WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding diversity ethics

  1. Understanding Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDaan van Knippenberg is Professor of Organizational Behavior at RSM Erasmus University, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. His research interests include work group performance, especially work group diversity and group decision making, leadership, in particular the roles of

  2. Understanding Engineering Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi O. Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering ethics aims to enhance engineer’s ability to confront moral issues raised by engineering activities. It covers engineering as social experimentation, the engineer’s responsibility for safety, and the rights of engineers. What constitutes engineering ethics is the underlining question of this research. Hence, the objective of the research is to systematically provide answers to the aforementioned question. The research also studies the scope and the origin of the subject matter. At the same time, the research highlights the significance of the subject from diverse perspectives; including Western and Islamic perspectives. ABSTRAK: Etika kejuruteraan bertujuan meningkatkan keupayaan juruera menghadapi isu-isu moralyang timbul dari aktiviti-aktiviti kejuruteraan. Ia merangkumi kejuruteraan sebagai eksperimentasi sosial, tanggungjawab jurutera terhadap keselamatan dan hak-hak jurutera. Persoalan utama penyelidikan ini adalah apa yang merangkumi etika kejuruteraan. Penyelidikan ini juga mengkaji skop dan asal usul etika kejuruteraan. Kajian ini turut membincangkan subjek kajian dari pelbagai perspektif, Barat dan Islam.KEYWORDS: engineering ethics; engineer; akhlaq; values; confidentiality; corruption; conflict of interest; whistle-blowing

  3. Cultural diversity in nanotechnology ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Along with the rapid worldwide advance of nanotechnology, debates on associated ethical issues have spread from local to international levels. However unlike science and engineering issues, international perceptions of ethical issues are very diverse. This paper provides an analysis of how sociocultural factors such as language, cultural heritage, economics and politics can affect how people perceive ethical issues of nanotechnology. By attempting to clarify the significance of sociocultural issues in ethical considerations my aim is to support the ongoing international dialogue on nanotechnology. At the same time I pose the general question of ethical relativism in engineering ethics, that is to say whether or not different ethical views are irreconcilable on a fundamental level.

  4. Understanding medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M

    2000-03-01

    Moral thinking is embedded within cultures, and we use ethics all the time in our dealings with one another. Many functioning communities tend to share some values that reflect a particular view of the importance of human life in quantity and quality. Rights and duties form an interconnected network of obligations that protect the security of individuals and groups. In health care, the motives and virtues of practitioners are important sources of the determination to provide care for the ill within the limits of resource constraints. Ethics and the law have similarities, but also significant differences that may cause tension between the two systems. Health care is morally grounded, and provides a bulwark against the widespread fear of disease and suffering. The way in which health care is delivered depends on both national wealth and community values. Ethical problems can be seen as dilemmas, in which there are conflicting values. Modern ethical thinking in health is complicated by the need to consider the values and interests of many stakeholders--patients, health care workers, families, politicians, administrators, health bureaucrats and many others. There are ways of ethical thinking that take account of these often countervailing interests. No universally 'right' answers can be specified. The mode and the thoroughness of ethical consideration, and the careful consideration of local community values, will help to assure that we make the best possible decisions for the time and place.

  5. Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

    1990-01-01

    Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

  6. Environmental ethics: An African understanding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    environmental ethical theories, that is, normative environmental ethics, sentientist ethics, ... environmental ethics is challenging those life-threatening concerns, critical explorations of ..... such negligence, every business organization must be.

  7. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  8. Teachers' Ethical Responsibilities in a Diverse Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Recognizing that learning to teach cannot be separated from learning to inquire, I argue that teachers have specific relational and ethical responsibilities to their students, particularly in the context of a diverse society. Using my research experiences with Aboriginal people as examples, I propose an ethical framework based upon four underlying…

  9. Teaching Communication Ethics and Diversity: Using Technology and Community Engagement to Enhance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The workforce in the United States is becoming more diverse. To help students prepare to work and live in a diverse society, the author developed a lower-division course called "Communication Ethics and Diversity." After this course, students should be able to: (1) define diversity and communication ethics; (2) understand a variety of…

  10. [The diversity of animal ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, J B Jeangène

    2013-01-01

    Animal ethics is not a set of rules telling humans how to behave when interacting with animals, but an area for research into the moral responsibility of humans towards animals as individuals. The present article studies the subject by examining a number of dichotomies: French humanism and Anglo-Saxon animal ethics, justice vs. compassion, welfarism and abolitionism, and the divide between proponents of animal rights and those who prefer to speak of "interests".

  11. Exploring fraud triangle in understanding ethics pre-cautionary: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring fraud triangle in understanding ethics pre-cautionary: a Malaysian ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Various reports on the involvement of government officials in fraud cases indicate the lacking of ethical systems.

  12. Teaching Care Ethics: Conceptual Understandings and Stories for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Colette; Smith, Grinell

    2013-01-01

    An ethic of care acknowledges the centrality of the role of caring relationships in moral education. Care ethics requires a conception of "care" that differs from the quotidian use of the word. In order to teach care ethics more effectively, this article discusses four interrelated ways that teachers' understandings of care differ…

  13. Cultural diversity and the case against ethical relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, M

    2000-01-01

    The movement to respect cultural diversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a daunting challenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct a defensible passage from the fact of cultural differences to any claims regarding morality? Or does multiculturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklin argues that, in view of a leading distinction between universalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the only reasonable passage avoids both absolutism and relativism. She presents a strong case against ethical relativism and its pernicious consequences for cross-cultural issues in healthcare. She also provides sound criteria for the assessment of a culture's moral progress.

  14. Toward an Ethics of Professional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanchuk, Nicolas; Scramstad, Carly; Kruse, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we advance a novel conception of normative ethics and draw out its implications within the domain of professional ethics. We argue that all moral agents, and thus professionals, share a fundamental and constitutive normative interest in correctly conceiving of their ends. All professionals, we claim, by virtue of their positions of…

  15. Understanding doctors' ethical challenges as role virtue conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that doctors' ethical challenges can be usefully conceptualised as role virtue conflicts. The hospital environment requires doctors to be simultaneously good doctors, good team members, good learners and good employees. I articulate a possible set of role virtues for each of these four roles, as a basis for a virtue ethics approach to analysing doctors' ethical challenges. Using one junior doctor's story, I argue that understanding doctors' ethical challenges as role virtue conflicts enables recognition of important moral considerations that are overlooked by other approaches to ethical analysis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. What Social Workers Should Know About Ethics: Understanding and Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. Congress

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in professional practice is crucial for social work practitioners, educators, and students. After a discussion about the limited, although growing, literature on social work ethics, the ten main tenets form the most current NASW Code of Ethics are presented. These topics include limits to confidentiality, confidentiality and technology, confidentiality in family and group work, managed care, cultural competence, dual relationships, sexual relationships, impairment and incompetence of colleagues, application to administrators and relevance to social work educators. In addition to understanding the Code of Ethics, social workers can use the ETHIC model of decision making for resolving ethical dilemmas. This easy to use five step process includes examining personal, agency, client, and professional values, thinking about ethical standards and relevant laws, hypothesizing about consequences, identifying the most vulnerable, and consulting with supervisors and colleagues. A case example involving confidentiality, HIV/AIDS and family therapy demonstrates how social workers can use the ETHIC model.

  17. Nurse ethical awareness: Understanding the nature of everyday practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee; Grace, Pamela

    2017-08-01

    Much attention has been paid to the role of the nurse in recognizing and addressing ethical dilemmas. There has been less emphasis, however, on the issue of whether or not nurses understand the ethical nature of everyday practice. Awareness of the inherently ethical nature of practice is a component of nurse ethical sensitivity, which has been identified as a component of ethical decision-making. Ethical sensitivity is generally accepted as a necessary precursor to moral agency, in that recognition of the ethical content of practice is necessary before consistent action on behalf of patient interests can take place. This awareness is also compulsory in ensuring patient good by recognizing the unique interests and wishes of individuals, in line with an ethic of care. Scholarly and research literature are used to argue that bolstering ethical awareness and ensuring that nurses understand the ethical nature of the role are an obligation of the profession. Based on this line of reasoning, recommendations for education and practice, along with directions for future research, are suggested.

  18. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969

  19. Ethics. An approach to understanding museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fernández del Amo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of modern museums emerged in the second half of the Eighteenth Century with a clear ideology and ways of seeing the world and a particular set of skills with which to go about curating. As happens with human beings, this genetic code strongly determined museums' future development. This is why many of our museums present themselves as the unquestionable heirs of the encyclopedic knowledge that the philosophers of the Enlightenment pursued. Since they were first established they have based their authority on the mastery of knowledge and have developed a story of the world through a scientific mode of interpreting reality. This paper has two objectives: firstly, to analyze the nature of the museum as a technology of modernity and how they are employed as instruments of legitimation of liberal states; secondly, to show how ethics can help museums to adopt a new role in the knowledge society, by questioning the ideological foundations of the Western paradigm. It does this through an interdisciplinary analysis, combining the voices of philosophers, sociologists, anthropologists, and museum curators and concludes with a proposal on how to apply such thinking to the Latin American cultural environment.

  20. Ethical Diversity and the Role of Conscience in Clinical Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Lipp, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In a climate of plurality about the concept of what is “good,” one of the most daunting challenges facing contemporary medicine is the provision of medical care within the mosaic of ethical diversity. Juxtaposed with escalating scientific knowledge and clinical prowess has been the concomitant erosion of unity of thought in medical ethics. With innumerable technologies now available in the armamentarium of healthcare, combined with escalating realities of financial constraints, cultural differences, moral divergence, and ideological divides among stakeholders, medical professionals and their patients are increasingly faced with ethical quandaries when making medical decisions. Amidst the plurality of values, ethical collision arises when the values of individual health professionals are dissonant with the expressed requests of patients, the common practice amongst colleagues, or the directives from regulatory and political authorities. In addition, concern is increasing among some medical practitioners due to mounting attempts by certain groups to curtail freedom of independent conscience—by preventing medical professionals from doing what to them is apparently good, or by compelling practitioners to do what they, in conscience, deem to be evil. This paper and the case study presented will explore issues related to freedom of conscience and consider practical approaches to ethical collision in clinical medicine. PMID:24455248

  1. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2013-11-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures.

  2. Perception, understanding and practice of ethics during research on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Scandals have occurred over time involving conduct of research in different parts of the world. This study was aimed at exploring researchers' perception, understanding, appreciation and practice of research ethics during research on human subjects. Methods: A qualitative approach using the exploratory and ...

  3. Educational Method of Engineering Ethics Aiming for Comprehensive Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Mitsukuni; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Manabu; Sugata, Noriyuki; Hayasaka, Narihito

    We have proposed the omnibus style to teach an engineering ethics program. This paper showed the essentials to practice the class. The engineering ethics program is constituted with the factors; grade, subject, objective even if it is operated by some themes and teachers in the style of omnibus. Also, teachers have to select the cases which have dilemma of the engineer and the good effect. And they should teach how to analyze the case. Evaluation of student activity must be made up by versatile style according to objective. And student is recommended to understand the relation of activity and object.

  4. An African Understanding of Environmental Ethics | Ojomo | Thought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global concerns about the current environmental crisis have culminated in some controversial environmental ethical theories, among which are normative environmental ethics, sentientist ethics, biocentric ethics, ecocentric ethics and eco-feminist ethics. One of the underlying features connecting these environmental ...

  5. Reflections on Enhancing the Understanding of Law through Ethical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Murray S.

    2010-01-01

    There are varied approaches to incorporating the subject of ethics in the business school curriculum. The evolving process has included a debate over fundamental matters such as whether all students should be required to take a discrete course in ethics, who should be teaching ethics, and whether ethics can even be taught. The ethics subject…

  6. Understanding diversity: the importance of social acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L

    2015-04-01

    Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Guest Editors’ Introduction On Understanding Ethical Behavior and Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); D.M. Mayer (David); M. Schminke (Marshall)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral ethics is an emerging field that takes an empirical, social scientific approach to the study of business ethics. In this special issue, we include six articles that fall within the domain of behavioral ethics and that focus on three themes—moral awareness, ethical decision

  8. Ethics, methods and diversity in the use of new media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yngve NordkvelleThis issue presents six papers covering a wide range of topics. It demonstrates how varied and encompassing the research in these matters are. Our authors this time come from Mexico, Germany, Sweden, Austria, Finland, Norway and the UK. The topics in this issue range from how students use the Internet in such diverse countries as Mexico and Finland, and we also offer an analysis the effect on one computer per students has in Swedish secondary schools. The language used on digital publishing contexts is an important topic covered in a politically inspired article. Three articles have a more methodological interest: two of them are about the ethnographies of communities of learning, and about teachers using videos in their professional development. The last one is about ethical matters, a topic all too seldom covered in publications about new media and Internet. The wider context is the use of digital storytelling with groups of people who need particular protection because they may be more vulnerable, due to a health condition.Pip Hardy is a co-founder of “The Patient Voices Programme” and has since 2003 provided opportunities for new ways of expressing problems related to health through new digital media. Digital Storytelling is a successful method for making people express their ideas and emotions about health matters. Her paper “First do no harm: developing an ethical process of consent and release for digital storytelling in healthcare” explains how the process of caring and protecting participants through the process of producing and sharing their results. The activity of the programme is directed towards health practitioners as well as patients and their families. In her PhD-project at Manchester Metropolitan University, she also elaborates and refines the strategies for the protection of patients rights and ownership to their own stories.The paper describes how that process has been developed and explores the issues

  9. Molecular Technique to Understand Deep Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

    2012-01-01

    Current sequencing-based and DNA microarray techniques to study microbial diversity are based on an initial PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification step. However, a number of factors are known to bias PCR amplification and jeopardize the true representation of bacterial diversity. PCR amplification of the minor template appears to be suppressed by the exponential amplification of the more abundant template. It is widely acknowledged among environmental molecular microbiologists that genetic biosignatures identified from an environment only represent the most dominant populations. The technological bottleneck has overlooked the presence of the less abundant minority population, and underestimated their role in the ecosystem maintenance. To generate PCR amplicons for subsequent diversity analysis, bacterial l6S rRNA genes are amplified by PCR using universal primers. Two distinct PCR regimes are employed in parallel: one using normal and the other using biotinlabeled universal primers. PCR products obtained with biotin-labeled primers are mixed with streptavidin-labeled magnetic beads and selectively captured in the presence of a magnetic field. Less-abundant DNA templates that fail to amplify in this first round of PCR amplification are subjected to a second round of PCR using normal universal primers. These PCR products are then subjected to downstream diversity analyses such as conventional cloning and sequencing. A second round of PCR amplified the minority population and completed the deep diversity picture of the environmental sample.

  10. There's More to Ethics than Justice and Harm: Teaching a Broader Understanding of Journalism Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Steven; McKinley, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Most applied ethics training in journalism in the West follows Enlightenment-era, reason-based ethical principles: Justice is intrinsically better than injustice (Kant), and the best choice is achieving the best outcome for all concerned (Mill). Recent scholarship in ethics suggests that ethics is much broader than this. This article examines a…

  11. Ethical Dilemmas: A Model to Understand Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethical dilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain…

  12. Using Gaming To Help Nursing Students Understand Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Barbara L.; Yankou, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    An ethics game involves nursing students in defending actions in ethics-based scenarios. Benefits include increased confidence, ability to see multiple perspectives, values clarification, and exposure to decision-making models, professional responsibilities, ethical principles, social expectations, and legal requirements. Difficulties include…

  13. The ethics of 'public understanding of ethics'--why and how bioethics expertise should include public and patients' voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Silke; Schweda, Mark; Wynne, Brian

    2012-05-01

    "Ethics" is used as a label for a new kind of expertise in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is not clear what ethical expertise consists in and what its political status in modern democracies can be. Starting from the "participatory turn" in recent social research and policy, we will argue that bioethical reasoning has to include public views of and attitudes towards biomedicine. We will sketch the outlines of a bioethical conception of "public understanding of ethics," addressing three different issues: (a) the methodological relevance of moral questions and problems raised by lay persons in everyday life regarding biomedicine and technology, (b) the normative relevance of such lay moralities for the justification of ethical decisions, and (c) the necessity of public deliberation in this context. Finally, we draw conclusions in view of the concepts and methods such a conception of "public understanding of ethics" should employ.

  14. Deontological aspects of the nursing profession: understanding the code of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Terezinha Nunes da; Freire, Maria Eliane Moreira; Vasconcelos, Monica Ferreira de; Silva Junior, Sergio Vital da; Silva, Wilton José de Carvalho; Araújo, Patrícia da Silva; Eloy, Allan Victor Assis

    2018-01-01

    to investigate nursing professionals' understanding concerning the Code of Ethics; to assess the relevance of the Code of Ethics of the nursing profession and its use in practice; to identify how problem-solving is performed when facing ethical dilemmas in professional practice. exploratory descriptive study, conducted with 34 (thirty-four) nursing professionals from a teaching hospital in João Pessoa, PB - Brazil. four thematic categories emerged: conception of professional ethics in nursing practice; interpretations of ethics in the practice of care; use of the Code of Ethics in the professional practice; strategies for solving ethical issues in the professional practice. some of the nursing professionals comprehend the meaning coherently; others have a limited comprehension, based on jargon. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the text contained in this code is necessary so that it can be applied into practice, aiming to provide a quality care that is, above all, ethical and legal.

  15. Towards a Better Understanding of Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wink

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When we look at Planet Earth, its material and organisms, a prominent feature is the diversity of these components and the mechanisms underlying their functions. Biodiversity, which includes the diversity of the living organisms, their genes and the biomes, is a fascinating product of millions of years of evolution. Biodiversity is not static but in continuous change. In addition to the intrinsic natural causes, the biodiversity on Earth is increasingly challenged by human interference. Among the critical factors are the destruction of habitats (by agriculture or technical development, especially loss of rain forests and coral reefs, climate change, direct persecution and extermination of species (for traditional pharmaceutical use, game hunting or in fishery, as well as the introduction of invasive species and environmental pollution (some of them apparently influencing our climate [1]. Global changes (land-use and climate and human population growth (with a world population of more than 6.7 billion in 2009 and an annual increase of almost 80 million are ultimately responsible for affecting biodiversity worldwide. The exact impact of human interference on the Earth’s diversity may not be realised until it is too late to save critical species.

  16. Nursing students’ understanding of factors influencing ethical sensitivity: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohsenpour, Mohaddeseh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethical sensitivity is considered as a component of professional competency of nurses. Its effects on improvement of nurses’ ethical performance and the therapeutic relationship between nurses and patients have been reported. However, very limited studies have evaluated ethical sensitivity. Since no previous Iranian research has been conducted in this regard, the present study aimed to review nursing students’ understanding of effective factors on ethical sensitivity. Materials an...

  17. Understanding and managing diversity readings, cases, and exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Carol P

    2015-01-01

    For undergraduate and graduate courses in human resources. A diverse approach to understanding and managing diversity. Understanding and Managing Diversity uses applications to clarify the complexity of a diverse workforce, and explains how it can be used as an organizational asset. This text also provides students with a wide range of expertise—from the perspective of experienced interdisciplinary instructors (business, psychology, economics, theology, law, politics, history, etc.) to practitioners (diversity trainers, corporate managers, etc.). Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience–for you and your students. Here’s how: Provide Students with an Accessible Format: Information is presented in a logical succession to help students learn that is in a way accessible to them. Present New and Timely Diversity Topics: Topics include Racial Identity, Work-Life Balance, Diversity Leadership, and Workplace Communication. Stimulat...

  18. Refugee-Themed Picture Books for Ethical Understanding in Curriculum English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Karen; Tait, Gordon; Zabarjadi Sar, Hora

    2016-01-01

    This study looked at the curricular resource potential of refugee-themed picture books for embedding an ethics of responsibility for linguistic diversity into the subject of English studied by all students in English-dominant western societies. Selected picture books were analysed in terms of a Levinasean ethics of responsibility for alterity in…

  19. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  20. Clinical research ethics in Irish healthcare: diversity, dynamism and medicalization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condell, Sarah L

    2012-11-01

    Gaining ethical clearance to conduct a study is an important aspect of all research involving humans but can be time-consuming and daunting for novice researchers. This article stems from a larger ethnographic study that examined research capacity building in Irish nursing and midwifery. Data were collected over a 28-month time frame from a purposive sample of 16 nurse or midwife research fellows who were funded to undertake full-time PhDs. Gaining ethical clearance for their studies was reported as an early \\'rite of passage\\' in the category of \\'labouring the doctorate\\'. This article penetrates the complexities in Irish clinical research ethics by describing the practices these nurse and midwife researchers encountered and the experiences they had. The key issue of representation that occurred in the context of \\'medicalized\\' research ethics is further explored including its meaning for nursing or midwifery research.

  1. Sin and suffering in a Catholic understanding of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J L A

    2006-08-01

    Drawing chiefly on recent sources, in Part One I sketch an untraditional way of articulating what I claim to be central elements of traditional Catholic morality, treating it as based in virtues, focused on the recipients ("patients") of our attention and concern, and centered in certain person-to-person role-relationships. I show the limited and derivative places of "natural law," and therefore of sin, within that framework. I also sketch out some possible implications for medical ethics of this approach to moral theory, and briefly contrast these with the influential alternative offered by the "principlism" of Beauchamp and Childress. In Part Two, I turn to a Catholic understanding of the nature and meaning of human suffering, drawing especially on writings and addresses of the late Pope John Paul II. He reminds us that physical and mental suffering can provide an opportunity to share in Christ's salvific sacrifice, better to see the nature of our earthly vocation, and to reflect on the dependence that inheres in human existence. At various places, and especially in my conclusion, I suggest a few ways in which this can inform bioethical reflection on morally appropriate responses to those afflicted by physical or mental pain, disability, mental impairment, disease, illness, and poor health prospects. My general point is that mercy must be informed by appreciation of the person's dignity and status. Throughout, my approach is philosophical rather than theological.

  2. Understanding and Managing Diversity the Personnel Challenge for Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... Although this project is narrow in scope and breadth it serves as a point of departure for those attempting to improve their understanding and awareness of the leadership challenges of diversity...

  3. Ethical Values and Biological Diversity: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Cohen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been five major extinction events over geological time. However, the current rate of extinction or reduction of species and their habitats is directly related to anthropomorphic causes. For seventh grade students, biodiversity and its ethical considerations were introduced in a life sciences curriculum, following lessons on evolution, natural selection, and decent from common ancestry. This paper takes a preliminary look at the approach used in this unit, the ethical survey developed, and improvements to be made in subsequent years.

  4. Assessing Freshman Engineering Students' Understanding of Ethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Murray, Susan L; Olbricht, Gayla R; Ludlow, Douglas K; Hays, Malcolm E; Nelson, Hannah M

    2017-02-01

    Academic dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarism, is on the rise in colleges, particularly among engineering students. While students decide to engage in these behaviors for many different reasons, academic integrity training can help improve their understanding of ethical decision making. The two studies outlined in this paper assess the effectiveness of an online module in increasing academic integrity among first semester engineering students. Study 1 tested the effectiveness of an academic honesty tutorial by using a between groups design with a Time 1- and Time 2-test. An academic honesty quiz assessed participants' knowledge at both time points. Study 2, which incorporated an improved version of the module and quiz, utilized a between groups design with three assessment time points. The additional Time 3-test allowed researchers to test for retention of information. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA and t tests. In Study 1, the experimental group exhibited significant improvement on the plagiarism items, but not the total score. However, at Time 2 there was no significant difference between groups after controlling for Time 1 scores. In Study 2, between- and within-group analyses suggest there was a significant improvement in total scores, but not plagiarism scores, after exposure to the tutorial. Overall, the academic integrity module impacted participants as evidenced by changes in total score and on specific plagiarism items. Although future implementation of the tutorial and quiz would benefit from modifications to reduce ceiling effects and improve assessment of knowledge, the results suggest such tutorial may be one valuable element in a systems approach to improving the academic integrity of engineering students.

  5. Ethical Ideology and Cultural Orientation: Understanding the Individualized Ethical Inclinations of Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brent

    2009-01-01

    As today's marketing graduates formally enter the business profession, they are expected to demonstrate the fruits of their ethics-intensive education. Hence, their professors and future bosses may call upon these graduates to discern and deal with ethical situations that affect various aspects of company and consumer relations. However, students…

  6. Theory and practice in interprofessional ethics: a framework for understanding ethical issues in health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G; Cott, Cheryl; Drinka, Theresa J K

    2007-12-01

    Interprofessional teamwork is an essential and expanding form of health care practice. While moral issues arising in teamwork relative to the patient have been explored, the analysis of ethical issues regarding the function of the team itself is limited. This paper develops a conceptual framework for organizing and analyzing the different types of ethical issues in interprofessional teamwork. This framework is a matrix that maps the elements of principles, structures, and processes against individual, team, and organizational levels. A case study is presented that illustrates different dimensions of these topics, based on the application of this framework. Finally, a set of conclusions and recommendations is presented to summarize the integration of theory and practice in interprofessional ethics, including: (i) importance of a framework, (ii) interprofessional ethics discourse, and (iii) interprofessional ethics as an emerging field. The goal of this paper is to begin a dialogue and discussion on the ethical issues confronting interprofessional teams and to lay the foundation for an expanding discourse on interprofessional ethics.

  7. Deciphering Diversity Indices for a Better Understanding of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Ra; Shin, Jiwon; Guevarra, Robin; Lee, Jun Hyung; Kim, Doo Wan; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard

    2017-12-28

    The past decades have been a golden era during which great tasks were accomplished in the field of microbiology, including food microbiology. In the past, culture-dependent methods have been the primary choice to investigate bacterial diversity. However, using cultureindependent high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes has greatly facilitated studies exploring the microbial compositions and dynamics associated with health and diseases. These culture-independent DNA-based studies generate large-scale data sets that describe the microbial composition of a certain niche. Consequently, understanding microbial diversity becomes of greater importance when investigating the composition, function, and dynamics of the microbiota associated with health and diseases. Even though there is no general agreement on which diversity index is the best to use, diversity indices have been used to compare the diversity among samples and between treatments with controls. Tools such as the Shannon- Weaver index and Simpson index can be used to describe population diversity in samples. The purpose of this review is to explain the principles of diversity indices, such as Shannon- Weaver and Simpson, to aid general microbiologists in better understanding bacterial communities. In this review, important questions concerning microbial diversity are addressed. Information from this review should facilitate evidence-based strategies to explore microbial communities.

  8. Understanding medical ethics | Little | Central African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moral thinking is embedded within cultures, and we use ethics all the time in our ... values that reflect a particular view of the importance of human life in quantity and ... of the determination to provide care for the ill within the limits of resource ...

  9. Deontological aspects of the nursing profession: understanding the code of ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Nunes da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate nursing professionals' understanding concerning the Code of Ethics; to assess the relevance of the Code of Ethics of the nursing profession and its use in practice; to identify how problem-solving is performed when facing ethical dilemmas in professional practice. Method: exploratory descriptive study, conducted with 34 (thirty-four nursing professionals from a teaching hospital in João Pessoa, PB - Brazil. Results: four thematic categories emerged: conception of professional ethics in nursing practice; interpretations of ethics in the practice of care; use of the Code of Ethics in the professional practice; strategies for solving ethical issues in the professional practice. Final considerations: some of the nursing professionals comprehend the meaning coherently; others have a limited comprehension, based on jargon. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the text contained in this code is necessary so that it can be applied into practice, aiming to provide a quality care that is, above all, ethical and legal.

  10. Understanding Approaches for Managing Diversity in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to enhance understanding of how companies actually implement diversity management, and of factors that may explain their approach. It does this by framing a tripartite model that articulates a combination of indicators, and by using this model to investigate the prevalent...... approach for managing diversity in Italy and the contingent factors at play. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents data from a survey conducted among 90 Italian companies, and two focus groups consisting of experts and managers. Findings – The most common approach among Italian companies...... in Italy, where interest in diversity is growing due to the increased participation of women and immigrants in the labor market and the initiatives inspired by the EU and multinational companies. In addition, the research model used in this study integrates existing typologies of diversity management...

  11. Multicultural and Diversity Considerations in the New "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Brenda Y.; Fleming, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    As the demographic transformation of the U.S. population continues, the challenges of multicultural and diversity-based considerations remain a central focus, as does the need to incorporate cultural competencies into the practice of rehabilitation. The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's 2010 "Code of Professional Ethics for…

  12. Dynamic Diversity: Toward a Contextual Understanding of Critical Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.; Jayakumar, Uma M.

    2014-01-01

    Through an analysis of relevant social science evidence, this article provides a deeper understanding of critical mass, a concept that has become central in litigation efforts related to affirmative action admissions policies that seek to further the educational benefits of diversity. We demonstrate that the concept of critical mass requires an…

  13. Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra; Polirstok, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom offers comprehensive coverage of the language development process for pre- and in-service teachers while emphasizing the factors that further academic success in the classroom, including literacy skills, phonological awareness, and narrative. With chapters written by respected…

  14. Balance, Diversity and Ethics in Public Policy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul B.

    Public policy for agriculture and natural resources must change as farming and the use of resources change, but policy also changes to reflect new understandings. The new understandings that will shape future agricultural policy may not come from food producers or agricultural scientists, and may not assume that expanding production is the primary…

  15. COURT REPORTERS’ UNDERSTANDING ON THE CODE OF ETHICS IN NEWS REPORTING

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Zobidah OMAR; Mageswari MUSALAYAH; Amini Amir ABDULLAH; Ezhar TAMAM

    2012-01-01

    Journalism, as any professional field, is trusted to be guided by code of ethics (COE). In Malaysia, journalists have their own Canons of Journalism. The aim of this study is to determine the reporters’ understanding on the practice of code of ethics in reporting news. Using a case study approach, the research was conducted at the Kuala Lumpur court complex. Qualitative method was employed to obtain the data. Fifteen court reporters from the English and Malay newspaper’s media organizations w...

  16. Understanding ethical dilemmas in the military workplace factors that influence the decision to take action

    OpenAIRE

    Blevins, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This study examines ethical dilemmas in the workplace and how organizational members move to resolve these challenges. Existing research was reviewed to gain insight and determine current views of ethical dilemmas experienced at work. A study was then conducted with Supply Corps Officers in the U.S. Navy to better understand the dilemmas they face in their daily work life. Officers were asked to think of a critical incident when they ...

  17. Understanding McDonald's Among the "World’s Most Ethical Companies"

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    The animal welfare policies and related public communication initiatives of McDonald’s corporation are examined in the context of the organization being named as one of the world’s most ethical organizations. The result is a framework for understanding how McDonald’s and similar organizations could warrant the status of a most ethical company. Specifically, the narrative strength of the company’s articulation of an animal welfare policy and its ongoing promotion as a legitimizing ...

  18. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  19. Ethical implication of providing scientific data and services to diverse stakeholders: the case of the EPOS research infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, Carmela; Atakan, Kuvvet; Cocco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    EPOS, the European Plate Observing System, is an ESFRI infrastructure serving the needs of the solid Earth science community as a whole. EPOS promotes the use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS mission is to create a single, sustainable, and distributed infrastructure that integrates the diverse European research infrastructures for solid Earth science under a common framework with the final goal of delivering a suite of domain-specific and multidisciplinary data, products, and services in one single and integrated platform. Addressing ethics issues is a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including industry and society at large. In examining the role of EPOS on openly and freely delivering scientific data and products to diverse stakeholders including but not limited to scientists, we are looking at ethical issues associated with the use and re-use of these data and products possibly leading to a malevolent use and/or misuse of the data with implications on, for example, national security, environmental protection and risk communication. Moreover, EPOS is aware that the research promoted by the use of data delivered through its platform can have a profound influence on the environment, human health and wellbeing, economic development, and other facets of societies. We know there is nothing intrinsically bad about openly and freely delivering scientific data, as it serves as a tool for leveraging researches leading to solutions for a responsible management of Earth's resources and mitigation of natural hazards. However, we must evaluate the effects of such a data provision and feel the obligation to adopt a responsible

  20. The Updated AGU Ethics Policy: Supporting Inclusive and Diverse Field and Lab Environments within the Geosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B. M.; McPhaden, M. J.; Gundersen, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), a scientific society of >60,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. More recently AGU has undertaken actions to help address the issue of harassment in the sciences and other work climate issues; and, where applied more broadly as a code of standard behavior, will help address tangential issues of diversity and inclusion. This presentation will highlight the proposed policy changes and additional resources now in place, as they apply to field and lab environments. Progress to date and remaining challenges of this effort will be discussed, including AGU's work to provide additional program strength in the areas of Ethics, Diversity and Inclusion.

  1. A cross-sectional survey to investigate community understanding of medical research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Kelsall, Helen L; Loff, Bebe; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah C

    2015-07-01

    Study explanatory forms often state that an ethics committee has approved a research project. To determine whether the lay community understand the roles of ethics committees in research, we took a cross-sectional national sample from three sampling frames: the general population (n=1532); cohort study participants (n=397); and case-control study participants (n=151). About half (51.3%) of the participants had heard of ethics committees. Those who had were more likely to be those who had participated in previous surveys, older participants, those born in Australia and those with higher education. Almost all participants agreed that the roles of an ethics committee were to protect participants' privacy and ensure no harm came to study participants and most agreed that the committee's role was to ensure that the research was capable of providing answers. Case-control and cohort participants were more likely than the general population to consider that the role of an ethics committee was to design the research and obtain research funding. Overall, we found that about half of the population are aware of ethics committees and that most could correctly identify that ethics committees are there to protect the welfare and rights of research participants, although a substantial minority had some incorrect beliefs about the committees' roles. Increased education, particularly for migrants and older people, might improve understanding of the role of ethics committees in research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. A stratified myeloid system, the challenge of understanding macrophage diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, F; Mass, E

    2015-12-01

    The present issue of 'Seminars in Immunology' addresses the topic of macrophage biology, 100 years after the death of Elie Metchnikoff (May 1845-July 1916). As foreseen by Metchnikoff, the roles of macrophages in the maintenance of homeostasis and immunity against pathogens have become a broad and active area of investigation. We now start to realize that the myeloid system includes a multiplicity of cell types with diverse developmental origins and functions. Therefore, the textbook picture of a plastic and multifunctional macrophage does not meet the requirements of our current knowledge anymore. Further development toward a quantitative and molecular understanding of myeloid cell biology in vivo and their roles in tissue homeostasis and remodeling will benefit from taking this complexity into account. A tentative model to help in this pursuit and account for myeloid cell and macrophage diversity is discussed below. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Nursing students' understanding of factors influencing ethical sensitivity: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohsenpour, Mohaddeseh

    2013-07-01

    Ethical sensitivity is considered as a component of professional competency of nurses. Its effects on improvement of nurses' ethical performance and the therapeutic relationship between nurses and patients have been reported. However, very limited studies have evaluated ethical sensitivity. Since no previous Iranian research has been conducted in this regard, the present study aimed to review nursing students' understanding of effective factors on ethical sensitivity. This qualitative study was performed in Kerman, Iran, during 2009. It used semi-structured individual interviews with eight MSc nursing students to assess their viewpoints. It also included two focus groups. Purposive sampling was continued until data saturation. Data were analyzed using manifest content analysis. The students' understanding of factors influencing ethical sensitivity were summarized in five main themes including individual and spiritual characteristics, education, mutual understanding, internal and external controls, and experience of an immoral act. The findings of this study create a unique framework for sensitization of nurses in professional performance. The application of these factors in human resource management is reinforcement of positive aspects and decrease in negative aspects, in education can use for educational objectives setting, and in research can designing studies based on this framework and making related tools. It is noteworthy that presented classification was influenced by students themselves and mentioned to a kind of learning activity by them.

  4. COURT REPORTERS’ UNDERSTANDING ON THE CODE OF ETHICS IN NEWS REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zobidah OMAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Journalism, as any professional field, is trusted to be guided by code of ethics (COE. In Malaysia, journalists have their own Canons of Journalism. The aim of this study is to determine the reporters’ understanding on the practice of code of ethics in reporting news. Using a case study approach, the research was conducted at the Kuala Lumpur court complex. Qualitative method was employed to obtain the data. Fifteen court reporters from the English and Malay newspaper’s media organizations were interviewed in-depth to gather data for this study. Finding shows that most of the informants have various understanding over COE in carrying out their reporting work every day. To them, ethics is more to do with principles or guidelines concerning the rights and wrongs of human conduct, and thus, failure to follow the practice of COE in reporting news may have an impact on the reputation of the reporters, media organization and credibility.

  5. Understanding the diversity of public interests in wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Tara L; Manfredo, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    North American state wildlife agencies are increasingly faced with the challenge of effectively representing a diverse public. With increasing social conflict over wildlife issues, the future of wildlife conservation hinges on preparedness of the profession to respond to this challenge. In the interest of finding ways to improve response, 19 agencies in the western U.S. joined forces to initiate an investigation that would provide a better understanding of the diversity of wildlife-related interests in the region. Specific objectives, accomplished through use of a mail survey administered in 2004, were to categorize people on the basis of their value orientations toward wildlife and explore how different groups were distributed across states and to examine differences on sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward wildlife-related topics among groups. The focus was on two orientations: domination (view of wildlife that prioritizes human well-being over wildlife and treats wildlife in utilitarian terms); and mutualism (view of wildlife as capable of relationships of trust with humans and defined by a desire for companionship with wildlife). Four types of people were identified on the basis of these orientations. Types differed in their geographic distribution and wildlife-related attitudes and behaviors, revealing how value orientations can form the foundation for conflict on wildlife issues. Our characterizations of stakeholder groups offer a framework that can be applied over time and across geographic scales to improve conservation planning efforts and inform broader thinking about the social aspects of wildlife conservation.

  6. Secularities, Diversities and Pluralities: Understanding the Challenges of Religious Diversity in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Zavala-Pelayo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is experiencing today the greatest religious diversity in its entire history. However, it must also be noted that a large number of the growing religious minorities may be classified into types of Christianity with conservative overtones. In this paper we will suggest that the literature streams on multiple secularities in contemporary (Western societies and religious diversity in Latin America do offer insightful perspectives yet fail to adequately convey the challenges raised by the religious across contemporary Latin America. Addressing Latin America’s historical background, we will distinguish conceptually and empirically among different degrees of secularities, diversities and pluralities and will construct with these distinctions a descriptive-normative model that can guide future analyses of secular and religious phenomena in Latin America. It is only through a comprehensive understanding of diversities, pluralities and secularities that the debates on those human rights crucial for social inclusion—from sexual and reproductive rights to gender and religious equality—can be fruitfully conducted in and beyond Latin America.

  7. Chinese college students' understanding of Internet ethical issues: A survey of awareness and attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuelin LI; Ying LI; Ang LI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study examines Chinese college students' awareness of ethical issues surrounding the use of information resources and the Internet and their attitude to these issues.Design/methodology/approach:A survey was conducted.Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students of 9 universities at different levels in Tianjin,China;171 were returned.Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the data.Findings:The results indicate that Chinese college students usually ignored the negative influence of fake or pornographic or other indecent information,invasion of privacy and theft of confidential information,and violation of intellectual property rights.Although they could distinguish to some extent between ethical and unethical behavior,they were not concerned about others' unethical behavior on the Web.The study also indicates that gender,age,academic major and expertise in using computers were related to the students' awareness of ethical issues relating to the use of the Internet and their attitude to these issues.Research limitations:The sample is limited to the universities in Tianjin.A larger sample,which includes colleges and universities in the western or other developing areas in China,is needed to further validate our findings.Practical implications:The study helps educators and academic librarians better understand Chinese college students' awareness of and attitude to ethical issues surrounding the use of the Internet.It thus could assist them in the improvement of information ethics education for college students.Originality/value:This study was one of the first empirical studies to investigate the factors influencing Chinese college students' awareness of and attitude to Internet ethical issues.

  8. Chinese college students’ understanding of Internet ethical issues: A survey of awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuelin; LI; Ying; LI; Ang; LI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines Chinese college students’ awareness of ethical issues surrounding the use of information resources and the Internet and their attitude to these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students of 9 universities at different levels in Tianjin, China; 171 were returned. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the data. Findings: The results indicate that Chinese college students usually ignored the negative influence of fake or pornographic or other indecent information, invasion of privacy and theft of confidential information, and violation of intellectual property rights. Although they could distinguish to some extent between ethical and unethical behavior, they were not concerned about others’ unethical behavior on the Web. The study also indicates that gender, age, academic major and expertise in using computers were related to the students’ awareness of ethical issues relating to the use of the Internet and their attitude to these issues.Research limitations: The sample is limited to the universities in Tianjin. A larger sample, which includes colleges and universities in the western or other developing areas in China, is needed to further validate our findings.Practical implications: The study helps educators and academic librarians better understand Chinese college students’ awareness of and attitude to ethical issues surrounding the use of the Internet. It thus could assist them in the improvement of information ethics education for college students.Originality/value: This study was one of the first empirical studies to investigate the factors influencing Chinese college students’ awareness of and attitude to Internet ethical issues.

  9. [How to Understand "Clinical Ethics" and "Research Ethics" in Clinical Settings--Incorporation of IRB, REC, and CEC in Hospital Organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Koichiro

    2016-02-01

    As the traditional definition of "medical ethics" has recently changed markedly with advances in medical knowledge and technology, medical doctors and researchers in Japan are required to understand and apply both research and clinical ethics. Quite frequently, ethical problems in clinical settings cannot be addressed by the simple application of good will, hard work, and perseverance by medical personnel. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) have jointly published "Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Studies;" however, clear guidelines (legal, ministerial, or governmental) outlining the expectations regarding clinical ethics do not exist. All medical personnel face deep ethical dilemmas. In these instances, if the fulfillment of 'ethics' relies solely on the capacity of personnel to apply their own individual moral efforts, the result will be burn-out among these workers who have a strong sense of responsibility. In order to avoid this, a system which comprises multiple physicians, nurses, and other personnel must be established, allowing collaboration when an appropriate response is required. A major factor supporting this approach is the offering of Clinical Ethics Consultations.

  10. The community speaks: understanding ethical values in allocation of scarce lifesaving resources during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty Biddison, Elizabeth L; Gwon, Howard; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Cavalier, Robert; White, Douglas B; Dawson, Timothy; Terry, Peter B; London, Alex John; Regenberg, Alan; Faden, Ruth; Toner, Eric S

    2014-06-01

    Pandemic influenza or other crises causing mass respiratory failure could easily overwhelm current North American critical care capacity. This threat has generated large-scale federal, state, and local efforts to prepare for a public health disaster. Few, however, have systematically engaged the public regarding which values are most important in guiding decisions about how to allocate scarce healthcare resources during such crises. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to test whether deliberative democratic methods could be used to promote engaged discussion about complex, ethically challenging healthcare-related policy issues and (2) to develop specific deliberative democratic procedures that could ultimately be used in a statewide process to inform a Maryland framework for allocating scarce healthcare resources during disasters. Using collaboratively developed focus group materials and multiple metrics for assessing outcomes, we held 5-hour pilot community meetings with a combined total of 68 community members in two locations in Maryland. The key outcomes used to assess the project were (1) the comprehensibility of the background materials and ethical principles, (2) the salience of the ethical principles, (3) the perceived usefulness of the discussions, (4) the degree to which participants' opinions evolved as a result of the discussions, and (5) the quality of participant engagement. Most participants were thoughtful, reflective, and invested in this pilot policy-informing process. Throughout the pilot process, changes were made to background materials, the verbal introduction, and pre- and post-surveys. Importantly, by holding pilot meetings in two distinct communities (an affluent suburb and inner city neighborhood), we discerned that participants' ethical reflections were framed in large part by their place-based life experiences. This pilot process, coupled with extensive feedback from participants, yielded a refined methodology suitable for wider

  11. Cultures of Diversity: Considering Scientific and Humanistic Understandings in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Andrew M.; Simmons, Zachary L.; Downs, Andrew; Pitzer, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of psychology tend to agree that learning about diversity is an important goal for undergraduate psychology courses. There is significantly less agreement about what aspects of diversity psychology students should understand. The current research proposes and investigates two potentially distinct ways students might understand diversity:…

  12. Understanding the Impact of Cultural Diversity on Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Molly

    1997-01-01

    .... It is from this basic framework that tools such as empowerment, training, and mentoring are presented for leaders to consider when dealing with diversity in their organization. Finally, these tools are interrelated to a five-step continuous process developed by Ann M. Morrison that a leader can use in analyzing the diversity climate of their organization.

  13. Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Millard, James D; Nji, Theobald M; Tantoh, William F; Nyoh, Doris N; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Understanding and Managing Diversity the Personnel Challenge for Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, Michael

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the subject of diversity. The changing demographics in America projects by the year 2000, almost two-thirds of new entrants into the workforce will be women, and 29 percent will be non-white...

  15. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  16. Understanding Ethical Issues of Research Participation from the Perspective of Participating Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E.

    2017-01-01

    Background The past twenty years have seen distinct shifts in the way the participation of children and adolescents in research is viewed. This has been emphasized by the growing pediatric research enterprise. Additional information on children’s and adolescents’ experiences during research participation is needed to better inform researchers on the ethical conduct of research with this vulnerable population. Aims The objective of this analysis was to examine ethical issues in research with children and adolescents from their perspective as participants, including: assent, parental consent, risk perception, impact of research participation, and incentives. Methods This systematic review was conducted per the Long et al. framework by means of an iterative searching process. Using the key words ‘research ethics’ and ‘child or pediatric or adolescent’, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases were searched to identify articles. Limitations placed on the original searches were: English language, year of publication between 2003–2014, humans, abstract available, and age birth–18 years. Findings Twenty-three empiric studies were identified and formed the sample. Included studies represented a diverse range of areas of research, methods, settings, sample demographics, authors, and journals. Discussion Even young children demonstrated the ability to understand essential elements of research, although there is variability in children’s level of understanding. Trust was a significant contributing factor to children’s and adolescents’ participation in research, and also shaped their assessments of risk. Research participation was mainly beneficial for children and adolescents. Incentives were mainly viewed positively, although concerns of possible undue influence were expressed. Linking Evidence to Action This systematic review highlights the importance of including the perspectives of children and adolescents and provides researchers and nurse clinicians

  17. Right and Wrong and Cultural Diversity: Replication of the 2002 NAS/Zogby Poll on Business Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlum, Marty; Mascaloinov, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    In April 2002, a NAS/Zogby poll found that only a quarter of sampled students perceived uniform standards of "right and wrong" and that most students felt that ethical behavior depends on cultural diversity. In this effort to replicate those findings in a larger sample of American college students, the authors obtained results that…

  18. Understanding diversity in the meaning of cohabitation across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Poortman, Anne Rigt

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the diversity in the meanings attached to cohabitation across Europe. Utilizing a sample of 9,113 cohabiters between ages 18 and 79 from 10 European countries that participated in the Generations and Gender Surveys, we develop a typology of different meanings of cohabitation

  19. Mapping Cultural Diversity through Children's Voices: From Confusion to Clear Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Karousiou, Christiana; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    This research examines children's conceptualisations of cultural diversity. In particular, this project examines the following two research questions: how do children define and understand the concept of cultural diversity; and what do they perceive as the implications of cultural diversity on their daily lives? To this end, interviews were…

  20. Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  1. A Framework for Understanding Cultural Diversity in Cognition and Teamwork

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Janet L; Pierce, Linda G

    2003-01-01

    .... The Army's Objective Force leaders and soldiers must understand cultural differences affecting team performance before they can learn adaptive behaviors that would ensure mission success when working...

  2. Understanding ill-structured engineering ethics problems through a collaborative learning and argument visualization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason

    2014-03-01

    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills.

  3. Steve Clarke, Julian Savulescu, Tony Coady, Alberto Giubilini, and Sagar Sanyal: the ethics of human enhancement: understanding the debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, L.E.

    2017-01-01

    A decade of research on the ethics of human enhancement has produced a vast literature. This collection is an excellent contribution to the field; it fulfills and exceeds the promises of its two subsections: understanding and advancing the debate. Section 1, Understanding the Debate includes eight

  4. J. Marion Sims and the Vesicovaginal Fistula: Historical Understanding, Medical Ethics, and Modern Political Sensibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L Lewis

    To review the historical background surrounding the early work of Dr. J. Marion Sims, who developed the first consistently successful surgical technique for the repair of obstetric vesicovaginal fistulas by operating on a group of young, enslaved, African American women who had this condition between 1846 and 1849. Review of primary source documents on Sims and his operations, early 19th century clinical literature on the treatment of vesicovaginal fistula, the introduction of ether and chloroform anesthesia into surgical practice, and the literature on the early 19th century medical ethics pertaining to surgical innovation. The goals are to understand Sims's operations within the clinical context of the 1840s and to avoid the problems of "presentism," in which beliefs, attitudes, and practices of the 21st century are anachronistically projected backward into the early 19th century. The object is to judge Sims within the context of his time, not to hold him accountable to standards of practice which were not developed until a century after his death. A narrative of what Sims did is presented within the context of the therapeutic options available to those with fistula in the early 19th century. Review of the available material demonstrates that Sims' first fistula operations were legal, that they were carried out with express therapeutic intent for the purpose of repairing these women's injuries, that they conformed to the ethical requirements of his time, and that they were performed with the patients' knowledge, cooperation, assent, and assistance.

  5. Protecting and expanding the richness and diversity of life, an ethic for astrobiology research and space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Richard O.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing search for life on other worlds and the prospects of eventual human exploration of the Moon and Mars indicate the need for new ethical guidelines to direct our actions as we search and how we respond if we discover microbial life on other worlds. Here we review how life on other worlds presents a novel question in environmental ethics. We propose a principle of protecting and expanding the richness and diversity of life as the basis of an ethic for astrobiology research and space exploration. There are immediate implications for the operational policies governing how we conduct the search for life on Mars and how we plan for human exploration throughout the Solar System.

  6. Protecting and Expanding the Richness and Diversity of Life, An Ethic for Astrobiology Research and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Richard O.; McKay, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing search for life on other worlds and the prospects of eventual human exploration of the Moon and Mars indicate the need for new ethical guidelines to direct our actions as we search and how we respond if we discover microbial life on other worlds. Here we review how life on other worlds presents a novel question in environmental ethics. We propose a principle of protecting and expanding the richness and diversity of life as the basis of an ethic for astrobiology research and space exploration. There are immediate implications for the operational policies governing how we conduct the search for life on Mars and how we plan for human exploration throughout the Solar System.

  7. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  8. Publication Ethics and the Emerging Scientific Workforce: Understanding ‘Plagiarism’ in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publication has long been dominated by the English language and is rapidly moving towards near complete hegemony of English, while the majority of the world’s publishing scientists are not native English speakers. This imbalance has important implications for training in and enforcement of publication ethics, particularly with respect to plagiarism. A lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as patchwriting can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by non-native speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. A rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among both native English speaking and non-native English speaking writers, editors, educators, and administrators. Recommendations for educating and training are provided. PMID:22104051

  9. Perspective: publication ethics and the emerging scientific workforce: understanding "plagiarism" in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K

    2012-01-01

    English has long been the dominant language of scientific publication, and it is rapidly approaching near-complete hegemony. The majority of the scientists publishing in English-language journals are not native English speakers, however. This imbalance has important implications for training concerning ethics and enforcement of publication standards, particularly with respect to plagiarism. The authors suggest that lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as "patchwriting" can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by nonnative speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. They propose that a rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among editors, educators, administrators, and both native-English-speaking and nonnative-English-speaking writers. They offer recommendations for creating environments in which such dialogue and training can occur.

  10. Ethics teaching in a medical education environment: preferences for diversity of learning and assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMahmoud, Tahra; Hashim, M Jawad; Elzubeir, Margaret Ann; Branicki, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Ethics and professionalism are an integral part of medical school curricula; however, medical students' views on these topics have not been assessed in many countries.  The study aimed to examine medical students' perceptions toward ethics and professionalism teaching, and its learning and assessment methods. A self-administered questionnaire eliciting views on professionalism and ethics education was distributed to a total of 128 final-year medical students. A total of 108 students completed the survey, with an 84% response rate. Medical students reported frequently encountering ethical conflicts during training but stated only a moderate level of ethics training at medical school (mean = 5.14 ± 1.8). They noted that their education had helped somewhat to deal with ethical conflicts (mean = 5.39 ± 2.0). Students strongly affirmed the importance of ethics education (mean = 7.63 ± 1.03) and endorsed the value of positive role models (mean = 7.45 ± 1.5) as the preferred learning method. The cohort voiced interest in direct faculty supervision as an approach to assessment of knowledge and skills (mean = 7.62 ± 1.26). Female students perceived greater need for more ethics education compared to males (p = methods for learning.

  11. Universality and Cultural Diversity in Professional Ethical Development: From Kohlberg to Dynamic Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang

    2012-01-01

    Upholding ethical standards is part of what it means to be a professional and therefore part of professional education, but to what extent is the development of ethical reasoning universal across cultures, or is it highly dependent on culture? If universal, how can we explain the unique patterns of moral reasoning and behaviour in Asia, which…

  12. Understanding the role of emotion in ethical consumption: a tourism context

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of emotion in an ethical consumption context. It responds to a call by many researchers for greater knowledge of ethical issues in the field of marketing and consumer behaviour. This interest has emerged from a growth in ethical consumption practices despite hard economic times. The limitations of the renowned intention-behaviour gap highlight that such practices cannot be wholly explained by rational processes alone. However, little attention has been afford...

  13. Ethical Culture and Financial Reporting: Understanding Financial Reporting Practice within Javanese Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Chariri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a case study conducted in an Indonesian insurance company. The aim of the study is to understand the dynamics of financial reporting in the company. Ontologically, this study is built on a belief that financial reporting practice is a socially constructed reality. As a socially constructed reality, such a practice involves an interaction among social actors, and between organisational actors and the institutional and cultural environment in which the company operates. The main research question of this study is how organisational culture shapes the company on the construction of its financial reporting practice. This study reveals that the company is committed to quality financial reporting because such reporting can be used to gain legitimacy and to maintain social harmony. The company conducts itself in this way is because it reflects Javanese culture, a dominant culture in Indonesia. Furthermore, this study concludes that the way the actors in the company construct financial reporting practice is influenced by its organisational culture. The organisational culture of the company, which reflects Javanese culture, is able to shape the behaviour of its actors from the top level to lower levels to conduct ethical and transparent business practice. Thus, as Hines (1988 claims, this paper concludes that financial reporting practice is a socially constucted reality.

  14. Ethics and performance: Understanding the psychological contract of the taxation from the view of the employee tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Yuhertiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a phenomenon related to the dysfunctional behavior of unscrupulous tax officials and the reluctant of taxpayers to pay the tax. This study aims to explore the evidence of psychological tax contract in a tax official perspective. It proposes modeling the effect of Indonesia tax reform process for determining the ethics as the important variable that affects the tax officials’ performance. It also examines the effect of organizational commitment, culture, and tax reform on tax ethics. There were 128 tax officials working in three cities of East Java that were selected as the respondents. The questionnaires were distributed directly to the respondents. Partial Least Square was used to test the hypotheses. It was found that organizational commitment, organizational culture, and tax reform have a direct contribution to tax official ethics. However, understanding the ethics of taxation was not proved to be the moderating variable for the relationship between the organizational commitment and organizational change and the policies of rotation system explain why ethics failed as moderating variable.

  15. Ethical Tensions in the Pain Management of an End-Stage Cancer Patient with Evidence of Opioid Medication Diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Arvind; Kim, David

    2016-06-01

    At the end of life, pain management is commonly a fundamental part of the treatment plan for patients where curative measures are no longer possible. However, the increased recognition of opioid diversion for secondary gain coupled with efforts to treat patients in the home environment towards the end of life creates the potential for ethical dilemmas in the palliative care management of terminal patients in need of continuous pain management. We present the case of an end-stage patient with rectal cancer who required a continuous residential narcotic infusion of fentanyl for pain control due to metastatic disease. His functional status was such that he had poor oral intake and ability to perform other activities of daily living, but was able to live at home with health agency nursing care. The patient presented to this institution with a highly suspect history of having lost his fentanyl infusion in a residential accident and asking for a refill to continue home therapy. The treating physicians had concerns of diversion of the infusion medication by caregivers and were reluctant to continue the therapeutic relationship with the patient. This case exemplifies the tension that can exist between wanting to continue with palliative care management of an end-stage patient and the fear of providers when confronted by evidence of potential diversion of opioid analgesic medications. We elucidate how an ethical framework based on a combination of virtue and narrative/relationship theories with reference to proportionality can guide physicians to a pragmatic resolution of these difficult situations.

  16. Understanding bureaucracy in health science ethics: toward a better institutional review board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Slade, Catherine; Hirsch, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Research involving human participants continues to grow dramatically, fueled by advances in medical technology, globalization of research, and financial and professional incentives. This creates increasing opportunities for ethical errors with devastating effects. The typical professional and policy response to calamities involving human participants in research is to layer on more ethical guidelines or strictures. We used a recent case-the Johns Hopkins University/Kennedy Kreiger Institute Lead Paint Study-to examine lessons learned since the Tuskegee Syphilis Study about the role of institutionalized science ethics in the protection of human participants in research. We address the role of the institutional review board as the focal point for policy attention.

  17. UNDERSTANDING TOWARDS TRADERS’ BUSINESS ETHICS OF ISLAM: A STUDY OF ACEH DEALERS IN KUALA LUMPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Samad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Islamic business ethics is one that should be the practice of Muslim traders, because Islam promotes this method for fairness, honesty and the benefit of people. Ethical values of Islam must be known and understood by all Muslim traders to avoid cheating that may oppress customers. This study uses qualitative methods and obtains data from the interviewers and observations. The study found that the majority of Aceh traders has understood the ethical businessmen in Islam which can be seen from the activities they are doing in each of its business practices. Aceh dealers are usually honest, fair, occupying commitment, hardworking and making efforts in business.

  18. Core ethical values of radiological protection applied to Fukushima case: reflecting common morality and cultural diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko; Cho, Kunwoo; Toohey, Richard E

    2016-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 (TG94) to develop a publication to clarify the ethical foundations of the radiological protection system it recommends. This TG identified four core ethical values which structure the system: beneficence and non-maleficence, prudence, justice, and dignity. Since the ICRP is an international organization, its recommendations and guidance should be globally applicable and acceptable. Therefore, first this paper presents the basic principles of the ICRP radiological protection system and its core ethical values, along with a reflection on the variation of these values in Western and Eastern cultural traditions. Secondly, this paper reflects upon how these values can be applied in difficult ethical dilemmas as in the case of the emergency and post-accident phases of a nuclear power plant accident, using the Fukushima case to illustrate the challenges at stake. We found that the core ethical values underlying the ICRP system of radiological protection seem to be quite common throughout the world, although there are some variations among various cultural contexts. Especially we found that 'prudence' would call for somewhat different implementation in each cultural context, balancing and integrating sometime conflicting values, but always with objectives to achieve the well-being of people, which is itself the ultimate aim of the radiological protection system.

  19. An Imperfect Understanding: The Air Forces Transition to Diversity and Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summer 2016 | 79 An Imperfect Understanding The Air Force’s Transition to Diversity and Inclusion Maj Gregory M. Blom, USAF Mrs. Brittany B. Davis... inclusion program. The service’s senior leaders have determined that di- versity and inclusion are requisites for effective operations, and in March...2015 they unveiled new proposals for increasing them within the Air Force.2 Designed to strengthen the service, the nine diversity and inclusion

  20. Occupational Work Ethic Differences: Implications for Organizational Diversity Initiatives in Health Care Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegans, Loyd

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the extent of work value differences among ethnic classifications of baccalaureate nursing students. Major findings revealed significant differences between ethnic classifications and work ethic behaviors. Contrasts resulting from post-hoc tests indicated that Asian nursing students reported significantly lower…

  1. A clinician's understanding of ethics in palliative care: an American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James E

    2003-04-01

    I believe the standard for making ethical decisions should be the same for all patients: appropriate medical interventions, carefully weighing their benefits and burdens, and trying to honor the wishes of the patients. When cure is not possible, the balance between benefits and burdens should shift to greater consideration of the burden side of the equation. The ascendancy of autonomy over other medical ethical principles is the center for most of the ethical dilemmas encountered in palliative care. This paper discusses the issues of autonomy, informed consent, patient capacity, advance directives, futility, "do-not-resuscitate" orders, withholding or withdrawing interventions, euthanasia, and sedation therapy. After 41 years of my personally caring for over 4000 terminally ill patients, primarily at Calvary Hospital, the most practical approach has been to establish trust with patients and families, determining their goals, and diligently applying the principles of beneficence (benefits) and nonmaleficence (burdens) in everyday practice.

  2. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  3. Understanding Social Media Culture and its Ethical Challenges for Art Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…

  4. Using a Relational Models Perspective to Understand Normatively Appropriate Conduct in Ethical Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo describe leadership as ethical is largely a perceptional phenomenon informed by beliefs about what is normatively appropriate. Yet there is a remarkable scarcity in the leadership literature regarding how to define what is “normatively appropriate”. To shed light on this issue, we

  5. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  6. The Role of Storytelling in Understanding Children's Moral/Ethic Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Cheryl; Eder, Donna

    2010-01-01

    As students advance in their education, the use of stories and specifically the process of storytelling often wane from the central mode of learning to be replaced with more didactic methods and content-driven applications. However, the use of stories has remained a central component of moral/ethics education and continues to be used as a…

  7. Hiring Diverse Faculty Members in Community Colleges: A Case Study in Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Eugene Oropeza

    2012-01-01

    As the diversity of students on college campuses continues to increase, the racial and ethnic diversity among faculty members continues to lag (Jayakumar, Howard, Allen, & Han, 2009; Turner, Myers, & Creswell, 1999). An often overlooked segment of this problem is the 2-year-college setting. With increasing numbers of students of color achieving…

  8. Understanding the enormous diversity of bacteriophages: the tailed phages that infect the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Julianne H.; Casjens, Sherwood R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the predominant biological entity on the planet. The recent explosion of sequence information has made estimates of their diversity possible. We describe the genomic comparison of 337 fully sequenced tailed phages isolated on 18 genera and 31 species of bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae. These phages were largely unambiguously grouped into 56 diverse clusters (32 lytic and 24 temperate) that have syntenic similarity over >50% of the genomes within each cluster, but substantially less sequence similarity between clusters. Most clusters naturally break into sets of more closely related subclusters, 78% of which are correlated with their host genera. The largest groups of related phages are superclusters united by genome synteny to lambda (81 phages) and T7 (51 phages). This study forms a robust framework for understanding diversity and evolutionary relationships of existing tailed phages, for relating newly discovered phages and for determining host/phage relationships. PMID:25240328

  9. Research and Teaching: An Investigation of the Evolution of High School and Undergraduate Student Researchers' Understanding of Key Science Ethics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    High school and undergraduate research students were surveyed over the 10-week period of their summer research programs to investigate their understanding of key concepts in science ethics and whether their understanding changed over the course of their summer research experiences. Most of the students appeared to understand the issues relevant to…

  10. Improved communication, understanding of risk perception and ethics related to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Raskob, Wolfgang; Jourdain, Jean-Rene

    2016-06-06

    In Europe today, institutions, media and the general public exchange information about ionizing radiation and associated risks. However, communication about ionising radiation with the general public has to be further improved, as has been previously highlighted by international responses to the 2011 accident in Japan. This article reports the main activities and findings in this field from the following three FP7 projects: EAGLE, PREPARE and OPERRA and discussed by a broad spectrum of stakeholders at the conference RICOMET 2015. These projects, among other aims, also investigate how communication about ionising radiation in different fields could be improved and harmonised, how radiological risks are perceived, how to encourage ethical considerations in all fields of nuclear applications and what kind of transdisciplinary research is needed. The projects relate to several domains; the first relates to education, training and communication, the second to nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and the third to research and development in the radiation protection field. Incorporation of stakeholder engagement activities such as the RICOMET conference broadens social and ethical aspects and takes them into account during coordination activities as well as during core scientific and nuclear research and development performed in the projects. These activities offered opportunities for moving closer to a citizen-centred ideal of risk communication in particular and nuclear research and development in general.

  11. Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure of yam (Dioscorea alata L.) using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Gemma; MN, Sheela; Chair, Hana; Lebot, Vincent; K, Abraham; Perrier, Xavier; Petro, Dalila; Penet, Laurent; Pavis, Claudie

    2017-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea sp.) are staple food crops for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Dioscorea alata, also known as greater yam, is one of the major cultivated species and most widely distributed throughout the tropics. Despite its economic and cultural importance, very little is known about its origin, diversity and genetics. As a consequence, breeding efforts for resistance to its main disease, anthracnose, have been fairly limited. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of D. alata genetic diversity by genotyping 384 accessions from different geographical regions (South Pacific, Asia, Africa and the Caribbean), using 24 microsatellite markers. Diversity structuration was assessed via Principal Coordinate Analysis, UPGMA analysis and the Bayesian approach implemented in STRUCTURE. Our results revealed the existence of a wide genetic diversity and a significant structuring associated with geographic origin, ploidy levels and morpho-agronomic characteristics. Seventeen major groups of genetically close cultivars have been identified, including eleven groups of diploid cultivars, four groups of triploids and two groups of tetraploids. STRUCTURE revealed the existence of six populations in the diploid genetic pool and a few admixed cultivars. These results will be very useful for rationalizing D. alata genetic resources in breeding programs across different regions and for improving germplasm conservation methods. PMID:28355293

  12. Stewarding the Human Good: Understanding the Nature of Research and Its Ethical Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Research administration and leadership, above all, directly serve the needs of researchers, scientists, research programs, institutions and their leaders, and the public trust itself. Research administration is therefore an expansive and all encompassing profession. It integrates all of the diverse arts and sciences that are foundational to…

  13. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  14. Participatory action research: considerations for ethical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, N; Peter, E

    2005-05-01

    This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical concerns that can arise. We discuss these concerns in light of commonly held ethical requirements for clinical research (social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject/participant selection, favourable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for potential and enrolled participants) and refer to guidelines specifically developed for participatory research in health promotion. We draw from our community-based experiences in mental health promotion research with immigrant and culturally diverse youth to illustrate the ethical advantages and challenges of applying a PAR approach. We conclude with process suggestions for Research Ethics Boards.

  15. Linking diversity and distribution to understand biodiversity gradients and inform conservation assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Villalobos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Broad-scale patterns of species richness result from differential coexistence among species in distinct regions of the globe, determined by the species’ ranges and their properties such as size, shape and location. Thus, species richness and ranges are inherently linked. These two biodiversity features also yield primary information for conservation assessments. However, species richness and range size have been usually studied separately and no formal analytical link has been established. In my PhD thesis, I applied and extended a recently developed conceptual and methodological framework to study geographical association among species and similarity among sites. This range–diversity framework, along with stochastic simulation modelling, allowed me to jointly evaluate the relationship between diversity and distribution, to infer potential processes underlying composite patterns of phyllostomid bats, and to use this approach to inform conservation assessments for the Mexican avifauna. I highlight the need to explore composite patterns for understanding biodiversity patterns and show how combining diversity and distributional data can help describe complex biogeographical patterns, providing a transparent and explicit application for initial conservation assessments.

  16. Impacts of Genome-Wide Analyses on Our Understanding of Human Herpesvirus Diversity and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Daniel W; Szpara, Moriah L

    2018-01-01

    Until fairly recently, genome-wide evolutionary dynamics and within-host diversity were more commonly examined in the context of small viruses than in the context of large double-stranded DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. The high mutation rates and more compact genomes of RNA viruses have inspired the investigation of population dynamics for these species, and recent data now suggest that herpesviruses might also be considered candidates for population modeling. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics have expanded our understanding of herpesviruses through genome-wide comparisons of sequence diversity, recombination, allele frequency, and selective pressures. Here we discuss recent data on the mechanisms that generate herpesvirus genomic diversity and underlie the evolution of these virus families. We focus on human herpesviruses, with key insights drawn from veterinary herpesviruses and other large DNA virus families. We consider the impacts of cell culture on herpesvirus genomes and how to accurately describe the viral populations under study. The need for a strong foundation of high-quality genomes is also discussed, since it underlies all secondary genomic analyses such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and ribosome profiling. Areas where we foresee future progress, such as the linking of viral genetic differences to phenotypic or clinical outcomes, are highlighted as well. Copyright © 2017 Renner and Szpara.

  17. Impacts of Genome-Wide Analyses on Our Understanding of Human Herpesvirus Diversity and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Until fairly recently, genome-wide evolutionary dynamics and within-host diversity were more commonly examined in the context of small viruses than in the context of large double-stranded DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. The high mutation rates and more compact genomes of RNA viruses have inspired the investigation of population dynamics for these species, and recent data now suggest that herpesviruses might also be considered candidates for population modeling. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics have expanded our understanding of herpesviruses through genome-wide comparisons of sequence diversity, recombination, allele frequency, and selective pressures. Here we discuss recent data on the mechanisms that generate herpesvirus genomic diversity and underlie the evolution of these virus families. We focus on human herpesviruses, with key insights drawn from veterinary herpesviruses and other large DNA virus families. We consider the impacts of cell culture on herpesvirus genomes and how to accurately describe the viral populations under study. The need for a strong foundation of high-quality genomes is also discussed, since it underlies all secondary genomic analyses such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and ribosome profiling. Areas where we foresee future progress, such as the linking of viral genetic differences to phenotypic or clinical outcomes, are highlighted as well. PMID:29046445

  18. A Grounded Theory Approach to Understanding Ethical Leadership with School Leaders in Southern Nigeria: A Perspective of Three Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbufor, Dorothy Chukwudumebi

    2017-01-01

    The chief aim of this study was to develop a grounded theory of ethical leadership with school leaders in Southern Nigeria, utilizing a qualitative constructivist paradigm and multiple case study design. There is growing interest in public service of ethics (Barberis, 2001). The study of ethics has been a part of the [school] leadership erudition…

  19. PGG.Population: a database for understanding the genomic diversity and genetic ancestry of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Gao, Yang; Liu, Jiaojiao; Xue, Zhe; Lu, Yan; Deng, Lian; Tian, Lei; Feng, Qidi; Xu, Shuhua

    2018-01-04

    There are a growing number of studies focusing on delineating genetic variations that are associated with complex human traits and diseases due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. However, identifying and prioritizing disease-associated causal variants relies on understanding the distribution of genetic variations within and among populations. The PGG.Population database documents 7122 genomes representing 356 global populations from 107 countries and provides essential information for researchers to understand human genomic diversity and genetic ancestry. These data and information can facilitate the design of research studies and the interpretation of results of both evolutionary and medical studies involving human populations. The database is carefully maintained and constantly updated when new data are available. We included miscellaneous functions and a user-friendly graphical interface for visualization of genomic diversity, population relationships (genetic affinity), ancestral makeup, footprints of natural selection, and population history etc. Moreover, PGG.Population provides a useful feature for users to analyze data and visualize results in a dynamic style via online illustration. The long-term ambition of the PGG.Population, together with the joint efforts from other researchers who contribute their data to our database, is to create a comprehensive depository of geographic and ethnic variation of human genome, as well as a platform bringing influence on future practitioners of medicine and clinical investigators. PGG.Population is available at https://www.pggpopulation.org. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

    2009-12-01

    Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

  1. Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portraits In Courage Vol. VIII Portraits In Courage Vol. IX Portraits In Courage Vol. X AF Sites Social -Wide Initiative to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in the Federal Workforce Executive Order 13548 : Virtual Diversity Conference Air Force Diversity & Inclusion Air Force Diversity Graphic There is no

  2. Research Involving Health Providers and Managers: Ethical Issues Faced by Researchers Conducting Diverse Health Policy and Systems Research in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Nyikuri, Mary Muyoka; Waweru, Evelyn Wanjiku; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews. Many of the ethical dilemmas researchers faced only emerged over the course of the fieldwork, or on completion, and were related to interactions and relationships between individuals operating at different levels or positions in health/research systems. The dilemmas reveal significant ethical challenges for these forms of HPSR, and show that potential 'solutions' to dilemmas often lead to new issues and complications. Our experiences support the value of research ethics frameworks, and suggest that these can be enriched by incorporating careful consideration of context embedded social relations into research planning and conduct. Many of these essential relational elements of ethical practice, and of producing quality data, are given stronger emphasis in social science research ethics than in epidemiological, clinical or biomedical research ethics, and are particularly relevant where health systems are understood as social and political constructs. We conclude with practical and research implications. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ethical Culture and Financial Reporting: Understanding Financial Reporting Practice within Javanese Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Chariri

    2009-01-01

    This study is a case study conducted in an Indonesian insurance company. The aim of the study is to understand the dynamics of financial reporting in the company. Ontologically, this study is built on a belief that financial reporting practice is a socially constructed reality. As a socially constructed reality, such a practice involves an interaction among social actors, and between organisational actors and the institutional and cultural environment in which the company operates. The main r...

  4. The role of DNA barcodes in understanding and conservation of mammal diversity in southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is recognized as a region of very high biodiversity, much of which is currently at risk due to habitat loss and other threats. However, many aspects of this diversity, even for relatively well-known groups such as mammals, are poorly known, limiting ability to develop conservation plans. This study examines the value of DNA barcodes, sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, to enhance understanding of mammalian diversity in the region and hence to aid conservation planning. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA barcodes were obtained from nearly 1900 specimens representing 165 recognized species of bats. All morphologically or acoustically distinct species, based on classical taxonomy, could be discriminated with DNA barcodes except four closely allied species pairs. Many currently recognized species contained multiple barcode lineages, often with deep divergence suggesting unrecognized species. In addition, most widespread species showed substantial genetic differentiation across their distributions. Our results suggest that mammal species richness within the region may be underestimated by at least 50%, and there are higher levels of endemism and greater intra-specific population structure than previously recognized. CONCLUSIONS: DNA barcodes can aid conservation and research by assisting field workers in identifying species, by helping taxonomists determine species groups needing more detailed analysis, and by facilitating the recognition of the appropriate units and scales for conservation planning.

  5. From environmental to ecological ethics: toward a practical ethics for ecologists and conservationists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2008-12-01

    Ecological research and conservation practice frequently raise difficult and varied ethical questions for scientific investigators and managers, including duties to public welfare, nonhuman individuals (i.e., animals and plants), populations, and ecosystems. The field of environmental ethics has contributed much to the understanding of general duties and values to nature, but it has not developed the resources to address the diverse and often unique practical concerns of ecological researchers and managers in the field, lab, and conservation facility. The emerging field of "ecological ethics" is a practical or scientific ethics that offers a superior approach to the ethical dilemmas of the ecologist and conservation manager. Even though ecological ethics necessarily draws from the principles and commitments of mainstream environmental ethics, it is normatively pluralistic, including as well the frameworks of animal, research, and professional ethics. It is also methodologically pragmatic, focused on the practical problems of researchers and managers and informed by these problems in turn. The ecological ethics model offers environmental scientists and practitioners a useful analytical tool for identifying, clarifying, and harmonizing values and positions in challenging ecological research and management situations. Just as bioethics provides a critical intellectual and problem-solving service to the biomedical community, ecological ethics can help inform and improve ethical decision making in the ecology and conservation communities.

  6. [Global Bioethics and Biocultural Ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The biocultural ethic recovers an understanding of the vital links between the life habits of the coinhabitants (humans and other-than-human) that share a habitat. The ″3Hs″ formal framework of the biocultural ethics provides a conceptual and methodological tool to understand and to better manage complex eco-social or biocultural systems in heterogeneous regions of the planet. From the global bioethics originally proposed by V.R. Potter, the integration of theory and praxis promoted by Alfredo Pradenas in the Bioethics Society of Chile, and the conceptual framework of biocultural ethics (including traditions of philosophical thought, scientific and Amerindians), I develop a comparative analysis of: 1. an ecosystemic and intercultural concept of the human body, 2. an intercultural understanding of health with complementary Western and Native American medicinal practices, and 3. an appreciation and respect for the fundamental links among the life habits, the habitats where they take place, and the well-being and identity of the communities of cohabitants. Implicit links in the ″3Hs″ biocultural ethics are present in the archaic meanings of the term ethos. This understanding retrieves a primordial root in the genesis of Western ethics, which did not start bounded to how to inhabit or dwell, but also considered where to inhabit and with whom to co-inhabit. I propose to restore the complexity and breadth of the concept of ethics originated in Ancient Greece, to reaffirm the common roots of bioethics and environmental ethics contained in Potter's global bioethics, and to incorporate the systemic and contextual perspective of the biocultural ethic that values biological and cultural diversity (and their interrelationships), to sustain a conception of human health interconnected with the sustainability of the biosphere.

  7. Realizing good care within a context of cross-cultural diversity: an ethical guideline for healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Yvonne; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-09-01

    In our globalizing world, health care professionals and organizations increasingly experience cross-cultural challenges in care relationships, which give rise to ethical questions regarding "the right thing to do" in such situations. For the time being, the international literature lacks examples of elaborated ethical guidelines for cross-cultural healthcare on the organizational level. As such, the ethical responsibility of healthcare organizations in realizing cross-cultural care remains underexposed. This paper aims to fill this gap by offering a case-study that illustrates the bioethical practice on a large-scale organizational level by presenting the ethical guideline developed in the period 2007-2011 by the Ethics Committee of Zorgnet Vlaanderen, a Christian-inspired umbrella organization for over 500 social profit healthcare organizations in Flanders, Belgium. The guideline offers an ethical framework within which fundamental ethical values are being analyzed within the context of cross-cultural care. The case study concludes with implications for healthcare practice on four different levels: (1) the level of the healthcare organization, (2) staff, (3) care receivers, and (4) the level of care supply. The study combines content-based ethics with process-based benchmarks. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  9. [Technical statement by the Spanish Paediatric Association in relation to gender diversity in childhood and adolescence: Ethical and legal view from a multidisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño Galán, Isolina; Del Río Pastoriza, Inés; Chueca Guindulain, María; Gabaldón Fraile, Sabel; de Montalvo Jááskeläinem, Federico

    2018-03-19

    An ethical and legal view of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is presented from the perspective of the best interest of the child and the principle of protection against vulnerability. The identification of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a process that requires support, coordination and a multidisciplinary team that improves care and helps to obtain evidence that is lacking today. Secure, equitable and comprehensive access to care and health care should be guaranteed when required. It is necessary to promote a changing of social outlook, capable of overcoming the stereotypes that lead to discrimination and increase suffering. Respect for gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a fundamental Human Right. The recognition of a positive value in diversity is an ethical imperative. All of this, without forgetting that we are talking about minors often in contexts of vulnerability, and currently very uncertain, so prudence is the main rule that should guide decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Does a summative portfolio foster the development of capabilities such as reflective practice and understanding ethics? An evaluation from two medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Howe, Amanda C; Miles, Susan; Harris, Peter; Hughes, Chris S; Jones, Philip; Scicluna, Helen; Leinster, Sam J

    2012-01-01

    Portfolios need to be evaluated to determine whether they encourage students to develop in capabilities such as reflective practice and ethical judgment. The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether preparing a portfolio helps promote students' development in a range of capabilities including understanding ethical and legal principles, reflective practice and effective communication, and (ii) to determine to what extent the format of the portfolio affected the outcome by comparing the experiences of students at two different medical schools. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate undergraduate medical students' experiences of completing a portfolio at two medical schools. A total of 526 (45% response rate) students answered the on-line questionnaire. Students from both medical schools gave the highest ranking for the portfolio as a trigger for reflective practice. 63% of students agreed their portfolio helped them develop reflective practice skills (p portfolios helped them understand ethical and legal principles whereas 29% disagreed (p portfolio helped them to develop effective communication. Students perceive portfolio preparation as an effective learning tool for the development of capabilities such as understanding ethical and legal principles and reflective practice, whereas other capabilities such as effective communication require complementary techniques and other modes of assessment.

  11. Understanding Students' Precollege Experiences with Racial Diversity: The High School as Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Stephanie H.

    2015-01-01

    Few qualitative studies consider how high school experiences affect readiness for diversity engagement in college. Using data from an ethnographic case study, three central trends (student experiences within homogeneous high schools, racial divisions within diverse high schools, and students who attended diverse high schools but had little…

  12. Towards a broader understanding of generational diversity at work : methodological and empirical contributions from a multi-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, João André Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Psicologia (Secção de Psicologia dos Recursos Humanos, do Trabalho e das Organizações), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Psicologia, 2015 Despite a disarray of popular literature concerning generational diversity in the workplace, the scientific research in this domain is still scarce and seeks stronger theoretical grounding. Regarding this problematic, the present work aims to contribute to a broader understanding of generational diversity in the workplace, by ...

  13. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  14. Functional understanding of the diverse exon-intron structures of human GPCR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Dorothy A; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

    2014-02-01

    The GPCR genes have a variety of exon-intron structures even though their proteins are all structurally homologous. We have examined all human GPCR genes with at least two functional protein isoforms, totaling 199, aiming to gain an understanding of what may have contributed to the large diversity of the exon-intron structures of the GPCR genes. The 199 genes have a total of 808 known protein splicing isoforms with experimentally verified functions. Our analysis reveals that 1301 (80.6%) adjacent exon-exon pairs out of the total of 1,613 in the 199 genes have either exactly one exon skipped or the intron in-between retained in at least one of the 808 protein splicing isoforms. This observation has a statistical significance p-value of 2.051762 * e(-09), assuming that the observed splicing isoforms are independent of the exon-intron structures. Our interpretation of this observation is that the exon boundaries of the GPCR genes are not randomly determined; instead they may be selected to facilitate specific alternative splicing for functional purposes.

  15. New perspectives on understanding cultural diversity in nurse–patient communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Tonia; Candlin, Sally; Roger, Peter

    Effective communication is essential in developing rapport with patients, and many nursing roles such as patient assessment, education, and counselling consist only of dialogue. With increasing cultural diversity among nurses and patients in Australia, there are growing concerns relating to the potential for miscommunication, as differences in language and culture can cause misunderstandings which can have serious impacts on health outcomes and patient safety (Hamilton & Woodward-Kron, 2010). According to Grant and Luxford (2011)) there is little research into the way health professionals approach working with cultural difference or how this impacts on their everyday practice. Furthermore, there has been minimal examination of intercultural nurse–patient communication from a linguistic perspective. Applying linguistic frameworks to nursing practice can help nurses understand what is happening in their communication with patients, particularly where people from different cultures are interacting. This paper discusses intercultural nurse–patient communication and refers to theoretical frameworks from applied linguistics to explain how miscommunication may occur. It illustrates how such approaches will help to raise awareness of underlying causes and potentially lead to more effective communication skills, therapeutic relationships and therefore patient satisfaction and safety.

  16. Cultural diversity and patients with reduced capacity: the use of ethics consultation to advocate for mentally handicapped persons in living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, J

    2001-01-01

    Living organ donation will soon become the source of the majority of organs donations for transplant. Should mentally handicapped people be allowed to donate, or should they be considered a vulnerable group in need of protection? I discuss three cases of possible living organ donors who are developmentally disabled, from three different cultures, the United States, Germany, and India. I offer a brief discussion of three issues raised by the cases: (1) cultural diversity and cultural relativism; (2) autonomy, rationality, and self-interest; and (3) the proper use and role for clinical ethics consults.

  17. An in-depth analysis of ethics teaching in Canadian physiotherapy and occupational therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Maude; Hudon, Anne; Mazer, Barbara; Hunt, Matthew R; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine current approaches and challenges to teaching ethics in entry-level Canadian physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) programs. Educators responsible for teaching ethics in the 28 Canadian PT and OT programs (n = 55) completed an online survey. The quantity of ethics teaching is highly variable, ranging from 5 to 65 h. Diverse obstacles to ethics teaching were reported, relating to the organization and structure of academic programs, student issues and the topic of ethics itself. Specific challenges included time constraints, large class sizes, a lack of pedagogical tools adapted to teaching this complex subject, a perceived lack of student interest for the subject and a preference for topics related to clinical skills. Of note, 65% of ethics educators who participated in the survey did not have any specialized training in ethics. Significant cross-program variation in the number of hours dedicated to ethics and the diversity of pedagogical methods used suggests that there is little consensus about how best to teach ethics. Further research on ethics pedagogy in PT and OT programs (i.e. teaching and evaluation approaches and effectiveness of current ethics teaching) would support the implementation of more evidence-based ethics education. Implications for Rehabilitation Ethics educators in Canadian PT and OT programs are experimenting with diverse educational approaches to teach ethical reasoning and decision-making to students, including lectures, problem-based learning, directed readings, videos, conceptual maps and clinical elective debriefing, but no particular method has been shown to be more effective for developing ethical decision-making/reasoning. Thus, research on the effectiveness of current methods is needed to support ethics educators and programs to implement evidence-based ethics education training. In our survey, 65% of ethics educators did not have any specialized training in ethics. Ensuring

  18. Toward a Pedagogy of Linguistic Diversity: Understanding African American Linguistic Practices and Programmatic Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman-Clark, Staci M.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between cultural diversity, linguistic diversity, and composition has been a topic that has received much attention in rhetoric and composition's disciplinary conversations, even if current pedagogical practices used to address these matters lag behind in progress. In this essay, the author focuses on how to address linguistic…

  19. Deepening Understanding of Prior Knowledge: What Diverse First-Generation College Students in the U.S. Can Teach Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    Educational research indicates that teachers revealing and utilizing students' prior knowledge supports students' academic learning. Yet, the variation in students' prior knowledge is not fully known. To better understand students' prior knowledge, I drew on sociocultural learning theories to examine racially and ethnically diverse college…

  20. Towards a better understanding of unethical consumer behavior : the influence of individual characteristics, situational circumstances and emotional experiences in consumers' ethical decision-making processes

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhaut, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    In sum, we may conclude that – although many questions are still to be resolved – the present dissertation contributes to a better understanding of unethical consumer behavior by further enhancing the theory development of consumers’ ethical decision-making processes by conceiving and testing (1) additional individual characteristics, (2) situational circumstances, and (3) emotional experiences (along with other issue-related influences), and considering the potential mediating and moderating...

  1. How Lacan's Ethics Might Improve Our Understanding of Nietzsche's Critique of Platonism: The Neurosis and Nihilism of a ‘Life’ Against Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Themi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available his paper sets to answering the question of how Lacanrsquo;s 1959-60 Seminar on emThe Ethics of Psychoanalysis/em, with its recurring critique of the Platonic idea of a moral Sovereign Good, might contribute to and improve our understanding of the Nietzschean project to diagnose the moral metaphysics instigated by Plato in philosophy, and by Christianity in religion, as a history of untruth and nihilismndash;ndash;emopposed to life/emndash;ndash;in preparation for its overcoming. I explore the possibility that Lacanrsquo;s emEthics/em might make such a contribution by i its tripartite ontology of the real, the symbolic and the imaginary serving as an additional frame of reference for examining the nature of the Good and our configurations of desire beneath it; and ii by its more detailed elaboration of the archaic, polymorphous perversity at the instinctual base of the drives, what Lacan in his emEthics/em will call emdas Ding/em, the somewhat diabolical Freudian Thing. I also attempt to indicate how Nietzschersquo;s own ethics might make a contribution to those of the Lacanian, for the purposes of further combating what I will take to be the contemporary neurosis and nihilism of a lsquo;lifersquo; emagainst/em lifendash;ndash;as indicated today for instance by such phenomena as the physical destruction of the environment, along with us as amongst its earthly inhabitants.

  2. Ethical Issues Raised by Private Practice Physiotherapy Are More Diverse than First Meets the Eye: Recommendations from a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Physiotherapy in private practice differs from physiotherapy practised in a public setting in several ways, the most evident of which is the for-profit nature of private physiotherapy clinics; these differences can generate distinct and challenging ethical issues. The objectives of this article are to identify ethical issues encountered by physiotherapists in private practice settings and to identify potential solutions and recommendations to address these issues. Method: After a literature search of eight databases, 39 studies addressing ethical issues in a private practice context were analyzed. Results: A total of 25 ethical issues emerging from the included studies were classified into three main categories: (1) business and economic issues (e.g., conflicts of interests, inequity in a managed care context, lack of time affecting quality of care); (2) professional issues (e.g., professional autonomy, clinical judgment, treatment effectiveness, professional conduct); and (3) patients' rights and welfare issues (e.g., confidentiality, power asymmetries, paternalism vs. patient autonomy, informed consent). Recommendations as to how physiotherapists could better manage these issues were then identified and categorized. Conclusions: The physiotherapy community should reflect on the challenges raised by private practice so that professionals can be supported—through education, research, and good governance—in providing the best possible care for their patients. PMID:25931663

  3. Ethical issues raised by private practice physiotherapy are more diverse than first meets the eye: recommendations from a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Anne; Drolet, Marie-Josée; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapy in private practice differs from physiotherapy practised in a public setting in several ways, the most evident of which is the for-profit nature of private physiotherapy clinics; these differences can generate distinct and challenging ethical issues. The objectives of this article are to identify ethical issues encountered by physiotherapists in private practice settings and to identify potential solutions and recommendations to address these issues. After a literature search of eight databases, 39 studies addressing ethical issues in a private practice context were analyzed. A total of 25 ethical issues emerging from the included studies were classified into three main categories: (1) business and economic issues (e.g., conflicts of interests, inequity in a managed care context, lack of time affecting quality of care); (2) professional issues (e.g., professional autonomy, clinical judgment, treatment effectiveness, professional conduct); and (3) patients' rights and welfare issues (e.g., confidentiality, power asymmetries, paternalism vs. patient autonomy, informed consent). Recommendations as to how physiotherapists could better manage these issues were then identified and categorized. The physiotherapy community should reflect on the challenges raised by private practice so that professionals can be supported-through education, research, and good governance-in providing the best possible care for their patients.

  4. Mapping and understanding the diversity of insects in the tropics: past achievements and future directions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Vojtěch; Miller, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 259-267 ISSN 2052-1758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10486S Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alpha diversity * beta diversity * DNA barcording Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aen.12111/pdf

  5. Towards an Understanding of the Place of Ethics in School-Based Action Research in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Sue; Bowker, Anne

    2013-01-01

    As school-based action research has taken a higher profile in UK schools, the place of ethics warrants particular attention. This paper draws on evidence from a taught online Master of Education course collated via chat room discussion where 53 researching teachers were asked to explore policy within their own institution regarding school-based…

  6. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  7. Understanding the Narratives Explaining the Ukrainian Crisis: Identity Divisions and Complex Diversity in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoor Lodewijk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The central argument of this paper is that radical and opposing interpretations of the Ukrainian conflict in politics and media should be studied as offspring of broader narratives. These narratives can be better understood by examining the national identity of Ukraine. Since Ukrainian national identity shows a high degree of diversity, it offers a rich source of arguments for any party wanting to give an interpretation of the present Ukrainian crisis. Narratives explaining the crisis often ignore this complex diversity or deliberately use elements from it to construct the ‘desired’ narrative.

  8. When Encounters between Religious Worldviews Are a Threat: Applying Triune Ethics Theory in a Religiously Diverse Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Daniel; Lovat, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Democratic societies today face increasing diversity, including religious diversity, and are finding that interfaith engagement possesses potential to bring out the worst and the best of human responses and, correlatively, that such engagement can either assist in or undermine the social cohesion of these societies. This article employs Triune…

  9. Educating for ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena

    2010-04-01

    In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing.

  10. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  11. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to understand the Ethical Purchasing Gap of sustainable seafood consumption in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Musarskaya, M.; Birch, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable seafood movement has the potential of reversing the current trends of seafood consumption which are leading toward a global breakdown of seafood species. A series of initiatives have been created to cultivate interest in consumption of sustainable seafood. However, research indicates that consumers’ intention to purchase sustainable seafood does not always translate into actual purchase behaviour, which creates an Ethical Purchasing Gap (EPG). The Theory of Planned Behaviour (...

  13. A trait-based approach to understanding marine communities composition, assembly and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécuchet, Lauréne

    are characterised by their taxonomic diversity, such as their species richness or the evenness in their abundances. However, there is growing evidence that it is not the taxonomic identity of the species per se that control its presence and abundance in a given environment but its characteristics. Species traits......, we studied the diversity and the processes influencing the composition of demersal fish communities in the Baltic Sea. While species richness was sharply decreasing from the saline Kattegat to the brackish Gdansk Bay, trait richness tended to decrease at a lower rate. We found that the species co...... acting on the species. The strategies’ prevalence exhibited strong geographical patterns which could be explained by spatial variability in annual sea surface temperature, temperature seasonality, depth and fishing intensity. Due to their tight coupling to the environment, notably temperature and fishing...

  14. Classroom Use of Narrative and Documentary Film Leads to an Enhanced Understanding of Cultural Diversity and Ethics in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Edward L. F.; Lewis, C. Thomas; Slayback-Barry, Denise; Yost, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    For a first-year seminar, Windows on Science, the authors developed a cooperative learning activity around film designed to meet two of the campus-wide Principles of Undergraduate Learning. The teaching method utilizes the power of storytelling by screening narrative and documentary films. In the process, the methodology helps students to realize…

  15. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A Brown

    Full Text Available Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar's plant diversity in the face of future environmental change is worrying: regional diversity will continue to decrease in response to the combined effects of climate and land cover change, with habitats such as ericoid thickets and eastern lowland and sub-humid forests particularly vulnerable into the future.

  16. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles

    This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...

  17. Digital media ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    Designed as both a teaching text and reader for students and faculty across diverse disciplines, the book provides an "ethical toolkit" - an introduction to prevailing ethical frameworks - and shows their application to both general issues and specific case-studies in digital media (privacy...

  18. The pig gut microbial diversity: Understanding the pig gut microbial ecology through the next generation high throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard E

    2015-06-12

    The importance of the gut microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well being of animals. The genetic diversity of the gut microbiota contributes to the overall development and metabolic needs of the animal, and provides the host with many beneficial functions including production of volatile fatty acids, re-cycling of bile salts, production of vitamin K, cellulose digestion, and development of immune system. Thus the intestinal microbiota of animals has been the subject of study for many decades. Although most of the older studies have used culture dependent methods, the recent advent of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes has facilitated in depth studies exploring microbial populations and their dynamics in the animal gut. These culture independent DNA based studies generate large amounts of data and as a result contribute to a more detailed understanding of the microbiota dynamics in the gut and the ecology of the microbial populations. Of equal importance, is being able to identify and quantify microbes that are difficult to grow or that have not been grown in the laboratory. Interpreting the data obtained from this type of study requires using basic principles of microbial diversity to understand importance of the composition of microbial populations. In this review, we summarize the literature on culture independent studies of the pig gut microbiota with an emphasis on its succession and alterations caused by diverse factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ASCA Ethical Standards and the Relevance of Eastern Ethical Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical…

  20. School Leadership and Intercultural Understanding: School Foyers as Situated Spaces for Doing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Julianne; O'Mara, Joanne; McCandless, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, Intercultural Understanding (ICU) is increasingly prevalent in the field of education. The recent evidence base includes a growing academic literature and examples of specified education policy and curricula. In regards to leveraging ICU, research suggests a multi-level and longitudinal approach is needed to ensure effective and…

  1. Coming to Understand Diversity and Education: Life Experiences and Educational Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coming to understand how cultural differences influence interactions between educators and students and their parents is a complex and perhaps life-long discovery. Culture helps to define groups' belief systems and expectations for appropriate behavior, often at a hidden level. Pre-service teachers need multiple opportunities to interact with…

  2. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia M.; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram-1 of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  3. Using computer-assisted learning to engage diverse learning styles in understanding business management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mary E; Derby, Dustin C; Haan, Andrea G

    2013-01-01

    Objective : Changes in small business and insurance present challenges for newly graduated chiropractors. Technology that reaches identified, diverse learning styles may assist the chiropractic student in business classes to meet course outcomes better. Thus, the purpose of our study is to determine if the use of technology-based instructional aids enhance students' mastery of course learning outcomes. Methods : Using convenience sampling, 86 students completed a survey assessing course learning outcomes, learning style, and the helpfulness of lecture and computer-assisted learning related to content mastery. Quantitative analyses occurred. Results : Although respondents reported not finding the computer-assisted learning as helpful as the lecture, significant relationships were found between pre- and post-assisted learning measures of the learning outcomes 1 and 2 for the visual and kinesthetic groups. Surprisingly, however, all learning style groups exhibited significant pre- and post-assisted learning appraisal relationships with learning outcomes 3 and 4. Conclusion : While evidence exists within the current study of a relationship between students' learning of the course content corollary to the use of technologic instructional aids, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear.

  4. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia M; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-04

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram(-1) of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  5. A resurgence in field research is essential to better understand the diversity, ecology, and evolution of microbial eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Thierry J; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Kim, Eunsoo; Lukeš, Julius; Leander, Brian S; Yubuki, Naoji

    2014-01-01

    The discovery and characterization of protist communities from diverse environments are crucial for understanding the overall evolutionary history of life on earth. However, major questions about the diversity, ecology, and evolutionary history of protists remain unanswered, notably because data obtained from natural protist communities, especially of heterotrophic species, remain limited. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with "field protistology", defined here as the exploration, characterization, and interpretation of microbial eukaryotic diversity within the context of natural environments or field experiments, and provide suggestions to help fill this important gap in knowledge. We also argue that increased efforts in field studies that combine molecular and microscopical methods offer the most promising path toward (1) the discovery of new lineages that expand the tree of eukaryotes; (2) the recognition of novel evolutionary patterns and processes; (3) the untangling of ecological interactions and functions, and their roles in larger ecosystem processes; and (4) the evaluation of protist adaptations to a changing climate. © 2013 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2013 International Society of Protistologists.

  6. The development of computer ethics: contributions from business ethics and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K; Steinke, G

    2000-04-01

    In this essay, we demonstrate that the field of computer ethics shares many core similarities with two other areas of applied ethics. Academicians writing and teaching in the area of computer ethics, along with practitioners, must address ethical issues that are qualitatively similar in nature to those raised in medicine and business. In addition, as academic disciplines, these three fields also share some similar concerns. For example, all face the difficult challenge of maintaining a credible dialogue with diverse constituents such as academicians of various disciplines, professionals, policymakers, and the general public. Given these similarities, the fields of bioethics and business ethics can serve as useful models for the development of computer ethics.

  7. Steve Clarke, Julian Savulescu, C. A. J. Coady, Alberto Giubilini, and Sagar Sanyal (eds.), The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate, Oxford University Press, 2016, 269pp., $74.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780198754855.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate has two chief aims. These aims are to help readers understand the existing debate and to move the debate forward. The book consists of an introductory chapter by Alberto Giubilini and Sagar Sanyal (which lays out some prominent

  8. A Paradigm Shift in Substellar Classification: Understanding the Apparent Diversity of Substellar Atmospheres through Viewing Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metchev, Stanimir; Apai, Daniel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Heinze, Aren; Marley, Mark; Artigau, Etienne; Plavchan, Peter; Burgasser, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Results from our Cycle 8 Spitzer Exploration Science program Weather on Other Worlds (WOW) have suggested a potential transformative result for understanding the atmospheric and evolutionary properties of substellar objects. We have found tentative evidence for a correlation between atmospheric appearance and viewing geometry - much as in the now established AGN unification models. In particular, we have found that among L6-T8 dwarfs only those with J-K colors redder than the median are variable. Since apparent variability is enhanced for equator-on viewing geometries, we interpret this as a latitudinal dependence in appearance: redder L6-T8 dwarfs are seen closer to equator-on, and bluer ones are closer to pole-on. This result has the potential to solve the long-standing problem of cloud dissipation in L and T dwarfs: by explaining the broad range in spectroscopic appearance and near-infrared colors of L and T dwarfs as a geometric effect, rather than related to atmospheric dynamics. The implications are substantially broader, and touch on a range of issues in substellar astrophysics, such as the calibration of substellar effective temperatures and bolometric luminosities, and the modeling of ultracool atmospheres and substellar evolution - both of which will require at least a 2-D treatment. We propose an Exploration Science program to map the correspondence between spin-axis orientation, substellar colors, and spectral type. All of the L and T dwarfs in our proposed sample will have measured projected (vsini) rotational velocities within a year. By obtaining photometric periods through sensitive staring observations with Spitzer, and by using the fact that the radii of >1 Gyr-old brown dwarfs are approximately age-independent, we will be able to solve for the spin axis orientations. We will correlate these with variability amplitude, near-infrared colors, and spectral types, to solve for the meridional dependence in the spectroscopic appearance of L and T dwarfs.

  9. What Ethics for Bioart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaage, Nora S

    Living artworks created with biotechnology raise a range of ethical questions, some of which are unprecedented, others well known from other contexts. These questions are often discussed within the framework of bioethics, the ethics of the life sciences. The basic concern of institutionalised bioethics is to develop and implement ethical guidelines for ethically responsible handling of living material in technological and scientific contexts. Notably, discussions of ethical issues in bioart do not refer to existing discourses on art and morality from the field of aesthetics. The latter framework is primarily concerned with how the moral value of an artwork affects its artistic value. The author argues that a successful integration of these two frameworks will make possible an ethics of bioart that is adequate to its subject matter and relevant for practice. Such an integrated approach can give increased depth to understandings of ethical issues in bioart, inspire new ways of thinking about ethics in relation to art in general and give novel impulses to bioethics and technology assessment. Artworks by the Tissue Culture and Art Project and their reception serve as the empirical starting point for connecting perspectives in art with those of bioethics, developing an ethics for bioart. The author suggests that consideration of the effect of these artworks is vital in validating ethically problematical applications of biotechnology for art. It is argued that the affective, visceral qualities of living artworks may spur the audience to adjust, revise or develop their personal ethical framework.

  10. A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Suzie

    2006-04-01

    Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems.

  11. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S.; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this “knowing” or “being better at judging” is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts. PMID:27256848

  12. Ethics rounds: An appreciated form of ethics support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Marit; Ramklint, Mia; Hansson, Mats G; Haglund, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Ethics rounds are one way to support healthcare personnel in handling ethically difficult situations. A previous study in the present project showed that ethics rounds did not result in significant changes in perceptions of how ethical issues were handled, that is, in the ethical climate. However, there was anecdotal evidence that the ethics rounds were viewed as a positive experience and that they stimulated ethical reflection. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how the ethics rounds were experienced and why the intervention in the form of ethics rounds did not succeed in improving the ethical climate for the staff. An exploratory and descriptive design with a qualitative approach was adopted, using individual interviews. A total of 11 healthcare personnel, working in two different psychiatry outpatient clinics and with experience of participating in ethics rounds, were interviewed. The study was based on informed consent and was approved by one of the Swedish Regional Ethical Review Boards. The participants were generally positive about the ethics rounds. They had experienced changes by participating in the ethics rounds in the form of being able to see things from different perspectives as well as by gaining insight into ethical issues. However, these changes had not affected daily work. A crucial question is whether or not increased reflection ability among the participants is a good enough outcome of ethics rounds and whether this result could have been measured in patient-related outcomes. Ethics rounds might foster cooperation among the staff and this, in turn, could influence patient care. By listening to others during ethics rounds, a person can learn to see things from a new angle. Participation in ethics rounds can also lead to better insight concerning ethical issues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The Perfect Storm—Genetic Engineering, Science, and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2014-02-01

    Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific Ideology; vested interests dominating ethical discussion. How this can be remedied is discussed.

  14. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    One of the first book-length anthologies explicitly devoted to diverse cultural perspectives, including core attention to East-West differences and similarities, on central issues in information ethics. Our introduction provides an overview of the individual chapters, draws these together to form...... a larger picture of current trends and developments, and then explores how these relate with information ethics more broadly, including future directions for research....

  15. Understanding the Spatio-Temporal Response of Coral Reef Fish Communities to Natural Disturbances: Insights from Beta-Diversity Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Thomas; Legendre, Pierre; Chancerelle, Yannick; Siu, Gilles; Claudet, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities respond to natural disturbances is fundamental to assess the mechanisms of ecosystem resistance and resilience. However, ecosystem responses to natural disturbances are rarely monitored both through space and time, while the factors promoting ecosystem stability act at various temporal and spatial scales. Hence, assessing both the spatial and temporal variations in species composition is important to comprehensively explore the effects of natural disturbances. Here, we suggest a framework to better scrutinize the mechanisms underlying community responses to disturbances through both time and space. Our analytical approach is based on beta diversity decomposition into two components, replacement and biomass difference. We illustrate this approach using a 9-year monitoring of coral reef fish communities off Moorea Island (French Polynesia), which encompassed two severe natural disturbances: a crown-of-thorns starfish outbreak and a hurricane. These disturbances triggered a fast logistic decline in coral cover, which suffered a 90% decrease on all reefs. However, we found that the coral reef fish composition remained largely stable through time and space whereas compensatory changes in biomass among species were responsible for most of the temporal fluctuations, as outlined by the overall high contribution of the replacement component to total beta diversity. This suggests that, despite the severity of the two disturbances, fish communities exhibited high resistance and the ability to reorganize their compositions to maintain the same level of total community biomass as before the disturbances. We further investigated the spatial congruence of this pattern and showed that temporal dynamics involved different species across sites; yet, herbivores controlling the proliferation of algae that compete with coral communities were consistently favored. These results suggest that compensatory changes in biomass among species and spatial

  16. Advance Care Planning: Understanding Clinical Routines and Experiences of Interprofessional Team Members in Diverse Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Kelly; Sudore, Rebecca L; Nowels, David; Feng, Cindy X; Levy, Cari R; Lum, Hillary D

    2017-12-01

    Interprofessional health care team members consider advance care planning (ACP) to be important, yet gaps remain in systematic clinical routines to support ACP. A clearer understanding of the interprofessional team members' perspectives on ACP clinical routines in diverse settings is needed. One hundred eighteen health care team members from community-based clinics, long-term care facilities, academic clinics, federally qualified health centers, and hospitals participated in a 35-question, cross-sectional online survey to assess clinical routines, workflow processes, and policies relating to ACP. Respondents were 53% physicians, 18% advanced practice nurses, 11% nurses, and 18% other interprofessional team members including administrators, chaplains, social workers, and others. Regarding clinical routines, respondents reported that several interprofessional team members play a role in facilitating ACP (ie, physician, social worker, nurse, others). Most (62%) settings did not have, or did not know of, policies related to ACP documentation. Only 14% of settings had a patient education program. Two-thirds of the respondents said that addressing ACP is a high priority and 85% felt that nonphysicians could have ACP conversations with appropriate training. The clinical resources needed to improve clinical routines included training for providers and staff, dedicated staff to facilitate ACP, and availability of patient/family educational materials. Although interprofessional health care team members consider ACP a priority and several team members may be involved, clinical settings lack systematic clinical routines to support ACP. Patient educational materials, interprofessional team training, and policies to support ACP clinical workflows that do not rely solely on physicians could improve ACP across diverse clinical settings.

  17. Empirical ethics as dialogical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Abma, T.A.; Molewijk, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and

  18. ETHICS, VALUES AND BELONGING. BUILDING AN ETHICAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    David King

    2013-01-01

    What is an ethical culture, and why should companies bother about it? An ethical company is a business that helps people know the right thing to do, understand their code of ethics and uphold the organisation’s principles. As a result, the organisation protects itself against the kind of ethical contraventions and scandals that have affected many sectors, putting businesses in the news for all the wrong reasons and undermining the trust of customers, employees and investors. How can companies...

  19. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  20. Benjamin's Angel of History and the Work of Mourning in Ethical Remembrance: Understanding the Effect of W.G. Sebald's Novels in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a conceptual framework for understanding the work of ethical remembrance in the classroom. Using David Hansen's recent example of using Sebald's novels in his classroom to do the work or remembrance, the paper argues that the effect of Sebald's novels is best understood using Walter Benjamin's figure of the…

  1. “‘What Is Ethical Cannot be Taught’ – Understanding Moral Theories as Descriptions of Moral Grammar”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the development of moral theories has been considered one of the main aims of moral philosophy.1 In contrast, Wittgenstein was very critical of the use of theories both in philosophy in general and in moral philosophy in particular, and philosophers inspired by his philosophy have...... become some of the most prominent critics of both particular contemporary moral theories and the idea of moral theory as such. Nonetheless, we will see how Wittgenstein’s later philosophy offers us resources for a revised understanding of the role and status of moral theories according to which theories...... are neither normative nor explanatory, but are rather to be understood as generalisations of particular descriptions of various forms of moral grammar....

  2. Game, Player, Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Miguel Angel Sicart

    2005-01-01

    turn their users into blood thirsty zombies with a computer game learnt ability of aiming with deadly precision. The goal of this paper is to pay attention to the ethical nature of computer games, in order to understand better the ways we can evaluate their morality in western cultures providing...... a framework to understand some of these concerns. This paper poses questions about the ontology of games and their ethical meaning, in an attempt to give ethical theory a word in the analysis of computer games....

  3. Ethics in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

  4. Ethical challenges in neonatal intensive care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandås, Maria; Fredriksen, Sven-Tore D

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal nurses report a great deal of ethical challenges in their everyday work. Seemingly trivial everyday choices nurses make are no more value-neutral than life-and-death choices. Everyday ethical challenges should also be recognized as ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to investigate which types of ethical challenges neonatal nurses experience in their day-to-day care for critically ill newborns. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews. Phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis was applied to interpret the data. Six nurses from neonatal intensive care units at two Norwegian hospitals were interviewed on-site. The study is designed to comply with Ethical Guidelines for Nursing Research in the Nordic Countries and the Helsinki declaration. Findings suggest that nurses experience a diverse range of everyday ethical challenges related to challenging interactions with parents and colleagues, emotional strain, protecting the vulnerable infant, finding the balance between sensitivity and authority, ensuring continuity of treatment, and miscommunication and professional disagreement. A major finding in this study is how different agents involved in caring for the newborn experience their realities differently. When these realities collide, ethical challenges arise. Findings suggest that acting in the best interests of the child becomes more difficult in situations involving many agents with different perceptions of reality. The study presents new aspects which increases knowledge and understanding of the reality of nursing in a neonatal intensive care unit, while also demanding increased research in this field of care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Against medical ethics: a response to Cassell

    OpenAIRE

    Seedhouse, David

    1998-01-01

    This paper responds to Dr Cassell's request for a fuller explanation of my argument in the paper, Against medical ethics: a philosopher's view. A distinction is made between two accounts of ethics in general, and the philosophical basis of health work ethics is briefly stated. The implications of applying this understanding of ethics to medical education are discussed.

  6. Ethical Competencies and the Organizational Competency ‘Responsible University Social Innovation’: looking at new ways of understanding universities and the competency-based education model in the context of significant social changes in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Villar Olaeta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethical competencies are included in all competency-based education models and are considered essential for the professional preparation of students, especially in terms of their professional conduct and workplace preparedness. As such, the Tuning Academy, along with incorporating ethical competencies in its group of generic competencies, also considers the organizational competency Responsible University Social Innovation (RUSI as part of its Tuning ALFA II Latin América project. This competency, in the area of organizational character, addresses innovation in the context of social responsibility, which it assumes each university should have, in terms of ethical responsibility toward the members of a community. This concept incorporates the equal relationship between the university’s internal community and civil society. By means of interviews with experts in the areas of service-learning, social responsibility, and ethical civil and professional education from the University of Deusto and the Zerbikas Foundation, this article discusses the connection and implementation of both generic ethical competencies and the RUSI organizational competency in higher education in order to respond to the new challenges to professional training in today’s world, all of which ultimately assumes a change in universities’ understandings of themselves as institutions and the role of higher education in general.

  7. Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  8. An ethical criterion for geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppoloni, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    spirit of collaboration and reciprocity; • identification of a common goal, despite the diversity of views; • responsibility of their technical-cultural expertise; • opening to the comparison even in perspective of a resizing of their certainties; • reflection on the mutability of knowledge and roles; • awareness conveying scientific knowledge to others is valuable. On these bases geoscientists' activity becomes a real service for society. Geoethics should be above all an opportunity for Geoscientists to raise the awareness of their individual and social responsibility, an occasion to improve their understanding of the space and time in which they move and operate, with the perspective to contribute to the wellbeing and economic progress of mankind. Before acting and understanding how to act, Geoscientists should recognize the value of their actions, so that they will assure a real and long-lasting rootedness of practices, codes and regulations.

  9. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.

  10. Auditors’ Personal Values and Ethical Judgement at Different Levels of Ethical Climate: A Conceptual Link

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohamed Alteer; Sofri Bin Yahya; Md Harashid Haron

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditor judgements. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and suggested factors that may affect ethical judgement decision. The suggestion model proposes that ethical judgements are influenced by personal values via ethical sensitivity. Nonetheless, the influence of personal values on ethi...

  11. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    One of the first book-length anthologies explicitly devoted to diverse cultural perspectives, including core attention to East-West differences and similarities, on central issues in information ethics. Our introduction provides an overview of the individual chapters, draws these together to form...

  12. Ethical challenges within Veterans Administration healthcare facilities: perspectives of managers, clinicians, patients, and ethics committee chairpersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Mary Beth; Pearlman, Robert A; Bottrell, Melissa; Altemose, Jane K; Fox, Ellen

    2009-04-01

    To promote ethical practices, healthcare managers must understand the ethical challenges encountered by key stakeholders. To characterize ethical challenges in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities from the perspectives of managers, clinicians, patients, and ethics consultants. We conducted focus groups with patients (n = 32) and managers (n = 38); semi-structured interviews with managers (n = 31), clinicians (n = 55), and ethics committee chairpersons (n = 21). Data were analyzed using content analysis. Managers reported that the greatest ethical challenge was fairly distributing resources across programs and services, whereas clinicians identified the effect of resource constraints on patient care. Ethics committee chairpersons identified end-of-life care as the greatest ethical challenge, whereas patients identified obtaining fair, respectful, and caring treatment. Perspectives on ethical challenges varied depending on the respondent's role. Understanding these differences can help managers take practical steps to address these challenges. Further, ethics committees seemingly, are not addressing the range of ethical challenges within their institutions.

  13. Conceptualizing boundaries for the professionalization of healthcare ethics practice: a call for empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nancy C; McGee, Summer Johnson

    2014-12-01

    One of the challenges of modern healthcare ethics practice is the navigation of boundaries. Practicing healthcare ethicists in the performance of their role must navigate meanings, choices, decisions and actions embedded in complex cultural and social relationships amongst diverse individuals. In light of the evolving state of modern healthcare ethics practice and the recent move toward professionalization via certification, understanding boundary navigation in healthcare ethics practice is critical. Because healthcare ethics is endowed with many boundaries which often delineate concerns about professional expertise and authority, epistemological reflection on the relationship between theory and practice points toward the social context as relevant to the conceptualization of boundaries. The skills of social scientists may prove helpful to provide data and insights into the conceptualization and navigation of clinical ethics qua profession. Empirical ethics research, which combines empirical description (usually social scientific) with normative-ethical analysis and reflection, is a way forward as we engage and reflect upon issues which have implications for practice standards and professionalization of the role. This requires cooperative engagement of the descriptive and normative disciplines to explore our understandings of boundaries in healthcare ethics practice. This will contribute to the ongoing reflection not only as we envision the professional role but to ensure that it is enacted in practice.

  14. [Responsibilities of ethics committees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, K

    2000-05-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical research projects are submitted to ethical committees (institutional review boards) for approval. New therapeutic developments have to be evaluated by these committees to protect patients/volunteers. Thus, the responsibility of ethical committees is increasing. The "Nürnberger Kodex" and the "Declaration of Helsinki" are the background for these evaluations. According to the German drug law the physician is obligated by law to submit the protocol to such a committee. In addition, local state physician authorities require such a procedure. Important considerations during the review process besides ethical aspects are the informed consent, which should be written in an understandable form, and the obligations of the insurance.

  15. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  16. The Perfect Storm--Genetic Engineering, Science, and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific…

  17. Virtue Ethics in School Counseling: A Framework for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics…

  18. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  19. Why ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang, Huber

    2015-01-01

    In this address, the author explores the necessity of ethical reflection on our moral responsibility regarding the challenges of today's globalized world and the future of humankind in the midst of God's creation. In this context, the differentiation of modern ethics is seen as accompanied by the task to reintegrate the ethical discourse by means of an interdisciplinary exchange and to further especially the dialogue between theological and philosophical ethics. By agreeing on Hans-Richard Re...

  20. Metaphysics and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, C

    1995-01-01

    I take issue with Frank Leavitt's sketch of a pragmatic criterion for the relevance of metaphysics to medical ethics. I argue that appeal to the potential for confusion generated by metaphysical subtlety establishes a need for better communication rather than shows philosophical insight beside the point. I demonstrate that the proposed Criterion of Relevance has absurd consequences, and I claim that the relevance of philosophical doctrines, whether ethical or metaphysical, is best accounted for in terms of improved understanding. PMID:7608933

  1. Medical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  2. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a

  3. Ethics and Ethical Theories from an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-HASAN AL-AIDAROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of many organizations, many researchers are increasingly paying attention to such phenomenon. But ethical issues are not always clear cut; there are many grey areas that need to be threaded with care by organizations. To determine whether an action or decision is ethically carried out, ethical theories, developed mainly by Western scholars, are the current theoretical framework organizations have at their disposal. Theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontology, the divine command theory, and the virtue ethics, are all products of Western understanding of what ethics are and how they are applicable to help one’s decision making process. Despite their utility, this paper intends to argue that the Western concepts and understanding of what ethics are limited and incomprehensive in explaining what is right and what is wrong. In its place, this paper argues that to understand the concepts of ethics that can extend beyond time and space. It has to be analysed from an Islamic perspective. Toward this purpose, this paper will compare and contrast between Islamic and Western perspectives of ethics, and highlight the main weaknesses and limitations of the former. Then, an argument on why Islam can provide the best understanding of ethics will be made.

  4. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  5. Ethics Simulations as Preparation for Public Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James P.; Mueller, Alfred G.

    2010-01-01

    Courses: Fundamentals of public speaking, basic hybrid course, introduction to communication, introduction to journalism, introduction to advertising, and any other course that includes components of communication ethics. Objective: Students will understand the fundamental elements of communication ethics.

  6. Business ethics: implications for managed care contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, D A

    1997-01-01

    Business ethics is a specialized study that emphasizes how moral standards apply to organizations, policies, procedures and behavior. Moral standards must be considered to understand the implications of business ethics in subacute care.

  7. The Ethics of Doing Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-02-01

    Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.

  8. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Hospital pharmacy: what is ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, R M

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of ethical evaluations as they apply to the dilemmas faced by the pharmacist in the workplace are described, and the general principles and theories of Western normative ethics are discussed. Because ethical dilemmas are commonplace in pharmacy practice, pharmacists must develop a working knowledge of formal and systematic ethical analysis, as well as learn to distinguish ethical issues from social, psychological, political, and legal issues. Ethical evaluations are distinguished by three characteristics: They are ultimate, they possess universality, and they treat the good of everyone alike. Ethical analyses can be thought of as having four different and successive stages. The first stage is ensuring that all parties understand the facts of the specific case. If controversy remains after the facts are clear, parties to the dispute can proceed through three successive stages of general moral reflection: (1) the level of moral rules, (2) the level of ethical principles, and (3) the level of ethical theories. Specific moral rules cover groups of cases, and they generally are regarded as being derived from a shorter list of abstract moral principles. An ethical theory is a systematic position about which principles are morally significant, how the principles relate to each other, and how they should be tested. Pursuit of ethical dilemmas through the full hierarchy of levels of analysis exposes simplistic or irrational moral decisions and clarifies the nature of disputes.

  10. Business ethics in ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  11. Understanding and supporting women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a qualitative study in an ethnically diverse UK sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjiconstantinou, Michelle; Mani, Hamidreza; Patel, Naina; Levy, Miles; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Objective Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a lifelong condition. Its symptoms have been linked with psychological consequences, but less attention has been given to the daily implications of living with PCOS. We aimed to explore women?s experiences living with PCOS, and the potential acceptability of group education sessions for this target group. Methods Women with PCOS were recruited from an ethnically diverse UK community. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Analysis was u...

  12. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    ) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways......'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...

  13. Rethinking ethical issues in global business environment | Mirwoba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the wake of globalization and liberalization policy, business ethics ... a push for diversity that has resulted into corporate business cultures that are ... The impediment of global business ethics is the phenomenon that, unlike established laws ...

  14. The role of ethical principles in health care and the implications for ethical codes.

    OpenAIRE

    Limentani, A E

    1999-01-01

    A common ethical code for everybody involved in health care is desirable, but there are important limitations to the role such a code could play. In order to understand these limitations the approach to ethics using principles and their application to medicine is discussed, and in particular the implications of their being prima facie. The expectation of what an ethical code can do changes depending on how ethical properties in general are understood. The difficulties encountered when ethical...

  15. Ethical challenges in assessment centres in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani R. Muleya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Assessment Centres (ACs are used globally for the selection and development of candidates. Limited empirical evidence exists of the ethical challenges encountered in the use of ACs, especially in South Africa (SA. Research purpose: Firstly, to explore possible ethical challenges related to ACs in SA from the vantage point of the practitioner and, secondly, to search for possible solutions to these. Motivation for the study: Decisions based on AC outcomes have profound implications for participants and organisations, and it is essential to understand potential ethical challenges to minimise these, specifically in the SA context, given its socio-political history, multiculturalism, diversity and pertinent legal considerations. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative, interpretative research design was chosen. Data were collected by means of a semi-structured survey that was completed by 96 AC practitioners who attended an AC conference. Content analysis and thematic interpretation were used to make sense of the data. The preliminary findings were assessed by a focus group of purposively selected subject-matter experts (n = 16 who provided informed insights, which were incorporated into the final findings. The focus group suggested ways in which specific ethical challenges may be addressed. Main findings: The findings revealed many ethical challenges that can be better understood within a broad framework encompassing 10 themes: Universal ethical values; multicultural global contexts; the regulatory-legal framework for ACs in SA; characteristics of the assessor; psychometric properties of the AC; characteristics of the participant; bias and prejudice; governance of the AC process; ethical culture of the employer organisation and the evasive nature of ethics as a concept. Practical and managerial implications: Considerable risk exists for the unethical use of ACs. An awareness of possible areas of risk may assist AC

  16. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  17. After Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Nick; Haber, Alejandro

    While books on archaeological and anthropological ethics have proliferated in recent years, few attempt to move beyond a conventional discourse on ethics to consider how a discussion of the social and political implications of archaeological practice might be conceptualized differently....... The conceptual ideas about ethics posited in this volume make it of interest to readers outside of the discipline; in fact, to anyone interested in contemporary debates around the possibilities and limitations of a discourse on ethics. The authors in this volume set out to do three things. The first is to track...... the historical development of a discussion around ethics, in tandem with the development and “disciplining” of archaeology. The second is to examine the meanings, consequences and efficacies of a discourse on ethics in contemporary worlds of practice in archaeology. The third is to push beyond the language...

  18. A model for ethical practices in clinical phonetics and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of clinical phonetics and linguistics as an area of scientific inquiry gives rise to the need for guidelines that define ethical and responsible conduct. The diverse membership of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association (ICPLA) and the readership of this journal are uniquely suited to consider ethical issues from diverse perspectives. Accordingly, this paper introduces a multi-tiered six-factor model for ethical practices to stimulate discussion of ethical issues.

  19. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoppers, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  20. Food variety and dietary diversity scores to understand the food-intake pattern among selected Malaysian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Badari, Shamsul A; Arcot, Jayashree; Haron, Sharifah A; Paim, Laily; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Masud, Jariah

    2012-01-01

    Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods.

  1. Medical ethics and ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyalomhe, G B S

    2009-01-01

    Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

  2. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  3. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  4. Exploring germplasm diversity to understand the domestication process in Cicer spp. using SNP and DArT markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Roorkiwal

    Full Text Available To estimate genetic diversity within and between 10 interfertile Cicer species (94 genotypes from the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pool, we analysed 5,257 DArT markers and 651 KASPar SNP markers. Based on successful allele calling in the tertiary gene pool, 2,763 DArT and 624 SNP markers that are polymorphic between genotypes from the gene pools were analyzed further. STRUCTURE analyses were consistent with 3 cultivated populations, representing kabuli, desi and pea-shaped seed types, with substantial admixture among these groups, while two wild populations were observed using DArT markers. AMOVA was used to partition variance among hierarchical sets of landraces and wild species at both the geographical and species level, with 61% of the variation found between species, and 39% within species. Molecular variance among the wild species was high (39% compared to the variation present in cultivated material (10%. Observed heterozygosity was higher in wild species than the cultivated species for each linkage group. Our results support the Fertile Crescent both as the center of domestication and diversification of chickpea. The collection used in the present study covers all the three regions of historical chickpea cultivation, with the highest diversity in the Fertile Crescent region. Shared alleles between different gene pools suggest the possibility of gene flow among these species or incomplete lineage sorting and could indicate complicated patterns of divergence and fusion of wild chickpea taxa in the past.

  5. High-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate on nucleotide diversity in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Umesh K; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan R; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-09-15

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima's D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. Copyright © 2014 Reddy et al.

  6. Identity, Diversity and Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise; Villeseche, Florence

    2016-01-01

    – The work can encourage policy makers, diversity and HR managers to question their own practices and assumptions leading to more theoretical informed diversity management practices. Originality/value – The theoretical connections between identity and diversity literature have so far not been reviewed......The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the identity and diversity literatures and discuss how a better understanding of the theoretical connections between the two informs both diversity research and diversity management practices. Design/methodology/approach – Literature...... and limitations – is crucial for successful diversity management research and practice. Research limitations/implications – The authors argue for a better understanding of differences, overlaps and limits of different identity perspectives, and for a stronger engagement with practice. Practical implications...

  7. Ethics in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    recognized that organizational theory also presumes and express ethical and normative perspectives on organizations. This is also the case in the new branch of organizational theory that has been developed with an inspiration from theories of practice (e.g. Schatzki 2005, 2006; Nicolini 2013; Gherardi 2015......). Although practice theoretical approaches have made an effort to critically reflect on the ontological and epistemological assumptions of organizational theory the literature only contains very few attempts to understand the role played by normativity and ethics in organizations (Erden et al. 2014......). In this paper I will attempt to discuss how the practice theoretical approach to organizational theory can become more explicit about the role of normativity and ethics in order to better understand organizational practices. I will do this by discussing two prominent early practice theoretical theories...

  8. The Ethics of Evaluation in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2015-01-01

    Ethics in research and evaluation has a long standing history, one steeped with legal and moral implications. This article addresses the technicalities of ethics in evaluation as well as highlights the importance for museum educators to prioritize adopting such practices. While understanding the myriad of ethical concerns and best practices can be…

  9. Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Uses American Psychological Association code of ethics to understand ethical issues present in the conduct of supervision. Discusses ethical issues of responsibility, client and supervisee welfare, confidentiality, competency, moral and legal standards, public statements, and professional relationships in relation to supervision. (Author/NB)

  10. The Effects of Visualizations on Linguistically Diverse Students' Understanding of Energy and Matter in Life Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Bedell, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Although extensive research has shown the educational value of different types of interactive visualizations on students' science learning in general, how such technologies can contribute to English learners' (ELs) understanding of complex scientific concepts has not been sufficiently explored to date. This mixed-methods study investigated how…

  11. Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  12. BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu BURCEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.

  13. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...

  14. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  15. Big Data ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with

  16. Ethics With Mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2017-04-01

    The concept of mentoring is a phenomenon critical to teaching-learning in coming to know in the performing art of leadership. The author of this article discusses the mentoring relationship from an alternative view through the humanbecoming lens of understanding. Possibilities of ethical nurse practice with the art of mentoring from the humanbecoming perspective are illuminated.

  17. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-02-01

    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Nigerian Building Professionals’ Ethical Ideology and Perceived Ethical Judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oko Ameh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Nigeria is often cited in the international media in connection with corruption and other unethical practices. The professionals in the Nigerian building industry are not immune from the national trend in ethical erosion. Moral philosophy or ethical ideology has been used to explain individuals’ reasoning about moral issues and consequent behaviour. This study examines building industry professionals’ ethical ideologies with a view to understanding their ethical behaviour in professional practice.  In carrying out this investigation, building professionals in clients’ organisations, contracting and consultancy organisations within the industry were asked to respond to the Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ designed by Forsyth in order to determine their idealism and relativism level. Subsequently, they were classified into one of four groups, representing different ethical ideologies. The result indicates that the dominant ethical ideology of building industry professionals is situationism. The study predicts that the attitude of building industry professionals in practice, given the current socio-political and economic situation of Nigeria would possibly be unethical because of the extreme influence situational factors have on their behaviour. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving ethical issues within the industry and should be of interest to policy makers. It is also useful for intra professional ethical comparison.

  19. Social Work Values and Ethics: Reflections on the Profession's Odssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic G. Reamer

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Social workers' understanding of ethical issues has matured significantly. This article traces the evolution of the profession's approach to the values and ethics. During its history, social work has moved through four major periods-- the morality period, the values period, the ethical theories and decision-making period, and the ethical standards and risk-management (the prevention of ethics complaints and ethics related lawsuits is diverting social workers from in-depth exploration of core professional and personal values, ethical dilemmas, and the nature of the profession's moral mission. The author encourages the profession to recalibrate its focus on values and ethics.

  20. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  1. BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Nelu BURCEA; Ion CROITORU

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the eleme...

  2. Teaching medical ethics and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2012-03-01

    The teaching of medical ethics is not yet characterised by recognised, standard requirements for formal qualifications, training and experience; this is not surprising as the field is still relatively young and maturing. Under the broad issue of the requirements for teaching medical ethics are numerous more specific questions, one of which concerns whether medical ethics can be taught in isolation from considerations of the law, and vice versa. Ethics and law are cognate, though distinguishable, disciplines. In a practical, professional enterprise such as medicine, they cannot and should not be taught as separate subjects. One way of introducing students to the links and tensions between medical ethics and law is to consider the history of law via its natural and positive traditions. This encourages understanding of how medical practice is placed within the contexts of ethics and law in the pluralist societies in which most students will practise. Four examples of topics from medical ethics teaching are described to support this claim. Australasian medical ethics teachers have paid less attention to the role of law in their curricula than their United Kingdom counterparts. Questions like the one addressed here will help inform future deliberations concerning minimal requirements for teaching medical ethics.

  3. Prospects for improving CO2 fixation in C3-crops through understanding C4-Rubisco biogenesis and catalytic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E; Ghannoum, Oula; Whitney, Spencer M

    2016-06-01

    By operating a CO2 concentrating mechanism, C4-photosynthesis offers highly successful solutions to remedy the inefficiency of the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco. C4-plant Rubisco has characteristically evolved faster carboxylation rates with low CO2 affinity. Owing to high CO2 concentrations in bundle sheath chloroplasts, faster Rubisco enhances resource use efficiency in C4 plants by reducing the energy and carbon costs associated with photorespiration and lowering the nitrogen investment in Rubisco. Here, we show that C4-Rubisco from some NADP-ME species, such as maize, are also of potential benefit to C3-photosynthesis under current and future atmospheric CO2 pressures. Realizing this bioengineering endeavour necessitates improved understanding of the biogenesis requirements and catalytic variability of C4-Rubisco, as well as the development of transformation capabilities to engineer Rubisco in a wider variety of food and fibre crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethical Values in the Classroom: How College Students Responded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbarger, Michele; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2005-01-01

    It is important to understand the ethical values of college students because they will be the leaders of the future. As part of an undergraduate honors project, a survey was developed that consisted of eight cases depicting ethical dilemmas in the classroom. Each case included a choice of four actions ranging from most ethical to least ethical.…

  5. Epistemological and Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching International Business Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International business ethics courses imply four basic epistemological and pedagogical challenges: (a) understanding various perceptions of ethics and values/virtues; (b) identifying ethical maxims among religious/spiritual traditions; (c) designing international business ethics courses as dialogical experiences; and (d) deepening our personal…

  6. Teaching Empathy and Ethical Decision Making in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Diane F.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in behavioral ethics seek to understand how individuals respond to the ethical dilemmas in their lives. In any given situation, multiple social and psychological variables interact to influence ethical decision making. The purpose of this article is to explore how one such variable, empathy, affects the ethical decision-making process…

  7. The Order of Things: Ethical Foundations for Community College Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Arthur D.; Holt, Lynn; Crittenden, Laura; Davis, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the need for community college leaders to develop a deeper understanding of ethics in preparation for addressing ethical issues that arise in the administration of their institutions. It discusses briefly the nature of ethics and the ethical theories of some modern and postmodern authors. The article is concerned…

  8. Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...

  9. Technology in Art Therapy: Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…

  10. Ethical living: relinking ethics and consumption through care in Chile and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariztia, Tomas; Agloni, Nurjk; Pellandini-Simányi, Léna

    2017-05-30

    Mainstream conceptualizations of 'ethical consumption' equate the notion with conscious, individual, market-mediated choices motivated by ethical or political aims that transcend ordinary concerns. Drawing on recent sociology and anthropology of consumption literature on the links between ordinary ethics and ethical consumption, this article discusses some of the limitations of this conceptualization. Using data from 32 focus groups conducted in Chile and Brazil, we propose a conceptualization of ethical consumption that does not centre on individual, market-mediated choices but understands it at the level of practical outcomes, which we refer to as different forms of 'ethical living'. To do that, we argue, we need to depart from the deontological understanding of ethics that underpins mainstream approaches to ethical consumption and adopt a more consequentialist view focusing on ethical outcomes. We develop these points through describing one particular ordinary moral regime that seemed to be predominant in participants' accounts of ethics and consumption in both Chile and Brazil: one that links consumption and ethics through care. We show that the moral regime of care leads to 'ethical outcomes', such as energy saving or limiting overconsumption, yet contrary to the mainstream view of ethical consumption emphasizing politicized choice expressed through markets, these result from following ordinary ethics, often through routines of practices. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  11. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  12. Transplant Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  13. Ethics fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  14. Ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.

  15. Diversity as valued and troubled: social identities and demographic categories in understandings of rapid urban growth in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous mainstreaming and diversification of ni-Vanuatu social categories associated with the ways in which population growth is understood as a possible crisis in both demographic knowledge and everyday ni-Vanuatu knowledge. The author is interested in understanding the downplaying but primarily the amplification of difference with respect to place, generation and gender identities. The relationship between reproduction, social reproduction and the multiple meanings of modernity is at issue. In the expert knowledge of demography that proffers advice for the ni-Vanuatu state, it is the lack of modern development - in the form of adequate biomedical birth control, western education, and the equality of women - that is the implicit cause of population growth. Yet, many ni-Vanuatu see population growth as tied to the troubles that arise from the dilution of traditional social forms: there is too much modernity. In both demographic and ni-Vanuatu everyday narrations of the potential population crisis, diversification and mainstreaming take place and vulnerabilities are produced.

  16. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  17. Capability ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative comm...

  18. "Those who care much, understand much." Maternal perceptions of children's appetite: Perspectives from urban and rural caregivers of diverse parenting experience in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naila, Nurun; Nahar, Baitun; Lazarus, Monica; Ritter, Gaelen; Hossain, Muttaquina; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Denno, Donna; Walson, Judd; Ickes, Scott

    2018-01-01

    Appetite in children is an important determinant of nutritional intake and growth. The information used by caregivers to understand children's appetite can help inform infant and young child feeding promotion and appetite assessment. We conducted a qualitative study to (a) explore maternal perceptions and responses to children's appetite and (b) to identify how these factors differ by type of caregiver, level of maternal experience, and urban versus rural context. We used purposive sampling to recruit mothers and alternate caregivers into 14 total focus group discussions (six to eight participants in each group; N = 95) in both urban and rural settings in Bangladesh. To understand children's appetite, caregivers monitor children's dietary patterns, emotional signs, and physical and verbal cues. Healthy appetite was observed by willingness to eat diverse foods, finish offered portions, and by acceptance of foods without excessive prompting. Child illness was cited for a cause of low appetite, which was manifested through fussiness, and avoiding commonly consumed foods. Mothers described a limited set of feeding practices (offering diverse foods, playing, and cheering children with videos) to encourage consumption when children lacked appetite. Mothers' stress related to work was noted as a barrier to identifying appetite cues. Urban mothers described a lower access to instrumental social support for child feeding but informational support than mothers in the rural setting. Understanding caregivers' perceptions of children's appetite may inform strategies to improve responsive feeding and tool development to assess changes in appetite as early indicators of change in health or nutrition status among high-risk children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Managerial Ethics: The Ethics in the Enterprise Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bondarik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has for objective to present the ethics meanings, its application and importance in the enterprise organizations. Century XX was marked by deep transformations in the most diverse fields of the activity human being, also perceived in its finish a concern with the enterprise ethical behavior. Was transferred to charge it of the companies a bigger concern with the quality of its products and the way that these organizations treated its diverse public, the intern and the external one. The ethical behavior in an organization does not have to be to result only of a requirement of the market, but of spontaneous behavior. The importance that the organizations possess in the present time made with that many scholars called our time of Managerial Age, therefore its paradigm is the company, who influences the society.

  20. Teaching Business Ethics after the Financial Meltdown: Is It Time for Ethics with a Sermon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.

    2010-01-01

    Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…

  1. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  2. Leadership and organizational ethics: the three dimensional African perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, Jude Mutuku

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the past, present and future aspects of African leadership and organizational ethics that have, are and will be key for any organization to sustain its systems and structures. Organizational ethics revolves around written and/or unwritten guidelines, ethical values, principles, rules and standards, that are drawn from the harmonious coexistence with the biosphere and it is how these elements are applied that dictates the style of leadership and the ethical thinking of the leaders. Africa has a wide range of complexities which are compounded by, inter alia, tribal divisiveness, selfish leadership, wealth inequality, and massive unemployment. Africans tend to draw their leadership and ethical practices and reflections from the events in the environment with which they have interacted for many years. However, in order to fully address and understand the African perspective in leadership and organizational ethics, a broad comprehension of the African diverse and complex landscape is needed through unravelling of the three dimensional existence of the people. African ethics, developed over time, unifies organizations and leadership since it is part of life and is practised, sub-consciously or unconsciously, by the people as they transform from one practice to the other, and during intergenerational transitions. Globalization, liberalization, technological changes and advancement, and market changes are rapidly transforming the environment in which organizations operate. In such a situation, an effective and true leader cannot be rigid but should be flexible, with the ability to use different leadership styles whenever the situation calls for it. Only those leaders with a three-dimensional perspective live inspiring lives, live with a cause and adopt organizational ethics and leadership styles that will stand the test of time. Despite Africa being the cradle of humankind, leadership and organizational ethics is still in its infancy and wanting, even

  3. On the Design Concept in Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of the trendy concept in engineering ethics education that ethical problems should be comprehended from the viewpoint of design. First, I present two objections against the concept and the content of it. Second, I examine the concept and show that the essence of it is pragmatic methods. That is, we should understand ethical problems and design problems pragmatically. Finally, I point out that the objections are not true of this pragmatic understanding.

  4. Ethical decision-making, passivity and pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, R.J.; Bissell, P.; Wingfield, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing interest in empirical ethics has enhanced understanding of healthcare professionals' ethical problems and attendant decision-making. A four-stage decision-making model involving ethical attention, reasoning, intention and action offers further insights into how more than reasoning alone may contribute to decision-making.\\ud \\ud Aims: To explore how the four-stage model can increase understanding of decision-making in healthcare and describe the decision-making of an und...

  5. An integrative approach to understanding the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa (Cactaceae), a threatened endemic Chilean genus from the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larridon, Isabel; Walter, Helmut E; Guerrero, Pablo C; Duarte, Milén; Cisternas, Mauricio A; Hernández, Carol Peña; Bauters, Kenneth; Asselman, Pieter; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2015-09-01

    Species of the endemic Chilean cactus genus Copiapoa have cylindrical or (sub)globose stems that are solitary or form (large) clusters and typically yellow flowers. Many species are threatened with extinction. Despite being icons of the Atacama Desert and well loved by cactus enthusiasts, the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa has not yet been studied using a molecular approach. Sequence data of three plastid DNA markers (rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, ycf1) of 39 Copiapoa taxa were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference approaches. Species distributions were modeled based on geo-referenced localities and climatic data. Evolution of character states of four characters (root morphology, stem branching, stem shape, and stem diameter) as well as ancestral areas were reconstructed using a Bayesian and maximum likelihood framework, respectively. Clades of species are revealed. Though 32 morphologically defined species can be recognized, genetic diversity between some species and infraspecific taxa is too low to delimit their boundaries using plastid DNA markers. Recovered relationships are often supported by morphological and biogeographical patterns. The origin of Copiapoa likely lies between southern Peru and the extreme north of Chile. The Copiapó Valley limited colonization between two biogeographical areas. Copiapoa is here defined to include 32 species and five heterotypic subspecies. Thirty species are classified into four sections and two subsections, while two species remain unplaced. A better understanding of evolution and diversity of Copiapoa will allow allocating conservation resources to the most threatened lineages and focusing conservation action on real biodiversity. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Deciphering the bat virome catalog to better understand the ecological diversity of bat viruses and the bat origin of emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ~60%-80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs.

  7. THE CHALLENGES OF BUSINESS ETHICS: THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS ETHICS - ETHICAL CODEX IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Jamnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Past several decades management has become a vital concern to society. If we look at pools, we notice that the public does not have good opinion about management ethics and business. For the management community to turn this situation around, significant efforts are required. It should be understood what management ethics means, why it is important and how it should be integrated into decision making. Principles of ethics from moral philosophy and management theory are available to inform interested managers. Further requires that managers understand, and be sensitive to, all the stakeholders of the organization and their stakes. If the moral management model is to be achieved, managers need to integrate ethical wisdom with their managerial wisdom and to take steps to create and sustain an ethical climate in their organizations. When all that will be done, the desirable goals of moral management will be achievable.

  8. Culture, Ethics, Scripts, and Gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmitt, Dorothy; Hafernik, Johnnie Johnson; Vandrick, Stephanie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses gift-giving patterns in different cultures, particularly in relation to teacher-student interactions in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. Situations in which gift-giving can raise ethical questions and how to teach culturally diverse students about this issue are highlighted. Script theory provides a theoretical basis for…

  9. EXAMINATION OF MORALITY AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF SPORTS MEDIA IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Burhan Başoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Aiming to unearth the Turkish Sports Media’s understanding of morals and ethics, this study was developed by way of compilation. It aims to explain such relevant topics as morals, ethics, relation between morals and ethics, relation between ethics and philosophy, sports ethics, ethics of the sports media, and to infer a conclusion from those explanations. Sports ethics refer to manners, actions and behaviors performed by sportspeople or people involved in sports and accepted in general by the...

  10. The relationship between political ideology and ethical consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Cronk, Bradley; Not applicable.

    2017-01-01

    Problem definition and research questions\\ud \\ud The determinants of ethical consumption behaviour are largely unknown. This research explores the effectiveness of political ideology as a predictor of ethical consumption. Increasing the understanding of ethical consumption will create opportunities for organisations to supply consumer segments with products that address the ethical consumption issues that are most important to them. The issues that form overall ethical consumption include: (1...

  11. Data Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Tranberg, Pernille

    Respect for privacy and the right to control one’s own data are becoming key parameters to gain a competitive edge in today’s business world. Companies, organisations and authorities which view data ethics as a social responsibility, giving it the same importance as environmental awareness...... and respect for human rights, are tomorrow’s winners. Digital trust is paramount to digital growth and prosperity. This book combines broad trend analyses with case studies to examine companies which use data ethics to varying degrees. The authors make the case that citizens and consumers are no longer just...... concerned about a lack of control over their data, but they also have begun to act. In addition, they describe alternative business models, advances in technology and a new European data protection regulation, all of which combine to foster a growing market for data-ethical products and services...

  12. [Medical ethics and patient responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Z

    1998-01-01

    When we say "medical ethics" we understand the responsibility of the physician for his medical education and his attitude to his patient. But Hippocrates is known to have said that the efficiency and good results of the treatment depends not only on the physician but on the patient and his engagement, his observance of the doctors' advice, his attitude to his own psyche and body, both in health as in illness. This is an ethical problem known to every practitioner, the problem of ethics of the patient, which ought to be more widely disseminated in society.

  13. Ethical decision-making, passivity and pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J

    2008-06-01

    Increasing interest in empirical ethics has enhanced understanding of healthcare professionals' ethical problems and attendant decision-making. A four-stage decision-making model involving ethical attention, reasoning, intention and action offers further insights into how more than reasoning alone may contribute to decision-making. To explore how the four-stage model can increase understanding of decision-making in healthcare and describe the decision-making of an under-researched professional group. 23 purposively sampled UK community pharmacists were asked, in semi-structured interviews, to describe ethical problems in their work and how they were resolved. Framework analysis of transcribed interviews utilised the four decision-making stages, together with constant comparative methods and deviant-case analysis. Pharmacists were often inattentive and constructed problems in legal terms. Ethical reasoning was limited, but examples of appeals to consequences, the golden rule, religious faith and common-sense experience emerged. Ethical intention was compromised by frequent concern about legal prosecution. Ethical inaction was common, typified by pharmacists' failure to report healthcare professionals' bad practices, and ethical passivity emerged to describe these negative examples of the four decision-making stages. Pharmacists occasionally described more ethically active decision-making, but this often involved ethical uncertainty. The four decision-making stages are a useful tool in considering how healthcare professionals try to resolve ethical problems in practice. They reveal processes often ignored in normative theories, and their recognition and the emergence of ethical passivity indicates the complexity of decision-making in practice. Ethical passivity may be deleterious to patients' welfare, and concerns emerge about improving pharmacists' ethical training and promoting ethical awareness and responsibility.

  14. The Ethics of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Domen MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity.

  15. The Ethics of Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and embracing uncertainty are critical for effective teacher–learner relationships as well as for shared decision-making in the physician–patient relationship. However, ambiguity has not been given serious consideration in either the undergraduate or graduate medical curricula or in the role it plays in patient-centered care. In this article, the author examines the ethics of ambiguity and argues for a pedagogy that includes education in the importance of, and tolerance of, ambiguity that is inherent in medical education and practice. Common threads running through the ethics of ambiguity are the virtue of respect, and the development of a culture of respect is required for the successful understanding and implementation of a pedagogy of ambiguity. PMID:28725771

  16. Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of diversity management which, in the context of organizations, consists in the strategic process of harnessing the potential of all employees to create an inclusive environment and, at the same time, contribute to meeting organizational goals. The entry first...... describes the complex construct of diversity that has been variously conceptualized in the literature, embracing multiple social and informational diversity dimensions such as gender, age, culture, values, and workstyle. This is followed by illustration of the historical development of diversity-management...... discourse and practice, and possible overarching approaches guiding organizations. It goes on to elucidate elements linked to the implementation of diversity management: positive and negative outcomes, most spread practices including communication, and contingency factors shaping the understanding...

  17. Transgressive ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    2013-01-01

    of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground...

  18. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  19. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  20. Nursing research ethics, guidance and application in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Noonan, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Ethics is fundamental to good research practice and the protection of society. From a historical point of view, research ethics has had a chequered past and without due cognisance there is always the potential for research to do harm. Research ethics is fundamental to research practice, nurse education and the development of evidence. In conducting research, it is important to plan for and anticipate any potential or actual risks. To engage in research, researchers need to develop an understanding and knowledge of research ethics and carefully plan how to address ethics within their research. This article aims to enhance students' and novice researchers' research ethics understanding and its application to nursing research.

  1. Business ethics: the materiel/manufacturing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucheck, A S; Robbins, L B

    1990-08-01

    The discussion of purchasing practices and product integrity, which have ethical implications for materiel/manufacturing management, serves to illustrate how routine decisions can have larger implications for the firm as a whole. Management needs to take a proactive role in confronting ethical issues by (1) demonstrating a corporate commitment to sound ethics in business practices, (2) providing written policies where appropriate to provide a basis for sound ethical conducts, (3) educating various functional areas to understand their responsibility in seeming unrelated ethical problems, (4) delegating authority in ethical issues where such issues are considered in decision making, and (5) fostering interfunctional communication as a means in establishing corporatewide responsibility. The basic philosophical principles of JIT serve as a blueprint for recognizing and managing ethical responsibility. The unexpected by-products of a JIT implementation may be vendor/customer good will and an excellent reputation for the firm.

  2. Ethics issues in security hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Henry C

    2002-01-01

    The term 'security hospital' is used for a variety of facilities including forensic hospitals and prison hospitals, which, because of their mission, the nature of their work, and the populations they serve-or because of the authority under which they operate-place the staff at considerable risk of ethical violations related to either clinical care or to forensic activities. The problem of divided loyalties is of special concern in security hospitals. Ethics principles particularly at risk are confidentiality and informed consent. Where there are cultural disparities between the staff and the patients, differences in background, socioeconomic class, education, and other types of diversity, cultural awareness is required and must be reflected in appropriate treatment and evaluation. To counteract the risks of ethical violations, a security hospital should create an ethical climate and develop means to anticipate, prevent, and deal with ethical violations. These might include detailed and specific policies and procedures, programs of orientation, education, consultation, and liaison as well as its own ethics committee. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ethical philanthropy in academic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2006-05-01

    From an ethical perspective, psychiatrists cannot accept gifts of significant monetary value from their patients. This guideline raises important questions regarding institutional practices related to gift-giving in academic psychiatry. The first aim of this article is to explain the ethical tensions and shared ethical commitments of the professions of psychiatry and philanthropy. The second aim is to outline a series of steps that may be undertaken to assure ethical philanthropic practices within an institution, including the establishment of a committed advisory workgroup and the creation of ground rules and safeguards for gift-giving. Each situation should be evaluated for "ethical risk," and specific measures to safeguard donors should be considered. The author outlines methods to manage, minimize, or eliminate conflict of interest issues, including identification and disclosure of conflicting interests, role separation, goal clarification, confidentiality protections, proper timing, and ongoing oversight. Three case illustrations are provided and discussed. The process of institutional engagement, dialogue, and shared problem-solving is especially important. A shared, constructive ethic will be attained only if leaders and diverse stakeholders communicate the value of the new approach through their words, expectations, and actions. Through these efforts, greater attention will be given to the concerns of people with mental illness, and academic institutions may be better able to fulfill their responsibilities to this important but neglected population now and in the future.

  4. Putting Ethics on the Agenda for Real Estate Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A post-print of an article originally published in Journal of Business Ethics: http://www.springer.com/philosophy/ethics/journal/10551 This article uses sociological role theory to help understand ethical challenges faced by Norwegian real estate agents. The article begins with an introductory case, and then briefly examines the strengths and limitations of using legal definitions and rules for understanding real estate agency and real estate agent ethics. It goes on to a...

  5. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  6. Neuroethics: the institutionalization of ethics in neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Amer Cavalheiro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in neuroscience have led to numerous ethical questions. Neuroethics is the study of ethical, legal and social advancements in neuroscience which, despite being a recently developed discipline, has a long historical tradition. The concern with ethical issues in neuroscience is extremely old and dates back to the philosophical and scientific traditions that originally sought to understand the relationship between the brain and behavior. More recently, the field of neuro...

  7. Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Emanuelle; Goldsmith, Judy; Koenig, Sven; Kuipers, Benjamin; Mattei, Nicholas; Walsh, Toby

    2017-01-01

    The recent surge in interest in ethics in artificial intelligence may leave many educators wondering how to address moral, ethical, and philosophical issues in their AI courses. As instructors we want to develop curriculum that not only prepares students to be artificial intelligence practitioners, but also to understand the moral, ethical, and philosophical impacts that artificial intelligence will have on society. In this article we provide practical case studies and links to resources for ...

  8. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between executive control and theory of mind: an intra-cultural comparison of three diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and executive control reflects the specific features of this particular cohort or instead reflects a universal pattern. The present study provides the first empirical assessment of these two constructs in three diverse groups of Iranian children. Participants were 142 preschoolers (4-5 years old) from high-socioeconomic status (SES) urban (n = 33), low-SES urban (n = 37) and rural villages (n = 77). The results show that there is a robust association between ToM and executive control in all three groups, and that executive control contributes significant unique variance to ToM understanding, even after controlling for a range of variables that have been proposed as potential confounders of this relationship. However, although the three groups were equated in ToM, significant differences in executive control were evident. Moreover, cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters that were relatively homogeneous with respect to executive control and SES. One of these clusters was characterized by both low SES and low executive functioning, and showed little evidence of ToM understanding. Taken together, these findings provide possibly the clearest evidence to date that the association between ToM and executive control is not dependent on children's previous experiences on the tasks, or their family and cultural background. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ethical dilemmas and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, A

    1984-08-01

    Professional responsibilities, tradition, and personal conscience along with legal, philosophical, and religious convictions dictate nursing interventions. Inevitably, these factors embrace life-sustaining therapies; however, in view of complications, prognosis, pain and suffering, and their own views of quality of life, some patients express wishes inconsistent with life-sustaining measures. In other situations, the health care provider as well as the patient may view heroic efforts as more debilitating than resortative. Resolving the conflict while preserving the patient's best interests requires a confrontation with the status of "do-not resuscitate" policies within th e nurse's institution, informed consent, refusal, and competency as the necessary underpinnings for the development of an ethical and legal posture within the profession, with which to approach significant decisions regarding life-sustaining therapies. Literally every hour of every day nurses are immediately and directly involved with resolving ethical dilemmas based upon judgements and interpretations of oral or written orders, patient and family wishes, professional training, and an infinite number of other factors. When clear policies or orders are lacking, the nurse is left with the burden of making a life or death decision. It is imperative that professional nurses assess the administrative, legal, and ethical ramifications of their actions in terms of ethical codes of practice, patients' rights, institutional and personal liability, civil and criminal laws, and private conscience. An understanding of these issues, passive and active euthansia, state and national trends, and uniform legislation can assist in resolutions of the no-code dilemma. Nursing as a profession must strive to develop sound and consistent guidelines and rationale for the scope of practice in ethical dilemmas.

  10. [Public health, genetics and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow, Miguel H

    2002-10-01

    Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics.

  11. Intensive care ethics in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katherine

    1997-01-01

    The ethics of treating the seriously and critically ill have not been static throughout the ages. Twentieth century medicine has inherited from the nineteenth century a science which places an inappropriate weight on diagnosis over prognosis and management, combined with a seventeenth century duty to prolong life. However other earlier ethical traditions, both Hippocratic and Christian, respected both the limitations of medicine and emphasised the importance of prognosis. This paper outlines some of the historical precedents for the treatment of the critically ill, and also how the current paradigm limits clinical practice and causes ethical tensions. An understanding that other paradigms have been ethically acceptable in the past allows wider consideration and acceptance of alternatives for the future. However future alternatives will also have to address the role of technology, given its importance in this area of medicine.

  12. “My whole life is ethics!” Ordinary ethics and gene therapy clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Courtney; Lassen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    acquire some control in difficult medical situations, and practitioners can attune their care to their patients’ needs. The human provenance of gene therapy practice, and the irreducible sociality of ethics, means that understanding the ethics of this medical field also requires understanding the everyday...

  13. Ethic, society and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel Maya, Augusto

    2000-01-01

    This article is a reproduction of parts the fourth chapter of the book the return of Icaro, Death and life of the philosophy; the Universidad Autonoma de Occidente will publish that. The book intends to debate the crossroad in which any environmental interpretation is finned: penned between the reductionism of natural sciences and the philosophical sobrenaturalism of the social science. Between some natural sciences that don't understand the man and some social sciences that don't recognize the bonds with the nature if this approach is applied to the study of society or of culture, it would be necessary to understand it as the result of a evolutionary process, but also at the same time as a rupture with the previous evolutionary forms. The culture is not in the genes, but it has relationships with nature, the social sciences have not wanted to accept this fact. It has ethical and political consequences. As well as there is no ecosystem ethics, all human ethics should be aware of its relationships with the environment. Maybe this proposal will bring a new vision of what is freedom

  14. Environmental ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautassi G, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    When the Homo Faber; to the beginning of the humanization, overcame the instinct that established a relationship balanced in the ecosphere between the animal and the nature, an interference it began in the relationship man-nature; since that was not adapted this but rather it began its transformation adapting the environment to its necessities. During miles of years the development of this production technique of the Homo Faber could be considered like a progressive and innocuous exploitation of the natural resources. At the present time, kind of a dialectical transformation of the quantity in a new quality characterizes the critical stadium of the new phase of the evolution inaugurated by the Homo Faber. We arrive this way today to that the production force, by means of the science and the technique, outlines us the problem of if for a bigger development in the productivity is necessary a progressive destruction of the ecosphere. That is to say, so that there is progress and will civilization be necessary a progressive interference of the natural balance, with the consequent setting in danger of the life? Moreover this article treats topics about their location and focuses, environmental ethics framed in the talkative ethics and virtues of the environmental ethics, among other topics

  15. Immortal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John

    2004-06-01

    This article draws on ideas published in my "Intimations of Immortality" essay in Science (Vol. 288, No. 5463, p. 59, April 7, 2000) and my "Intimations of Immortality-The Ethics and Justice of Life Extending Therapies" in editor Michael Freeman's Current Legal Problems (Oxford University Press 2002: 65-97). This article outlines the ethical issues involved in life-extending therapies. The arguments against life extension are examined and found wanting. The consequences of life extension are explored and found challenging but not sufficiently daunting to warrant regulation or control. In short, there is no doubt that immortality would be a mixed blessing, but we should be slow to reject cures for terrible diseases that may be an inextricable part of life-extending procedures even if the price we have to pay for those cures is increasing life expectancy and even creating immortals. Better surely to accompany the scientific race to achieve immortality with commensurate work in ethics and social policy to ensure that we know how to cope with the transition to parallel populations of mortals and immortals as envisaged in mythology.

  16. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy

    2011-01-01

    Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...

  17. Some Basics about Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  18. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  19. The Ethic of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  20. [Continuing education in ethics: from clinical ethics to institutional ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau-Lamontagne, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    The mandate of the Ethics Committee of the Conseil de médecins, dentistes et pharmaciens (CMDP) at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS), Sherbrooke, Quebec is three-fold: to guide the clinical decision; to address the institutional ethical function; to create the program for continuing education in ethics (Formation éthique continue or FEC). Might FEC be the means of bridging from individual ethics to institutional ethics at a hospital? To take the FEC perspectives considered appropriate for doctors and consider them for validation or disproving in the context of those of other professionals. Situate the proposed FEC mandate in a reference framework to evaluate (or triangulate) the clinical decision and the institutional ethic. CONVICTION: Sustainable professional development for doctors (DPD) includes ethics; it cannot be ignored. Without constant attention to upgrading one's abilities in professional ethics, these suffer the same fate as other professional aptitudes and competences (for example, techniques and scientific knowledge): decay.

  1. Contribution of ethics education to the ethical competence of nursing students: educators' and students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannaerts, Nancy; Gastmans, Chris; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2014-12-01

    To review the literature on perceptions of nursing students and/or educators on the contribution of ethics education to ethical competence in nursing students. Nurses do not always demonstrate the competencies necessary to engage in ethical practice. Educators continue to debate about the best ways to teach ethics to nurses so that they can develop ethical competencies. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. A total of 15 articles with a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods design published between January 1992 and March 2012 were analyzed. According to students and educators, ethics education increases ethical perception of nursing students and the development of reflective and analytical skills. However, its contribution to the development of ethical behavior was barely mentioned. The accounts of students and educators revealed essential features of effective ethics education: active involvement of students in case study discussions and use of ethical frameworks. The use of activating educational strategies requires a safe learning environment where students can openly reflect on values at stake in their care practice. A better understanding of how students learn to develop ethical skills and of influencing factors can guide educators to develop ethics courses for nursing curriculum. Future research needs to focus on the methodological accuracy of sampling and measuring instruments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF BUSINESS ETHICS PRINCIPLES IN TURKEY AND ROMANIA: A CROSS COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz AGAOGLU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory analysis on Islamic ethical standards, the chapter highlights first (1 the business ethical values and principles of Islamic ethics, second (2 the business ethical values and principles of Turkish Islamic ethics, third (3, the business ethical values and principles of Christian Romanian ethics.

  3. Identity talk of aspirational ethical leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.B.M.; Waistell, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how business leaders dynamically narrate their aspirational ethical leadership identities. In doing so, it furthers understanding of ethical leadership as a process situated in time and place. The analysis focuses on the discursive strategies used to narrate identity and

  4. Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

  5. Ethical Liberalism, Education and the "New Right."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Examines the philosophical tradition of ethical liberalism from its emergence as a coherent response to 19th century classical liberal individualism through contemporary formulations. Pursues origins in John Stuart Mills's writings and assesses ethical liberalism's relevance for understanding current neo-liberal policy restructuring in education.…

  6. Ethics and mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  7. Ethical perspectives on the environmental impact of property development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sentle Mokori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three perspectives that can be found in ethical decision-making are explored to suggest guidelines for ethical property development: the instrumental, the intrinsic and the pluralist perspective. Given the limitations of the instrumental and the intrinsic perspectives, it is suggested that the appropriate perspective to be adopted by ethical property developers is that of pragmatism, as being a system of moral pluralism. This perspective can be utilised as a flexible toolbox which unites both traditional ethical values and the diversity of environmental ethics, as well as allowing new values to emerge without adhering to relativism.

  8. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allon J. Friedman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  9. The ethical dimension of analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Marco Heleno

    2018-04-01

    The centrality of the ethical dimension in Carl Gustav Jung's analytical psychology is demonstrated through careful reference to fundamental moments in the Jungian text. Tracking Jung's statements about the primacy of the 'moral function' (or 'moral factor') in the cure of neurosis as well as in the process of individuation, the ethical nature of the psychotherapeutic praxis proposed by Jung is highlighted. This allows us to see the ethical aspect of psychological conflicts, and thus to understand better why individuation can be seen as a 'moral achievement'. Finally, the intelligible ethical structure of Jungian psychotherapeutic praxis is exposed. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  11. The virtue ethics approach to bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses the viability of a virtue-based approach to bioethics. Virtue ethics is clearly appropriate to addressing issues of professional character and conduct. But another major remit of bioethics is to evaluate the ethics of biomedical procedures in order to recommend regulatory policy. How appropriate is the virtue ethics approach to fulfilling this remit? The first part of this paper characterizes the methodology problem in bioethics in terms of diversity, and shows that virtue ethics does not simply restate this problem in its own terms. However, fatal objections to the way the virtue ethics approach is typically taken in bioethics literature are presented in the second section of the paper. In the third part, a virtue-based approach to bioethics that avoids the shortcomings of the typical one is introduced and shown to be prima facie plausible. The upshot is an inviting new direction for research into bioethics' methodology. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Professional ethics in nursing: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Pakkanen, Piiku; Korhonen, Anne

    2015-08-01

    To conduct an integrative review and synthesize current primary studies of professional ethics in nursing. Professional ethics is a familiar concept in nursing and provides an ethical code for nursing practice. However, little is known about how professional ethics has been defined and studied in nursing science. Systematic literature searches from 1948-February 2013, using the CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus electronic databases to look at previously published peer-reviewed studies. A modified version of Cooper's five-stage integrative review was used to review and synthesize current knowledge. Fourteen papers were included in this research. According to our synthesis, professional ethics is described as an intra-professional approach to care ethics and professionals commit to it voluntarily. Professional ethics consist of values, duties, rights and responsibilities, regulated by national legislation and international agreements and detailed in professional codes. Professional ethics is well established in nursing, but is constantly changing due to internal and external factors affecting the profession. Despite the obvious importance of professional ethics, it has not been studied much in nursing science. Greater knowledge of professional ethics is needed to understand and support nurses' moral decision-making and to respond to the challenges of current changes in health care and society. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Anesthesiological ethics: can informed consent be implied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spike, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Surgical ethics is a well-recognized field in clinical ethics, distinct from medical ethics. It includes at least a dozen important issues common to surgery that do not exist in internal medicine simply because of the differences in their practices. But until now there has been a tendency to include ethical issues of anesthesiology as a part of surgical ethics. This may mask the importance of ethical issues in anesthesiology, and even help perpetuate an unfortunate view that surgeons are "captain of the ship" in the operating theater (leaving anesthesiologists in a subservient role). We will have a better ethical understanding if we see surgery and anesthesia as two equal partners, ethically as well as in terms of patient care. Informed consent is one such issue, but it is not limited to that. Even on the topic of what type of anesthesia to use, anesthesiologists have often felt subsumed to the surgeon's preferences. This commentary takes the case study and uses it as a exemplar for this very claim: it is time to give due recognition for a new field in clinical ethics, ethics in anesthesia.

  14. Ethical concerns and dilemmas of Finnish and Dutch health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilsa Lottes; Hanna Hopia; Mariël Kanne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Healthcare professionals encounter ethical dilemmas and concerns in their practice. More research is needed to understand these ethical problems and to know how to educate professionals to respond to them. Research objective: To describe ethical dilemmas and concerns at work

  15. Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

  16. Experiential Learning and Research Ethics: Enhancing Knowledge through Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…

  17. Ethics on Trial: Teacher's Guide for Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Students' understanding of lawyers and the legal system may be increased through the five law-related ethical issues presented in this document. Legal ethics is defined as: (1) the minimum standard of professional conduct in daily legal situations; and (2) a lawyer's broader responsibility to society. The ethical issues are presented in three…

  18. Traditional Ethics and Social Stability: The African experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional ethics in this paper refers to the norms, precepts, principles and moral codes, which regulate the conduct and actions of individuals in African societies. The paper provides a clear understanding of African Ethics and morality. It shows how traditional ethical principles helped to maintain and ensure social order ...

  19. An introduction to ethical theory for healthcare assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Rodger, Daniel; Blackshaw, B

    2017-01-01

    This article will explore and summarise the four main ethical theories that have relevance for healthcare assistants. These are: utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics and principlism. Understanding different ethical theories can have a number of significant benefits, which have the potential to shape and inform the care of patients, challenge bad practice and lead staff to become better informed about areas of moral disagreement.

  20. "Choose the Future Wisely": Supporting Better Ethics through Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Steven I.; Fearon, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Most people learn and internalize their sense of ethical behavior many years before they assume positions of organizational responsibility. Continued training in ethics helps to develop new understanding and supports ethical behavior. It is also useful to increase the cognitive skills of executives making decisions affecting firms and…

  1. Fiscal ethics, policies, and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Blanco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The connections between ethics, policies and economic theories regarding fiscal matters need a more thorough analysis than the one carried out so far. On one hand, even though there are some ethical proposals on taxation, in general such proposals have not been grounded on explanatory theories of the economy. On the other hand, schools of thought about economy usually fail to ethically justify their political proposals. However, such distinctions cannot be sustained rationally: any ethical proposal concerning fiscal matters involves an explanation of economy, and conversely any proposal related to fiscal policies does not only involve a theory but also an ethical understanding. This article will review such connections, and general conclusions will be applied to two specific cases: first, Rawls’s proposal concerning taxation will be reviewed, having previously studied its descriptive assumptions, and then the lack of an ethical connection between the post Keynesian theory on the monetary circuit and its fiscal proposal will be examined. Finally, a possible “taxation compliance ethic” of tax-payers will be likewise analysed.

  2. A Computerised Business Ethics Expert System -A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Brenner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making

  3. Feminism and group psychotherapy: an ethical responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, J

    1992-10-01

    In response to Martin Lakin's (1991) IJGP article, "Some Ethical Issues in Feminist-Oriented Therapy Groups for Women," this article examines recent developments in feminist theory and proposes that a feminist perspective is both ethical and can make significant contributions to the practice of group psychotherapy. The overview of feminist theory focuses on (1) the importance of the social context, (2) contributions and challenges to psychoanalytic and developmental theory, (3) attention to power relations, (4) the connection between the personal and political, and (5) recognition and integration of diversity and difference. Clinical examples illustrate ways in which male and female group therapists can take a feminist perspective and become "ethical advocates."

  4. Moral Dilemmas and the Concept of Value in Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the consideration of value is necessary to understand moral dilemmas in engineering ethics. First, the author shows that moral dilemmas are not fully understood in engineering ethics and argues that it is due to the lack of understanding of value. Second, the author considers the concept of value from the viewpoint of ‘desirability’ . Finally, three suggestions for improving engineering ethics in the understanding of moral dilemmas are made.

  5. "Gone fishing": modeling diversity in work ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freyberg-Inan, A.; Koçer, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    In his "Anecdote Concerning the Lowering of Productivity", written in 1963, the West-German writer Heinrich Böll humorously contrasts the mindset of an enterprising capitalist, bent on the maximization of profit, with that of a person we might call a profit "satisficer," a maximizer of leisure or

  6. From virtue ethics to rights ethics: Did the Reformation pave the way for secular ethics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Vorster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In chapter four of his book, The unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory argues that ethical thinking since the 1500’s experienced a major shift in emphasis from the teleological concept of a ‘substantive morality of the good’ to liberalism’s ‘formal morality of rights’. He attributes it to the religious upheavals and ‘sociopolitical disruptions’ during the Reformation era. This article probes three elements of Gregory’s argument. Firstly, the article offers a critical assessment of Gregory’s depiction of the Reformation’s stance towards reason. It pays particular attention to the Reformation’s understanding of the effects of sin on the human being’s image of God, reason and the possibility for a shared social ethics. Secondly, this study scrutinises Gregory’s argument that the Reformation created an individualist notion of selfhood in contrast to the Roman Catholic communal notion of selfhood and thereby paved the way for modernism. Lastly, the discussion probes into Gregory’s claim that the Reformation’s ethical paradigm diverged radically from the Latin Christendom paradigm and that this contributed to the subjectivisation of ethics, by replacing a virtue ethics with a rights ethics.

  7. The influence of emotions on trust in ethical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wing-Shing; Selart, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to delineate the interaction between trust, emotion, and ethical decision making. The authors first propose that trust can either in cite an individual toward ethical decisions or drag him or her away from ethical decisions, depending on different situations. The authors then postulate that the feeling of guilt is central in understanding how trust affects the ethical decision making process. Several propositions based on these assumptions are in...

  8. Professional ethics in biomedical engineering practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some guidelines for use with the accepted fundamental canons of ethics for engineers. We present some rules of practice and professional obligations emerging from these canons. Basic recommendations for engineers dissenting on ethical grounds are also presented. Ethical issues relating to Biomedical Engineering research are illustrated. We mention some cases that could be used to further understanding the ethical implications of biomedical engineering practice.

  9. AN AGENDA OF MORALITY FOR BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA PUP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper work is to conclude a short confirmation for business ethics. A redundant argument for business ethics, should, in our opinion start from the philosophical field. A major problem with business ethics is the foreclosing of philosophy, society and politics from its debate area. Before understanding the common sense for business ethics, we have to know how to act in a moral way. It is important to understand the identity of the human being, its signification and goals. Therefore the first part of this research enclose to philosophy, pointing out three aspects concerted to morality. We consider that only after a proper analyze of the human being, we can argue for business ethics and its implication in different area. Otherwise “business” becomes a problem for “ethics” and “ethics” become a problem for “business”.

  10. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  11. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  12. Different views on ethics: how animal ethics is situated in a committee culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideland, M

    2009-04-01

    Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions.

  13. A Scoping Study on the Ethics of Health Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Rattani, Abbas; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-12-01

    Currently, health systems research (HSR) is reviewed by the same ethical standards as clinical research, which has recently been argued in the literature to be an inappropriate standard of evaluation. The issues unique to HSR warrant a different review by research ethics committees (RECs), as it does not impose the same risks to study participants as other types of clinical or public health research. However, there are limited tools and supporting documents that clarify the ethical considerations. Therefore, there is a need for additional reflection around ethical review of HSR and their consideration by RECs. The purpose of this paper is to review, understand, and synthesize the current state of literature and practice to inform these deliberations and the larger discourse on ethics review guidelines for HSR. This paper presents a review of the literature on ethics of HSR in the biomedical, public health, and implementation research to identify ethical considerations specific to HSR; and to identify examples of commonly available guidance and/or tools for the ethical review of HSR studies. Fifteen articles were identified on HSR ethics issues, and forty-two international academic institutions were contacted (of the responses (n=29), no institution had special ethical guidelines for reviewing HSR) about their HSR ethics review guidelines. There appears to be a clear gap in the current health research ethics discourse around health systems research ethics. This review serves as a first step (to better understand the current status) towards a larger dialogue on the topic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003-2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  15. Ethical leadership: perceptions of instructors and academic leaders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical leadership: perceptions of instructors and academic leaders of western cluster public ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to understand their respective institutions and develop effective communication systems.

  16. A systematic approach to engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jessica; Fu, Shengli

    2012-06-01

    Engineering ethics education is a complex field characterized by dynamic topics and diverse students, which results in significant challenges for engineering ethics educators. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to determine what to teach and how to teach in an ethics curriculum. This is a topic that has not been adequately addressed in the engineering ethics literature. This systematic approach provides a method to: (1) develop a context-specific engineering ethics curriculum using the Delphi technique, a process-driven research method; and (2) identify appropriate delivery strategies and instructional strategies using an instructional design model. This approach considers the context-specific needs of different engineering disciplines in ethics education and leverages the collaboration of engineering professors, practicing engineers, engineering graduate students, ethics scholars, and instructional design experts. The proposed approach is most suitable for a department, a discipline/field or a professional society. The approach helps to enhance learning outcomes and to facilitate ethics education curriculum development as part of the regular engineering curriculum.

  17. Ethic's pedagogy: from responsibility to alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Vila Merino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, since the so-called 'linguistic turn' and the rise of the notion of discursive formations, has tended to combine the teleological and the deontological. That means that, if ethics is to be useful in understanding relationships and other social issues, or in building the common good, it ought to take a procedural position. We believe that the teaching of ethics should be based on the notions of responsibility and alterity. These two concepts are helpful in promoting mutual understanding and other-directedness.

  18. Teaching for Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of teaching for ethical reasoning. Much of our teaching is in vain if it is not applied to life in an ethical manner. The article reviews lapses in ethical reasoning and the great costs they have had for society. It proposes that ethical reasoning can be taught across the curriculum. It presents an eight-step…

  19. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  20. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  1. Understanding Ethics in School-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob

    2018-01-01

    The notion of the "teacher as researcher" has been in the education lexicon since the mid-1970s. School-based research, we suggest, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance, flourishing within the emerging, complex school landscape. This empirical research engages with 25 school leaders to explore the ways in which…

  2. understanding medical ethics in a contemporary society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    these basic principles will go a long way in reducing the ... medical practitioner must therefore be prepared at all ... physician accepts to see a patient, he must define in his ... tells the nurse who is doing daily ..... International Journal of Medical ...

  3. RESPONSIBILITY FOR ETHICS IN ITC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARES MARIUS DANIEL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors aim to create a presentation of the triangle morals-ethics-responsibility with an accent on the current globalized society. Business ethics has to disseminate in all the corners of a company, and first of all it has to be understood. Understanding the moral criteria of behaviour in business is important because the new Organizational structures create new complications, related to information flow and information administration inside various workgroups and in the entire organization, for which there are no traditional precedents.

  4. Ethical issues in optometric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sithole

    2010-12-01

    ever, the goal of ethical decision making in optometry should be to identify one or more courses of action that will honor the profession’s essential values while minimizing conflict with other values and professional standards. Every profession, every practice and every practitioner is governed by not only legal constraints, but also by the ethical concerns of ensuring that the patient is properly served. Considering our practices from a patient’s perspective can help optometrists understand the multiple responsibilities of clinical practice. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(2 93-99

  5. MEDICAL ETHICS EDUCATION IN TURKEY; STATE OF PLAY AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif

    Medical ethics can be traced back to Hippocratic Oath in antiquity. Last decade witnessed improvements in science and technology which attracted attention to the ethical impacts of the innovations in medicine. The need to combine medical innovations with a preservation of human values and to cultivate ethical competencies required by professionalism conceived medical ethics education in various levels in medical schools. Despite the diversities regarding teaching hours, methodology and content of the courses, medical ethics became a fundamental part of medical education around the world. In Turkey medical ethics education is given both in undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The high increase in the number of medical schools and shortfall of instructors who have medical ethics as their primary academic focus creates a big challenge in medical ethics education in both levels. Currently there are 89 medical schools in Turkey and only six medical schools are giving postgraduate medical ethics education. In 2010 only 33 of all medical schools could establish a separate department dedicated to medical ethics. There are no medical ethics courses embedded in residency programs. The quality and standardization of undergraduate medical ethics education has started but there are no initiatives to do so in postgraduate level.

  6. Engineers’ Responsibilities for Global Electronic Waste: Exploring Engineering Student Writing Through a Care Ethics Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ryan C.; Wilson, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an empirically informed perspective on the notion of responsibility using an ethical framework that has received little attention in the engineering-related literature to date: ethics of care. In this work, we ground conceptual explorations of engineering responsibility in empirical findings from engineering student’s writing on the human health and environmental impacts of “backyard” electronic waste recycling/disposal. Our findings, from a purposefully diverse sample of engineering students in an introductory electrical engineering course, indicate that most of these engineers of tomorrow associated engineers with responsibility for the electronic waste (e-waste) problem in some way. However, a number of responses suggested attempts to deflect responsibility away from engineers towards, for example, the government or the companies for whom engineers work. Still other students associated both engineers and non-engineers with responsibility, demonstrating the distributed/collective nature of responsibility that will be required to achieve a solution to the global problem of excessive e-waste. Building upon one element of a framework for care ethics adopted from the wider literature, these empirical findings are used to facilitate a preliminary, conceptual exploration of care-ethical responsibility within the context of engineering and e-waste recycling/disposal. The objective of this exploration is to provide a first step toward understanding how care-ethical responsibility applies to engineering. We also hope to seed dialogue within the engineering community about its ethical responsibilities on the issue. We conclude the paper with a discussion of its implications for engineering education and engineering ethics that suggests changes for educational policy and the practice of engineering. PMID:27368195

  7. Engineers' Responsibilities for Global Electronic Waste: Exploring Engineering Student Writing Through a Care Ethics Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ryan C; Wilson, Denise

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an empirically informed perspective on the notion of responsibility using an ethical framework that has received little attention in the engineering-related literature to date: ethics of care. In this work, we ground conceptual explorations of engineering responsibility in empirical findings from engineering student's writing on the human health and environmental impacts of "backyard" electronic waste recycling/disposal. Our findings, from a purposefully diverse sample of engineering students in an introductory electrical engineering course, indicate that most of these engineers of tomorrow associated engineers with responsibility for the electronic waste (e-waste) problem in some way. However, a number of responses suggested attempts to deflect responsibility away from engineers towards, for example, the government or the companies for whom engineers work. Still other students associated both engineers and non-engineers with responsibility, demonstrating the distributed/collective nature of responsibility that will be required to achieve a solution to the global problem of excessive e-waste. Building upon one element of a framework for care ethics adopted from the wider literature, these empirical findings are used to facilitate a preliminary, conceptual exploration of care-ethical responsibility within the context of engineering and e-waste recycling/disposal. The objective of this exploration is to provide a first step toward understanding how care-ethical responsibility applies to engineering. We also hope to seed dialogue within the engineering community about its ethical responsibilities on the issue. We conclude the paper with a discussion of its implications for engineering education and engineering ethics that suggests changes for educational policy and the practice of engineering.

  8. Revision of Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Sigmund

    2011-01-01

    Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would li...

  9. Towards an ethics of authentic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave; Perron, Amélie; Rail, Geneviève

    2008-10-01

    This essay asks how we might best elaborate an ethics of authentic practice. Will we be able to agree on a set of shared terms through which ethical practice will be understood? How will we define ethics and the subject's relation to authoritative structures of power and knowledge? We begin by further clarifying our critique of evidence-based medicine (EBM), reflecting on the intimate relation between theory and practice. We challenge the charge that our position amounts to no more than 'subjectivism' and 'antiauthoritarian' theory. We argue that an ethical practice ought to question the authority of EBM without falling into the trap of dogmatic antiauthoritarianism. In this, we take up the work of Hannah Arendt, who offers terms to help understand our difficult political relation to authority in an authentic ethical practice. We continue with a discussion of Michel Foucault's use of 'free speech' or parrhesia, which he adopts from Ancient Greek philosophy. Foucault demonstrates that authentic ethical practice demands that we 'speak truth to power.' We conclude with a consideration of recent biotechnologies, and suggest that these biomedical practices force us to re-evaluate our theoretical understanding of the ethical subject. We believe that we are at a crucial juncture: we must develop an ethics of authentic practice that will be commensurable with new and emergent biomedical subjectivities.

  10. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glannon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    re-establish their identity. Neuroprosthetics can maximize benefit and minimize harm for people affected by damaged or dysfunctional brains and improve the quality of their lives. Significance. Provided that adequate protections are in place for research subjects and patients, the probable benefit of research into and therapeutic applications of neuroprosthetics outweighs the risk and therefore can be ethically justified. Depending on their neurogenerative potential, there may be an ethical obligation to conduct this research. Advances in neuroscience will generate new ethical and philosophical questions about people and their brains. These questions should shape the evolution and application of novel techniques to better understand and treat brain disorders.

  11. Ethics in retail business

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRUŠKA, Leoš

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current state of ethics in retail establishments and to find suitable solutions to improve the situation. In literary part I described the important concepts of business ethics, moral, ethics, social responsibility. I also dealt with business ethics and implementation of codes of conduct, which I explained in more detail in the practical part. In the practical part, I examined the ethical codes of retail companies and for better illustrative there is a ...

  12. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no commun...

  13. Ethics in Management Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Vallini

    2007-01-01

    Ethics is a relevant value in business and management consulting. The presence of recognized ethics tends to reduce the need for informative or legal-contractual precautions in the formalization of relationships, for both of the parts involved in a negotiation. Management Consulting on ethics will develop more and more. Law will consider more and more ethics in business and management consulting. The ethics of corporations influences their workers and behaviour with the customers. It is an e...

  14. Ethical and cultural striving: Lived experiences of minority nurses in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede-Nissen, Veslemøy; Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi; Jakobsen, Rita; Sørlie, Venke

    2017-09-01

    Nursing workforce in Western European health institutions has become more diverse because of immigration and recruitment from Asian, African, and East-European countries. Minority healthcare providers may experience communication problems in interaction with patients and coworkers, and they are likely to experience conflict or uncertainty when confronted with different cultural traditions and values. Persons with dementia are a vulnerable group, and the consequences of their illness challenge the ability to understand and express oneself verbally. The large number of minority healthcare providers in nursing homes underlines the importance to obtain better knowledge about this group's experiences with the care challenges in dementia care units. Can you tell about any challenges in the experiences in the encounter with persons suffering from dementia? Participants and research context: Five minority healthcare providers in a nursing home, in a dementia unit. All guidelines for research ethic were followed. Ethical consideration: The participants were informed that participation was voluntary, and they were guarantied anonymity. We used a qualitative method, conducting individual interviews, using a narrative approach. In the analysis, we applied a phenomenological-hermeneutical method, developed for researching life experiences. One theme and four subthemes: striving to understand the quality of care for persons with dementia. The subthemes: sensitivity to understand the patients' verbal and nonverbal expressions. To understand gratefulness, understand the patient as an adult and autonomous person, and understand the patient as a patient in a nursing home. Challenges comprise both ethical and cultural striving to understand persons with dementia. To care for persons with dementia in an unfamiliar context may be understood as a striving for acting ethically, when at the same time striving to adapt and acculturate to new cultural norms, in order to practice good

  15. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  16. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  17. What is an Ethical Chemist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2017-02-22

    Almost all decisions made by chemists, and all other scientists, in their professional lives have an ethical dimension. In both the practice of chemistry and the education of students it is essential that chemists understand the moral complexity of real-world situations, apply the relevant moral standards, and have the moral courage to make difficult choices, or the foundation of trust essential to the scientific enterprise will erode. In this lecture I will develop the fundamental concepts of scientific ethics and show how they apply to both the practice of chemistry and the relationship between chemistry and society. I will consider both day-to-day ethical problems such as authorship and the treatment of data and larger questions such as the choice of research problems and the social responsibility of scientists.

  18. Undergraduate healthcare ethics education, moral resilience, and the role of ethical theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Settimio

    2014-06-01

    This article combines foundational and empirical aspects of healthcare education and develops a framework for teaching ethical theories inspired by pragmatist learning theory and recent work on the concept of moral resilience. It describes an exemplary implementation and presents data from student evaluation. After a pilot implementation in a regular ethics module, the feasibility and acceptance of the novel framework by students were evaluated. In addition to the regular online module evaluation, specific questions referring to the teaching of ethical theories were added using simple (yes/no) and Likert rating answer formats. At the Bern University of Applied Sciences, a total of 93 students from 2 parallel sub-cohorts of the bachelor's program in nursing science were sent the online survey link after having been exposed to the same modular contents. A total of 62% of all students participated in the survey. The survey was voluntary and anonymous. Students were free to write their name and additional comments. Students consider ethical theories-as taught within the proposed framework-as practically applicable, useful, and transferable into practice. Teaching ethical theories within the proposed framework overcomes the shortcomings described by current research. Students do not consider the mutually exclusive character of ethical theories as an insurmountable problem. The proposed framework is likely to promote the effectiveness of healthcare ethics education. Inspired by pragmatist learning theory, it enables students to consider ethical theories as educative playgrounds that help them to "frame" and "name" the ethical issues they encounter in daily practice, which is seen as an expression of moral resilience. Since it does not advocate a single ethical theory, but is open to the diversity of traditions that shape ethical thinking, it promotes a culturally sensitive, ethically reflected healthcare practice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  20. [Nursing ethics and the access to nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Settimio

    2013-08-01

    The increasing number of ethical issues highlighted in everyday nursing care demonstrates the connectedness between nursing ethics and nursing practice. However, what is the role of ethical theories in this context? This question will be examined in this article by analysing the contribution made by the ethics of care, in particular in understandings of gender roles, asymmetries of power, professional knowledge and experience. The adoption and criticism of an emergent nursing ethics is discussed and stated from different viewpoints. The actuality of the caring approach is affirmed by a new reading of the given situation. This article first describes the traditional perception of nurses as marginalised actors in the health sector. By making reference to the current and growing global scarcity of nursing care, it contends that nursing will no longer be marginalised, but instead at the centre of public health attention and reputation. Nevertheless, marginalisation will persist by increasingly affecting the care receivers, especially those groups that are pushed to the fringes by the consequences of the healthcare market, such as persons of extreme old age, suffering from multiple morbidities, or with poor health literacy. Whereas the "classical" understanding of the ethics of care focuses on the nurse-patient relationship and on individual care and understanding of ethics, the new understanding confirms the classical, but adds an understanding of social ethics: caring for the access to care is seen as a main ethical goal of social justice within a nursing ethic.

  1. Ethics curriculum for emergency medicine graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Lu, Dave W; Stettner, Edward; Sokolove, Peter E; Ufberg, Jacob W; Noeller, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Ethics education is an essential component of graduate medical education in emergency medicine. A sound understanding of principles of bioethics and a rational approach to ethical decision-making are imperative. This article addresses ethics curriculum content, educational approaches, educational resources, and resident feedback and evaluation. Ethics curriculum content should include elements suggested by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. Essential ethics content includes ethical principles, the physician-patient relationship, patient autonomy, clinical issues, end-of-life decisions, justice, education in emergency medicine, research ethics, and professionalism. The appropriate curriculum in ethics education in emergency medicine should include some of the content and educational approaches outlined in this article, although the optimal methods for meeting these educational goals may vary by institution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual Scholar Productivity Rankings in Business Ethics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Warnick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have been a time of significant development for the academic business ethics community. While a number of scholars have contributed to advances in the field, the work of the individuals who have contributed to its progress and growth through their business ethics research is still not comprehensively understood within the academic business ethics community. This study identifies those individuals who have made major contributions to the business ethics field by ranking authors who have published business ethics-related research in the following six journals over the past 20 years: the Journal of Business Ethics, the Academy of Management Review, the Academy of Management Journal, the Business Ethics Quarterly, the Administrative Science Quarterly; and Business & Society. The results of the study should be of interest to a number of constituencies as they provide the academic business ethics community with a better understanding of the history and evolution of the field and its development towards academic maturity.

  3. Narrative ethics for narrative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Clive

    2015-08-01

    Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Institutional initiatives in professional scientific ethics: three case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund; Bilham, Nic

    2015-04-01

    Learned and professional scientific bodies can play a vital role in promoting ethical behaviours, giving practical substance to theoretical consideration of geoethical principles and complementing the efforts of individual scientists and practitioners to behave in a professional and ethical manner. Institutions may do this through mandatory professional codes of conduct, by developing guidelines and initiatives to codify and stimulate the uptake of best practice, and through wider initiatives to engender a culture conducive to such behaviours. This presentation will outline three current institutional initiatives which directly or indirectly address scientific ethics: i. The UK Science Council's Declaration on Diversity, Equality and Inclusion. ii. Development and promulgation of the American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct. iii. The American Geophysical Union's (AGU) Scientific Code of Conduct and Professional Ethics. The focus of the Science Council and its member bodies (including the Geological Society of London) on diversity is of central importance when considering ethical behaviours in science. First, improving equality and diversity in the science workforce is at the heart of ethical practice, as well as being essential to meeting current and future skills needs. Second, in addition to demographic diversity (whether in terms of gender, race, economic status, sexuality or gender identity, etc), an important dimension of diversity in science is to allow space for a plurality of scientific views, and to nurture dissenting voices - essential both to the development of scientific knowledge and to its effective communication to non-technical audiences.

  5. The Medical Ethics of Cognitive Neuroenhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick H. Cheung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescription stimulant medications have been sought for cognitive “neuroenhancement”, the practice of enhancing ostensibly normal cognitive function such as attention span, focus, and memory. This trend, particularly studied in college students, has driven a debate about many ethical aspects related to cognitive enhancement; however, the central role of physicians and the medical ethics of this practice have been minimally investigated. In this paper, a clinical case serves as the focal point to review the current state of prescription stimulant use for enhancement, beginning with the medical and legal problems related to the surreptitious, yet common, behaviors of diversion and malingering. In contrast, there may be a growing trend for individuals to seek prescription stimulants “openly” (without malingering or diversion as a direct request from their physician, which leads to complex ethical questions. A model of clinical-ethical decision making (the “four-box model” from Jonsen et al. is applied to analyze the factors that a physician must consider when deciding whether to engage in the open prescribing of a stimulant neuroenhancer to otherwise healthy, autonomous adults. Four domains are explored in depth: medical indications, quality of life/beneficence, patient preferences, and contextual factors. Relevant experiences from the medical disciplines involved in athletic enhancement and cosmetic enhancement are discussed. Although an overall ethical framework for neuroenhancement continues to evolve, from a perspective of medical ethics there are presently significant reasons to be wary of cognitive neuroenhancement with stimulant medications.

  6. Neuroscientists' everyday experiences of ethics: the interplay of regulatory, professional, personal and tangible ethical spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh; Cribb, Alan; Wainwright, Steven P; Williams, Clare

    2013-11-01

    The ethical issues neuroscience raises are subject to increasing attention, exemplified in the emergence of the discipline neuroethics. While the moral implications of neurotechnological developments are often discussed, less is known about how ethics intersects with everyday work in neuroscience and how scientists themselves perceive the ethics of their research. Drawing on observation and interviews with members of one UK group conducting neuroscience research at both the laboratory bench and in the clinic, this article examines what ethics meant to these researchers and delineates four specific types of ethics that shaped their day-to-day work: regulatory, professional, personal and tangible. While the first three categories are similar to those identified elsewhere in sociological work on scientific and clinical ethics, the notion of 'tangible ethics' emerged by attending to everyday practice, in which these scientists' discursive distinctions between right and wrong were sometimes challenged. The findings shed light on how ethical positions produce and are, in turn, produced by scientific practice. Informing sociological understandings of neuroscience, they also throw the category of neuroscience and its ethical specificity into question, given that members of this group did not experience their work as raising issues that were distinctly neuro-ethical. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Need for ethics support in healthcare institutions: views of Dutch board members and ethics support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwerse, Linda; Abma, Tineke; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the need for ethics support in Dutch healthcare institutions in order to understand why ethics support is often not used in practice and which factors are relevant in this context. This study had a mixed methods design integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods. Two survey questionnaires, two focus groups and 17 interviews were conducted among board members and ethics support staff in Dutch healthcare institutions. Most respondents see a need for ethics support. This need is related to the complexity of contemporary healthcare, the contribution of ethics support to the core business of the organisation and to the surplus value of paying structural attention to ethical issues. The need for ethics support is, however, not unconditional. Reasons for a lacking need include: aversion of innovations, negative associations with the notion of ethics support service, and organisational factors like resources and setting. There is a conditioned need for ethics support in Dutch healthcare institutions. The promotion of ethics support in healthcare can be fostered by focusing on formats which fit the needs of (practitioners in) healthcare institutions. The emphasis should be on creating a (culture of) dialogue about the complex situations which emerge daily in contemporary healthcare practice.

  8. Should Professional Ethics Education Incorporate Single-Professional or Interprofessional Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldicott, Catherine V.; Braun, Eli A.

    2011-01-01

    Since ethical issues in the contemporary delivery of health care involve doctors, nurses, technicians, and members of other health professions, the authors consider whether members of diverse health care occupations might benefit from studying ethics in a single classroom. While interprofessional courses may be better at teaching the ethics of the…

  9. Nonrational processes in ethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mark D; Gottlieb, Michael C; Handelsman, Mitchell M; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasilegal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior, including context, perceptions, relationships, emotions, and heuristics. For example, a large body of behavioral research has demonstrated the importance of automatic intuitive and affective processes in decision making and judgment. These processes profoundly affect human behavior and lead to systematic biases and departures from normative theories of rationality. Their influence represents an important but largely unrecognized component of ethical decision making. We selectively review this work; provide various illustrations; and make recommendations for scientists, trainers, and practitioners to aid them in integrating the understanding of nonrational processes with ethical decision making.

  10. Reducing barriers to ethics in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Illes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is a growing interest for neuroscientists, but rather than signifying a commitment to the protection of human subjects, care of animals, and public understanding to which the professional community is engaged in a fundamental way, interest has been consumed by administrative overhead and the mission creep of institutional ethics reviews. Faculty, trainees, and staff (N=605 whose work involves brain imaging and brain stimulation completed an online survey about ethics in their research. Using factor analysis and linear regression, we found significant effects for invasiveness of imaging technique, professional position, gender, and local presence of bioethics centers. We propose strategies for improving communication between the neuroscience community and ethics review boards, collaborations between neuroscientists and biomedical ethicists, and ethics training in graduate neuroscience programs to revitalize mutual goals and interests.

  11. Ethical aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    The appeal to 'ethics' often raised in social disputes about the consequences of technological developments and the demand to orient oneself in 'ethical standards' in the upcoming decisions is often based on an inadequate understanding of the discipline in question. Therefore, in the short term - with regard to the particular case of radioactive waste management - it is necessary to question what ethics is capable of doing and what is not. At the center of the lecture will then be the critical examination of arguments which relied on ethical principles such as the 'principle of responsibility', the 'polluter pays' principle or principles of (transgenerational) justice, in order to dispose first of all as an obligation of the present generation and secondly as to prove national task. Both demands are more likely to be met with skepticism from an ethical point of view. (roessner)

  12. What are applied ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  13. Revision of Business Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Sigmund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would like to show the contradictions inherent to the connection of business and ethics are no coincidence. At the end a possible relationship between ethics and business sphere will be suggested.

  14. ETHICS & CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary F.Alexander

    2004-01-01

    @@ "The international market for used equipment is evolving very rapidly. Unfortunately, most buyers and sellers of used equipment have not made the effort to understand and keep pace with the global ramifications of the business they are in."

  15. Same Principles, Different Worlds: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Medical Ethics and Nursing Ethics in Finnish Professional Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxén, Salla

    2018-03-01

    This qualitative social scientific study explores professional texts of healthcare ethics to understand the ways in which ethical professionalism in medicine and nursing are culturally constructed in Finland. Two books in ethics, published by Finnish national professional organizations-one for nurses and one for physicians-were analyzed with the method of critical discourse analysis. Codes of ethics for each profession were also scrutinized. Analysis of the texts sought to reveal what is taken for granted in the texts as well as to speculate what appeared to be relegated to the margins of the texts or left entirely invisible. Physicians' ethics was discovered to emphasize objectivity and strong group membership as a basis for ethical professionalism. The discourses identified in the physicians' ethics guidebook were universal ethics, reductionism, non-subjectivity, and threat. Nursing ethics was discovered to highlight reflectivity as its central focus. This idea of reflectivity was echoed in the identified discourses: local ethics, enlightenment, and moral agency. The analysis exposes a cultural gap between the ethics discourses of medicine and nursing. More work is needed to bridge ethics discourses in Finland in a way that can support healthcare professionals to find common ground and to foster inclusivity in ethical dialogue. Further development of bioethical practices is suggested as a potential way forward.

  16. Ethics Committee or Community? Examining the identity of Czech Ethics Committees in the period of transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Jiri; Zamykalova, Lenka; Mesanyova, Marie

    2010-09-01

    Reflecting on a three year long exploratory research of ethics committees in the Czech Republic authors discuss the current role and identity of research ethics committees. The research of Czech ethics committees focused on both self-presentation and self-understanding of ECs members, and how other stakeholders (representatives of the pharmaceutical industry) view them. The exploratory research was based on formal and informal communication with the members of the ethics committees. Members of the research team took part at six regular voluntary meetings of the ethics committees' members, organised by the Forum of Czech Ethics Committees, and at three summer schools of medical ethics. There were realised twenty-five semi-structured interviews as well as six focus group sessions and a participant observation of several regular meetings of three ethics committees. On the grounds of experience from the interviews a simple questionnaire survey was realised among the members of the ethics committees. The ethics committees comprise a community of members working voluntarily, without claims to remuneration or prestige; the unifying goal is protection of subjects of research. The principal working methods are dialogue and agreement. The members of the ethics committees thus, among other things, create an informal community, which can be to a certain extent seen as a Kantian ethical community in a weak sense. The phenomenon of ethics committees can also be described by terms of an epistemic community and a community of practice. These concepts, which are borrowed from other authors and areas, are used as a way how to think of ECs role and identity a bit differently and are meant as a contribution to the current international debate on the topic.

  17. How Should Ethical Theories Be Dealt with in Engineering Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    Contemporary engineering ethics scholars deal with contesting several ethical theories without criticizing them radically and try to use them to solve ethical problems. In this paper I first show that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial, and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Second, I claim that the way to deal with contesting ethical theories in contemporary engineering ethics has an unacceptable side which does not accord with my argument that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Finally, I conclude that this inconsistency in contemporary engineering ethics should be corrected to make contemporary engineering ethics consistent.

  18. Bioethics and conflicting ethical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Some of the major problematic issues in contemporary ethical discourse are highlighted in the field of bioethics. The need to incorporate new understandings and foundational shifts in essential criteria because of technological advances in the areas of medicine and human sciences increasingly challenges traditional and accepted notions of ethics. As the possibilities of technical progress increase, more and more pressure is put on traditional understandings of the human person, identity, and value. In the face of ethical relativism and emotivism, which are already widespread in social and political discourse, the immediacy of bioethics as a response to technology and its impact on human lives reinforces the need for ethics to become interdisciplinary, while attempting to provide some coherence to both the questions and the responses that contemporary life generates. In this paper, the author intends to sketch the outlines of some of these problems, and suggest one approach which might allow a certain methodical intelligibility to emerge which takes into account shifts in consciousness and the dependence on historically grounded perspective.

  19. Code of ethics: principles for ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

  20. Ethical aspects of business

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis covers the topic of the ethical aspects of business. The paper defines what an ethics and a business ethics are and it describes selected tools of business ethics. The practical part focuses on building company called Skanska and on its view of business ethics. This part consists of an interview with managing director of Skanska SK a.s. and of a questionnaire survey. The main goal of this thesis is to analyze the level of the business ethics in this building company. The main rese...

  1. Biblical Ethics and Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of unification versus relationality in ethics. It compares two different ethical approaches from Late Antiquity, highlighting the contrast between Plotinian (Neoplatonic) ethics as striving for perfect unification of the human soul with the divinity...... - and Biblical ethics as a relational ethics, where alterity remains operative in the encounter with the deity, and where the primary ethical demand is to relate properly to fellow creatures and God as other. The latter demand is exemplified by the figure of Job, whose righteousness is interpreted as his...

  2. Ethical issues in caring for patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julian; Common, Jill

    2015-08-05

    This article discusses issues that might count as 'ethical' in the care of people with dementia and some of the dilemmas that occur. Ethical theories, such as virtue ethics, deontology and consequentialism are discussed, and ethical approaches that can be useful are outlined. Thinking about matters case-by-case is another approach, one that forms the first component of the Nuffield Council's ethical framework for dementia care, which is described. Case examples are provided, raising issues of autonomy, diagnosis, restraint and withholding treatment. The notion of personhood and the need to understand the person with dementia as broadly as possible are emphasised. Recommendations for nursing practice are included.

  3. Ethics as a beneficial Trojan horse in a technological society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, Ramón

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the transformation of ethics in a globalizing technological society. After describing some basic features of this society, particularly the primacy it gives to a special type of technical rationality, three specific influences on traditional ethics are examined: (1) a change concerning the notion of value, (2) the decreasing relevance of the concept of axiological hierarchy, and (3) the new internal architecture of ethics as a net of values. These three characteristics suggest a new pragmatic understanding of ethics. From a pragmatic perspective, the process of introducing ethical values into contemporary society can be regarded as a beneficial Trojan horse, a metaphor that will be developed further.

  4. Exploring accountability of clinical ethics consultants: practice and training implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Kathryn L; Daly, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultants represent a multidisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners with varied training backgrounds, who are integrated into a medical environment to assist in the provision of ethically supportable care. Little has been written about the degree to which such consultants are accountable for the patient care outcome of the advice given. We propose a model for examining degrees of internally motivated accountability that range from restricted to unbounded accountability, and support balanced accountability as a goal for practice. Finally, we explore implications of this model for training of clinical ethics consultants from diverse academic backgrounds, including those disciplines that do not have a formal code of ethics relating to clinical practice.

  5. Freshman Ethics Course Influences Students' Basic Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, James R.; Wong, Frank T.

    1989-01-01

    A freshman class called "Educational Odysseys" that bound together four themes and the concern for ethical living is described. The four themes included: the problem of identity; responses to good and evil; the search for success and surviving failure; and cultural diversity and a liberal education. (MLW)

  6. Ethical dilemmas experienced by occupational therapy students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Ethics training strives to facilitate critical thinking, objective analysis and clinical reasoning skills to equip students with the ability to make an impartial and unbiased decision in different contexts and diverse client populations. This enhances students' learning experiences. Occupational therapy (OT) students ...

  7. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  8. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  9. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  10. Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Remišová; Anna Lašáková

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited understanding what the constituent elements of the ethical leadership are. Although various researchers defined ethical leadership as a specific leadership style, with typical personality traits and behaviors, the precise instantiation of the content of ethical leadership was only seldom investigated. The body of empirical research on ethical leadership is only slowly beginning to build up. Furthermore, the ethical leadership in Central and Eastern European countries (CEE c...

  11. Ethical codes in business practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kobrlová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the issues of ethics and codes of ethics in business. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of ethics, presents its historical development and the methods and tools of business ethics. It also focuses on ethical codes and the area of law and ethics. The practical part consists of a quantitative survey, which provides views of selected business entities of business ethics and the use of codes of ethics in practice.

  12. On the Educational Value of Philosophical Ethics for Teacher Education: The Practice of Ethical Inquiry as Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and ways in which philosophical ethics can make an educational contribution to teachers' understanding of their practice as a distinct moral domain. Philosophical ethics is argued to facilitate two necessary features of teachers' moral understanding of their practice. First, it promotes awareness of the…

  13. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  14. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense of establishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  15. Critical Virtue Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schmidt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of Anscombe’s famous paper “Modern Moral Philosophy” (1958, virtue ethics has become a matter of discussion among scholars. At least four charges have been raised against virtue ethics, one of which is the charge of promoting undue enthusiasm regarding the moral fitness of human beings. This article explores the limits of virtue ethics with regard to the frailty of human virtuousness. After giving a report of the charges raised against virtue ethics from the perspective of empirical ethics, the author presents the idea of what he would like to call critical virtue ethics as seen by three Lutheran thinkers: Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Luther himself. He will demonstrate that the empirical contestation of virtue ethics shows a remarkable resemblance to insights found in Luther, Kant and Nietzsche. And finally, the writer draws tentative conclusions about the future of critical virtue ethics.

  16. [Toward a practical ethic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  17. COMMUNICATION, ETHICS AND ANTHROPOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  18. Ethics for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  19. Understanding the Linguistic Needs of Diverse Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Some Comments on the Research Literature and Suggestions for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Nataly; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2018-03-12

    The practice of advising bilingual parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to speak in a single language, often the majority language of the region, with their child with ASD seems to be common. Such advice, however, is not grounded on empirical evidence but appears to be based more on logical arguments and assumptions. In this commentary, fears surrounding dual language exposure and empirical evidence supporting bilingualism in children with ASD are discussed. Suggestions for future research and three key steps that clinicians can consider taking to better address the needs of diverse learners are provided.

  20. Clinical ethics in rehabilitation medicine: core objectives and algorithm for resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, J A; McPeak, L; Gittler, M; Bodenheimer, C; King, J; Bowen, J

    2002-09-01

    Described as the balance of values on either side of a moral dilemma, ethics and ethical issues are of increasing importance in the changing practice of rehabilitation medicine. Because the substance of ethics and true ethical issues can be difficult to identify, the education of rehabilitation residents in ethics can similarly be challenging. This article discusses topics pertinent to an understanding of clinical ethics in rehabilitation medicine and provides a method of teaching residents through an algorithm of ethical issues, learning objectives, and illustrative cases.

  1. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  2. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  3. Digital Media Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online.......Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online....

  4. Overview of psychiatric ethics V: utilitarianism and the ethics of duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael; Morris, Kirsty; Walter, Garry

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the ethical theories of utilitarianism and the ethics of duty (Kant's ethics) and to evaluate their value as theoretical bases of psychiatric ethics. Utilitarianism is a well-established moral philosophy and has significant instrumental value in dealing with common ethical problems faced by psychiatrists. Despite its capacity to generate solutions to ethical problems, utilitarianism requires a process of what Rawls described as 'reflective equilibrium' to avoid morally repugnant choices, based on utility. The criticisms of utilitarianism, such as the problems of quantifying utility and the responsibility for consequences, are very relevant for psychiatry. Singer's model of utilitarian thinking is particularly problematic for our profession. Kant's ethics provides the pretext for duty bound codes of ethics for psychiatrists, but suffers from problems of flawed claims to the universalizability prescribed by Kant's 'categorical imperative'. Kant's valorization of reason as the core of the autonomy of persons is a valuable insight in understanding psychiatrists' ethical obligations to their patients.

  5. Ethics and technology : some issues ; a booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Garasic, Mirko Daniel; Steinert, Steffen; Knutzen, Sönke; Ladwig, Tina; Dürkop, Axel; Heinemann, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Bioethical questions have a crucial role both in people’s personal choices and in the political domain. The aim of this booklet is to introduce you to the main controversies in contemporary bioethics, especially to those concerning the intersection between ethics and technology. At the end of reading the booklet, you will be equipped with the conceptual tools required to understand the main debates in ethics and technology and the most relevant positions in the debate. Hopefully, you will ...

  6. Managed care and ethical conflicts: anything new?

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, C

    1999-01-01

    Does managed care represent the death knell for the ethical provision of medical care? Much of the current literature suggests as much. In this essay I argue that the types of ethical conflicts brought on by managed care are, in fact, similar to those long faced by physicians and by other professionals. Managed care presents new, but not fundamentally different, factors to be considered in medical decision making. I also suggest ways of better understanding and resolving these conflicts, in p...

  7. A Kantian ethics approach to moral bioenhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract It seems, at first glance, that a Kantian ethics approach to moral enhancement would tend towards the position that there could be no place for emotional modulation in any understanding of the endeavour, owing to the typically understood view that Kantian ethics does not allow any role for emotion in morality as a whole. It seems then that any account of moral bioenhancement which places emotion at its centre would therefore be rejected. This article argues, however, that this assump...

  8. Ethics and engineering design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poel, I.R.; van der Poel, Ibo; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Engineering ethics and science and technology studies (STS) have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering

  9. Management and ethical responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most authors believe that ethics is set of moral principles and values which leads a person or a group toward what is good or bad. Ethics sets the standards about what is good, and what is bad in behaving and decision making. Principles are the rules or the laws that create ethical codex.

  10. Developments in marketing ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Ven, van de B.W.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a response to the following papers: "Ethical Marketing," by P.E. Murphy, G.R. Laczniak, N.E. Bowie, and T.A. Klein, "Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings," edited by P.E. Murphy and G.R. Laczniak, "Advertising Ethics" by E.H. Spence and B. van Heekeren, and "Corporate Social

  11. Ethics in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  12. Health branding ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Sandøe, Peter; Kamin, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols...

  13. Ethics: No Longer Optional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveslage, Thomas; D'Angelo, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that publications advisors have sound, practical reasons for addressing ethical decision making. Presents a brief review of the Supreme Court's message in "Hazelwood." Surveys staffs and advisors of award-winning high school newspapers concerning ethical issues facing the student press. Finds that advisors believe ethics to be…

  14. Ethical issues for librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rasche

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It approaches the librarian ethics comprehending the Librarianship constitution from a systemic view. In this way, with the objective to raise issues to discuss professional ethics, it places the librarian in the work world and points approaches between exertion and relation context of the professionals themselves with the human rights and alteration ethics.

  15. Business ethics as practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clegg, S.R.; Kornberger, M.; Rhodes, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we develop a conceptualization of business ethics as practice. Starting from the view that the ethics that organizations display in practice will have been forged through an ongoing process of debate and contestation over moral choices, we examine ethics in relation to the ambiguous,

  16. Ethics in the Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnet, Chris, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…

  17. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  18. Ethical Delphi Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar, K.; Tomkins, S.; Thorstensen, E.; Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.

    2006-01-01

    An ethical Delphi is an iterative participatory process between experts for exchanging views and arguments on ethical issues. The method is structured around the notion of a virtual committee where the exchange of ideas is conducted remotely through a series of opinion exchanges. The ethical Delphi

  19. Towards a systemic ethic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2003-01-01

    ambiguities of the new normative concepts and the conflicts between new and traditional moral concepts and theories. We employ a systemic approach to analyze the past and possible future extension of ethics and establish an inclusive framework of ethical extension. This framework forms the basis for what we...... call a systemic ethic...

  20. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  1. NASFAA Diversity and Inclusion: Recommendations of the Professional Diversity Caucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2015

    2015-01-01

    NASFAA's Diversity and Inclusion Report emphasizes the importance of diversity and inclusivity to NASFAA. Included in this report is a diversity statement developed by NASFAA's Professional Diversity Caucus, and approved by NASFAA's Board in March of 2015. The Caucus convened in the summer of 2014 to better understand issues related to diversity…

  2. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  3. Resisting the seduction of "ethics creep": using Foucault to surface complexity and contradiction in research ethics review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, Adrian; Nixon, Stephanie A; Wilson, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine "ethics creep", a concept developed by Haggerty (2004) to account for the increasing bureaucratization of research ethics boards and institutional review boards (REB/IRBs) and the expanding reach of ethics review. We start with an overview of the recent surge of academic interest in ethics creep and similar arguments about the prohibitive effect of ethics review. We then introduce elements of Michel Foucault's theoretical framework which are used to inform our analysis of empirical data drawn from a multi-phase study exploring the accessibility of community-engaged research within existing ethics review structures in Canada. First, we present how ethics creep emerged both explicitly and implicitly in our data. We then present data that demonstrate how REB/IRBs are experiencing their own form of regulation. Finally, we present data that situate ethics review alongside other trends affecting the academy. Our results show that ethics review is growing in some ways while simultaneously being constrained in others. Drawing on Foucauldian theory we reframe ethics creep as a repressive hypothesis which belies the complexity of the phenomenon it purports to explain. Our discussion complicates ethics creep by proposing an understanding of REB/IRBs that locates them at the intersection of various neoliberal discourses about the role of science, ethics, and knowledge production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Review paper: Organ transplants: ethical, social, and religious issues in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noor Zurani Md Haris; Razack, Azad Hassan; Dublin, Norman

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture, and religion. The diverse cultural, religious, and traditional concepts pertaining to organ donation may hamper its acceptability and cause a lack of willingness to donate organs. The purpose of this article is to briefly explore the ethical issues involved in organ transplant and the various religious opinions on organ donation. It is hoped that this knowledge and understanding may benefit both health care providers and patients in a multicultural society like Malaysia.

  5. Contentious problems in bioscience and biotechnology: a pilot study of an approach to ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Roberta M; Borenstein, Jason; Butera, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    This manuscript describes a pilot study in ethics education employing a problem-based learning approach to the study of novel, complex, ethically fraught, unavoidably public, and unavoidably divisive policy problems, called "fractious problems," in bioscience and biotechnology. Diverse graduate and professional students from four US institutions and disciplines spanning science, engineering, humanities, social science, law, and medicine analyzed fractious problems employing "navigational skills" tailored to the distinctive features of these problems. The students presented their results to policymakers, stakeholders, experts, and members of the public. This approach may provide a model for educating future bioscientists and bioengineers so that they can meaningfully contribute to the social understanding and resolution of challenging policy problems generated by their work.

  6. Academic ethical awareness among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ok-Hee; Hwang, Kyung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Academic ethical awareness is an important aspect especially for nursing students who will provide ethical nursing care to patients in future or try to tread the path of learning toward professional acknowledgement in nursing scholarship. The purpose of this study was to explore academic ethical awareness and its related characteristics among undergraduate nursing students. This study commenced the survey with cross-sectional, descriptive questions and enrolled convenient samples of 581 undergraduate nursing students from three universities in South Korea. It was investigated with structured questionnaires including general characteristics and academic ethical awareness related. Ethical considerations: This study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at National University. Academic ethical awareness was the highest regarding behaviors violating the respect or confidentiality of patients and cheating on exams, while it was the lowest for inappropriate behaviors in class. From the result of general characteristics difference, male students showed higher score than female students in relative; first-year students showed higher score than other year students; the higher score was rated from students who were highly satisfied with their major than the other not satisfied with their major; and students with low academic stress showed higher ethical awareness score than persons with higher stress. Personal behaviors were rated with low ethical awareness in relative, but items related to public rules and actual effects on patients or others were rated with higher score. Nursing satisfaction and academic stress are main factors on ethical awareness. To improve overall ethical awareness level of nursing students, it is required to provide more education about the importance of personal behaviors in class and need to improve the understanding of how it will be connected with future situation and effect.

  7. The ethics of open access publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael

    2013-03-22

    Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the social sciences and humanities, there has been little if any discussion about the implications of open access for ethics. This is surprising given both the central role of public reason and critique in ethics and the fact that many of the arguments made for and against open access have been couched in moral terms. In what follows I argue that those who work in ethics have a strong interest in supporting moves towards more open publishing approaches which have the potential both to inform and promote richer and more diverse forms of public deliberation and to be enriched by them. The importance of public deliberation in practical and applied ethics suggests that ethicists have a particular interest in the promotion of diverse and experimental forms of publication and debate and in supporting new, more creative and more participatory approaches to publication.

  8. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  9. Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and gender: challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Natalie J; Dupont, Ida

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the emerging domestic violence literature using a race, class, gender, sexual orientation intersectional analysis and structural framework fostered by women of color and their allies to understand the experiences and contexts of domestic violence for marginalized women in U.S. society. The first half of the article lays out a series of challenges that an intersectional analysis grounded in a structural framework provides for understanding the role of culture in domestic violence. The second half of the article points to major contributions of such an approach to feminist methods and practices in working with battered women on the margins of society.

  10. Medical ethics research between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, H A; Lelie, A

    1998-06-01

    The main object of criticism of present-day medical ethics is the standard view of the relationship between theory and practice. Medical ethics is more than the application of moral theories and principles, and health care is more than the domain of application of moral theories. Moral theories and principles are necessarily abstract, and therefore fail to take account of the sometimes idiosyncratic reality of clinical work and the actual experiences of practitioners. Suggestions to remedy the illness of contemporary medical ethics focus on re-establishing the connection between the internal and external morality of medicine. This article discusses the question how to develop a theoretical perspective on medical ethical issues that connects philosophical reflection with the everyday realities of medical practice. Four steps in a comprehensive approach of medical ethics research are distinguished: (1) examine health care contexts in order to obtain a better understanding of the internal morality of these practices; this requires empirical research; (2) analyze and interpret the external morality governing health care practices; sociological study of prevalent values, norms, and attitudes concerning medical-ethical issues is required; (3) creation of new theoretical perspectives on health care practices; Jensen's theory of healthcare practices will be useful here; (4) develop a new conception of bioethics that illuminates and clarifies the complex interaction between the internal and external morality of health care practices. Hermeneutical ethics can be helpful for integrating the experiences disclosed in the empirical ethical studies, as well as utilizing the insights gained from describing the value-contexts of health care practices. For a critical and normative perspective, hermeneutical ethics has to examine and explain the moral experiences uncovered, in order to understand what they tell us.

  11. Ethics of Wisdom and Compassion in the Novels by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka ZUPANČIČ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In a variety of her writings, Indian-born Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni who currently resides in Houston, Texas, provides new perspectives to contemporary women’s literature in the United States. Positioned at the interface of various cultures, Divakaruni draws from her Bengali heritage to combine history, myth and magic, together with the respect for diversity that underscores ethics as the foundation of human interactions. Among Divakaruni’s novels, The Mistress of Spices, The Palace of Illusions, The Brotherhood of the Conch trilogy and One Amazing Thing all propose new paradigms of wisdom and compassion that may bring about a better understanding among all.

  12. [Applying Ethics, Placating Ethics, or Applying ourselves to Ethics? A Critical View of Environmental Ethics as Applied Ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serani Merlo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    There is actually a pervasive tendency to consider environmental ethics and bioethics as specific cases pertaining to a supposed kind of ″applied ethics″. Application can be understood in two different meanings: a concrete sense, as in technical applications, and a psychological meaning, as when we mentally apply ourselves to a task. Ethics has been always thought as a practical knowledge, in a ″praxical″ sense and not in a ″poietic″ one. Ethics has to do with ″ends″ not with ″means″; in this sense ethics is ″useless″. Since ethics has to do with the ultimate meaning of things, ethical choices give meaning to all practical activities. In that sense ethics instead of being useless must be considered as ″over-useful″ (Maritain). Nowadays politics tend to instrumentalize ethics in order to political objectives. The consequence has been the reconceptualization of specific ethics as applied ethics. Environmental ethics and bioethics are then submitted to politics following the logic of technical applications. Environmental ethics and bioethics considered as applied ethics are at risk to becoming not only useless, but also meaningless.

  13. Understand Schema, Understand Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bonnie A.

    2010-01-01

    In decades past, children entered into classrooms that were less diverse. They all came in knowing much of the same information, having had very similar experiences. They spoke the same language, ate the same food, and heard the same stories and music. In many case, they even knew each other. This group of less diverse students stayed less diverse…

  14. Business Ethics in CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Birkvad Bernth, Camilla; Houmøller Mortensen, Kasper; Calles, Mark Benjamin; Wind, Martin; Saalfeldt, Rie

    2013-01-01

    This project seeks to dissect the advent of CSR in business practice from the view of ethics. We perform this by laying out the theories of CSR, business ethics, deontology and utilitarianism. We then use the case studies of Lundbeck, The Body Shop, and British American Tobacco, to dissect some productions of CSR. These are compared to the above mentioned theories on ethics. We conclude that business ethics and CSR are only as good as the ethical base upon which they are built. This projec...

  15. Ethics and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Courtney Page

    . However, social scientists have yet to devote much attention to this ethically contentious and medically complex field. This project aimed to identify and explore social and ethical factors shaping gene therapy practice in clinical settings. It is based on six months of participant observation in a London...... children’s hospital (the UKCH), thirty-two interviews with key actors in the gene therapy field, and scientific and policy document analysis. One of the main interests of this research is with the politics of ethics. The thesis shows that ‘ethical boundary work’ was central to establishing the credibility...... of gene therapy, and the authority of its practitioners. The politics of ethics can also be discerned in practice: the UK research ethics system structures scientific work but cannot account for the various, complex, and on-going ethical dilemmas that patients and practitioners face when undertaking gene...

  16. Radiology and Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.

  17. Clinical ethics and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devettere, R J

    1993-02-01

    Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics.

  18. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Workforce Diversity: Implications for Business Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stacy L.

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 112 human resource managers in Chicago indicated that 42% offer diversity programs because it is an ethical approach to management; they offer only a few of the programs available and identified in the literature. Organizations whose major purpose is recruiting and developing a diverse work force offered more programs and a wider…

  20. Returning friendship to ethics: a Nierzschean perspectiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Wat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its prominence in Greek ethical theory, friendship has generally been ignored by modern ethicists; and since most of the recent attempts  to revive it have been Aristotelian in inspiration, the impression of a straight choice between ancient and modern perspectives has actually been re-enforced by contemporary efforts at rehabilitation. In this paper I aim to complicate the debate by adding a third –Nietzschean – perspective, which cannot be subsumed within the ancient/modern dichotomy and which offers a way of connecting friendship and ethics very different from Aristotle’s. For whereas Aristotelianism sees ethics as a search for the good life and character friendship as contributing to thecreation of a shared understanding of the good, Nietzsche sees ethics as an arena of contest between different ways of valuing and “self-overcoming”, and character friendship as a process of challenge by which we push each other further along our own very different paths. The paper compares a Nietzschean way of linking ethics and friendship with the approaches of contemporary neo-Aristotelians, especiallyMacIntyre, and argues that Nietzsche’s pluralism  allows him to escape modern ethical theory’s powerful objections to (neo-Aristotelianism. A Nietzschean approach therefore offers, I conclude, a far more credible way of reconnecting ethics and friendship in our sceptical modern worl

  1. SHORT INTRODUCTION TO ETHICAL REASONING IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Hosta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It is clear at fi rst sight that sport is a very complex phenomenon, which generates ethical contradictions. It is pinned between moral-educational and essential biological movement drives on the one side. On the other side, it is trapped between extreme exploitation and passionate images of our time, and playful innocence of body and mind. By justifying ethical pluralism through our discussion we wish to point out that moral pluralism is not an apology for moral relativism, which can also be labeled as an ethical void. Moral autonomy of sport that is based on the idea of free pooling of civil society, and is at the same time trapped in the structure of the game, is inadmissible per se or has to be understood within the context of distinction among ethics of sport and sport ethics. Since we are dealing with pluralism, we cannot assure in advance the expected convincing power of ethical reasoning in sport. It is not uniform phenomenon and therefore such a demand would be too pretentious. However, as a PE teachers and trainers we need to stand fi rm on ethical grounds. We need to take into account that this short introduction is only a fi rst stage of understanding sport in order to develop further educational strategies to promote and practice socially responsible sport in the 21st century.

  2. Ethical relativism and same-sex marriage | Ushie | Sophia: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    And in the conclusion that follows, we posit that cultural diversity and its resultant ethical relativist differentials, although gives room for diverse moral positions and practices, it does not fundamentally invalidate the universality of moral ontology, yet, reckons with its spatio-temporality. Accordingly, for the Supreme Court to ...

  3. The ethics of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1997-01-01

    experience. The report also underlines the importance of the research effort and stresses the dissemination of innovative technologies in the field of energy generation. Considerations of an ethical nature cannot be dictated by progress in science and technology alone. The examination of everything which conditions the acquisition and use of energies must also be done in a global manner. It would appear therefore that energy-related problems are intimately linked to a large number of other concerns, such as developments in population growth and economies the globalization of markets, the upholding of cultural diversity, and the pursuit of efforts towards peace. Finally, there can be no ethics without the organization of democratic debate, which must take place at every level, local, regional, national and international, and must be preceded by the dissemination and provision of the relevant information. UNESCO has assumed its responsibilities by proposing the creation of a World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology, which is destined to play an essential role in organizing and leading these discussions. For the energy problem implies that every country be correctly informed of the issues at stake, so that they can take the right decisions at their own level and will agree to discuss and, it is to be hoped, adopt the appropriate measures at the supranational level. As a conclusion to this report, it is suggested that UNESCO make use of the esteem every in which it is held by the community of nations to set up, organize and ultimately operate, on the most democratic and open basis possible, the institutions that are likely to help the international community make energy a factor for progress, and not a persistent cause of inequality, imbalance, tension and conflict. (author)

  4. Sustainability in care through an ethical practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Linda; Salmela, Susanne; Nyström, Lisbet; Koskinen, Camilla

    2018-03-01

    While sustainability is a key concept in many different domains today, it has not yet been sufficiently emphasized in the healthcare sector. Earlier research shows that ethical values and evidence-based care models create sustainability in care practice. The aim of this study was to gain further understanding of the ethical values central to the realization of sustainability in care and to create an ethical practice model whereby these basic values can be made perceptible and active in care practice. Part of the ongoing "Ethical Sustainable Caring Cultures" research project, a hermeneutical application research design was employed in this study. Dialogues were used, where scientific researchers and co-researchers were given the opportunity to reflect on ethical values in relation to sustainability in care. An ethical practice model with ethos as its core was created from the results of the dialogues. In the model, ethos is encircled by the ethical values central to sustainability: dignity, responsibility, respect, invitation, and vows. The model can be used as a starting point for ethical conversations that support carers' reflections on the ethical issues seen in day-to-day care work and the work community, allowing ethical values to become visible throughout the entire care culture. It is intended as a tool whereby carers can more deeply understand an organization's common basic values and what they entail in regard to sustainability in care.

  5. 'Ethical rationality': A subjective-objective concept of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.

    1991-01-01

    'Ethical rationality' as a concept of risk assessment means that risks are assessed using an integrative, ethical-normative approach (taking values, world views and people's understanding of what it means to be a human being and of what makes life worth living into account). Thus risks cannot be assessed on a mathematical and statistical basis alone. It is much more important to reflect upon what makes life worth living. In order to answer this question, the rationality of probability calculus does not suffice. Instead, this form of rationality must be transformed into or replaced by ethical discourse (an open, iterative and complex process of making ethical judgement). Proposals for an ethical assessment of risk are made which are substantiated by the theoretical concept of ethical rationality comprising the following steps: - Consideration of the nature of ethics (understanding of the viewer's perspective); - A look at an ethical interpretation of the traditional mathematical concept of risk (description); - Scheme for an ethical conception of rationality (theoretical reflections); - Weighing risks from an ethical perspective in practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. The Ethics Liaison Program: building a moral community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Sarah R; McHugh, Wendy J; Carbo, Alexander R; O'Neill, Stephen F; Forrow, Lachlan

    2017-09-01

    Ethicists often struggle to maintain institution-wide awareness of and commitment to medical ethics. At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), we created the Ethics Liaison Program to address that challenge by making ethics part of the moral culture of the institution. Liaisons represent clinical and non-clinical areas throughout the medical centre. The liaison has a four-part role: to spread awareness and understanding of Ethics Programs among their coworkers; share information regarding ethical dilemmas in their work area with the members of the Ethics Support Service; review ethics activities and needs within their area; and undertake ethics-related projects. This paper lists the notable attributes of the Ethics Liaison Program, and describes the purpose and structure of the programme, its advantages and the challenges to implementing it. The Ethics Liaison Program has helped to make ethics part of the everyday culture at BIDMC, and other medical centres might benefit from the establishment of similar programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  8. Nursing practice implications of the year of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen T

    2015-01-01

    e 2015 ANA Code of Ethics is foundational to professional nursing practice and is aligned with AWHONN’s core values, standards of care and position statement on ethical decision-making in the clinical setting. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of nurses to ensure an ethical practice environment is critical to perinatal health outcomes and sta engagement and to the prevention of moral distress.

  9. Is mandatory research ethics reviewing ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary

    2013-08-01

    Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen.

  10. A Kantian ethics approach to moral bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    It seems, at first glance, that a Kantian ethics approach to moral enhancement would tend towards the position that there could be no place for emotional modulation in any understanding of the endeavour, owing to the typically understood view that Kantian ethics does not allow any role for emotion in morality as a whole. It seems then that any account of moral bioenhancement which places emotion at its centre would therefore be rejected. This article argues, however, that this assumption is incorrect. Given later writings by Kant on the role of sympathy, and taking into account other concerns in Kantian ethics (such as bodily integrity), it may in fact be the case that Kantian ethics would allow for an account of moral bioenhancement through emotional modulation, and that in some (rare) cases such an intervention might even be considered to be a duty. © 2017 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Virtue and the scientist: using virtue ethics to examine science's ethical and moral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiin-Yu

    2015-02-01

    As science has grown in size and scope, it has also presented a number of ethical and moral challenges. Approaching these challenges from an ethical framework can provide guidance when engaging with them. In this article, I place science within a virtue ethics framework, as discussed by Aristotle. By framing science within virtue ethics, I discuss what virtue ethics entails for the practicing scientist. Virtue ethics holds that each person should work towards her conception of flourishing where the virtues enable her to realize that conception. The virtues must become part of the scientist's character, undergirding her intentions and motivations, as well as the resulting decisions and actions. The virtue of phronêsis, or practical wisdom, is critical for cultivating virtue, enabling the moral agent to discern the appropriate actions for a particular situation. In exercising phronêsis, the scientist considers the situation from multiple perspectives for an in-depth and nuanced understanding of the situation, discerns the relevant factors, and settles upon an appropriate decision. I examine goods internal to a practice, which are constitutive of science practiced well and discuss the role of phronêsis when grappling with science's ethical and moral features and how the scientist might exercise it. Although phronêsis is important for producing scientific knowledge, it is equally critical for working through the moral and ethical questions science poses.

  12. Ethics in Research on Learning: Dialectics of Praxis and Praxeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SungWon Hwang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative social research designed to develop ways of understanding and explaining lived experience of human beings is a reflexive human endeavor. It is reflexive in that as researchers attempt to better understand their participants, they also come to better understand themselves. Consequently, research ethics itself becomes an ethical project, for it pertains to participant and researcher at the same time: Both are subjects, knower and known. Particularly in case of research on learning, reflexivity arises from the fact that the research itself constitutes learning about learning. How is ethics in research on learning reflexive of, in its praxis and praxeology, ongoing events and changes of the human learning? In this study, from our experience of conducting a project designed to inquire into "learning in unfamiliar environments," we develop pertinent ethical issues through a dialectical process—not unlike that used by G.W.F. HEGEL in Phenomenology of Spirit—grounded in our lived experience and developed in three theoretical claims concerning a praxeology of ethics. First, ethics is an ongoing historical event; second, ethics is based on the communicative praxis of material bodies; and third, ethics involves the creation of new communicative configurations. We conclude that ethics is grounded in a fundamental answerability of human beings for their actions, which requires communicative action that itself is a dialectical process in opening up possibilities for acting in an answerable manner. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0501198

  13. Reanálisis de la diversidad alfa: alternativas para interpretar y comparar información sobre comunidades ecológicas Reanalyzing alpha diversity: alternatives to understand and compare information about ecological communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El índice de entropía de Shannon y otras medidas de complejidad se utilizan frecuentemente para evaluar la diversidad de especies en comunidades ecológicas, aun cuando su comprensión es difícil y sus valores no son comparables. En este trabajo se muestra que los números efectivos de especies (medidas de diversidad verdadera permiten obtener una interpretación intuitiva y fácilmente comparable de la diversidad de especies. Se ejemplifica su uso reanalizando los datos de 4 trabajos publicados en la Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad (realizados en distintos ecosistemas y regiones de México, con distinta resolución taxonómica y enfocados en distintos grupos biológicos. Se utilizan modelos de estimación en los que se considera que las muestras son representaciones incompletas de las comunidades. Se explica también la manera en que las medidas de diversidad de distinto orden incorporan a las especies según su abundancia en la comunidad. Los resultados obtenidos pueden resultar de especial interés cuando los valores de diversidad se utilizan para proponer medidas para el manejo de recursos y la conservación biológica.The Shannon index of entropy and related measures of compositional complexity are often used to assess species diversity in ecological communities, even when they are difficult to understand and their values are not comparable. This paper shows that the effective numbers of species (true diversity measures allows for a more intuitive interpretation, and offers easily comparable values of species diversity. Their use is exemplified by reanalyzing the data from 4 studies published in the Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad (done in different ecosystems and regions of Mexico, with different levels of taxonomic resolution and different biological groups. Diversity estimation models are also used; these assume that samples are incomplete representations of communities. This paper also offers an explanation of how diversity

  14. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  15. Ethics: Can It Be Taught

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Running head: ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 1 Ethics : Can It Be Taught? Ancel B. Hodges Defense Acquisition University...U.S. Army Materiel Command Public Affairs ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 2 Approval Page Title: Ethics ...Date Submitted for Journal Publication: ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank

  16. The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jim; Strbiak, Christy A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the concept of strategic ambiguity in communication, and addresses the ethics of strategic ambiguity from an intrapersonal perspective that considers the congruity of communicators' espoused-ethics, ethics-in-use, and behavior, where ethical judgements are based on the congruity between espoused-ethics and actual behavior. Poses questions…

  17. Anticipatory Ethics for Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of

  18. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Introduction to computer ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is becoming one of the most often used but also misinter­preted words. It is often taken as an additional, corrective parameter to the policies and strategies that has to be adopted in the area of political works, environment, business, and medicine. Computer ethics thus makes the latest ethical discipline in the scientific sky. But its roots, as it was the case with environmental ethics, ranging decades; only the speech and the use of the same, as well as discussions on the postulates of computer ethics, are the results of rapid IT development in the last decade or two. In this paper, according to the title, will be shown introduction to computer ethics-its basis, the most important representatives, as well as the most important succession.

  20. Virtues and humanitarian ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  1. Fieldwork and ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilianova Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak Association of Social Anthropologists initiated recently a discussion about the ethics in the ethnology, social and cultural anthropology. In January 2009 the association organized the seminar “Ethics in ethnology/social anthropology which brought vivid response in the academic community in Slovakia. The paper will deal with the question which are the most frequent ethic problems in field work such as for example the selection of research topic from the ethic point of view, ethic regulations during the conducting of field work, the protection of respondent’s personal data during the elaboration of data and archiving, the publication of research data etc. The author will inform about approaches and react to the current discussion about the possibilities how to solve the ethic questions in the field work.

  2. Finnish Teachers’ Ethical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kuusisto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.

  3. [Ethics, science and utilitarianism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T

    1997-11-01

    We begin this article with the distinction between Deontology, Moral and Ethics. We also review the concept and the relevance of Bioethics, as the "science of survival", and as part of Ethics, a section of Philosophy. We tried to answer two further questions considering the role of Science in orienting Ethics, or the possible place of utilitarianism in controlling Ethics. The author discusses some new aspects of the doctor/patient relationship, and their evolution in the last 100 years, as well as the relations between patients and Health care institutions. Some ethical problems were also raised related to the beginning and the end of life. Finally the author reflects on the difficulties of defining ethical concepts in the near future.

  4. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  5. Ethical Ideology and Ethical Judgments of Accounting Practitioners in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980 Ethics Position Questionnaire instrument to examine the ethical ideology of the accountants and adopted ethics vignettes used by Emerson et al. (2007 to assess the ethical judgments of the respondents. From the statistical analysis, this study found that age and gender have a significant impact on ethical judgment but not on ethical ideology. In addition, idealism and relativism have a significant influence on ethical judgment, especially in a legally unethical situation.

  6. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-01-01

    The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...

  7. Secretary's Business Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玉丹

    2017-01-01

    Secretary is a comprehensive, service, auxiliary and political job with high requests. The so-called secretary's business ethics refers to the sum of all the secretary's acts required to comply with professional responsibility, professional emotion, role orientation, discipline-obeying and ethics-obeying. The purpose of this paper is to present a good way to know the ethics that a secretary should own to act out perfectly.

  8. Cybersecurity and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghmaei, Emad; van de Poel, Ibo; Christen, Markus; Gordijn, Bert; Kleine, Nadia; Loi, Michele; Morgan, Gwenyth; Weber, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    This White Paper outlines how the ethical discourse on cybersecurity has developed in the scientific literature, which ethical issues gained interest, which value conflicts are discussed, and where the “blind spots” in the current ethical discourse on cybersecurity are located. The White Paper is based on an extensive literature with a focus on three reference domains with unique types of value conflicts: health, business/finance and national security. For each domain, a systematic literature...

  9. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm...... of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...

  10. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  11. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Amantova-Salmane, Liene

    2015-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a reflection on nature and a definition of “the good”. Individuals value qualities and things dissimilarly, most visibly, but they also value their goods in different ways, in different relations to each other, for different reasons, and to different ends. These differences are very applicable to sustainability. In other words, sustainability cannot be achieved without attention to its ethical dimensions. The aim of this research is to examine the ethical aspects of s...

  12. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)

  13. Business ethics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Rivera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the review of the literature dedicated to relevant social issues that have been addressed by business practices and the business ethics literature, especially during the past century. The review of practical literature is undertaken from the perspective of the practitioner and demonstrates that the business ethics literature has been lax in the sense that it mostly addresses specific managerial problems and personal ethics within the business environment.

  14. Ethics and marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics is the inner law of the individual. Its application is controlled and sacked by the self-awareness and the surrounding (by ethical codecs. The self-awareness is the inner law produced by everyday life, and is therefore changeable and adaptable to the outer reality. The ethics is a common field of marketing research, within the processes of ethical dilemmas and the marketing research process itself (identified target segments: the public the consumer, the subject ordering marketing research and marketing researchers.

  15. Ethics in IT Outsourcing

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy

    2012-01-01

    In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio

  16. Whistleblowing and organizational ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Susan L

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss an external whistleblowing event that occurred after all internal whistleblowing through the hierarchy of the organization had failed. It is argued that an organization that does not support those that whistle blow because of violation of professional standards is indicative of a failure of organizational ethics. Several ways to build an ethics infrastructure that could reduce the need to resort to external whistleblowing are discussed. A relational ethics approach is presented as a way to eliminate the negative consequences of whistleblowing by fostering an interdependent moral community to address ethical concerns.

  17. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  18. Towards an Ethical Framework for Inter-Cultural Dialogue | Higgs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I attempt to provide an ethical framework for inter-cultural dialogue, which I argue can contribute to efforts at facilitating multicultural understanding. Such an ethical framework for inter-cultural dialogue which finds its roots in postmodernism, I will argue, provides the impetus for the creation of critical civil ...

  19. Work Ethics Training: Reflections of Technical College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    Ample research exists on ethics in the workplace and skills college graduates should have to seek and attain long-term gainful employment. The literature has provided some insight into the understanding of ethical behavior as reported by students and employers; however a gap exists in research which documents college student experiences during…

  20. After the International Ethics Conference, What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The International Ethics Conference held at the University of Botswana from 6-10 December 2009 brought together over 250 delegates, speakers, and other participants from a wide range of disciplines. The theme of the conference, "Retrieving the Human Face of Science: Understanding Ethics and Integrity in Healthcare, Medicine and…

  1. Integrating anticipated nutrigenomics bioscience applications with ethical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, L.; Ozdemir, V.; Gremmen, B.; Godard, B.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is a subspecialty of nutrition science which aims to understand how gene-diet interactions influence individuals' response to food, disease susceptibility, and population health. Yet ethical enquiry into this field is being outpaced by nutrigenomics bioscience. The ethical issues

  2. Ethical Imagination in Peace Studies: Beyond the Seville Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivage-Seul, M.

    1989-01-01

    Asks reader to look beyond Seville Statement, Social Darwinism, and utopian ideals and come to understand ethical imagination more fully as it relates to peace studies. Examines Seville Statement and its opposition to Social Darwinism. Explains how ethical imagination serves to provide radical alternative to biological determinism. (Author/NB)

  3. Ethics and public integrity in space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Adam F.

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) work to support ethics and public integrity in human space exploration. Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) to protect an organization's reputation has become widespread in the private sector. Government ethics law and practice is integral to a government entity's ERM by managing public sector reputational risk. This activity has also increased on the international plane, as seen by the growth of ethics offices in UN organizations and public international financial institutions. Included in this area are assessments to ensure that public office is not used for private gain, and that external entities are not given inappropriate preferential treatment. NASA has applied rules supporting these precepts to its crew since NASA's inception. The increased focus on public sector ethics principles for human activity in space is important because of the international character of contemporary space exploration. This was anticipated by the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement for the International Space Station (ISS), which requires a Code of Conduct for the Space Station Crew. Negotiations among the ISS Partners established agreed-upon ethics principles, now codified for the United States in regulations at 14 C.F.R. § 1214.403. Understanding these ethics precepts in an international context requires cross-cultural dialogue. Given NASA's long spaceflight experience, a valuable part of this dialogue is understanding NASA's implementation of these requirements. Accordingly, this paper will explain how NASA addresses these and related issues, including for human spaceflight and crew, as well as the development of U.S. Government ethics law which NASA follows as a U.S. federal agency. Interpreting how the U.S. experience relates constructively to international application involves parsing out which dimensions relate to government ethics requirements that the international partners have integrated into the

  4. Revisiting eco-ethics and econ-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Kinne

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.

  5. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  6. Peter Koslowski’s Ethics and Economics or Ethical Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of ethical economy (Wirtschaftsethik) and the relation between ethics and economics on the basis of the work of the German ethical economist Peter Koslowski. The concept of ethical economy includes three levels: micro, meso and macro levels; and it also deals...... with the philosophical analysis of the ethical foundations of the economy. After the discussion of these elements of the ethical economy, the paper presents some possible research topics for a research agenda about economic ethics or ethical economy....

  7. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  8. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  9. Computer Ethics and Neoplatonic Virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    attempts for application to computer ethics and cyberethics. In this paper, the author argues that current trends and behaviours in online communication require an ethics of self-care found in Plotinus’ self-centred virtue ethics theory. The paper supports the position that Plotinus’ virtue ethics......n normative ethical theory, computer ethics belongs to the area of applied ethics dealing with practical and everyday moral problems arising from the use of computers and computer networks in the information society. Modern scholarship usually approves deontological and utilitarian ethics...... as appropriate to computer ethics, while classical theories of ethics, such as virtue ethics, are usually neglected as anachronistic and unsuitable to the information era and ICT industry. During past decades, an Aristotelian form of virtue ethics has been revived in modern philosophical enquiries with serious...

  10. Narrative and the Reconfiguration of Social Work Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi Estey-Burtt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commencing with a critique of codes of ethics based on the Statement of Principles of the International Federation of Social Work, we explore how a narrative approach to ethics might better serve the practice of social work. We argue that narrative both addresses some of the problems within current codes—such as their Western assumptions, lack of attention to the political role of the social worker, and the privileging of professional expertise—and aligns well with the values social work, being committed to social justice and diversity. Furthermore, we suggest that narrative, because it can operate at the individual, family, community, social, and discoursal levels can help us think ethically about how we construct narratives about, with, and for individual service users while remaining attentive to wider concerns of social justice. In so doing we are not seeking to construct a new code of ethics but to generate debate as to how social work ethics might be reconfigured.

  11. An Extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Ethical Decision Contexts: The Role of Normative Influence and Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celuch, Kevin; Dill, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The moral conduct of organizations is ultimately dependent on the discrete actions of individuals. The authors address the scholarly and managerial imperative of how individuals combine various cognitions in their ethical decision making. The study extends the understanding of ethical decision making by exploring relationships among Theory of…

  12. Reconsidering 'ethics' and 'quality' in healthcare research: the case for an iterative ethical paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Fiona A; Gibson, William; Pelletier, Caroline; Chrysikou, Vasiliki; Park, Sophie

    2015-05-08

    known about the social practices and conditions of healthcare. Our central argument is that assessment of ethical implications is important, but that the current paradigm does not facilitate an adequate understanding of the very issues it aims to invigilate.

  13. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  14. What is data ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano; Taddeo, Mariarosaria

    2016-12-28

    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations-the interactions among hardware, software and data-rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Intrinsic ethics regarding integrated assessment models for climate management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienke, Erich W; Baum, Seth D; Tuana, Nancy; Davis, Kenneth J; Keller, Klaus

    2011-09-01

    In this essay we develop and argue for the adoption of a more comprehensive model of research ethics than is included within current conceptions of responsible conduct of research (RCR). We argue that our model, which we label the ethical dimensions of scientific research (EDSR), is a more comprehensive approach to encouraging ethically responsible scientific research compared to the currently typically adopted approach in RCR training. This essay focuses on developing a pedagogical approach that enables scientists to better understand and appreciate one important component of this model, what we call intrinsic ethics. Intrinsic ethical issues arise when values and ethical assumptions are embedded within scientific findings and analytical methods. Through a close examination of a case study and its application in teaching, namely, evaluation of climate change integrated assessment models, this paper develops a method and case for including intrinsic ethics within research ethics training to provide scientists with a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of the critical role of values and ethical choices in the production of research outcomes.

  16. The Role of Business Schools in Ethics Education in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Vaiman, Vlad; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    2014-01-01

    should not be held responsible for employees’ unethical behavior. Nevertheless, managers believe that business schools should assist future employees in understanding ethics by including business ethics in teaching curricula. Second, managers believe that the workplace is not where ethics are learned......This article explores managers’ views on various ways in which business schools can contribute to providing solid ethics education to their students, who will ultimately become the next generation of business leaders. One thousand top level managers of Icelandic firms were approached and asked......, while also insisting that former students should already have strong ethical standards when entering the workplace. Third, managers call for business schools not only to contribute more to influencing students’ ethical standards, but also to reshape the knowledge and capabilities of practicing managers...

  17. Introducing Ethics to Chemistry Students in a "Research Experiences for Undergraduates" (REU) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    A three-day ethics seminar introduced ethics to undergraduate environmental chemistry students in the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The seminar helped students become sensitive to and understand the ethical and values dimensions of their work as researchers. It utilized a variety of resources to supplement lectures and…

  18. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  19. Socially Response-Able Mathematics Education: Implications of an Ethical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atweh, Bill; Brady, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to mathematics education based on the concept of ethical responsibility. It argues that an ethical approach to mathematics teaching lays the theoretical foundations for social justice concerns in the discipline. The paper develops a particular understanding of ethical responsibility based on the writings of Emanuel…

  20. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…