related potential study (P(300), latency and amplitude), (4) genetic test for detection of Apolipoprotein E genotype and (5) immunological studies including detection of the level of IL-6 and ICAM-1 in serum. There was a significant impairment of memory, psychomotor performance and perception in elderly subjects particularly males and subjects with low level of education. Regarding personality, significantly high scores were obtained in neuroticism scale of EPQ in elderly subjects. Apo-E(3)/E(3) was the most common genotype encountered in Egyptian subjects (49.1%). It was found that subjects with Apo-E(4) genotype did significantly worse in scores of intentional memory test (sensory memory) when compared with other genotypes. Statistically significant impairment in attention and sensory memory was found in subjects with high IL-6 level. This could not be detected in subjects with high ICAM-1 level. In conclusion, advancing age and lower levels of education are considered risk factors for cognitive decline in normal brain aging. Neuropsychological tests remain as the highly sensitive tools

  17. A review of the basis of the immunological diagnosis of ruminant brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Blasco, José María; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella cause brucellosis, the most common bacterial zoonosis worldwide. The diagnosis of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis ruminant brucellosis is based on bacteriological and immunological tests, the latter being routinely used in control and eradication and surveillance programs. Infections by smooth and rough Brucella spp., the use of smooth and rough vaccines, and the false-positive serological reactions caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other cross-reacting bacteria represent the immunological contexts in which those tests are used. This complex context explains the large number of brucellosis tests that have been developed, and that vary in antigen type, antigen presentation, antibody and conditions for the reaction, the response detected and the sample required. This wealth of information and an imperfect understanding of Brucella antigens and of the peculiarities of the immunoresponse to Brucella has created confusion and led to several misconceptions on the usefulness and limitations of the brucellosis diagnostic tests. In this review, Brucella antigens are examined focusing on cellular topology, supramolecular properties, epitopic structure and lipopolysaccharide and protein cross-reactivity in the various contexts of the immune response in ruminants. Then, the significance of these features in diagnostic tests that use whole bacteria is discussed with respect to the activities of ruminant immunoglobulins, and the effect of pH on unspecific agglutinations, non-agglutinating and blocking antibodies, pseudo-prozones and complement activation. Similarly, the bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides and cognate polysaccharides are discussed with regards to topological effects, epitope exposure, ionic strength and antibody avidity in immunoprecipitation, immunosorbent and fluorescence polarization assays. Finally, the search for immunodominant protein antigens and their use in immunological tests is reviewed. Critical review

  18. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  19. Latex proteins from Calotropis procera: Toxicity and immunological tolerance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila F; Mota, Érika F; Silva, Ana Claudia M; Tomé, Adriana R; Silva, Maria Z R; de Brito, Daniel; Porfírio, Camila T M N; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Lima-Filho, José V; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-08-25

    Many thousands of plants are disseminated worldwide in traditional and folk medicines based on the belief that their leaves, roots, seeds, bark or secretions, when adequately handled, can treat, alleviate or ameliorate numerous disease symptoms. Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal plant and the claims of this shrub's phytomedicinal properties have been scientifically validated. In this study, further prospects towards the in vivo toxicity and oral immunological tolerance of phytomodulatory proteins isolated from the latex of C. procera are reported. Acute toxicity was determined in mice by oral and intraperitoneal administration of latex proteins (LP) and was followed behavioral, hematological and histological analyses. Oral immunological tolerance to LP was assessed by intraperitoneal immunization in mice that had received LP orally before. Animals given 5000 mg/kg orally exhibited only discrete behavioral alterations and augmentation of monocytes. Death was not notified 14 days after exposure. However, all animals receiving LP 150 mg/kg by i.p. died in 1 h. Death (20%) was documented when LP (75 mg/kg) was given in the peritoneum and signs of harmful effects were observed in the survivors (80%). Oral immunological tolerance was observed in animals previously given LP orally, when they were further immunized/challenged with peritoneal exposure to different doses of LP. This was confirmed by the lowering of IgE and IgG in the serum, IL-4 and IFN-γ in spleen homogenates and the absence of anaphylaxis signs. It is therefore concluded that LP exhibited quite discrete adverse effects when orally administrated at higher concentrations and this route of administration did not stimulate adverse immunological reactions. Instead it was observed immunological tolerance. The present study contributes very important information concerning the safe use of C. procera as a phytotherapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Immunologic monitoring in kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natavudh Townamchai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transplant biopsy has always been the gold standard for assessing the immune response to a kidney allograft (Chandraker A: Diagnostic techniques in the work-up of renal allograft dysfunction—an update. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 8:723–728, 1999. A biopsy is not without risk and is unable to predict rejection and is only diagnostic once rejection has already occurred. However, in the past two decades, we have seen an expansion in assays that can potentially put an end to the “drug level” era, which until now has been one of the few tools available to clinicians for monitoring the immune response. A better understanding of the mechanisms of rejection and tolerance, and technological advances has led to the development of new noninvasive methods to monitor the immune response. In this article, we discuss these new methods and their potential uses in renal transplant recipients.

  1. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  2. What vaccination studies tell us about immunological memory within the innate immune system of cultured shrimp and crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Kumar, Ramya; Ng, Tze Hann; Wang, Han-Ching

    2018-03-01

    The possibility of immunological memory in invertebrates is a topic that has recently attracted a lot of attention. Today, even vertebrates are known to exhibit innate immune responses that show memory-like properties, and since these responses are triggered by cells that are involved in the innate immune system, it seems that immune specificity and immune memory do not necessarily require the presence of B cells and T cells after all. This kind of immune response has been called "immune priming" or "trained immunity". In this report, we review recent observations and our current understanding of immunological memory within the innate immune system in cultured shrimp and crayfish after vaccination with live vaccine, killed vaccine and subunit vaccines. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involved in this immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The deacetylase Sirt1 is an essential regulator of Aire-mediated induction of central immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprin, Anna; Avin, Ayelet; Goldfarb, Yael; Herzig, Yonatan; Levi, Ben; Jacob, Adi; Sela, Asaf; Katz, Shir; Grossman, Moran; Guyon, Clotilde; Rathaus, Moran; Cohen, Haim Y; Sagi, Irit; Giraud, Matthieu; McBurney, Michael W; Husebye, Eystein S; Abramson, Jakub

    2015-07-01

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces the promiscuous expression of thousands of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), a step critical for the induction of immunological self-tolerance. Studies have offered molecular insights into how Aire operates, but more comprehensive understanding of this process still remains elusive. Here we found abundant expression of the protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) in mature Aire(+) mTECs, wherein it was required for the expression of Aire-dependent TRA-encoding genes and the subsequent induction of immunological self-tolerance. Our study elucidates a previously unknown molecular mechanism for Aire-mediated transcriptional regulation and identifies a unique function for Sirt1 in preventing organ-specific autoimmunity.

  4. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...

  5. Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cath

    2010-01-01

    This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

  6. Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get both in and out of the home. Preschool (Ages 3 to 5) By preschool, most kids have developed a strong sense of ... swim together. Issues that parents of elementary school-age kids might face include: Bad language. Children will pick up bad language and inappropriate ...

  7. Understanding and Addressing Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, Adrienne; Brandwein, David; Calafiore, Tara; Rittenhouse, Nicolette

    2011-01-01

    The notion that development influences children's responses to traumatic stress is not novel. Chronological age and maturity level interact with environmental factors to mediate responses to trauma. Clinicians and researchers have confirmed that children can experience the full range of traumatic stress reactions seen in adults, and many youth…

  8. Understanding Nonsocial Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Alicia J.; Fabes, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Nonsocial play continues to be perceived as a behavior that is detrimental young children's development. The research evidence in this area is mixed but lends itself to a more positive view of nonsocial play. Despite the substantial amount of literature available, the terminology used fails to be consistent and may prove to be distracting and…

  9. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5820 - Systemic lupus erythema-tosus immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5820 Systemic lupus erythema-tosus immunological test system. (a) Identification. A systemic... with cellular nuclear double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or other nuclear constituents that...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5510 - Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological... Test Systems § 866.5510 Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system is a device that consists of the...

  12. Roles of the genetic polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on the immunology in high-risk drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yang-Ming; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Lin, Chun-Chin; Jin, Yi-Ru; Yeh, Wei-Hao; Wu, Yi-Ru; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lee, Jang-Hwa; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol metabolism involves several enzymes and the individual genetic variations in the alcohol metabolism are related to the absorption, distribution, and elimination of alcohol and metabolites such as acetaldehyde. Therefore, the genetic variations of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes are responsible for the different toxicity of alcohol in several organs like liver and immunological systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the life styles such as drinking and smoking and the genetic variations of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes (ADH2, ALDH2, CYP2E1, and CAT) were associated with the immunological biomarkers. In this study, 105 high-risk drinkers and 102 low-risk drinkers who were excluded from the immune-related diseases and other critical diseases were enrolled to evaluate the immunological functions. Counts of white blood cells, mononuclear cells, and lymphocyte subpopulations, and liver and immunological function tests were measured. Genotypes of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes were assayed by a real-time PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Generally, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was higher than that of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in alcoholics; however, the activities of AST and ALT were simultaneously elevated in general hepatitis except for alcohol-induced hepatitis. Thus, the higher ratio of AST/ALT was used to be a marker for the alcohol-induced abnormal liver function. Glutamyltransferase (GGT) is produced by the liver cell microsomes and is a useful laboratory marker as an indicator of early liver cell damage. An increase in GGT concentration has been regarded as a marker of alcohol consumption or liver disease. In addition, the synergistic effects of smoking and drinking on the count of white blood cell (WBC) and mononuclear cells were found to be significant. Furthermore, there were higher OR to become high-risk drinkers in subjects with the combination of ALDH2 (*1/*1) genotype and either genotype of ADH2

  13. Ecologic Immunology of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.

    2007-01-01

    The claim that migratory birds are responsible for the long-distance spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 rests on the assumption that infected wild birds can remain asymptomatic and migrate long distances unhampered. We critically assess this claim from the perspective of ecologic immunology, a research field that analyzes immune function in an ecologic, physiologic, and evolutionary context. Long-distance migration is one of the most demanding activities in the animal world. We show that several studies demonstrate that such prolonged, intense exercise leads to immunosuppression and that migratory performance is negatively affected by infections. These findings make it unlikely that wild birds can spread the virus along established long-distance migration pathways. However, infected, symptomatic wild birds may act as vectors over shorter distances, as appears to have occurred in Europe in early 2006. PMID:17953082

  14. Immunological mechanisms underlying protection mediated by RTS,S: a review of the available data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy Vasee S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The RTS,S/AS candidate malaria vaccine has demonstrated efficacy against a variety of endpoints in Phase IIa and Phase IIb trials over more than a decade. A multi-country phase III trial of RTS,S/AS01 is now underway with submission as early as 2012, if vaccine safety and efficacy are confirmed. The immunologic basis for how the vaccine protects against both infection and disease remains uncertain. It is, therefore, timely to review the information currently available about the vaccine with regard to how it impacts the human-Plasmodium falciparum host-pathogen relationship. In this article, what is known about mechanisms involved in partial protection against malaria induced by RTS,S is reviewed.

  15. Immunological detection of glutamyl aminopeptidase in urine samples from cisplatin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; Quesada, Andrés; Zafra-Ruiz, Piedad V; O'Valle, Francisco; Vargas, Félix; de Gracia, María Del Carmen; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate if urinary excretion of glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAp) can be quantified by immunological methods. Urine samples from control and cisplatin-treated rats (n = 10 each group) were obtained at 1, 8, and 15 days after cisplatin injection. GluAp was analyzed by kinetic fluorimetry, ELISA, and immunoblotting. Sensitivity and specificity was studied for fluorimetric activity and ELISA 24 h after cisplatin injection. We also analyzed the predictive value over renal dysfunction at the end of the experiment. GluAp was easily detected by immunoblotting and ELISA, and its urinary excretion was increased in cisplatin-treated rats (p cisplatin-treated rats, confirming its value as an early marker of renal damage that can be a diagnostic aid in renal diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hot topics in paediatric immunology: IgE-mediated food allergy and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueter, Kristina; Prescott, Susan

    2014-10-01

    The epidemic of allergic disease is a major public health crisis. The greatest burden of allergies is in childhood, when rapidly rising rates of disease are also most evident. General practitioners (GP) have a key role in recognising and addressing aller-gy-related problems and identifying whether a child requires referral to a paediatric allergist. This article focuses on IgE-mediated food allergies and allergic rhinitis, the most commonly seen conditions in paediatric im-munology. We will discuss prevention, diagnosis, management and treatment strategies. Currently there is no cure for food allergy. Oral tolerance induction continues to be a significant focus of research. All children with a possible food allergy should be referred to an allergist for further testing and advice. Children who develop allergic rhinitis need a regular review by their GP. Immunotherapy should be discussed early in the disease process and needs to be com-menced by an allergist.

  17. Immunological and hematological effects of IL-5(Rα) targeted therapy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, M; Koenderman, L

    2018-04-03

    IL-5 is an important cytokine for priming and survival of mature eosinophils, and for proliferation and maturation of their progenitors. Hence, IL-5(Rα) targeting will be increasingly used in diseases where eosinophils are the key immune effector cells such as eosinophilic asthma (EA), hyper eosinophilic syndrome (HES), eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA). Therefore, several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed against IL-5 (mepolizumab and reslizumab) and its receptor IL-5Rα (benralizumab) have found or will find their way to the clinic. While the clinical effect of these drugs has been extensively investigated and reviewed, the understanding of the underlying immunological and hematological mechanisms remains less clear. This review will discuss the translational outcomes of treatment with these monoclonal antibodies in humans in order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the main immunological and hematological findings from these clinical trials in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Training innate immunity: the changing concept of immunological memory in innate host defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G

    2013-08-01

    The inability of innate immunity to build an immunological memory is considered a main difference with adaptive immunity. This concept has been challenged by studies in plants, invertebrates and mammals. Recently, a paradigm shift in our understanding host defence has been triggered by the mounting evidence for innate immune memory, leading to increased responses to secondary infections. Important differences between the cell populations and the molecular mechanisms exist between the adaptive traits of innate host defence on the one hand and immunological memory of adaptive immunity on the other hand. The lasting state of enhanced innate immunity termed 'trained immunity' is mediated by prototypical innate immune cells such as natural killer cells and monocytes/macrophages. It provides protection against reinfection in a T/B-cell-independent manner, with both specific mechanisms and nonspecific epigenetic reprogramming mediating these effects. This concept represents a paradigm change in immunity, and its putative role in resistance to reinfection may represent the next step in the design of future vaccines. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  20. Major Histocompatibility Complex I Mediates Immunological Tolerance of the Trophoblast during Pregnancy and May Mediate Rejection during Parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapacz-Leonard, Anna; Dąbrowska, Małgorzata; Janowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy in larger mammals, the maternal immune system must tolerate the fetus for months while resisting external infection. This tolerance is facilitated by immunological communication between the fetus and the mother, which is mediated by Major Histocompatibility Complex I (MHC I) proteins, by leukocytes, and by the cytokines secreted by the leukocytes. Fetal-maternal immunological communication also supports pregnancy by inducing physiological changes in the mother. If the mother “misunderstands” the signal sent by the fetus during pregnancy, the fetus will be miscarried or delivered preterm. Unlike any other maternal organ, the placenta can express paternal antigens. At parturition, paternal antigens are known to be expressed in cows and may be expressed in horses, possibly so that the maternal immune system will reject the placenta and help to expel it. This review compares fetal-maternal crosstalk that is mediated by the immune system in three species with pregnancies that last for nine months or longer: humans, cattle, and horses. It raises the possibility that immunological communication early in pregnancy may prepare the mother for successful expulsion of fetal membranes at parturition. PMID:24812442