WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding disruptive behavior

  1. Is It Incivility or Mental Illness? Understanding and Coping with Disruptive Student Behavior in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton-Cassill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Rising rates of incivility in the college classroom can generate stress for both faculty and students. However, incivility can take multiple forms, have different causes and require different management techniques. In some cases disruptive behavior is the result of student faculty interactions, and can be ameliorated by improved communication or…

  2. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill I.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  3. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living ... oppositional behaviors at times. Oppositional defiant disorder is defined in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical ...

  4. Understanding the relative contributions of direct environmental effects and passive genotype-environment correlations in the association between familial risk factors and child disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, M A; Cummings, J R; Hunt, E; Blazei, R; Malone, S; Iacono, W G

    2014-03-01

    Previous work reports an association between familial risk factors stemming from parental characteristics and offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). This association may reflect (a) the direct effects of familial environment and (b) a passive gene-environment correlation (r(GE)), wherein the parents provide both the genes and the environment. The current study examined the contributions of direct environmental influences and passive r(GE) by comparing the effects of familial risk factors on child DBDs in genetically related (biological) and non-related (adoptive) families. Participants were 402 adoptive and 204 biological families. Familial environment was defined as maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and antisociality, marital conflict and divorce; offspring DBDs included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Mixed-level regressions estimated the main effects of familial environment, adoption status and the familial environment by adoption status interaction term, which tested for the presence of passive r(GE). There was a main effect of maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and marital discord on child DBDs, indicating a direct environmental effect. There was no direct environmental effect of maternal or paternal antisociality, but maternal and paternal antisociality had stronger associations with child DBDs in biological families than adoptive families, indicating the presence of a passive r(GE). Many familial risk factors affected children equally across genetically related and non-related families, providing evidence for direct environmental effects. The relationship of parental antisociality and offspring DBDs was best explained by a passive r(GE), where a general vulnerability toward externalizing psychopathology is passed down by the parents to the children.

  5. World oil price behavior during oil supply disruptions: what can we learn from the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsall, T.H.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to: (1) examine how world oil prices have behaved during past oil supply disruptions, (2) attempt to understand why world oil prices have behaved during disruptions as they have, and (3) see what history foretells, if anything, for the behavior of world oil prices during future oil supply disruptions.

  6. Peer deviance, parenting and disruptive behavior among young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-02-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among girls. Affiliations with problem-prone peers were apparent among a sizeable minority of the girls, and these associations included both males and females. Although peer delinquency concurrently predicted disruptive behaviors, the gender of these peers did not contribute to girls' behavior problems. Harsh parenting and low parental warmth showed both concurrent and prospective associations with girls' disruptive behaviors. Similar patterns of association were seen for African American and European American girls. The findings show that peer and parent risk processes are important contributors to the early development of young girls' conduct and oppositional behaviors. These data contribute to our understanding of girls' aggression and antisocial behaviors and further inform our understanding of risk processes for these behaviors among young girls in particular.

  7. [Dialectical behavior therapy approaches with disruptive behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Manetsch, Madleina; Vriends, Noortje

    2016-11-01

    Disruptive behaviour disorders comprise the diagnosis conduct disorder (CD) and in adults the diagnosis antisocial personality disorder (APD). CD is seen as a difficult-to-treat disorder with a high risk for persistent behavioral problems. In addition, CD is seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder (Kretschmer et al., 2014). Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed by Marsha Linehan (1991) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but because of the core deficits in emotion regulation in disruptive behavior disorders, DBT is also increasingly being recommended for the treatment of CD and APD. This review presents DBT adaptions for the forensic setting and for the treatment of CD/APD. Clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Neuroimaging findings in disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalind H; Clanton, Roberta L; Rogers, Jack C; De Brito, Stéphane A

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are a heterogeneous population. Over the past 20 years, researchers have distinguished youths with DBD as those displaying high (DBD/HCU) versus low (DBD/LCU) callous-unemotional (CU) traits. These traits include flat affect and reduced empathy and remorse, and are associated with more severe, varied, and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior and aggression. Conduct problems in youths with HCU and LCU are thought to reflect distinct causal vulnerabilities, with antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/HCU reflecting a predominantly genetic etiology, while antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/LCU is associated primarily with environmental influences. Here we selectively review recent functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) magnetic resonance imaging research on DBD, focusing particularly on the role of CU traits. First, fMRI studies examining the neural correlates of affective stimuli, emotional face processing, empathy, theory of mind, morality, and decision-making in DBD are discussed. This is followed by a review of the studies investigating brain structure and structural connectivity in DBD. Next, we highlight the need to further investigate females and the role of sex differences in this population. We conclude the review by identifying potential clinical implications of this research.

  9. Challenges in human behavior understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different

  10. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  11. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome,...

  12. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning.

  13. MANAGING DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS IN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khasinah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes students’ disruptive behaviors in language classroom that may greatly affect language teaching and learning process, especially in ESL or EFL classes. Teachers should know what disruptive behavior is to enable them to deal with problems occurred in their classroom or to take preventive actions to keep their students well-behaved during the class. This can reduce the occurrence of misbehavior of students in their classroom. To prevent disruption in the classroom, teachers should establish behavioral expectations in the first day of the semester and the expectations can be based on students attendance, arrivals and departures, class participation, full English speaking, and other appropriate conducts in the syllabus and discuss them at the outset of the term. The agreement is then assigned as a learning contract or a code of conducts with which bounds the whole class. Consequently, whenever students are misbehaved, teachers and other students will directly know and recognize that the behaviors are out of the code. There are factors reasoning students to behave badly, so teachers as trouble solvers have to find appropriate strategies that are effective in helping students keep the code. Otherwise, the disruptions will escalate quickly and the problems will increase in numbers rapidly and finally, teachers will have to work very hard to avoid teaching failure and “losing face” when they cannot manage the disruption as listed in the expectation.

  14. Sleep in children with disruptive behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronen, Eeva T; Lampenius, Tuulikki; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri

    2014-09-03

    This study compared sleep in patients with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder (CD/ODD) and normative children and evaluated the associations between sleep and behavioral symptoms in patients. Participants were 30 patients, aged 7 to 12 years, with diagnoses of CD/ODD and their age and gender matched controls. Patients with CD/ODD and their parents reported significantly more sleep problems than did the control children and their parents (p values sleep amount and efficiency associated with increased amount of parent-reported externalizing symptoms (r = -0.72, 0.66, p values sleep in children with CD/ODD. Improving their sleep may ease their symptoms.

  15. Interdependent, Dependent, and Independent Group Contingencies for Controlling Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Frank M.; Gresham, Gwenyth N.

    1982-01-01

    Three group-oriented contingency systems (interdependent, dependent, and independent) were compared to evaluate each system's effectiveness in controlling the disruptive behavior of a self-contained classroom of 12 educable mentally retarded elementary-aged children. Interdependent and dependent group contingency systems were more effective than…

  16. Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Louise A.; Taffe, John; Emerson, Eric; Tonge, Bruce J.; Horstead, Sian K.

    2010-01-01

    In typically developing children, boys are more commonly diagnosed than girls with disruptive behavior disorders, namely, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. For children with intellectual disability (ID), the evidence for this gender effect is less clear. In this report we examine gender…

  17. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  18. Disruptive behavior in the workplace: Challenges for gastroenterology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisarajivakul, Nalinee; Lucero, Catherine; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Poles, Michael; Gillespie, Colleen; Zabar, Sondra; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Malter, Lisa

    2017-05-14

    To assess first-year gastroenterology fellows' ability to address difficult interpersonal situations in the workplace using objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Two OSCEs ("distracted care team" and "frazzled intern") were created to assess response to disruptive behavior. In case 1, a fellow used a colonoscopy simulator while interacting with a standardized patient (SP), nurse, and attending physician all played by actors. The nurse and attending were instructed to display specific disruptive behavior and disregard the fellow unless requested to stop the disruptive behavior and focus on the patient and procedure. In case 2, the fellow was to calm an intern managing a patient with massive gastrointestinal bleeding. The objective in both scenarios was to assess the fellows' ability to perform their duties while managing the disruptive behavior displayed by the actor. The SPs used checklists to rate fellows' performances. The fellows completed a self-assessment survey. Twelve fellows from four gastrointestinal fellowship training programs participated in the OSCE. In the "distracted care team" case, one-third of the fellows interrupted the conflict and refocused attention to the patient. Half of the fellows were able to display professionalism despite the heated discussion nearby. Fellows scored lowest in the interprofessionalism portion of post-OSCE surveys, measuring their ability to handle the conflict. In the "frazzled intern" case, 68% of fellows were able to establish a calm and professional relationship with the SP. Despite this success, only half of the fellows were successfully communicate a plan to the SP and only a third scored "well done" in a domain that focused on allowing the intern to think through the case with the fellow's guidance. Fellows must receive training on how to approach disruptive behavior. OSCEs are a tool that can assess fellow skills and set a culture for open discussion.

  19. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leflot, G.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Onghena, P.; Colpin, H.

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school.

  20. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy among Mothers with Children with Disruptive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Romero-Porras

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children’s mental problems remain one of the central topics in governments’ agendas because of their negative impact at social and economic levels. The present paper is a single case study, with A-B design with concurrent control through behaviors and participants, aimed to identify the effect of the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP on four mothers who informed about their children’s disruptive behaviors in the school setting. A case-control who received psychoeducation-based intervention was included in order to observe outcome differences among participants regarding the implemented treatment. Using the FIAT-Q and functional analysis, participants’ problematic behaviors were identified. Mothers treated with FAP were expected to display behavioral changes within the sessions and generalized them to the natural context in the interaction with their children in order to promote children’s prosocial behaviors. Results indicated that FAP reduced the frequency of mothers’ problematic behaviors and, in turn, children reduced disruptive behaviors. Implications of the study results are discussed both at theoretical and applied levels.

  1. Endocrine Disruption of Vasopressin Systems and Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B. Patisaul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are chemicals that interfere with the organizational or activational effects of hormones. Although the vast majority of the EDC literature focuses on steroid hormone signaling related impacts, growing evidence from a myriad of species reveals that the nonapeptide hormones vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT may also be EDC targets. EDCs shown to alter pathways and behaviors coordinated by AVP and/or OT include the plastics component bisphenol A (BPA, the soy phytoestrogen genistein (GEN, and various flame retardants. Many effects are sex specific and likely involve action at nuclear estrogen receptors. Effects include the elimination or reversal of well-characterized sexually dimorphic aspects of the AVP system, including innervation of the lateral septum and other brain regions critical for social and other non-reproductive behaviors. Disruption of magnocellular AVP function has also been reported in rats, suggesting possible effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular function.

  2. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  3. Use of a Behavioral Graphic Organizer to Reduce Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Students with challenging behavior spend substantial amounts of time away from instruction due to behavioral problems. Time away from instruction reduces their opportunities for learning, which are critical as these students typically demonstrate academic performance below their same-age peers. After removal from instruction due to behavioral…

  4. Profiles of disruptive behavior across early childhood: Contributions of frustration reactivity, physiological regulation, and maternal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Kathryn A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior, including aggression, defiance, and temper tantrums, typically peaks in early toddlerhood and decreases by school entry; however, some children do not show this normative decline. The current study examined disruptive behavior in 318 boys and girls at 2, 4, and 5 years of age and frustration reactivity, physiological regulation, and maternal behavior in the laboratory at 2 years of age. A latent profile analysis (LPA) resulted in 4 longitudinal profiles of disruptive behavior, which were differentiated by interactions between reactivity, regulation, and maternal behavior. A high profile was associated with high reactivity combined with high maternal control or low regulation combined with low maternal control. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective. PMID:18826530

  5. Disruptive behavior in the operating room: prevalence, consequences, prevention, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Fast, Ian; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2018-04-13

    Disruptive workplace behavior can have serious consequences to clinicians, institutions, and patients. There is a range of disruptive behaviors, and the consequences are often underappreciated. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the definition, prevalence, consequences, prevention, and management of disruptive behavior in the operating room. Although a small minority of operating room clinicians act disruptively, 98% of clinicians report having recently been exposed to disruptive behavior, with the average being 64 events per clinician per year. The causes include intrapersonal factors, workplace relationships, workplace logistics, and broader contextual factors. Disruptive behavior undermines patient care by decreasing individual and team clinical performance. It decreases clinician well being, sets a poor example for medical students who are susceptible to negative role models, and decreases hospital efficiency. The way that clinicians respond to disruptive behavior may either exacerbate or reduce the consequences of the behavior. In order to prevent disruptive behavior, the causes must be addressed. Institutions must have robust policies to deal with disruptive behavior and have preventive measures that include regular staff education. Whenever disruptive behavior does occur, it must be expeditiously addressed, which may include graded discipline. Disruptive intraoperative behavior is prevalent and harms multiple parties in the operating room. Institutions require comprehensive measures to prevent the behavior and to mitigate consequences.

  6. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  7. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  8. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  9. Differential Reinforcement of Communicative Behaviors (DRC): An Intervention for the Disruptive Behaviors of Developmentally Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Carr, Edward G.

    A study, involving four developmentally disabled children who exhibited a variety of disruptive behaviors such as self-injury and tantrums, was conducted to assess the influence of task demands and adult attention on children's behaviors. The three experimental conditions were the "EASY 100" which consisted of an easy task on which children could…

  10. Behavioral Suppression of Seriously Disruptive Behavior in Psychotic and Retarded Patients: A Review of Punishment and Its Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sandra L.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

    1978-01-01

    Reviews research on the effectiveness of such procedures as differential reinforcement of behaviors incompatible with disruptive behavior (DRO), a contingent removal of reinforcement (time-out), overcorrection, and punishment to suppress seriously disruptive and self-injurious behaviors. Research on the generalization, maintenance, and side…

  11. Reducing Disruptive Behavior in an Urban School Cafeteria: An Extension of the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Barry L.; Lannie, Amanda L.; Barnabas, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Non-classroom settings are often the most violence-prone areas within a school. This study investigated the impact of an interdependent group contingency on the disruptive behaviors of students in grades K-6 in an urban school cafeteria. Nine female noontime aides and National School and Community Corps staff members implemented the Lunchroom…

  12. Executive Functions and Child Problem Behaviors Are Sensitive to Family Disruption: A Study of Children of Mothers Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandana; Bohlin, Gunilla; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Mothers in Sri Lanka are increasingly seeking overseas employment, resulting in disruption of the childcare environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal migration on executive function (EF) and behavior, thereby also contributing to the scientific understanding of environmental effects--or more specifically…

  13. Foster placement disruptions associated with problem behavior: mitigating a threshold effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mannering, Anne M; Takahashi, Aiko; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    Placement disruptions have adverse effects on foster children. Identifying reliable predictors of placement disruptions might assist in the allocation of services to prevent disruptions. There were two objectives in this study: (a) to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster home predicts subsequent placement disruptions in foster preschoolers and (b) to determine whether this association is mitigated by a treatment foster care intervention. Problem behavior and placement disruptions were examined in 60 children in regular foster care (age range = 3.10-5.91 years [M = 4.34, SD = 0.83], 58.3% male, 93.4% Caucasian) and 57 children in a treatment foster care program (age range = 3.01-6.78 years [M = 4.54, SD = 0.86], 49.1% male, 82.5% Caucasian). Using the Parent Daily Report Checklist (Chamberlain & Reid, 1987), a brief telephone interview, foster caregivers reported problem behavior 6 times over 3 months. Placement disruptions were tracked over 12 months. The regular foster care children with 5 or fewer problem behaviors were at low risk for disruption, but their risk increased 10% for each additional behavior (p = .013). The intervention appeared to mitigate this "threshold effect"; number of problem behaviors did not predict risk of placement disruption in the treatment foster care group (p = .63). These findings replicate previous evidence linking child problem behavior to placement disruptions and further highlight the need for early preventative interventions.

  14. Perspective: delivering effective and engaging continuing medical education on physicians' disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Kimberly; Lord, Julie; Murray, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Education about physicians' disruptive behavior is relevant for practicing physicians, who must demonstrate competence in professionalism for maintenance of certification. In addition, physicians need to know about newer regulatory standards that define disruptive behavior and mandated processes for dealing with such behavior, as health care organizations are now charged with having formal policies addressing this issue. There is a growing literature about dealing with disruptive behavior, but it has not addressed education, including continuing medical education (CME), aimed at reducing or preventing disruptive behavior. The authors suggest specific strategies for such CME educational programs, including knowing the audience before the presentation, avoiding potential pitfalls, defusing defensiveness, and increasing audience "buy-in." They present two viewpoints from which to approach the topic of disruptive behavior, depending on the audience: "rekindling of values" and "risk reduction." The authors also recommend interactive teaching methods designed to maximize audience participation and foster self-awareness and reflection. Copyright © by the Association of American medical Colleges.

  15. Understanding Consumer Buying Behavior in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Recent economic growth trends in Africa have raised awareness among businesses about the attractiveness of its market potential. There is therefore an increasing academic interest in understanding the attitudes, preferences and behavior of African consumers. This chapter reviews some...

  16. Toward Improved Parenting Interventions for Disruptive Child Behavior : Engaging Disadvantaged Families and Searching for Effective Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.H.O.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk

  17. Fear conditioning, persistence of disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; Popma, A.; van den Brink, W.; Pape, L.E.; Kindt, M.; van Domburgh, L.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Children diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Deficient fear conditioning may be a key mechanism underlying persistence, and has been associated with altered regional brain

  18. Utilization of Superheroes Social Skills to Reduce Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.

    2016-01-01

    The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…

  19. Social Goals in Urban Physical Education: Relationships with Effort and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from…

  20. Transported Versus Homegrown Parenting Interventions for Reducing Disruptive Child Behavior : A Multilevel Meta-Regression Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Melendez-Torres, G.J.; Knerr, W.; Gardner, F.

    OBJECTIVE: Children's disruptive behavior problems place children at high risk for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and carry a high burden for individuals and society. Policy makers and service providers aiming to reduce children's disruptive behavior problems must often choose

  1. Development of Survey Scales for Measuring Exposure and Behavioral Responses to Disruptive Intraoperative Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Hamlin, Colin; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Robinson, Sandra; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2017-09-10

    Disruptive intraoperative behavior has detrimental effects to clinicians, institutions, and patients. How clinicians respond to this behavior can either exacerbate or attenuate its effects. Previous investigations of disruptive behavior have used survey scales with significant limitations. The study objective was to develop appropriate scales to measure exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. We obtained ethics approval. The scales were developed in a sequence of steps. They were pretested using expert reviews, computational linguistic analysis, and cognitive interviews. The scales were then piloted on Canadian operating room clinicians. Factor analysis was applied to half of the data set for question reduction and grouping. Item response analysis and theoretical reviews ensured that important questions were not eliminated. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach α. Model fit was examined on the second half of the data set using confirmatory factor analysis. Content validity of the final scales was re-evaluated. Consistency between observed relationships and theoretical predictions was assessed. Temporal stability was evaluated on a subsample of 38 respondents. A total of 1433 and 746 clinicians completed the exposure and response scales, respectively. Content validity indices were excellent (exposure = 0.96, responses = 1.0). Internal consistency was good (exposure = 0.93, responses = 0.87). Correlations between the exposure scale and secondary measures were consistent with expectations based on theory. Temporal stability was acceptable (exposure = 0.77, responses = 0.73). We have developed scales measuring exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. They generate valid and reliable scores when surveying operating room clinicians, and they overcome the limitations of previous tools. These survey scales are freely available.

  2. The Impact of Foster Parent Training on Parenting Skills and Child Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David T; Niec, Larissa N; Schoonover, Ciera E

    2017-02-01

    Children in foster care are at risk for behavioral and emotional problems that require higher levels of care than other children. To meet these needs and reduce placement disruptions, foster parents require effective parenting skills. Although a number of training models have been evaluated, the findings on the efficacy of foster parent training (FPT) are mixed. We conducted a meta-analysis of the FPT outcome research from 1984 to 2014 to develop a clearer understanding of the impact of such trainings. Fifteen samples (16 studies) were identified that investigated the impact of FPT on self-reported parenting skills and knowledge and child problem behaviors. The mean effect size for child disruptive behavior using a random effects model was small but significant at -.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [-.39, -.01], Z = 2.05, p foster parents who were involved in the trainings reported fewer child behavior problems than parents who did not receive the training. The mean effect size for parenting was moderate and significant at .52 (95% CI = [.22, .82], Z = 3.38, p < .05), indicating that, on average, parents in the treatment groups reported higher levels of skills and knowledge following training than did those in the control group. While these results are promising, more research is necessary to investigate the inconsistency in effect sizes across studies.

  3. Gender and age differences in expressing disruptive behavior during class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekić Jasmina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.

  4. Building partnerships: a pilot study of stakeholders' attitudes on technology disruption in behavioral health delivery and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucala, Madalina; Nilsen, Wendy; Muench, Frederick

    2017-12-01

    Collaborations between scientists, care providers, and technology industry professionals are becoming more relevant for developing, testing, and implementing behavioral health technologies. As the need for such partnerships increases, it is important to understand stakeholders' attitudes about their role in partnering for developing such technologies and how much do they expect technology to impact behavioral research and care. The aim of this study was to investigate how much technology disruption do stakeholders expect in healthcare, as well as their perceived contribution in partnering for developing behavioral health technologies. Stakeholders (N = 74) responded to an online convenience sampling survey. Over 89% of participants reported expecting that technology will bring at least a moderate amount of disruption in the current models of behavioral healthcare, with respondents with the most experience in digital health expecting the most disruption. As for their perception of each other's role in partnering for developing behavioral health technologies, one group's weakness was considered to be complemented by another group's strength. Academics were perceived as having more theoretical and research expertise but being less technology-savvy, while industry professionals were considered to excel at technological and marketing activities. Providers were considered to have the most clinical and real-world healthcare industry expertise. Our results indicate that technology is expected to disrupt current healthcare models, while also highlighting the need for collaboration, as no single group was considered to have sufficient expertise and resources to develop successful, effective behavioral health technologies on its own. These results may contribute to a better understanding of how technology disruption is affecting behavioral healthcare from the standpoint of its key players, which may lead to better collaborative models of research and care delivery.

  5. Children with Behavioral, Non-Behavioral, and Multiple Disabilities, and the Risk of Out-of-Home Placement Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relative risk of placement disruption for 3-10 year-old children placed in out-of-home care based on the biological relatedness of the placement caregiver and child disability status: no disability, a non-behavioral disability only, a behavioral disability only, or both a non-behavioral and behavioral disability.…

  6. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  7. Decreasing Disruptive Behavior among Students on School Buses through Comprehensive School Bus Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacquelyn

    A practicum was designed to reduce disruptive behavior of students riding school buses in a small multicultural community. It was determined that many students were disruptive when riding the school buses, making it difficult for the bus drivers to ensure riders' safety. The practicum implemented a school bus safety education and public awareness…

  8. Chronotope disruption as a sensitizing concept for understanding chronic illness narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Tim; Madill, Anna

    2015-04-01

    This article aims to elaborate chronotope disruption--a changed relation to time and space--as a sensitizing concept for understanding chronic illness narratives. Sixteen men and 16 women with Type 2 diabetes were purposefully sampled. Each was interviewed about his or her experience of diabetes self-management using the biographical-narrative interview method. Transcripts were inspected for key moments defined as emotionally laden stories relevant to the purpose of the research. We present dialogically inflected discursive analysis of exemplar extracts. The analysis demonstrates how the concept of chronotope disruption helps identify, and understand, important aspects of patients' chronic illness narratives. First, we investigate how medical advice can conflict with embodied experience and how progressive bodily deterioration can provoke a reevaluation of past illness (self-mis)management. Second, the increasing temporal and spatial intrusion of chronic illness into participants' lives is examined. Finally, we focus on the masquerade of health as an attempt to manage, hide, or deny that one is physically challenged. Chronotope disruption offers a useful sensitizing concept for approaching chronic illness narratives and around which to organize analytical insights and to develop practice. Chronotope analysis fills an important gap in the science through compensating current health sciences' focus on rationality, cognition, and prospective time (prediction) with a patient-oriented focus on emotionality, embodiment, and retrospective time (nostalgia). Chronotope disruption could be used to develop practice by gaining empathic understanding of patients' life-worlds and provides a tool to examine how new technologies change the way in which the chronically ill have "being" in the world. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Chronotope Disruption as a Sensitizing Concept for Understanding Chronic Illness Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to elaborate chronotope disruption —a changed relation to time and space— as a sensitizing concept for understanding chronic illness narratives. Methods: Sixteen men and 16 women with Type 2 diabetes were purposefully sampled. Each was interviewed about his or her experience of diabetes self-management using the biographical-narrative interview method. Transcripts were inspected for key moments defined as emotionally laden stories relevant to the purpose of the research. We present dialogically inflected discursive analysis of exemplar extracts. Results: The analysis demonstrates how the concept of chronotope disruption helps identify, and understand, important aspects of patients’ chronic illness narratives. First, we investigate how medical advice can conflict with embodied experience and how progressive bodily deterioration can provoke a reevaluation of past illness (self-mis)management. Second, the increasing temporal and spatial intrusion of chronic illness into participants’ lives is examined. Finally, we focus on the masquerade of health as an attempt to manage, hide, or deny that one is physically challenged. Conclusions: Chronotope disruption offers a useful sensitizing concept for approaching chronic illness narratives and around which to organize analytical insights and to develop practice. Chronotope analysis fills an important gap in the science through compensating current health sciences’ focus on rationality, cognition, and prospective time (prediction) with a patient-oriented focus on emotionality, embodiment, and retrospective time (nostalgia). Chronotope disruption could be used to develop practice by gaining empathic understanding of patients’ life-worlds and provides a tool to examine how new technologies change the way in which the chronically ill have “being” in the world. PMID:25197985

  10. The Use of Group Contingencies for Preventing and Managing Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulac, David M.; Benson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors requiring intervention occur across multiple school systems, including individual students and classrooms. Such behaviors, including talking aloud in class, getting out of one's seat, or more serious behaviors, can be frustrating for other students as well as teachers, who are trying to help students meet ever-increasing…

  11. Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom: The Other Side of the Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Glenn

    The author argues that in educational settings in which there is a low tolerance for "disruptive" and "antisocial" behavior, the nurturing capacity for creativity is also low. Creative persons exhibit not only anti-social behaviors, but also behaviors such as originality, self-sufficiency, and independence in thought and judgment, which may be…

  12. Heart Rate and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Grasmann, Dorte; Fegert, Jorg M.; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; hyperkinetic conduct disorder, conduct disorder, hyperkinetic disorder) characterized by low heart rate profit less from an intensive cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at reducing impulsive, oppositional and aggressive behavior problems. Method: Basal heart rate…

  13. Understanding behaviors in videos through behavior-specific dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2018-01-01

    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...

  14. Teachers' ratings of disruptive behaviors: the influence of halo effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M; Pelham, W E; Koplewicz, H S

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of teachers' ratings and examined whether these ratings are influenced by halo effects. One hundred thirty-nine elementary school teachers viewed videotapes of what they believed were children in regular fourth-grade classrooms. In fact, the children were actors who followed prepared scripts that depicted a child engaging in behaviors characteristic of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an oppositional defiant disorder or a normal youngster. The findings provide support for a bias that was unidirectional in nature. Specifically, teachers rated hyperactive behaviors accurately when the child behaved like an ADHD youngster. However, ratings of hyperactivity and of ADHD symptomatic behaviors were spuriously inflated when behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder occurred. In contrast, teachers rated oppositional and conduct problem behaviors accurately, regardless of the presence of hyperactive behaviors. The implications of these findings regarding diagnostic practices and rating scale formats are discussed.

  15. Mechanisms Underlying the Influence of Disruptive Child Behavior on Interparental Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective and experimental manipulations of child behavior have demonstrated that disruptive child behavior causes interparental discord. However, research has yet to test for mechanisms underlying this causal pathway. There is reason to suspect parent affect and parenting behavior explain child effects on interparental relations. To investigate this hypothesis, parent couples of 9- to 12-year-old boys and girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=51) and without ADHD (n=39) were randomly assigned to interact with a confederate child exhibiting “disruptive” or “typical” behavior. Parents rated their own affect as well as the quality of their partner's parenting and communication immediately following the interaction. Observers also coded the quality of parenting and communication behaviors parents exhibited during the interaction. Parents who interacted with disruptive confederates reported lower positive affect and higher negative affect than those who interacted with typical confederates. Parents were also noted by their partners and observers to parent disruptive confederates more negatively than typical confederates. Multilevel mediation models with observational coding and partner ratings both found that negative parenting explained the causal pathway between disruptive child behavior and negative communication. Exploratory analyses revealed that the strength of this pathway did not differ between parents of children with and without ADHD. Parent affect was not found to explain child effects on interparental communication. Though methodological issues limit the generalizability of these findings, results indicate that negative parenting may be one mechanism through which disruptive children cause interparental discord. PMID:21875193

  16. Disruptive Behavior and Academic Achievement: The Importance of Psychological and Environment Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço, Abílio A.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to study the impact of self-concept and environment of the classroom in disruptive behaviors, as well as the influence of these behaviors on grades in two state schools in the north of Portugal, through 3 questionnaires (PHCSCS-2, APSA and EDEP to 425 students of the compulsory Portuguese schooling. It was found that with the increase of self-concept and improve the environment of the classroom are less frequent disruptive behaviors, increasing thus the academic achievement of students (Portuguese language and mathematics, which stresses the importance of these constructs in the success school. Educational implications are discussed at these levels of education.

  17. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits : fMRI in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; van Lith, K.; Kindt, M.; Pape, L.E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Popma, A.

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent

  18. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, Moran D.; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Popma, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent

  19. Is My Teaching Disturbing You? Strategies for Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle

    2010-01-01

    Faculty in higher education are experiencing a new generation of college students referred to as Generation X (Gen-Xers) and Millennials. The characteristics and behaviors of Gen-Xers and Millennials have created a more challenging classroom learning environment. Some educators may choose to ignore disruptive behaviors or may simply not know which…

  20. Heavy Metal in Children's Tooth Enamel: Related to Autism and Disruptive Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maryam M.; Ly, Agnes R.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Dudgeon, John V.; Mull, Christopher G.; Chan, Tony J.; Kent, Erin E.; Mason, Andrew Z.; Ericson, Jonathon E.

    2012-01-01

    To examine possible links between neurotoxicant exposure and neuropsychological disorders and child behavior, relative concentrations of lead, mercury, and manganese were examined in prenatal and postnatal enamel regions of deciduous teeth from children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), high levels of disruptive behavior (HDB), and typically…

  1. Dependability of Two Scaling Approaches to Direct Behavior Rating Multi-Item Scales Assessing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the dependability of two scaling approaches for using a five-item Direct Behavior Rating multi-item scale to assess student disruptive behavior. A series of generalizability theory studies were used to compare a traditional frequency-based scaling approach with an approach wherein the informant compares a target student's…

  2. Improving the management of disruptive behavior and reducing antipsychotic medications in nursing facility residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Arnicar, Robin; Clark, Thomas R; Gerber, Joseph; Haimowitz, Daniel; Kuhlor, Aysha; Scanland, Susan

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the management of disruptive behavior in the nursing facility setting through an interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach to reduce the use of antipsychotic medications in accordance with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services initiative. The process began with a search and review of more than 100 peer-reviewed articles, government, and association resources that focused on the management of disruptive behavior in older adults. While data were limited to the past 10 years, the vast majority of data reviewed were within the past 5 years. This information was reviewed and discussed by all of the coauthors who meet in person at the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists as a work group. This group was tasked with identifying strategies through an IDT to improve the management of disruptive behavior and reduce the use of antipsychotic medications in nursing facility residents. In addition, significant follow-up work was accomplished following the live working session. Through an IDT, strategies can be implemented for long-term care residents to prevent and better manage disruptive behavior. These strategies can result in the reduction of the use of antipsychotic medications. The field of long-term care would benefit from further research to identify additional nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments for managing disruptive behavior.

  3. Emotional flooding and hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mence, Melanie; Hawes, David J; Wedgwood, Lucinda; Morgan, Susan; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Hunt, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative parenting practices and dysfunction in parents' cognitive processing of child affect cues in families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems. This dysfunction comprised a bias toward the misclassification of child affect as anger (affect appraisal bias) and parents' proneness to emotional flooding (Gottman, 1991, 1993). Participants were families of toddlers (n = 82; 53% male; aged 18-48 months) referred to a tertiary-level health service for the treatment of disruptive behavior problems. Affect appraisal bias was indexed in terms of the discrepancy between rates of child anger coded from video recordings of parent-child interactions and rates of child anger estimated by parents immediately after these interactions. Parenting practices and emotional flooding were assessed using the Parenting Scale and the Parental Flooding Scale. Both hostile and overreactive discipline were positively associated with severity of disruptive behavior problems, however only hostile discipline was associated with the biased appraisal of child affect and emotional flooding. Emotional flooding was found to be a unique predictor of hostile discipline, independent of covariates including the severity of disruptive behavior problems. Variance in hostile discipline was further explained by the interaction between emotional flooding and affect appraisal bias. Emotional flooding appears to be particularly proximal to hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems, consistent with evidence previously reported for nonclinical families.

  4. Understanding behaviors in videos through behavior-specific dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Liu, Weifeng; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2018-01-01

    Understanding behaviors is the core of video content analysis, which is highly related to two important applications: abnormal event detection and action recognition. Dictionary learning, as one of the mid-level representations, is an important step to process a video. It has achieved state...... scalability needs: A dictionary aimed at an abnormality detection purpose may misdetect normal behavior, which rarely happens in training datasets even though it may be very common in daily life. In contrast, a dictionary aimed at action recognition may misclassify a newcoming action category as an existing...... action. Therefore, our Behavior-Specific Dictionaries (BSDs) are constructed to solve these two applications through a unified framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first generalized dictionary algorithm that successfully handle with action recognition and abnormality detection...

  5. Preschool behavioral and social-cognitive problems as predictors of (pre)adolescent disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age

  6. Understanding consumer decisions using behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N

    2013-01-01

    Consumers make many decisions in everyday life involving finances, food, and health. It is known from behavioral economics research that people are often driven by short-term gratification, that is, people tend to choose the immediate, albeit smaller reward. But choosing the delayed reward, that is, delaying the gratification, can actually be beneficial. How can we motivate consumers to resist the "now" and invest in their future, leading to sustainable or healthy habits? We review recent developments from behavioral and neuroimaging studies that are relevant for understanding consumer decisions. Further, we present results from our field research that examined whether we can increase the perceived value of a (delayed) environmental benefit using tailored communication, that is, change the way it is framed. More specifically, we investigated whether we can boost the value of an abstract, long-term "green" claim of a product by expressing it as a concrete, short-term benefit. This is a new application area for behavioral economics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Disruptive Behaviors in an Emergency Department: the Perspective of Physicians and Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maddineshat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disruptive behaviors cause many problems in the workplace, especially in the emergency department (ED.This study was conducted to assess the physician’s and nurse’s perspective toward disruptive behaviors in the emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 45 physicians and 110 nurses working in the emergency department of five general hospitals in Bojnurd participated. Data were collected using a translated, changed, and validated questionnaire (25 item. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: Findings showed that physicians gave more importance to nurse-physician relationships in the ED when compared to nurses’ perspective (90% vs. 70%. In this study, 81% of physicians and 52% of nurses exhibited disruptive behaviors. According to the participants these behaviors could result in adverse outcomes, such as stress (97%, job dissatisfaction and can compromise patient safety (53%, quality of care (72%, and errors (70%. Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors could have a negative effects on relationships and collaboration among medical staffs, and on patients’ quality of care as well. It is essential to provide some practical strategies for prevention of these behaviors.

  8. Affective network and default mode network in depressive adolescents with disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Young In; Son, Young Don; Chung, Un-Sun; Min, Kyung Joon; Han, Doug Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network) and the default mode network (DMN) have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors. Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors. The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively correlated with RSFC from the PCC to the left insular cortex. Depressive mood might be correlated with the affective network, and disruptive behavior might be correlated with the DMN in adolescent depression.

  9. Development process of an assessment tool for disruptive behavior problems in cross-cultural settings: the Disruptive Behavior International Scale - Nepal version (DBIS-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Haroz, Emily; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Systematic processes are needed to develop valid measurement instruments for disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) in cross-cultural settings. We employed a four-step process in Nepal to identify and select items for a culturally valid assessment instrument: 1) We extracted items from validated scales and local free-list interviews. 2) Parents, teachers, and peers (n=30) rated the perceived relevance and importance of behavior problems. 3) Highly rated items were piloted with children (n=60) in Nepal. 4) We evaluated internal consistency of the final scale. We identified 49 symptoms from 11 scales, and 39 behavior problems from free-list interviews (n=72). After dropping items for low ratings of relevance and severity and for poor item-test correlation, low frequency, and/or poor acceptability in pilot testing, 16 items remained for the Disruptive Behavior International Scale-Nepali version (DBIS-N). The final scale had good internal consistency (α=0.86). A 4-step systematic approach to scale development including local participation yielded an internally consistent scale that included culturally relevant behavior problems.

  10. Paternal psychopathological risk and psychological functioning in children with eating disorders and Disruptive Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Muratori, Pietro; Milone, Annarita; Paciello, Marinella; Ruglioni, Laura; Cimino, Silvia; Levantini, Valentina; Tambelli, Renata

    2017-08-01

    Several studies demonstrated that maternal psychopathological risk is related to child's maladjustment, but until recently research has relatively neglected fathers. Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) and Eating disorders (ED) have a large prevalence during childhood but a few studies have focused on their association with paternal psychopathological risk. One-hundred and thirty-nine children and their fathers were recruited from pediatric hospitals and outpatient clinics and paired with a healthy control group (CG). Fathers were administered the SCL-90/R and the CBCL 6-18 to assess: 1) psychopathological risk of fathers of children with DBD, ED and CG; 2) significant differences between ED and DBD fathers' psychopathological profiles; and 3) associations between specific fathers' psychopathological symptoms and children's emotional-behavioral problems. Fathers of children with ED showed a higher psychopathological risk than fathers of DBD offspring. Children with DBD showed higher externalizing symptoms. Paternal hostility was associated with internalizing problems in children with DBD. Paternal hostility showed a non-significant but clinically interesting association with internalizing problems in DBD children; interpersonal sensitivity was associated with internalizing problems in ED children. This study can constitute a contribution to a better understanding of the clinical characteristics of fathers of children with DBD and ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Child behavior checklist dysregulation profile in children with disruptive behavior disorders: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita; Muratori, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    A Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profile defined as Dysregulation Profile (DP) (scores 2 standard deviations or more in anxiety/depression, aggression, attention subscales) has been correlated to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation. The clinical meaning and the prognostic implications of CBCL-DP are still debated, although it seems associated with severe psychopathology and poor adjustment. In the present study, we used the CBCL-DP score to examine the adolescent outcomes (psychiatric diagnosis, substance use, psychiatric hospitalization) in 80 referred children with disruptive behavior disorders -DBD- (Oppositional Defiant Disorder or conduct disorder), aged 8-9 years, 72 males (90%) and 8 females (10%), followed-up until the age of 14-15 years. Children with higher score on the CBCL-DP profile were at increased risk for presenting ADHD and mood disorders in adolescence. While ADHD in adolescence was predicted also by an ADHD diagnosis during childhood, CBCL-DP score was the only significant predictor of a mood disorder at 14-15 years. On the contrary, CBCL-DP score was not associated with a higher risk of conduct disorder, substance use and hospitalizations in adolescence. A cost-effective and reliable diagnostic measure such as the CBCL may be a part of the diagnostic procedure aimed to capture these at-risk children, to monitor their natural history up to adolescence, and to prevent the risk of a full-blown mood disorder. The small sample size and a selection bias of severe patients with DBD limit the generalization of the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Sonti, Anup N; Cameron, Heather A; Gould, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP-thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP-thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/367027-12$15.00/0.

  13. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-11

    -induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

  14. School discipline and disruptive classroom behavior: the moderating effects of student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Sandra M

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school discipline and student classroom behavior. A traditional deterrence framework predicts that more severe discipline will reduce misbehavior. In contrast, normative perspectives suggest that compliance depends upon commitment to rules and authority, including perceptions of fairness and legitimacy. Using school and individual-level data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and multilevel regression modeling, the author finds support for the normative perspective. Students who perceive school authority as legitimate and teacher–student relations as positive are rated as less disruptive. While perceptions of fairness also predict lower disruptions, the effects are mediated by positive teacher–student relations. Contrary to the deterrence framework, more school rules and higher perceived strictness predicts more, not less, disruptive behavior. In addition, a significant interaction effect suggests that attending schools with more severe punishments may have the unintended consequence of generating defiance among certain youth.

  15. Bisphenol A and Phthalate Endocrine Disruption of Parental and Social Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Susan Rosenfeld

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs can induce promiscuous neurobehavioral disturbances. Bisphenol A and phthalates are two widely prevalent and persistent EDCs reported to lead to such effects. Parental and social behaviors are especially vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these traits are programmed by the organizational-activational effects of testosterone and estrogen. BPA and other EDC exposure disrupts normal maternal care provided by rodents and non-human primates, such as nursing, time she spends hunched over and in the nest, and grooming her pups. Paternal care may also be affected by BPA. No long term study has linked perinatal exposure to BPA or other EDC and later parental behavioral deficits in humans. The fact that the same brain regions and neural hormone substrates govern parental behaviors in animal models and humans suggests that this suite of behaviors may also be vulnerable in the latter. Social behaviors, such as communication, mate choice, pair bonding, social inquisitiveness and recognition, play behavior, social grooming, copulation, and aggression, are compromised in animal models exposed to BPA, phthalates, and other EDCs. Early contact to these chemicals is also correlated with maladaptive social behaviors in children. These behavioral disturbances may originate by altering the fetal or adult gonadal production of testosterone or estrogen, expression of ESR1, ESR2, and AR in the brain regions governing these behaviors, neuropeptide/ protein hormone (oxytocin, vasopressin, and prolactin and their cognate neural receptors, and/or through epimutations. Robust evidence exists for all of these EDC-induced changes. Concern also exists for transgenerational persistence of such neurobehavioral disruptions. In sum, evidence for social and parental deficits induced by BPA, phthalates, and related chemicals is strongly mounting, and such effects may ultimately compromise the overall social fitness of

  16. Disruptive behavior disorders in offspring of parents with major depression: associations with parental behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.

  17. Empathy Problems in Youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders, with and without CU Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijper, J.; de Wied, M.A.; van Goozen, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first examines the nature of empathy problems in clinically referred disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) youth with callous unemotional (CU) traits. It then examines whether a lack of empathy contributes to a differentiation between DBD subtypes. The chapter also explores whether the

  18. Comorbid Internalizing and Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Adolescents: Offending, Trauma, and Clinical Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences between comorbid internalizing and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), and those with either internalizing disorder or DBD. We focused on differences with regard to trauma exposure and offending characteristics in 8,431 juvenile justice youths. Self-reported,

  19. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…

  20. Violent and disruptive behavior among drug-involved prisoners: relationship with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Peter D; Melnick, Gerald; Jiang, Lan; Hamilton, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and violent/disruptive behavior among 192 inmates who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Participants came from two sites able to provide narrative reports of disciplinary actions in the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies' Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument study. In multivariate logistic models, a lifetime history of thought insertion/control ideation (OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 1.8-75.2), antisocial personality disorder (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9), and disciplinary action related to possession of controlled substances or contraband (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.3) were associated with increased risk for violent or disruptive behavior while in prison, whereas lifetime phobic symptoms (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.54) and high school graduation (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0) were associated with a decreased risk of violence and disruptive behavior in general. We conclude that, among inmates in substance abuse treatment, symptoms that increase risk for violence or disruptive behavior include thought control/insertion ideation and disciplinary infractions related to controlled substances, contraband, or failure to participate in assigned programs, as well a history of antisocial personality disorder.

  1. A theoretical model to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model for leaders to use to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations. Leadership is needed to improve interpersonal relationships within the workforce. A workforce with a culture of internal conflict will be unable to achieve its full potential to delivery quality patient care.

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Interventions To Decrease Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Public Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Scott A.; Quiroz, David R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes meta-analysis of 99 studies that used interventions to decrease disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings. Overall, results indicate interventions yield comparable results to other studies investigating effectiveness of psychotherapy. Findings show that efficacious treatments used in public school settings decrease…

  3. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  4. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  5. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  6. Influence of Treatment for Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Shenk, Chad E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Bukstein, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether psychosocial intervention for children diagnosed with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD; n = 84) changed concentrations of cortisol and testosterone across a 3-year follow-up when compared to a matched, nonclinical, healthy comparison (HC; n = 69) group. Boys and girls (6-11 years) with a DBD were randomly assigned to…

  7. Pharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Gonzalo; Bernert, Rebecca; Morse, Rebecca; Pao, Maryland; Smith, Ann C M

    2010-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Children and adults with SMS appear to have unique neurobehavioral problems that include: sleep disturbance, self-injurious and maladaptive behaviors, stereotypies, and sensory integration disorders. We gathered retrospective psychotropic use information from parents or other caregivers of 62 individuals with SMS who were asked about use of psychotropic medication from a list of commonly used psychiatric medications. For those drugs identified, respondents were asked to rate the experience with the particular medication using a likert-type scale. Drugs were grouped into seven main categories: (1) stimulants; (2) antidepressants; (3) antipsychotics; (4) sleep aides; (5) mood stabilizers; (6) alpha 2 agonists; and (7) benzodiazepines. Relative frequencies, means and standard deviations pertaining to age and medication effect were derived for each medication category. Six of the seven medication categories examined showed no meaningful deviations from the "no change" score. The benzodiazepine group showed a mild detrimental effect. There were no gender differences in efficacy. Use of psychotropic medication started early in life (mean age 5 years), particularly with sleep aides. Although no medication category was identified as efficacious in SMS, all the categories reported herein may be considered as an option for brief symptomatic relief.

  8. Action word understanding and overt motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Gianelli, Claudia; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    Is the motor system involved in language processing? In order to clarify this issue, we carried out three behavioral experiments, using go-no-go and choice paradigms. In all the experiments, we used a semantic decision task with an early delivery of the go signal (during processing language material). Italian verbs expressing hand actions, foot actions or an abstract content served as stimuli. Participants executed intransitive (Experiment 1) or transitive (Experiment 2) actions with their right hand in response to the acoustic presentation of action-related verbs and refrained from responding to abstract verbs. The kinematics of the actions was slowed down by hand action-related verbs when compared with foot action-related verbs. In Experiment 3, hand-related and foot-related verbs were presented. Participants responded to hand-related and foot-related verbs with their hand and their foot (compatible condition) and in another block of trials they responded to hand-related and foot-related verbs with their foot and their hand (incompatible condition), respectively. In the compatible condition, the beginning of the action was faster, whereas the kinematics of the action was slower. The present findings suggest complete activation of verb-related motor programs during language processing. The data are discussed in support of the hypothesis that this complete activation is necessary requisite to understand the exact meaning of action words because goal and consequence of the actions are represented.

  9. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December 2015 There is a great ... the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and troubling issue needs to be ...

  10. Understanding and Managing Self-Injurious Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirpoli, Thomas J.; Lloyd, John Wills

    1987-01-01

    The literature review looks at self-injurious behaviors in handicapped students in terms of characteristics, prevalence, etiology (biological, psychological, and as learned behavior), and management including extinction, positive punishment, negative punishment, and reinforcement of other behaviors. Problems in areas of management, administration,…

  11. A Program to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a School Based Upon a Practical Application of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Carl G.

    This practicum report describes a program to aid in reducing the incidence of disruptive behavior of students through the use of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology. The report contains a general definition of the problem, which was the reduction of the disruptive student behavior, and the objectives to be achieved from the program. There is a…

  12. Investigating the Association between Home-School Dissonance and Disruptive Classroom Behaviors for Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M.; Burris, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Sean T.

    2018-01-01

    Disruptive classroom behaviors are a major schooling dilemma in urban schools. While several contextual and motivational factors have been statistically associated with disruptive classroom behaviors, one overlooked factor has been home-school dissonance. The current study examined the relationship between 260 middle school students' reports of…

  13. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Vuijk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52%

  14. Analyzing the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work: an integrative review*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Meneses Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work. METHOD An integrative review carried out in the theoretical phase of a qualitative research substantiated by the theoretical framework of the Hybrid Model of Concept Development. The search for articles was conducted in the CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed and SciVerse Scopus databases in 2013. RESULTS 70 scientific articles answered the guiding question and lead to attributes of disruptive behavior, being: incivility, psychological violence and physical/sexual violence; with their main antecedents (intrapersonal, interpersonal and organizational being: personality characteristics, stress and work overload; and consequences of: workers' moral/mental distress, compromised patient safety, labor loss, and disruption of communication, collaboration and teamwork. CONCLUSION Analysis of the disruptive behavior concept in healthcare work showed a construct in its theoretical stage that encompasses different disrespectful conduct adopted by health workers in the hospital context, which deserve the attention of leadership for better recognition and proper handling of cases and their consequences.

  15. From evolution to revolution: understanding mutability in large and disruptive human groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Felmlee, Diane; Verma, Dinesh C.; Preece, Alun; Williams, Grace-Rose

    2017-05-01

    Over the last 70 years there has been a major shift in the threats to global peace. While the 1950's and 1960's were characterised by the cold war and the arms race, many security threats are now characterised by group behaviours that are disruptive, subversive or extreme. In many cases such groups are loosely and chaotically organised, but their ideals are sociologically and psychologically embedded in group members to the extent that the group represents a major threat. As a result, insights into how human groups form, emerge and change are critical, but surprisingly limited insights into the mutability of human groups exist. In this paper we argue that important clues to understand the mutability of groups come from examining the evolutionary origins of human behaviour. In particular, groups have been instrumental in human evolution, used as a basis to derive survival advantage, leaving all humans with a basic disposition to navigate the world through social networking and managing their presence in a group. From this analysis we present five critical features of social groups that govern mutability, relating to social norms, individual standing, status rivalry, ingroup bias and cooperation. We argue that understanding how these five dimensions interact and evolve can provide new insights into group mutation and evolution. Importantly, these features lend themselves to digital modeling. Therefore computational simulation can support generative exploration of groups and the discovery of latent factors, relevant to both internal group and external group modelling. Finally we consider the role of online social media in relation to understanding the mutability of groups. This can play an active role in supporting collective behaviour, and analysis of social media in the context of the five dimensions of group mutability provides a fresh basis to interpret the forces affecting groups.

  16. Understanding your supply chain to reduce the risk of supply chain disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgoose, Nick; Brennan, Patrick; Thompson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Supply chains are at the heart of the way in which organisations operate and compete today; they also play a critical role in overall organisation performance. In the context of increasingly complex and global supply chains, the actions taken to drive down costs are likely to drive risk into the supply chain. The frequency of supply chain disruptions is high and this paper offers practical advice to help reduce the frequency and cost associated with these. There is advice to help with the understanding of how to identify critical suppliers. The reader is guided through comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation approaches and a selection of practical risk solutions and tools that you can use is described. There is a section on the 'dos and don'ts' relating to supplier due diligence. For those organisations facing the challenge of drawing up a business case relating to investment in improving supply chain resiliency, there is also a section outlining some of the business benefits of improving supply chain resiliency.

  17. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational in students from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Gordillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, attending public schools in Callao, Peru. Students from single-sex schools showed less frequent disruptive behavior in each of the three measured categories—disruptive behaviors, behaviors that show lack of responsibility and anti-social behavior. A weak correlation was found between each of the three categories and the main variable. The study controlled for extraneous variables.

  18. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of

  19. Disruption of male reproductive behavior in threespine stickleback asterosteus aculeatus exposed to 17β-estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibe, Asa Espmark; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Jenssen, Bjoern Munro

    2002-01-01

    In past years we have witnessed decreased reproductive capacity in many wildlife species due to exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting properties. In this laboratory experiment male three spine sticklebacks asterosteus aculeatus exposed to 17β-estradiol (2.0 μg/g) dispersed in peanut oil, on days 1, 7, 14, and 21, showed impaired paternal care compared to control fish that were exposed to peanut oil only. There were no differences between the two groups in number of males that built nests or in courtship displays. However, exposed males started nest building significantly later than control males. This study suggests that some but not all essential traits of male reproductive behavior may be altered as a result of exposure to 17β-estradiol. To reveal harmful effects of chemicals with suggested reproductive-disrupting properties it is thus important to take a wide variety of variables related to reproductive behavior into consideration

  20. Psychoticism and disruptive behavior can be also good predictors of school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Bacelar, Tatiane Dias; Saldanha, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The relations of Gf (Standard Progressive Matrices Raven), Gc (verbal scale of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version), personality dimensions (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Junior Version), and disruptive behavior (TDAH scale) with school achievement (measured by TDE test and PISA test) were investigated. Two samples of students (total N = 534) representing a broad range of socioeconomic status (SES) participated in this study. Path models were conducted. The results demonstrated that (1) in both samples no sex differences related to school achievement were found; (2) in the first sample, after controlling for age and SES differences, Gf and psychoticism predicted (.38 and -.13, respectively) school achievement (measured by TDE test); (3) in the second sample, after controlling for SES differences to which additional measures were administered, Gf and Gc positively predicted (.22 and .40, respectively) school achievement (measured by PISA test). In addition, psychoticism and disruptive behavior also predicted school performance (-.14 and -.28, respectively). Some theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Effects of a Tier 2 Intervention on Classroom Disruptive Behavior and Academic Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Amy; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia; Barnes, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As multi-tiered systems of support for social behavior problems are increasingly utilized in schools settings, school personnel are often in need of effective and efficient Tier 2 interventions. Although Check-in/Check-out (CICO) is a promising intervention, more robust experimental demonstrations are needed to provide evidence confirming its effectiveness when implemented by school practitioners. Using an ABAB single subject design, this study examined the effects of CICO on disruptive behav...

  2. Sex dimorphic behaviors as markers of neuroendocrine disruption by environmental chemicals: the case of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, A; Ricceri, L; Tait, S; Calamandrei, G

    2012-12-01

    The complexity of the neuroendocrine level of investigation requires the assessment of behavioral patterns that extend beyond the reproductive functions, which are age- and sex-specific in rodents, described by defined clusters of behavioral items regulated by genetic, hormonal, and epigenetic factors. The study of social behavior in laboratory rodents reveals sex-dimorphic effects of environmental chemicals that may be undetected either by a traditional neurotoxicological approach or referring to the classical definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Here we review data on the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to the non-persistent organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, whose neurotoxic activity at low doses is currently a matter of concern for children's health. In mice exposed to chlorpyrifos in utero and/or in early development social/emotional responses are differently affected in the two sexes in parallel with sex-dependent interference on hypothalamic neuroendocrine pathways regulating social behaviors (vasopressin, oxytocin, and steroid regulated systems). Through the analysis of complex sex-dimorphic behavioral patterns we show that neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting activities of CPF overlap. This widely diffused organophosphorus pesticide might thus be considered as a neuroendocrine disruptor possibly representing a risk factor for sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (p< 0.5) in hen day production (90.2 vs 54.1; control vs EB, resp.) and fertility (85.3 vs 33.4%, control vs EB, resp.). Males showed sharply reduced courtship and mating behaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  4. Placement Disruption and Negative Placement Outcomes among Adolescents in Long-Term Foster Care: The Role of Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Sonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined risk of placement disruption and negative placement outcomes (e.g., residential treatment and incarceration) among adolescents placed in traditional family foster care for a year or longer. A foster parent's report of externalizing behavior problems was expected to be a stronger predictor of disruption and negative…

  5. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  6. Tracking Nemo: Help Scientists Understand Zebrafish Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Tyrone J; Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2018-02-22

    The advent of automated tracking software has significantly reduced the time required to record movement trajectories, thereby facilitating behavioral studies of zebrafish. However, results are substantially influenced by tracking errors, such as loss and misidentification of individuals. In this study, we present the development of an online citizen science platform, Tracking Nemo, to improve data accuracy on swimming trajectories of zebrafish groups. As an online extension of software for tracking the position of zebrafish from video recordings, Tracking Nemo offers volunteers the opportunity to contribute to science by manually correcting tracked trajectory data from their personal computers. Researchers can upload their videos that require human intervention for correcting and validating the data. Citizen scientists can monitor their contributions through a leaderboard system, which is designed to strengthen participant retention and contribution by tapping into intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Tracking Nemo is expected to help scientists improve data accuracy through the involvement of citizen scientists, who, in turn, engage in an authentic research activity and learn more about the behavior of zebrafish.

  7. Methylphenidate Has Superior Efficacy Over Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Preschool Children with Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Nauta, Maaike H; Emmelkamp, Paul; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2018-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness between parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) and methylphenidate in preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and disruptive behaviors who had remaining significant behavior problems after previous behavioral parent training. We included 35 preschool children, ranging in age between 3.4 and 6.0 years. Participants were randomized to PCIT (n = 18) or methylphenidate (n = 17). Outcome measures were maternal ratings of the intensity and number of behavior problems and severity of ADHD symptoms. Changes from pretreatment to directly posttreatment were compared between groups using two-way mixed analysis of variance. We also made comparisons of both treatments to a nonrandomized care as usual (CAU) group (n = 17) regarding intensity and number of behavior problems. All children who started one of the treatments were included in the analyses. Mothers reported a significantly more decreased intensity of behavior problems after methylphenidate (pre-post effect size d = 1.50) compared with PCIT (d = 0.64). ADHD symptoms reduced significantly over time only after methylphenidate treatment (d = 0.48) and not after PCIT. Changes over time of children in the CAU treatment were nonsignificant. Although methylphenidate was more effective than PCIT, both interventions may be effective in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behaviors. Our findings are preliminary as our sample size was small and the use of methylphenidate in preschool children lacks profound safety data as reflected by its off-label status. More empirical support is needed from studies with larger sample sizes.

  8. Lost connections: Oxytocin and the neural, physiological, and behavioral consequences of disrupted relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Tobias T; Young, Larry J; Bosch, Oliver J

    2018-01-09

    In humans and rodent animal models, the brain oxytocin system is paramount for facilitating social bonds, from the formation and consequences of early-life parent-infant bonds to adult pair bond relationships. In social species, oxytocin also mediates the positive effects of healthy social bonds on the partners' well-being. However, new evidence suggests that the negative consequences of early neglect or partner loss may be mediated by disruptions in the oxytocin system as well. With a focus on oxytocin and its receptor, we review studies from humans and animal models, i.e. mainly from the biparental, socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), on the beneficial effects of positive social relationships both between offspring and parents and in adult partners. The abundance of social bonds and benevolent social relationships, in general, are associated with protective effects against psycho- and physiopathology not only in the developing infant, but also during adulthood. Furthermore, we discuss the negative effects on well-being, emotionality and behavior, when these bonds are diminished in quality or are disrupted, for example through parental neglect of the young or the loss of the partner in adulthood. Strikingly, in prairie voles, oxytocinergic signaling plays an important developmental role in the ability to form bonds later in life in the face of early-life neglect, while disruption of oxytocin signaling following partner loss results in the emergence of depressive-like behavior and physiology. This review demonstrates the translational value of animal models for investigating the oxytocinergic mechanisms that underlie the detrimental effects of developmental parental neglect and pair bond disruption, encouraging future translationally relevant studies on this topic that is so central to our daily lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational) in students from Callao, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo, Enrique G.

    2013-01-01

    Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, at...

  10. Understanding slope behavior through microseismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Diego; Boccolari, Mauro; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that microseismic activity originates as an elastic stress wave at locations where the material is mechanically unstable. Monitoring techniques focusing on this phenomenon have been studied for over seventy years and are now employed in a wide range of applications. As far as the study of unstable slope is concerned, microseismic monitoring can provide real-time information about fracture formation, propagation and coalescence and may be an appropriate solution to reduce the risk for human settlements when structural mitigation interventions (e.g., rock fall nets and ditches) cannot cope with large rock volumes and high kinetic energies. In this work we present the datasets collected in a 4-year period with a microseismic monitoring network deployed on an unstable rock face in Northern Italy. We mainly focus on the classification and the interpretation of collected signals with the final aim of identifying microseismic events related to the kinematic and dynamic behavior of the slope. We have analyzed signal parameters both in time and frequency domains, spectrograms, polarization of 3-component recordings supported by principal component analysis. Clustering methodologies have been tested in order to develop an automatic classification routine capable to isolate a cluster with most of the events related to slope behavior and to discard all disturbances. The network features both geophones and meteorological sensors so that we could also explore the correlation between microseismic events and meteorological datasets, although no significant relationships emerged. On the contrary, it was found that the majority of the events collected by the network are short-time high-frequency signals generated by electromagnetic activity caused by near and far thunderstorms. Finally, we attempted a preliminary localization of the most promising events according to an oversimplified homogeneous velocity model to get a rough indication about the regions of the

  11. Direct Behavioral Consultation: Effects on Teachers' Praise and Student Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Lestremau, Lauren; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral consultation is an extension of traditional behavioral consultation and focuses on assessment and training in the classroom during ongoing classroom activities. This study evaluated direct behavioral consultation services in two elementary alternative classrooms referred following a program evaluation in which data suggested…

  12. Prenatal Cocaine Disrupts Serotonin Signaling-Dependent Behaviors: Implications for Sex Differences, Early Stress and Prenatal SSRI Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah K; Lauder, Jean M; Johns, Josephine M

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine (PC) exposure negatively impacts the developing nervous system, including numerous changes in serotonergic signaling. Cocaine, a competitive antagonist of the serotonin transporter, similar to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), also blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, leaving the direct mechanism through which cocaine disrupts the developing serotonin system unclear. In order to understand the role of the serotonin transporter in cocaine’s effect on the serotonergic system, we compare reports concerning PC and prenatal antidepressant exposure and conclude that PC exposure affects many facets of serotonergic signaling (serotonin levels, receptors, transporters) and that these effects differ significantly from what is observed following prenatal SSRI exposure. Alterations in serotonergic signaling are dependent on timing of exposure, test regimens, and sex. Following PC exposure, behavioral disturbances are observed in attention, emotional behavior and stress response, aggression, social behavior, communication, and like changes in serotonergic signaling, these effects depend on sex, age and developmental exposure. Vulnerability to the effects of PC exposure can be mediated by several factors, including allelic variance in serotonergic signaling genes, being male (although fewer studies have investigated female offspring), and experiencing the adverse early environments that are commonly coincident with maternal drug use. Early environmental stress results in disruptions in serotonergic signaling analogous to those observed with PC exposure and these may interact to produce greater behavioral effects observed in children of drug-abusing mothers. We conclude that based on past evidence, future studies should put a greater emphasis on including females and monitoring environmental factors when studying the impact of PC exposure. PMID:22379462

  13. The Co-Development of Relational Aggression and Disruptive Behavior Symptoms from Late Childhood through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte, Alazne; Atherton, Olivia E; Robins, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Researchers have debated whether relational aggression is a developmentally-normative behavior or a sign of some underlying psychopathology. However, due to the dearth of longitudinal studies, we know little about how relational aggression and more severe forms of disruptive behavior co-develop. The present study examined bidirectional associations between relational aggression and two psychiatric disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth followed from age 10 to 16. Results showed that individuals who engaged in relational aggression tended to increase over time in ODD and CD symptoms, and conversely, individuals exhibiting symptoms of ODD and CD tended to increase in relational aggression. These findings held for boys and girls, for youth born in Mexico and the U.S., and after controlling for physical aggression. Thus, relational aggression seems to be both a developmentally-normative behavior and a predictor of future mental health problems.

  14. Ethnic differences in problem perception: Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for a 9-Year-Old Girl With Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E; Ibrahim, Karim; Bertschinger, Emilie; Piasecka, Justyna; Sukhodolsky, Denis G

    2016-12-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a relatively new diagnosis in the field of childhood onset disorders. Characterized by both behavior and mood disruption, DMDD is a purportedly unique clinical presentation with few relevant treatment studies to date. The current case study presents the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anger and aggression in a 9-year-old girl with DMDD, co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a history of unspecified anxiety disorder. At the time of intake evaluation, she demonstrated three to four temper outbursts and two to three episodes of aggressive behavior per week, in addition to prolonged displays of non-episodic irritability lasting hours or days at a time. A total of 12 CBT sessions were conducted over 12 weeks and 5 follow-up booster sessions were completed over a subsequent 3-month period. Irritability-related material was specially designed to target the DMDD clinical presentation. Post-treatment and 3-month follow-up assessments, including independent evaluation, demonstrated significant decreases in the target symptoms of anger, aggression, and irritability. Although the complexities of diagnosing and treating DMDD warrant extensive research inquiry, the current case study suggests CBT for anger and aggression as a viable treatment for affected youth.

  16. Road trauma in teenage male youth with childhood disruptive behavior disorders: a population based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases or appendicitis (controls in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009. Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls. A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812, equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio  =  1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.54, p<0.001. The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.56, p<0.001. The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries.

  17. Fimbria-fornix lesions disrupt the dead reckoning (homing) component of exploratory behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Joanna H; Gorny, Bogdan; Wallace, Douglas G; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is the primary way in which rodents gather information about their spatial surroundings. Thus, spatial theories propose that damage to the hippocampus, a structure thought to play a fundamental role in spatial behavior, should disrupt exploration. Exploration in rats is organized. The animals create home bases that are central to exploratory excursions and returns, and hippocampal formation damage alters the organization of exploration by disrupting returns. Mice do not appear to readily establish home bases in novel environments, thus, for this species, it is more difficult to establish the contribution of the hippocampus to exploration. The purpose of the present study was threefold: develop a task in which mice center their exploration from a home base, determine whether the exploratory behavior is organized, and evaluate the role of fimbria-fornix lesions on exploration. Mice were given a novel exploratory task in which their nesting material was placed on a large circular table. Video records of control and fimbria-fornix mice were made in both light and dark (infrared light) conditions. Exploration patterns (outward trips, stops, and homeward trips) were reconstructed from the video records. Control mice centered their activity on their bedding, from which they made circuitous outward trips marked by many stops, and periodic direct returns. The bedding-centered behavior and outward trips of the fimbria-fornix mice were similar to those of the control mice, but significantly fewer direct return trips occurred. The direct homeward trips observed under light and dark conditions were consistent with a dead-reckoning strategy, in which an animal computes its present position and homeward trajectory from self-movement cues generated on the outward trip. Because the fimbria-fornix lesions disrupted the homeward component of exploratory trips, we conclude that the fimbria-fornix may contribute to dead reckoning in mice. The results also show that the home

  18. Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children 0 to 6 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Giedinghagen, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), specifically oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, are common, serious, and treatable conditions among preschoolers. DBDs are marked by frequent aggression, deceitfulness, and defiance, and often persist through the lifespan. Exposure to harsh or inconsistent parenting, as frequently seen with parental depression and stress, increases DBD risk. Candidate genes that may increase DBD risk in the presence of childhood adversity have also been identified, but more research is needed. Neurophysiologic and structural correlates with DBD also exist. Parent management training programs, focusing on increasing parenting competence and confidence, are the gold standard treatment of preschool DBDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Managing Disruptive Physician Behavior: First Steps for Designing an Effective Online Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Puddester

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interviews with physician leaders from hospitals in a mid-sized Ontario City were conducted to determine their needs with regard to managing disruptive physician behaviour. These findings were used to inform the design of a two-day skill-development workshop for physician leaders on disruptive behaviour. The workshop was evaluated using a modified version of the Learner Experience Feedback Form, which was built to align with W(eLearn, http://www.ennovativesolution.com/WeLearn/ a framework developed to guide the design, delivery, development, and evaluation of online interprofessional courses and programs (MacDonald, Stodel, Thompson, & Casimiro, 2009. The surveys gathered information related to the content, media, service, structure, and outcomes of the workshop. The findings from the focus group interviews and workshop evaluation identify physician leaders’ needs with regard to disruptive behavior and were used to inform the design of the world’s first Online Physician Health and Wellness Resource http://www.ephysicianhealth.com/ an open access learning resources currently being used globally, in 91 countries. The resource was the recipient of the winner of the International Business/Professional 2010 International eLearning Award. The findings demonstrated the importance of conducting a needs analysis and using a framework to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of effective online healthcare education.

  20. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  1. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suin Kim

    Full Text Available Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  2. Sleep disruption increases seizure susceptibility: Behavioral and EEG evaluation of an experimental model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnčić, Dragan; Grubač, Željko; Rašić-Marković, Aleksandra; Šutulović, Nikola; Šušić, Veselinka; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Stanojlović, Olivera

    2016-03-01

    Sleep disruption accompanies sleep apnea as one of its major symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is particularly common in patients with refractory epilepsy, but causing factors underlying this are far from being resolved. Therefore, translational studies regarding this issue are important. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep disruption on seizure susceptibility of rats using experimental model of lindane-induced refractory seizures. Sleep disruption in male Wistar rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by treadmill method (belt speed set on 0.02 m/s for working and 0.00 m/s for stop mode, respectively). Animals were assigned to experimental conditions lasting 6h: 1) sleep disruption (sleep interrupted, SI; 30s working and 90 s stop mode every 2 min; 180 cycles in total); 2) activity control (AC, 10 min working and 30 min stop mode, 9 cycles in total); 3) treadmill chamber control (TC, only stop mode). Afterwards, the animals were intraperitoneally treated with lindane (L, 4 mg/kg, SI+L, AC+L and TC+L groups) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, SIc, ACc and TCc groups). Convulsive behavior was assessed by seizure incidence, latency time to first seizure, and its severity during 30 min after drug administration. Number and duration of ictal periods were determined in recorded EEGs. Incidence and severity of lindane-induced seizures were significantly increased, latency time significantly decreased in animals undergoing sleep disruption (SI+L group) compared with the animals from TC+L. Seizure latency was also significantly decreased in SI+L compared to AC+L groups. Number of ictal periods were increased and duration of it presented tendency to increase in SI+L comparing to AC+L. No convulsive signs were observed in TCc, ACc and SIc groups, as well as no ictal periods in EEG. These results indicate sleep disruption facilitates induction of epileptic activity in rodent model of lindane-epilepsy enabling translational research of this phenomenon. Copyright

  3. Children's Early Disruptive Behavior Predicts Later Coercive Behavior and Binge Drinking by Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    We examined the prospective influence of early child problematic behavior on later coercive interactions and binge drinking by mothers. Canadian participants are from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, born between spring 1997 and 1998, which allowed a longitudinal birth cohort design. At the 41months, 628 parents reported on children's oppositional, aggressive, turbulent, and inattentive/hyperactive behavior. Mothers then reported on their own coercive and binge drinking behavior at the 60month follow-up. We estimated a series of ordinary least-squares regressions to examine the relationship between early child behavior problems and later parental coercion and binge drinking, above and beyond many key pre-existing/concurrent confounding factors including prior parenting stress and binge alcohol use. Oppositional, aggressive, and turbulent child behaviors at 41months predicted harsh, negative parenting at 60months. Early inattentive/hyperactive child behavior also forecasted later binge alcohol use by mothers within the same time frame. Negative preschool behavior predicted harsh, negative maternal behavior kindergarten entry. Early inattentive/hyperactive behavior also forecasted later binge alcohol use by mothers. Coercive parenting and alcohol use are clinically signs of adult distress. Such parents might use alcohol excessively because of its perceived stress-dampening effects and mental evasion from their life difficulties and frustration experiences. Problematic preschool behavior can lead to less effective child-rearing and unhealthy parental behavior. Such at-risk mothers would benefit from professional caring practices. Practitioners can inspire change, especially using interaction interventions which encourage positive parent-child relations that, in turn, diminish parental distress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conditional deletion of Cadherin 13 perturbs Golgi cells and disrupts social and cognitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, M; Guo, L; Kim, J; Zainolabidin, N; Eulenburg, V; Augustine, G J; Chen, A I

    2018-02-15

    Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebellar cortex. To assess the function of Cdh13 and utilize the manipulation of Cdh13 expression in Golgi cells as an entry point to examine cerebellar-mediated function, we generated mice carrying Cdh13-floxed alleles and conditionally deleted Cdh13 with GlyT2::Cre mice. Loss of Cdh13 results in a decrease in the expression/localization of GAD67 and reduces spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in cerebellar Golgi cells without disrupting spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). At the behavioral level, loss of Cdh13 in the cerebellum, piriform cortex and endopiriform claustrum have no impact on gross motor coordination or general locomotor behaviors, but leads to deficits in cognitive and social abilities. Mice lacking Cdh13 exhibit reduced cognitive flexibility and loss of preference for contact region concomitant with increased reciprocal social interactions. Together, our findings show that Cdh13 is critical for inhibitory function of Golgi cells, and that GlyT2::Cre-mediated deletion of Cdh13 in non-executive centers of the brain, such as the cerebellum, may contribute to cognitive and social behavioral deficits linked to neurological disorders. © 2018 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Combined pharmacotherapy-multimodal psychotherapy in children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra; Brovedani, Paola; Pisano, Simone; Muratori, Pietro

    2016-04-30

    Although multi-component psychotherapeutic interventions are first-line treatments for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), pharmacotherapy is often associated for more severe patients. Our aim was to explore effectiveness of an associated pharmacotherapy in referred children with DBD receiving a one-year psychotherapeutic intervention. Aggression, callous unemotional (CU) traits and emotional dysregulation were outcome measures. The sample included 144 children, aged 8-12 years, 41 (29%) with an ADHD comorbidity. Fifty-five (38%) patients received an additional pharmacotherapy with one medication, methylphenidate, a second generation antipsychotic, or a mood stabilizer. Data were collected before and after the one-year treatment. According to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), aggressive behaviors, rule-breaking behaviors and emotional dysregulation improved in the whole group, as well as parent- and child-reported CU traits. The hierarchical regression model showed that additional pharmacotherapy significantly predicted lower scores at the CBCL aggressive behaviors and emotional dysregulation, but not CU traits at the end of the treatment. The interaction between methylphenidate and ADHD comorbidity predicted lower aggressive behaviors after the treatment. In summary, this naturalistic investigation suggest that an additional pharmacotherapy significantly improved aggression and emotional dysregulation, but not CU traits. When ADHD was comorbid, methylphenidate was more effective than antipsychotics or mood stabilizers in reducing aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-09-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with an adult-directed ABA approach on disruptive behavior during language intervention in the public schools. A randomized clinical trial design was used with two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance. The data showed that the children demonstrated significantly lower levels of disruptive behavior during the PRT condition. The results are discussed with respect to antecedent manipulations that may be helpful in reducing disruptive behavior.

  7. Analyzing the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Roberta Meneses; Silva, Lucilane Maria Sales da; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; Oliveira, Adriana Catarina de Souza; Sánchez, Rosario Gómez; Torres, Raimundo Augusto Martins

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the concept of disruptive behavior in healthcare work. An integrative review carried out in the theoretical phase of a qualitative research substantiated by the theoretical framework of the Hybrid Model of Concept Development. The search for articles was conducted in the CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed and SciVerse Scopus databases in 2013. 70 scientific articles answered the guiding question and lead to attributes of disruptive behavior, being: incivility, psychological violence and physical/sexual violence; with their main antecedents (intrapersonal, interpersonal and organizational) being: personality characteristics, stress and work overload; and consequences of: workers' moral/mental distress, compromised patient safety, labor loss, and disruption of communication, collaboration and teamwork. Analysis of the disruptive behavior concept in healthcare work showed a construct in its theoretical stage that encompasses different disrespectful conduct adopted by health workers in the hospital context, which deserve the attention of leadership for better recognition and proper handling of cases and their consequences. Analisar o conceito comportamento destrutivo no trabalho em saúde. Revisão integrativa realizada na fase teórica de pesquisa qualitativa fundamentada pelo referencial teórico-metodológico do Modelo Híbrido de Análise de Conceitos. A busca dos artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed e SciVerse Scopus, em 2013. 70 artigos científicos responderam à questão norteadora e atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, permitindo evidenciar os atributos do comportamento destrutivo: incivilidade, violência psicológica e violência física/sexual; seus principais antecedentes (intrapessoais, interpessoais e organizacionais): características de personalidade, estresse e sobrecarga de trabalho; e consequentes: sofrimento moral/psíquico dos trabalhadores, comprometimento da segurança do paciente, preju

  8. Prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Elementary-School Students of Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa Namdari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Namdari P1, Nazari H2 1. Instructor, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Abstract Background: Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood and is considered an important mental health problem of the society. DBDs may have distractive effects on the social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationships of people in their childhood and adulthood. The present research was done to determine the prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in elementary school students of Khorramabad in 2005. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N = 943. Sixteen state and private schools (8 for girls and 8 for boys were selected in a cluster and multi–stage sampling method. The standardized questionnaire of Child Symptoms Inventories (CSI-4 was used to collect data on the prevalence of children’s psychiatric disorders. The results ware analyzed using descriptive statistic and Chi-square test. Results: The total sample included 943 children. There was 21.4% DBD behavior (17.7% oppositional defiant disorder and, 3.7% conduct disorder. The number of the boys was twice as that of the girls (28.7% vs. 14.4%. The students in grade 2 showed the lowest, and those in grade 3, 4 and 5 the highest prevalence rate of DBD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s grade (P= 0.02, parent’s education (P=0.005, P=0.006, Mother’s job (P= 0.03, income (P = 0.005 and DBD. However no significant relationship between father’s job, educational level of the students and parent’s mental problems and Disruptive Behavior Disorders was found. Conclusion: Due to the high

  9. Efektivitas Anger Management Training Untuk Menurunkan Agresivitas Pada Remaja Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrizulhaidi Nasrizulhaidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas anger management training untuk menurunkan agresivitas pada remaja disruptive behavior disorders. Subjek penelitian dipilih melalui screening dengan skala CPRS (Conduct Problem Risk Screen dan pengukuran agresivitas dengan skala Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ. AMT (Anger Management Training berupa psikoedukasi, yang mempelajari tentang pemahaman dasar marah, ekspresi marah dan akibatnya, mengidentifikasi diri saat marah, mengontrol pikiran marah dan menentukan tingkat kemarahan. Selanjutnya memahami anger management melalui film, relaksasi otot dan pernapasan, cara menyelesaikan konflik, cara mengontrol marah dan perencanaan dalam mengontrol marah. Adapun metode intervensi yang digunakan terdiri dari diskusi kasus, latihan individual, presentasi dan modelling perilaku. Penempatan subjek dengan random assignment dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Kelompok eksperimen berjumlah 10 orang, mendapat AMT selama 3 kali pertemuan dan setiap pertemuan memerlukan waktu 120 menit. Sementara subjek di kelompok kontrol juga berjumlah 10 orang, namun tidak mendapatkan perlakuan. Dapat disimpulkan anger management efektif untuk menurunkan agresivitas. Dalam hal ini subjek di kelompok eksperimen mengalami penurunan agresivitas setelah mendapat AMT dan subjek di kelompok kontrol mengalami peningkatan agresivitas karena tidak mendapatkan AMT. Selain itu AMT dapat pula diberikan pada individu yang memiliki kemampuan di bawah rata-rata, dengan memodifikasi program yang lebih berbentuk operasional konkrit. Kata kunci: anger management training, agresivitas, disruptive behavior disorders

  10. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  11. Genetic Disruption of Circadian Rhythms in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Causes Helplessness, Behavioral Despair, and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie E; Proulx, Christophe D; Barandas, Rita; Malinow, Roberto; Welsh, David K

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. To investigate the causal relationship between mood disorders and circadian clock disruption, previous studies in animal models have employed light/dark manipulations, global mutations of clock genes, or brain area lesions. However, light can impact mood by noncircadian mechanisms; clock genes have pleiotropic, clock-independent functions; and brain lesions not only disrupt cellular circadian rhythms but also destroy cells and eliminate important neuronal connections, including light reception pathways. Thus, a definitive causal role for functioning circadian clocks in mood regulation has not been established. We stereotactically injected viral vectors encoding short hairpin RNA to knock down expression of the essential clock gene Bmal1 into the brain's master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In these SCN-specific Bmal1-knockdown (SCN-Bmal1-KD) mice, circadian rhythms were greatly attenuated in the SCN, while the mice were maintained in a standard light/dark cycle, SCN neurons remained intact, and neuronal connections were undisturbed, including photic inputs. In the learned helplessness paradigm, the SCN-Bmal1-KD mice were slower to escape, even before exposure to inescapable stress. They also spent more time immobile in the tail suspension test and less time in the lighted section of a light/dark box. The SCN-Bmal1-KD mice also showed greater weight gain, an abnormal circadian pattern of corticosterone, and an attenuated increase of corticosterone in response to stress. Disrupting SCN circadian rhythms is sufficient to cause helplessness, behavioral despair, and anxiety-like behavior in mice, establishing SCN-Bmal1-KD mice as a new animal model of depression. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  12. Treating young children's disruptive behavior problems: dissemination of an evidence- based parent management training program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle

    2015-01-01

    High levels of young children’s disruptive behavior problems are persistent, highly prevalent, and a serious public health concern. If left untreated, these behaviors can lead to serious difficulties in broad areas of child and family functioning, and economically impact the wider society.

  13. The Quiet Classroom Game: A Class-Wide Intervention to Increase Academic Engagement and Reduce Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Dart, Evan H.; O'Handley, Roderick D.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of the Quiet Classroom Game, an interdependent group contingency using an iPad loaded with a decibel meter app, for increasing academically engaged behavior. Three first-grade classrooms in the southeastern United States, identified as displaying high levels of noise and disruptive behavior, were…

  14. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  15. Incentive Processing in Persistent Disruptive Behavior and Psychopathic Traits: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, Moran D.; Veltman, Dick J.; Pape, Louise E.; van Lith, Koen; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Popma, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e., deficient

  16. Incentive Processing in Persistent Disruptive Behavior and Psychopathic Traits: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; Veltman, D.J.; Pape, L.E.; van Lith, K.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; van den Brink, W.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Popma, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e.,

  17. CRISPR-Cas9-enabled genetic disruptions for understanding ethanol and ethyl acetate biosynthesis in Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbs, Ann-Kathrin; Engel, Ronja; Schwartz, Cory; Flores, Andrew; Wheeldon, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus shows promise as an industrial host for the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Wild-type strains are known to ferment high titers of ethanol and can effectively convert a wide range of C 5 , C 6 , and C 12 sugars into the volatile short-chain ester ethyl acetate. Strain engineering, however, has been limited due to a lack of advanced genome-editing tools and an incomplete understanding of ester and ethanol biosynthesis. Enabled by the design of hybrid RNA polymerase III promoters, this work adapts the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes for use in K. marxianus . The system was used to rapidly create functional disruptions to alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol- O -acetyltransferase (ATF) genes with putative function in ethyl acetate and ethanol biosynthesis. Screening of the Km ATF disrupted strain revealed that Atf activity contributes to ethyl acetate biosynthesis, but the knockout reduced ethyl acetate titers by only ~15%. Overexpression experiments revealed that Km Adh7 can catalyze the oxidation of hemiacetal to ethyl acetate. Finally, analysis of the Km ADH2 disrupted strain showed that the knockout almost completely eliminated ethanol production and resulted in the accumulation of acetaldehyde. Newly designed RNA polymerase III promoters for sgRNA expression in K. marxianus enable a CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system for the thermotolerant yeast. This system was used to disrupt genes involved in ethyl acetate biosynthesis, specifically Km ADH1-7 and Km ATF. Km Adh2 was found to be critical for aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production. Aerobically produced ethanol supplies the biosynthesis of ethyl acetate catalyzed by Km Atf. Km Adh7 was found to exhibit activity toward the oxidation of hemiacetal, a possible alternative route for the synthesis of ethyl acetate.

  18. A Novel HumanCAMK2AMutation Disrupts Dendritic Morphology and Synaptic Transmission, and Causes ASD-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jason R; Wang, Xiaohan; Perfitt, Tyler L; Parrish, Walker P; Shonesy, Brian C; Marks, Christian R; Mortlock, Douglas P; Nakagawa, Terunaga; Sutcliffe, James S; Colbran, Roger J

    2017-02-22

    Characterizing the functional impact of novel mutations linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provides a deeper mechanistic understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Here we show that a de novo Glu183 to Val (E183V) mutation in the CaMKIIα catalytic domain, identified in a proband diagnosed with ASD, decreases both CaMKIIα substrate phosphorylation and regulatory autophosphorylation, and that the mutated kinase acts in a dominant-negative manner to reduce CaMKIIα-WT autophosphorylation. The E183V mutation also reduces CaMKIIα binding to established ASD-linked proteins, such as Shank3 and subunits of l-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors, and increases CaMKIIα turnover in intact cells. In cultured neurons, the E183V mutation reduces CaMKIIα targeting to dendritic spines. Moreover, neuronal expression of CaMKIIα-E183V increases dendritic arborization and decreases both dendritic spine density and excitatory synaptic transmission. Mice with a knock-in CaMKIIα-E183V mutation have lower total forebrain CaMKIIα levels, with reduced targeting to synaptic subcellular fractions. The CaMKIIα-E183V mice also display aberrant behavioral phenotypes, including hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, and increased repetitive behaviors. Together, these data suggest that CaMKIIα plays a previously unappreciated role in ASD-related synaptic and behavioral phenotypes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-linked mutations disrupt the function of synaptic proteins, but no single gene accounts for >1% of total ASD cases. The molecular networks and mechanisms that couple the primary deficits caused by these individual mutations to core behavioral symptoms of ASD remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first characterization of a mutation in the gene encoding CaMKIIα linked to a specific neuropsychiatric disorder. Our findings demonstrate that this ASD-linked de novo CAMK2A mutation disrupts multiple Ca

  19. Mortality in individuals with disruptive behavior disorders diagnosed by specialist services – A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James G.; Giørtz Pedersen, Marianne; Erskine, Holly E.

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), inclusive of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are associated with outcomes likely to increase risk of mortality. Using Danish National Registers, a total of 1.92 million individuals including 9495 individuals with DBDs diagnosed...... by specialist services were followed from their first birthday to 2013. Those with and without DBDs were compared using mortality rate ratios (MRRs) estimated using Poisson regression and adjusted for calendar period, age, sex, family history of psychiatric disorders, maternal age at time of birth, paternal age.......22 for those with no diagnosis. This corresponded to a fully adjusted MRR of 2.57 (95% confidence interval 2.04–3.20). Comorbid substance use disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder resulted in the highest MRR across all categories. These findings demonstrate the excess mortality associated...

  20. ADHD with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: discrete or nondistinct disruptive behavior disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2008-09-01

    In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male children and adolescents with either ADHD (n = 65), ADHD with ODD (n = 85), or ADHD with CD (n = 50) were compared using structured diagnostic interviews and parent, teacher, and clinician rating scales. In children with ADHD, significant differences emerged between ODD and CD in the domains of delinquency, overt aggression, and ADHD symptom severity; ADHD with CD was most severe, followed by ADHD with ODD, and ADHD had the least severe symptoms. Distinctions between ADHD with CD and the other two groups were found for parenting, treatment history, and school variables. Within the limits of a cross-sectional methodology, results support clinically meaningful distinctions between ODD and CD in children with ADHD.

  1. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Morse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. Method A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, M age = 20 from a large public university completed an online survey. Results Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  2. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  3. Can Institutionalized Adolescent Females With a Substantiated History of Sexual Abuse Benefit From Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Targeting Disruptive and Delinquent Behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Lemieux, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent females in residential care with a substantiated history of sexual abuse can benefit from a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) targeting disruptive and delinquent behaviors. In total, 104 adolescent females in the treatment group and 78

  4. Investigating Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Stine Schmieg; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    This book shares knowledge collected from 2015 and onward within the Consortium for Digital Disruption anchored at Aalborg University (www.dd.aau.dk). Evidenced by this publication, the field of disruptive innovation research has gone through several stages of operationalizing the theory. In recent...... years, researchers are increasingly looking back towards the origins of the theory in attempts to cure it from its most obvious flaws. This is especially true for the use of the theory in making predictions about future disruptions. In order to continue to develop a valuable theory of disruption, we...... find it useful to first review what the theory of disruptive innovation initially was, how it has developed, and where we are now. A cross section of disruptive innovation literature has been reviewed in order to form a general foundation from which we might better understand the changing world...

  5. Parasympathetic reactivity and disruptive behavior problems in young children during interactions with their mothers and other adults: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E; DeSerisy, Mariah; Cornacchio, Danielle; Sanchez, Amanda; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-05-01

    Parasympathetic nervous system influences on cardiac functions-commonly indexed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-are central to self-regulation. RSA suppression during challenging emotional and cognitive tasks is often associated with better emotional and behavioral functioning in preschoolers. However, the links between RSA suppression and child behavior across various challenging interpersonal contexts remains unclear. The present study experimentally evaluated the relationship between child RSA reactivity to adult (mother vs. study staff) direction and disruptive behavior problems in children ages 3-8 with varying levels of disruptive behavior problems (N = 43). Reduced RSA suppression in the context of mothers' play-based direction was associated with more severe child behavior problems. In contrast, RSA suppression in the context of staff play-based direction was not associated with behavior problems. Findings suggest that the association between RSA suppression and child behavior problems may vary by social context (i.e., mother vs. other adult direction-givers). Findings are discussed in regard to RSA as an indicator of autonomic self-regulation that has relevance to child disruptive behavior problems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparing working memory in bilingual and monolingual Hispanic/Latino preschoolers with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexis M; Ros, Rosmary; Hart, Katie C; Graziano, Paulo A

    2018-02-01

    The current study examined differences in working memory (WM) between monolingual and bilingual Hispanic/Latino preschoolers with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). A total of 149 children (M age  = 5.10 years, SD = 0.53; 76% male) with elevated levels of DBDs, as indicated by their parents or teachers, were recruited to participate in an 8-week summer program prior to the start of kindergarten (Summer Treatment Program for Pre-Kindergarteners). Prior to the start of treatment, parents completed several measures about their children's behavior and executive function, and children were administered two subtests of the Automated Working Memory Assessment to examine their current WM capabilities. After controlling for demographic variables (i.e., age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and diagnostic status), no significant differences were observed between bilingual and monolingual children in verbal WM performance (β = .03, p > .05). However, children who were bilingual did perform better than monolinguals on spatial WM tasks (β = .23, p bilingual children were reported as having fewer WM problems by parents (β = -.19, p bilingualism may serve as a protective factor for preschoolers with DBDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding How Domestic Violence Affects Behavior in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Malika

    2011-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…

  9. Children's Understanding of Display Rules for Expressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Examined how children come to understand that internally experienced affect need not be behaviorally expressed and that the emotion that is expressed is not necessarily what is being felt internally. Sixty elementary school students were interviewed about four interpersonal conflict situations presented in comic strip style but using photographs…

  10. Understanding child sexual behavior problems: a developmental psychopathology framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran

    2009-11-01

    Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.

  11. Designing Graphs that Promote Both Risk Understanding and Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Yasmina; Stone, Eric R; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-03

    Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk-avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm ("foreground+background") versus only those affected ("foreground-only"), and the presence versus absence of simple numerical labels above bars. Foreground-only displays were associated with larger risk perceptions and risk-avoidant behavior (i.e., willingness to take a drug for heart attack prevention) than foreground+background displays, regardless of the presence of labels. Foreground-only graphs also hindered risk understanding when labels were not present. However, the presence of labels significantly improved understanding, eliminating the detrimental effect of foreground-only displays. Labels also led to more positive user evaluations of the graphs, but did not affect risk-avoidant behavior. Using process modeling we identified mediators (risk perceptions, understanding, user evaluations) that explained the effect of display type on risk-avoidant behavior. Our findings contribute new evidence to the graph design literature: unlike what was previously feared, we demonstrate that it is possible to design foreground-only graphs that promote intentions for behavior change without a detrimental effect on risk understanding. Implications for the design of graphical risk communications and decision support are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Child abuse, disruptive behavior disorders, depression, and salivary cortisol levels among institutionalized and community-residing boys in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Carrion, Victor G; Waldman, Irwin D; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is related to childhood disruptive behavior disorders and to exposure to abuse and neglect. This study explores the relationship of diurnal salivary cortisol levels with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and caregiver attitudes toward physical punishment among boys in Mongolia. Salivary cortisol was collected in the home or institution 4 times daily for 4 days from 46 boys, aged 4-10 years, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Caregivers rated child disruptive behavior symptoms, attitudes toward physical punishment, and community violence exposures. Mixed effects models were used to estimate the association of psychopathology and caregiver attitudes with salivary cortisol levels. Boys meeting criteria for ODD displayed consistently lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels compared to boys without ODD diagnoses. Controlling for ODD diagnosis, boys with depression showed higher cortisol levels throughout the day. No other diagnosis was associated with cortisol levels. Psychiatric diagnosis accounted for 17% of between individual variations in cortisol levels unexplained by the covariates. In a separate model, caregivers' beliefs regarding physical punishment accounted for 11% of between individual differences: boys with caregivers who stated physical punishment was necessary for discipline displayed hypocortisolism. Institutionalization did not associate with cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol data from a non-Western naturalistic setting support an association of reduced basal HPA activity with disruptive behavior disorders and caregiver attitudes toward discipline. These findings suggest HPA functioning may be a reflection of or mediate disruptive behavior disorders in children across ethnic and cultural settings. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Characterizing Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren I.; Taylor, Robin; Garland, Ann F.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with disruptive behavior problems served in community-based mental health clinics, characterizes psychotherapy process and outcome, and examines differences between children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group. Results indicate that children with ASD…

  14. The Trouble with Boys: Social Influences and the Gender Gap in Disruptive Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 17541

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Marianne; Pan, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of the home and school environments in explaining the gender gap in disruptive behavior. We document large differences in the gender gap across key features of the home environment--boys do especially poorly in broken families. In contrast, we find little impact of the early school environment on non-cognitive…

  15. Concurrent attenuated reactivity of alpha-amylase and cortisol is related to disruptive behavior in male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, M.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van de Ven, P.M.; Popma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between

  16. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  17. Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Intergenerational Attachment Patterns: A Comparison of Clinic-Referred and Normally Functioning Preschoolers and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKlyen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Examined linkages between child disruptive behavior disorder, quality of mother-child interactions, and mothers' recollections/attitudes toward their parents. Preschool boys (N=25) referred to a psychiatric clinic were matched with normally functioning boys. Mothers and sons were videotaped during a separation-reunion sequence, the Adult…

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Exercise for ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Eduardo E.; Davis, Catherine L.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Rusch, Dana; Fogg, Louis F.; Atkins, Marc S.; Marquez, David X.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test feasibility and impact of a 10-week after-school exercise program for children with ADHD and/or disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) living in an urban poor community. Methods Children were randomized to exercise (n=19) or a comparable but sedentary attention control program (n=16). Cognitive and behavioral outcomes were collected pre-post. Intent-to-treat mixed models tested group × time and group × time × attendance interactions. Effect sizes were calculated within and between groups. Results Feasibility was evidenced by 86% retention, 60% attendance, and average 75% maximum heart rate. Group × time results were null on the primary outcome, parent-reported executive function. Among secondary outcomes, between-group effect sizes favored exercise on hyperactive symptoms (d=0.47) and verbal working memory (d=0.26), and controls on visuospatial working memory (d=-0.21) and oppositional defiant symptoms (d=-0.37). In each group, within-group effect sizes were moderate-large on most outcomes (d=0.67 to 1.60). A group × time × attendance interaction emerged on visuospatial working memory (F[1,33]=7.42, p<.05), such that attendance to the control program was related to greater improvements (r=.72, p<.01) while attendance to the exercise program was not (r=.25, p=.34). Conclusions While between-group findings on the primary outcome, parent-reported executive function, were null, between-group effect sizes on hyperactivity and visuospatial working memory may reflect adaptations to the specific challenges presented by distinct formats. Both groups demonstrated substantial within-group improvements on clinically relevant outcomes. Findings underscore the importance of programmatic features such as routines, engaging activities, behavior management strategies, and adult attention; and highlight the potential for after-school programs to benefit children with ADHD and DBD living in urban poverty where health needs are high and services resources few. PMID

  19. Fear conditioning, persistence of disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, M D; Popma, A; van den Brink, W; Pape, L E; Kindt, M; van Domburgh, L; Doreleijers, T A H; Veltman, D J

    2013-10-29

    Children diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Deficient fear conditioning may be a key mechanism underlying persistence, and has been associated with altered regional brain function in adult antisocial populations. In this study, we investigated the associations between the neural correlates of fear conditioning, persistence of childhood-onset DBD during adolescence and psychopathic traits. From a cohort of children arrested before the age of 12 years, participants who were diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder in previous waves (mean age of onset 6.5 years, s.d. 3.2) were reassessed at mean age 17.6 years (s.d. 1.4) and categorized as persistent (n=25) or desistent (n=25) DBD. Using the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory and functional magnetic resonance imaging during a fear conditioning task, these subgroups were compared with 26 matched healthy controls from the same cohort. Both persistent and desistent DBD subgroups were found to show higher activation in fear processing-related brain areas during fear conditioning compared with healthy controls. In addition, regression analyses revealed that impulsive-irresponsible and grandiose-manipulative psychopathic traits were associated with higher activation, whereas callous-unemotional psychopathic traits were related to lower activation in fear-related areas. Finally, the association between neural activation and DBD subgroup membership was mediated by impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits. These results provide evidence for heterogeneity in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying psychopathic traits and antisocial behavior and, as such, underscore the need to develop personalized interventions.

  20. Sustained disruption of narwhal habitat use and behavior in the presence of Arctic killer whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, Greg A; Matthews, Cory J D; Marcoux, Marianne; Higdon, Jeff W; LeBlanc, Bernard; Petersen, Stephen D; Orr, Jack; Reinhart, Natalie R; Ferguson, Steven H

    2017-03-07

    Although predators influence behavior of prey, analyses of electronic tracking data in marine environments rarely consider how predators affect the behavior of tracked animals. We collected an unprecedented dataset by synchronously tracking predator (killer whales, [Formula: see text] = 1; representing a family group) and prey (narwhal, [Formula: see text] = 7) via satellite telemetry in Admiralty Inlet, a large fjord in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Analyzing the movement data with a switching-state space model and a series of mixed effects models, we show that the presence of killer whales strongly alters the behavior and distribution of narwhal. When killer whales were present (within about 100 km), narwhal moved closer to shore, where they were presumably less vulnerable. Under predation threat, narwhal movement patterns were more likely to be transiting, whereas in the absence of threat, more likely resident. Effects extended beyond discrete predatory events and persisted steadily for 10 d, the duration that killer whales remained in Admiralty Inlet. Our findings have two key consequences. First, given current reductions in sea ice and increases in Arctic killer whale sightings, killer whales have the potential to reshape Arctic marine mammal distributions and behavior. Second and of more general importance, predators have the potential to strongly affect movement behavior of tracked marine animals. Understanding predator effects may be as or more important than relating movement behavior to resource distribution or bottom-up drivers traditionally included in analyses of marine animal tracking data.

  1. Predictors of nonresponse to psychosocial treatment in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Muratori, Pietro; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Muratori, Filippo

    2011-02-01

    A crucial issue in youths with disruptive behavior disorders, including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, is the refractoriness to treatments. A multimodal approach with individual therapy to improve social skills and self-control and family and school interventions is the best psychosocial treatment. Predictors of poor response to psychosocial treatment remain understudied. We aimed at exploring whether callous (lack of empathy and guilt) and unemotional (shallow emotions) (CU) trait and type of aggression (predatory vs. affective) can affect response to psychosocial treatment in referred youths with disruptive behavior disorders. The sample consisted of 38 youths (28 boys and 10 girls, age range: 6-14 years, mean age: 13.1 ± 2.6 years) diagnosed as having oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria and a clinical interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version), who completed a 6-month therapeutic program at our hospital. Patients were assessed according to severity and improvement (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score [CGI-S] and CGI-Improvement score), functional impairment (Children's Global Assessment Scale [C-GAS]), type of aggression, predatory versus affective (Aggression Questionnaire), and CU dimension (Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Inventory of CU Traits). Among the 38 patients, 21 (55.3%) were responders and 17 (44.7%) were nonresponders, according to CGI-Improvement score and CGI-S. Nonresponders were more impaired at the baseline according to CGI-S and C-GAS. Nonresponders presented higher scores of predatory aggression, whereas affective aggression did not differ between groups. Nonresponders presented higher scores in CU trait of Antisocial Process Screening Device and in Inventory of CU total score (callous trait), but these

  2. Merely Misunderstood? Receptive, Expressive, and Pragmatic Language in Young Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Monica L.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity. PMID:23924073

  3. Melting and evaporation behaviors of first wall subjected to high heat flux expected at plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Seki, Masahiro.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental studies were performed to investigate melting and evaporation of metals caused by transient high heat flux. The objective of the present study was to clarify the behavior of a first wall of a fusion reactor when subjected to an intense heat flux due to a plasma disruption. The improved electron beam facility equipped with a high-speed beam rastering system was used as the heat source. The two-dimensional heat conduction code which accounts for phase changes was developed to predict melt layer thickness and evaporation loss. The experimental and numerical results agreed well with each other on threshold energy density for melt initiation and on melt and evaporation thicknesses for low energy densities. For high energy densities, however, the numerical results showed larger evaporation loss and smaller melt thickness than those of experimental results. High-speed video observations revealed that a center part of melt surface receded when evaporation occured. The observation suggested that the heat transfer across the melt layer was enhanced due to the melted metal motion. The numerical results came close to the experimental data when thermal conductivity of the melted metal was increased to account for the heat transfer enhancement, The idea of 'vapor shield' could not successfully explained the differences between the experimental and numerical results. (author)

  4. Understanding Eating Behaviors through Parental Communication and the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Emily; Shim, Minsun

    2017-05-01

    Emerging adulthood (EA) is an important yet overlooked period for developing long-term health behaviors. During these years, emerging adults adopt health behaviors that persist throughout life. This study applies the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine the role of childhood parental communication in predicting engagement in healthful eating during EA. Participants included 239 college students, ages 18 to 25, from a large university in the southern United States. Participants were recruited and data collection occurred spring 2012. Participants responded to measures to assess perceived parental communication, eating behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control over healthful eating. SEM and mediation analyses were used to address the hypotheses posited. Data demonstrated that perceived parent-child communication - specifically, its quality and target-specific content - significantly predicted emerging adults' eating behaviors, mediated through subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. This study sets the stage for further exploration and understanding of different ways parental communication influences emerging adults' healthy behavior enactment.

  5. Video-CRM: understanding customer behaviors in stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritaoglu, Ismail; Flickner, Myron; Beymer, David

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes two real-time computer vision systems created 10 years ago that detect and track people in stores to obtain insights of customer behavior while shopping. The first system uses a single color camera to identify shopping groups in the checkout line. Shopping groups are identified by analyzing the inter-body distances coupled with the cashier's activities to detect checkout transactions start and end times. The second system uses multiple overhead narrow-baseline stereo cameras to detect and track people, their body posture and parts to understand customer interactions with products such as "customer picking a product from a shelf". In pilot studies both systems demonstrated real-time performance and sufficient accuracy to enable more detailed understanding of customer behavior and extract actionable real-time retail analytics.

  6. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan F. Andrade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate, or influence (i.e., moderate, peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  7. Multi-data Mining for Understanding Leadership Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Matsumura

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for understanding leadership behavior in dot-jp, a non-profit organization, by analyzing heterogeneous multi-data composed of questionnaires and mailing list archives. Attitudes toward leaders were obtained from the questionnaires, and human networks were extracted from the mailing list archives. By integrating the results, we discovered that leaders must receive messages from other people as well as send messages to construct reliable relationships.

  8. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  9. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial of fish oil treatment for impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Bor, William; Adam, Kareen; Bowling, Francis G; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological research links aggression to low serum concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found in fish oil. However, no studies have specifically examined whether fish oil supplementation can reduce the frequency and severity of impulsive aggression in children with disruptive behavior disorders. Children presenting with impulsive aggression and meeting research criteria for diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were randomized to receive either: 1) Fish oil capsules (4 g daily) for 6 weeks followed by placebo (identical-looking capsules) for 6 weeks; or 2) placebo for 6 weeks, followed by fish oil for 6 weeks, in a double-blind, crossover design. Primary outcomes were the Children's Aggression Scale and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Secondary outcomes included emotional and behavioral functioning (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ]), hyperactivity symptoms (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] Rating Scale), family functioning (Family Assessment Device), and cognitive functioning (Stop Signal Task, Trail-Making Task, and Eriksen Flanker Task). Serum concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks. Twenty-one children participated (81% male; mean age 10.3±2.2 years; range 7-14). Fish oil treatment increased serum concentrations of eicosapentanoic acid (F=14.76, pConduct Subscale, F=4.34, p=0.06). Fish oil treatment was associated with an improvement in one rating of hyperactivity (SDQ Hyperactivity Subscale, F=2.22, pchildren with disruptive behavior disorders.

  10. Merely misunderstood? Receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language in young children with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Monica L; Martel, Michelle M

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity.

  11. Systematic behavior research for understanding consumer decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Feng

    2009-05-01

    This study incorporates means-end chain (MEC) theory and dynamic programming for understanding the implications of consumer decision making. The conceptual framework of this study can help programmers design information systems for analyzing consumption behaviors. Such analyses will provide marketers with meaningful information for formulating marketing strategies. The main contributions of this article are as follows: (1) to enable researchers to obtain information for consumer cognitive hierarchies utilizing an information system, (2) to enhance the functions of traditional MEC methodology and provide an integrated method for analyzing consumption information, and (3) to construct an information system for analyzing consumer decision-making processes.

  12. An Approach to Understanding Complex Socio-Economic Impacts and Responses to Climate Disruption in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Ihde, A. G.; Paxton, L. J.; Weiss, M.; Simpkins, S.; Fountain, G. H.; APl GAIA Team

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions of a system under stress to the regional issues that are tied to global climate disruption. Under the auspices of the GAIA project (http://gaia.jhuapl.edu), we have investigated simulating the complex interplay between climate, politics, society, industry, and the environment in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and associated geographic areas of Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. This Chesapeake Bay simulation draws on interrelated geophysical and climate models to support decision-making analysis about the Bay. In addition to physical models, however, human activity is also incorporated via input and output calculations. For example, policy implications are modeled in relation to business activities surrounding fishing, farming, industry and manufacturing, land development, and tourism. This approach fosters collaboration among subject matter experts to advance a more complete understanding of the regional impacts of climate change. Simulated interactive competition, in which teams of experts are assigned conflicting objectives in a controlled environment, allow for subject exploration which avoids trivial solutions that neglect the possible responses of affected parties. Results include improved planning, the anticipation of areas of conflict or high risk, and the increased likelihood of developing mutually acceptable solutions.

  13. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N; Balodis, Iris M; Franco, Christine A; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E

    2013-06-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a nonsubstance addiction in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive-behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with nonsubstance and substance addictions. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Neurobiological considerations in understanding behavioral treatments for pathological gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Balodis, Iris M.; Franco, Christine A.; Bullock, Scott; Xu, Jiansong; Chung, Tammy; Grant, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), a disorder currently categorized as an impulse-control disorder but being considered as a non-substance addiction in DSM-5 discussions, represents a significant public health concern. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made with respect to understanding the biological underpinnings of PG. Research has also demonstrated the efficacies of multiple treatments, particularly behavioral therapies, for treating PG. Despite these advances, relatively little is known regarding how biological measures, particularly those assessing brain function, relate to treatments for PG. In this article, we present a conceptual review focusing on the neurobiology of behavioral therapies for PG. To illustrate issues related to study design, we present proof-of-concept preliminary data that link Stroop-related brain activations prior to treatment onset to treatment outcome in individuals with PG receiving a cognitive behavioral treatment incorporating aspects of imaginal desensitization and motivational interviewing. We conclude with recommendations about current and future directions regarding how to incorporate and translate biological findings into improved therapies for individuals with non-substance and substance addictions. PMID:23586456

  16. Understanding mechanisms of change in the development of antisocial behavior: The impact of a universal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); P. Vuijk (Patricia); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe association between the development of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and peer rejection was tested with a preventive intervention; 664 boys and girls were randomly assigned to a universal classroom-based intervention targeting disruptive behavior or a control

  17. Evaluation of Improvement in Externalizing Behaviors and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder: A 1-Year Follow Up Clinic-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lambruschi, Furio; Masi, Gabriele; Lochman, John E

    2017-07-01

    Multi-component interventions based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices have been found effective in reducing behavioral problems in children with disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder). However, it is still unclear if these interventions can affect children's callous-unemotional traits, which are predictive of subsequent antisocial behavior. Furthermore, it could be important to identify empirically supported treatment protocols for specific disorders addressed by child mental health services. The present study aimed to test the following two hypotheses: first, the Coping Power (CP) treatment program is able to reduce externalizing behaviors in children with disruptive behavior disorders treated in a mental health care unit; second, the CP program can reduce children's callous unemotional traits. The sample included 98 Italian children, 33 treated with the CP program; 37 with a less focused multi-component intervention, and 28 with child psychotherapy. The results showed that the CP program was more effective than the other two treatments in reducing aggressive behaviors. Furthermore, only the CP program was associated with a decrease in children's callous unemotional traits. The CP program was also associated with lower rate of referrals to mental health services at one-year follow-up. These findings support the importance of disseminating manualized and focused intervention programs in mental health services.

  18. Disruptive behavior in preschool children: distinguishing normal misbehavior from markers of current and later childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji S; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    To investigate which disruptive behaviors in preschool were normative and transient vs markers of conduct disorder, as well as which disruptive behaviors predicted the persistence of conduct disorder into school age. Data from a longitudinal study of preschool children were used to investigate disruptive behaviors. Caregivers of preschoolers ages 3.0-5.11 years (n = 273) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment to derive the following diagnostic groups: conduct disorder, externalizing disorder without conduct disorder, internalizing disorder without externalizing disorder, and healthy. At school age, participants were again assessed via an age-appropriate diagnostic interview. Logistic and linear regression with pairwise group comparisons was used to investigate clinical markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Losing one's temper, low-intensity destruction of property, and low-intensity deceitfulness/stealing in the preschool period were found in both healthy and disordered groups. In contrast, high-intensity argument/defiant behavior, both low- and high-intensity aggression to people/animals, high-intensity destruction of property, high-intensity deceitfulness/stealing, and high-intensity peer problems were markers of preschool conduct disorder and predictors of school age conduct disorder. Inappropriate sexual behavior was not a marker for preschool conduct disorder but was a predictor of school age conduct disorder. These findings provide a guide for primary care clinicians to help identify preschoolers with clinical conduct disorder and those who are at risk for persistent conduct disorder in childhood. Preschoolers displaying these symptoms should be targeted for mental health assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Trial of the Self-Management Training and Regulation Strategy (STARS): A Selective Intervention for Students with Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    To attain academic goals, school personnel must effectively manage 20% of students who engage in the disruptive behaviors that interrupt instruction, create teacher stress, and contribute to poor student outcomes. Without effective strategies, school personnel often respond to disruptive students with ineffective authoritarian tactics,…

  20. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: A comparison between full-term and preterm dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Tooten, A.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother’s representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and

  1. Preventing Disruptive Behavior via Classroom Management: Validating the Color Wheel System in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Understanding the Implications of Neural Population Activity on Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, John

    Learning how neural activity in the brain leads to the behavior we exhibit is one of the fundamental questions in Neuroscience. In this dissertation, several lines of work are presented to that use principles of neural coding to understand behavior. In one line of work, we formulate the efficient coding hypothesis in a non-traditional manner in order to test human perceptual sensitivity to complex visual textures. We find a striking agreement between how variable a particular texture signal is and how sensitive humans are to its presence. This reveals that the efficient coding hypothesis is still a guiding principle for neural organization beyond the sensory periphery, and that the nature of cortical constraints differs from the peripheral counterpart. In another line of work, we relate frequency discrimination acuity to neural responses from auditory cortex in mice. It has been previously observed that optogenetic manipulation of auditory cortex, in addition to changing neural responses, evokes changes in behavioral frequency discrimination. We are able to account for changes in frequency discrimination acuity on an individual basis by examining the Fisher information from the neural population with and without optogenetic manipulation. In the third line of work, we address the question of what a neural population should encode given that its inputs are responses from another group of neurons. Drawing inspiration from techniques in machine learning, we train Deep Belief Networks on fake retinal data and show the emergence of Garbor-like filters, reminiscent of responses in primary visual cortex. In the last line of work, we model the state of a cortical excitatory-inhibitory network during complex adaptive stimuli. Using a rate model with Wilson-Cowan dynamics, we demonstrate that simple non-linearities in the signal transferred from inhibitory to excitatory neurons can account for real neural recordings taken from auditory cortex. This work establishes and tests

  3. Neural Rhythms of Change: Long-Term Improvement after Successful Treatment in Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Woltering

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG was recorded during a challenging Go/No-go task. Treatment consisted of intensive 14-week combined cognitive behavioral therapy and parent management training sessions. For the analysis, participants were divided into long-term improvers (IMPs and long-term nonimprovers (NIMPs based on changes in their externalizing problem scores. The results showed early no-go theta power (4–8 Hz, 100–250 ms decreased for long-term IMPs compared to NIMPs. When participants were divided based on changes in their comorbid internalizing symptoms, effects were stronger and reductions in theta power were found for early as well as later phases (250–650 ms. We provided preliminary evidence that theta power is a useful neural measure to trace behavioral change linked to improved self-regulation even up to a year after treatment ended. Results may have implications for the characterization of children with disruptive behavior problems and may lead to the development of novel markers of treatment success.

  4. Effect of Parent Training on Adaptive Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Disruptive Behavior: Results of a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Bearss, Karen; Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Swiezy, Naomi; Aman, Michael G; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; McCracken, Courtney; Minshawi, Noha; Turner, Kylan; Levato, Lynne; Saulnier, Celine; Dziura, James; Johnson, Cynthia

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the impact of parent training on adaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. This was a 24-week, 6-site, randomized trial of parent training versus parent education in 180 children with ASD (aged 3-7 years; 158 boys and 22 girls) and moderate or greater behavioral problems. Parent training included specific strategies to manage disruptive behavior over 11 to 13 sessions, 2 telephone boosters, and 2 home visits. Parent education provided useful information about autism but no behavior management strategies over 12 core sessions and 1 home visit. In a previous report, we showed that parent training was superior to parent education in reducing disruptive behavior in young children with ASD. Here, we test whether parent training is superior to parent education in improving daily living skills as measured by the parent-rated Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II. The long-term impact of parent training on adaptive functioning is also presented. At week 24, the parent training group showed a 5.7-point improvement from baseline on the Daily Living domain compared to no change in parent education (p = .004; effect size = 0.36). On the Socialization domain, there was a 5.9-point improvement in parent training versus a 3.1-point improvement in parent education (p = .11; effect size = 0.29). Gains in the Communication domain were similar across treatment groups. The gain in Daily Living was greater in children with IQ of >70. However, the interaction of treatment-by-IQ was not significant. Gains in Daily Living at week 24 were maintained upon re-evaluation at 24 weeks posttreatment. These results support the model that reduction in disruptive behavior can lead to improvement in activities of daily living. By contrast, the expected trajectory for adaptive behavior in children with ASD is often flat and predictably declines in children with intellectual disability. In the parent training group, higher

  5. The processing of animacy information is disrupted as a function of callous-unemotional traits in youth with disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Thornton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical amygdala responses to emotional stimuli have been consistently reported in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder. However, responding to animacy stimuli has not been systematically investigated. Yet, the amygdala is known to be responsive to animacy stimuli and impairment in responsiveness to animacy information may have implications for social cognitive development. Twenty-nine youth with DBDs and 20 typically developing youth, matched for IQ, age (Mage = 14.45, SD = 2.05 and gender, completed a dot probe task during fMRI. Stimuli consisted of negative/faces, negative/objects, neutral/faces and neutral/objects images. Youth with DBDs, relative to typically developing youth, showed: i reduced amygdala and lateral temporal cortex responses to faces relative to objects. Moreover, within the group of youth with DBDs, increasing callous-unemotional traits were associated with lesser amygdala responses to faces relative to objects. These data suggest that youth with DBDs, particularly those with high levels of CU traits exhibit dysfunction in animacy processing in the amygdala. This dysfunction may underpin the asociality reported in these youth.

  6. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses’ Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

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    Khaldoun M. Aldiabat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.

  7. Effects of non-contingent cocaine on 3alpha-androstanediol. I. Disruption of male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtz, Amy S; Walf, Alicia A; Frye, Cheryl A

    2017-12-14

    One of the hallmarks of drug abuse is a reduction in the salience of, and motivation for, natural rewards, such as mating. The effects of psychostimulants on male sexual interest and performance are conflicting; use of psychostimulants can produce increases in risky sexual behaviors but have detrimental effects on sexual ability. We hypothesize that these conflicting effects on sexual behavior are due to interactions between cocaine and androgens, such as testosterone and its neuroactive metabolite, 3α-androstanediol (3α-diol). Male rats were administered saline or cocaine (5, 10, or 20mg/kg, i.p.). Motor behavior was observed in the first 30min following drug-administration, and then sexual responding was assessed for 15min. Levels of androgens (testosterone, 3ɑ-diol, and testosterone's aromatized metabolite, estradiol) were measured in circulation and brain regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus/striatum (hypo/str), and midbrain). Cocaine had no effect on measures of sexual interest (i.e. anogenital investigation). However, cocaine had substantial effects on consummatory sexual behaviors, such as the latency to mount/intromit and the number of sexual contacts. Frontal cortex and hypo/str 3α-diol levels were strongly correlated with consummatory behaviors in saline administered rats; however, this relationship was disrupted by cocaine at all dosages, concomitant with impaired sexual behaviors. Additionally, there was a shift in metabolism at low dosages of cocaine to push testosterone metabolism in the midbrain towards 3α-diol. On the contrary, moderate and high dosages of cocaine shifted testosterone metabolism towards estradiol. These data demonstrate that the association between cortical and hypo/str 3α-diol levels and sexual behavior of male rats is disrupted by non-contingent cocaine and that there may be dose-dependent effects of acute cocaine on androgen metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  9. Understanding the control of ingestive behavior in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E; Moore, Carla J; Ethun, Kelly F; Johnson, Zachary P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily addressed. The availability of these captive populations has led to the use of selected species to understand appetite control or metabolic physiology in humans. Recognizing the difficulty of quantitating food intake in free-ranging groups, the use of captive, singly-housed animals provided a distinct advantage though, at the same time, produced a different social ecology from the animals' natural habitat. However, the recent application of novel technologies to quantitate caloric intake and energy expenditure in free-feeding, socially housed monkeys permits prospective studies that can accurately define how food intake changes in response to any number of interventions in the context of a social environment. This review provides an overview of studies examining food intake using captive nonhuman primates organized into three areas: a) neurochemical regulation of food intake in nonhuman primates; b) whether exposure to specific diets during key developmental periods programs differences in diet preferences or changes the expression of feeding related neuropeptides; and c) how psychosocial factors influence appetite regulation. Because feeding patterns are driven by more than just satiety and orexigenic signals, appreciating how the social context influences pattern of feeding in nonhuman primates may be quite informative for understanding the biological complexity of feeding in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  11. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Perc

    Full Text Available Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  12. Maternal and Early-Life Circadian Disruption Have Long-Lasting Negative Consequences on Offspring Development and Adult Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Benjamin L; Grant, Azure D; Perez, Luz; Zucker, Irving; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2017-06-12

    Modern life involves chronic circadian disruption through artificial light and these disruptions are associated with numerous mental and physical health maladies. Because the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to perturbation, we hypothesized that early-life circadian disruption would negatively impact offspring development and adult function. Pregnant mice were subjected to chronic circadian disruption from the time of uterine implantation through weaning. To dissociate in utero from postnatal effects, a subset of litters was cross-fostered at birth from disrupted dams to control dams and vice versa. Postnatal circadian disruption was associated with reduced adult body mass, social avoidance, and hyperactivity. In utero disruption resulted in more pronounced social avoidance and hyperactivity, phenotypes not abrogated by cross-fostering to control mothers. To examine whether circadian disruption affects development by acting as an early life stressor, we examined birthweight, litter size, maternal cannibalism, and epigenetic modifications. None of these variables differed between control and disrupted dams, or resembled patterns seen following early-life stress. Our findings indicate that developmental chronic circadian disruption permanently affects somatic and behavioral development in a stage-of-life-dependent manner, independent of early life stress mechanisms, underscoring the importance of temporal structure during development, both in utero and early postnatal life.

  13. Disinfection of titanium dioxide nanotubes using super-oxidized water decrease bacterial viability without disrupting osteoblast behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto [Department of Biomaterials, Dental Materials and Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Mexicali, Autonomous University of Baja California, Av. Zotoluca and Chinampas St., 21040 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Valdez-Salas, Benjamín, E-mail: benval@uabc.edu.mx [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Escamilla, Alan; Curiel, Mario [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Valdez-Salas, Ernesto [Ixchel Medical Centre, Av. Bravo y Obregón, 21000 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Nedev, Nicola [Department of Corrosion and Materials, Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez and Normal St., 21280 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Bastidas, Jose M. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes (NTs) on Ti6Al4V alloy were synthesized by anodization using a commercially available super-oxidized water (SOW). The NT surfaces were sterilized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and disinfected using SOW. The adhesion and cellular morphology of pig periosteal osteoblast (PPO) cells and the behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultured on the sterilized and disinfected surfaces were investigated. A non-anodized Ti6Al4V disc sterilized by UV irradiation (without SOW) was used as control. The results of this study reveal that the adhesion, morphology and filopodia development of PPO cells in NTs are dramatically improved, suggesting that SOW cleaning may not disrupt the benefits obtained by NTs. Significantly decreased bacterial viability in NTs after cleaning with SOW and comparing with non-cleaned NTs was seen. The results suggest that UV and SOW could be a recommendable method for implant sterilization and disinfection without altering osteoblast behavior while decreasing bacterial viability. - Highlights: • The effect of super-oxidized water cleaning was studied on Ti6Al4V nanotubes. • Super oxidized-water cleaning caused a decline in S. aureus viability. • Osteoblast behavior was not disrupted after super-oxidized water disinfection. • Super-oxidized water is suggested as a cleaning protocol for TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  14. Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Kalina J; Decety, Jean; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2015-01-01

    Because the disruptive behavior disorders are highly impairing conditions, it is important to determine if structural variations in brain are associated early in life with these problems among children. Structural MRI data were acquired from 111 9-11 year olds (58 girls and 53 boys), 43 who met diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder and 68 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to examine associations of behavioral measures with gray matter volumes in whole-brain analyses. Unlike previous studies, variation in gray matter volume was not found to be associated with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis in any brain region at p < .05 with FWE correction. Nonetheless, an inverse nonlinear association of the number of conduct disorder (CD) symptoms with gray matter volume along the left superior temporal sulcus was significant in the full sample (p < .05 with FWE correction), with a trend in the right hemisphere (p < 0.001 uncorrected). There also was a trend toward a stronger association of the number of CD symptoms with gray matter volume along the left superior temporal sulcus in girls than boys. The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls.

  15. Understanding the behavior of floodplains as human-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.

    2012-12-01

    Floodplains are among the most valuable ecosystems for supporting biodiversity and providing services to the environment. Moreover, they are home of approximately one-sixth of the world population as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. As a result, flood disasters currently affect more than 100 million people a year. Sadly, flood losses and fatalities are expected to increase further in many countries because of population growth as well as changes in land use and climate. Given the relevance of floodplain systems, a number of social scientists have examined how the frequency and severity of flooding often determine whether human development in floodplains is desirable or not. Meanwhile, many earth scientists have investigated the impact of human activities (e.g. land-use changes, urbanization, river training) on the frequency and magnitude of floods. In fact, as human activities change the frequency of flooding, the frequency of flooding affects human developments in floodplain areas. Yet, these dynamic interactions between floods and societies and the associated feedback mechanisms remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. As a result, we typically consider humans as external forcing (or boundary condition) without representing the feedback loops and our prediction of future trajectories are therefore extremely limited. This presentation shows a first attempt to understand the behavior of floodplains as coupled human-water systems. In particular, we analyzed a number of long time series of hydrological and population data in the Po River Basin (Italy) to explore the feedback mechanisms, reciprocal effects, surprises, and threshold mechanisms, taking place in floodplain systems. The outcomes of the study enable a better understanding of how the occurrences of floods shape human developments while, at the same time, human activities shape the magnitude and frequency of floods. The presentation also discusses the opportunities offered by

  16. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  18. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  19. A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Cameron, Amy Y; Ameral, Victoria E

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of emotion regulation strategies (or, more broadly, coping) have failed due to a lack of focus on context. That is, examining strategies in isolation of the context in which they are used provides limited information on the suitability, rigid adherence, or effectiveness of a given strategy in that situation. Several of these researchers have proposed the development of new models to define and measure various types of behavioral flexibility. We would like to suggest that an explanation of the phenomenon already exists and that we can go back to our behavioral roots to understand this phenomenon rather than focusing on defining and capturing a new process. Indeed, thorough contextual behavioral analyses already yield a useful account of what has been observed. We will articulate a model explaining behavioral flexibility using a functional, contextual framework, with anxiety-related disorders as an example.

  20. Which dimension of parenting predicts the change of callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Lai, Elisa; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Righini, Elisabetta; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    Several studies suggested that in addition to child-driven factors (i.e., temperamental style), parenting behavior can, at least in part, influence the maintenance of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in children; however, more information is needed to distinguish which styles (negative parenting or lack of positive parenting) predict increased levels of CU traits. The aim of the present treatment study was to examine which components of parenting are longitudinally associated with levels of CU traits in children with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. The current study examined cross-lagged reciprocal effects models between positive and negative parenting practices, and the levels of child CU traits over three time points, including both positive and negative dimensions of parenting in the same model. Participants were 126 Italian children with diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder), 113 boys and 13 girls, 110 Caucasian, 48 with conduct disorder, and 78 with oppositional defiant disorder, treated with a multi-component intervention, based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices. Participants were all 9-10 years of age at the beginning of the study, and were followed-up until the age of 11-12 years (24 months in total, the first 12 under treatment) using parent report (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and Child Behavior Check List) and child report (Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits) measures. No significant cross-lagged path was found between negative parenting and CU traits; these two variables were also unrelated when positive parenting was considered in the same model. In contrast, reciprocal effects between positive parenting and CU were found: higher levels of positive parenting predicted lower levels of CU traits. The current findings suggest that the positive dimension of parenting may need to be targeted in the treatment of DBD children with higher CU traits. Copyright © 2016

  1. Neonatal disruption of serine racemase causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in adulthood: clinical rescue by d-serine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hagiwara

    Full Text Available D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR. Given the role of D-serine in both neurodevelopment and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal disruption of D-serine synthesis by SRR inhibition could induce behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, in later life.Neonatal mice (7-9 days were injected with vehicle or phenazine methosulfate (Met-Phen: 3 mg/kg/day, an SRR inhibitor. Behavioral evaluations, such as spontaneous locomotion, novel object recognition test (NORT, and prepulse inhibition (PPI were performed at juvenile (5-6 weeks old and adult (10-12 weeks old stages. In addition, we tested the effects of D-serine on PPI deficits in adult mice after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Finally, we assessed whether D-serine could prevent the onset of schizophrenia-like behavior in these mice. Neonatal Met-Phen treatment reduced D-serine levels in the brain, 24 hours after the final dose. Additionally, this treatment caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms in juveniles and to schizophrenia in adults. A single dose of D-serine improved PPI deficits in adult mice. Interestingly, chronic administration of D-serine (900 mg/kg/day from P35 to P70 significantly prevented the onset of PPI deficits after neonatal Met-Phen exposure.This study shows that disruption of D-serine synthesis during developmental stages leads to behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms and schizophrenia, in later life. Furthermore, early pharmacological intervention with D-serine may prevent the onset of psychosis in adult.

  2. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  3. Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoliang

    Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not

  4. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  5. An Experimental Investigation of Antisocial Lie-Telling Among Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugno, Allison P; Malloy, Lindsay C; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Pelham, William E; Talwar, Victoria

    2017-10-27

    Children's lie-telling is surprisingly understudied among children with significant behavioral problems. In the present study, experimental paradigms were used to examine antisocial lie-telling among ethnically diverse 5- to 10-year-old children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD; n = 71) and a typically developing (TD) comparison sample (n = 50) recruited from a southeastern state from 2013 to 2014. Children completed two games that measured the prevalence and skill of their lies: (a) for personal gain and (b) to conceal wrongdoing. Children with DBD were more likely to lie for personal gain than TD children. With age, children were more likely to lie to conceal wrongdoing, but the reverse was true regarding lies for personal gain. Results advance knowledge concerning individual differences in children's lie-telling. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. AIDS, behavior, and culture: understanding evidence-based prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Edward C; Ruark, Allison Herling

    2011-01-01

    .... Arguing for a behavior-based approach, the authors make the case that the most effective programs are those that encourage fundamental behavioral changes such as faithfulness, avoidance of concurrent...

  7. Daily rhythmic behaviors and thermoregulatory patterns are disrupted in adult female MeCP2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Wither

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2 have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including Rett Syndrome, X-linked mental retardation syndrome, severe neonatal encephalopathy, and Angelman syndrome. Although alterations in the performance of MeCP2-deficient mice in specific behavioral tasks have been documented, it remains unclear whether or not MeCP2 dysfunction affects patterns of periodic behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG activity. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine whether a deficiency in MeCP2 is sufficient to alter the normal daily rhythmic patterns of core body temperature, gross motor activity and cortical delta power. To address this, we monitored individual wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice in their home cage environment via telemetric recording over 24 hour cycles. Our results show that the normal daily rhythmic behavioral patterning of cortical delta wave activity, core body temperature and mobility are disrupted in one-year old female MeCP2-deficient mice. Moreover, female MeCP2-deficient mice display diminished overall motor activity, lower average core body temperature, and significantly greater body temperature fluctuation than wild-type mice in their home-cage environment. Finally, we show that the epileptiform discharge activity in female MeCP2-deficient mice is more predominant during times of behavioral activity compared to inactivity. Collectively, these results indicate that MeCP2 deficiency is sufficient to disrupt the normal patterning of daily biological rhythmic activities.

  8. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Whisker Clipping Disrupt Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylyn Waddell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals. In normally developing rats, hedonic USVs precede such interactions and correlate with the number of play interactions exhibited in dyads. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or a control diet. After birth, male and female pups from each litter were randomly assigned to the whisker-clipped or non-whisker-clipped condition. Animals underwent a social interaction test with a normally developing play partner during early or late-adolescence. USVs were recorded during play. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both play and hedonic USVs in early adolescence compared to control rats and persistently reduced social play. Interestingly, ethanol exposure, whisker clipping and the combination abolished the significant correlation between hedonic USVs and social play detected in control rats in early adolescence. This relationship remained disrupted in late adolescence only in rats subjected to both prenatal ethanol and whisker clipping. Thus, both insults more persistently disrupted the relationship between social communication and social play.

  10. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Whisker Clipping Disrupt Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Yang, Tianqi; Ho, Eric; Wellmann, Kristen A.; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals. In normally developing rats, hedonic USVs precede such interactions and correlate with the number of play interactions exhibited in dyads. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or a control diet. After birth, male and female pups from each litter were randomly assigned to the whisker-clipped or non-whisker-clipped condition. Animals underwent a social interaction test with a normally developing play partner during early or late-adolescence. USVs were recorded during play. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both play and hedonic USVs in early adolescence compared to control rats and persistently reduced social play. Interestingly, ethanol exposure, whisker clipping and the combination abolished the significant correlation between hedonic USVs and social play detected in control rats in early adolescence. This relationship remained disrupted in late adolescence only in rats subjected to both prenatal ethanol and whisker clipping. Thus, both insults more persistently disrupted the relationship between social communication and social play. PMID:27690116

  11. Quality Improvement in Hospitals: Identifying and Understanding Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz M. Mazur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving operational performance in hospitals is complicated, particularly if process improvement requires complex behavioral changes. Using single-loop and double-loop learning theory as a foundation, the purpose of this research is to empirically uncover key improvement behaviors and the factors that may be associated with such behaviors in hospitals. A two-phased approach was taken to collect data regarding improvement behaviors and associated factors, and data analysis was conducted using methods proposed by grounded theorists. The contributions of this research are twofold. First, five key behaviors related to process improvement are identified, namely Quick Fixing, Initiating, Conforming, Expediting, and Enhancing. Second, based on these observed behaviors, a set of force field diagrams is developed to structure and organize possible factors that are important to consider when attempting to change improvement behaviors. This begins to fill the gap in the knowledge about what factors drive effective improvement efforts in hospital settings.

  12. Internet-Assisted Parent Training Intervention for Disruptive Behavior in 4-Year-Old Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre; McGrath, Patrick J; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Vuorio, Jenni; Sinokki, Atte; Fossum, Sturla; Unruh, Anita

    2016-04-01

    There is a large gap worldwide in the provision of evidence-based early treatment of children with disruptive behavioral problems. To determine whether an Internet-assisted intervention using whole-population screening that targets the most symptomatic 4-year-old children is effective at 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. This 2-parallel-group randomized clinical trial was performed from October 1, 2011, through November 30, 2013, at a primary health care clinic in Southwest Finland. Data analysis was performed from August 6, 2015, to December 11, 2015. Of a screened population of 4656 children, 730 met the screening criteria indicating a high level of disruptive behavioral problems. A total of 464 parents of 4-year-old children were randomized into the Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) intervention group (n = 232) or an education control (EC) group (n = 232). The SFSW intervention, an 11-session Internet-assisted parent training program that included weekly telephone coaching. Child Behavior Checklist version for preschool children (CBCL/1.5-5) externalizing scale (primary outcome), other CBCL/1.5-5 scales and subscores, Parenting Scale, Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits, and the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. All data were analyzed by intention to treat and per protocol. The assessments were made before randomization and 6 and 12 months after randomization. Of the children randomized, 287 (61.9%) were male and 79 (17.1%) lived in other than a family with 2 biological parents. At 12-month follow-up, improvement in the SFSW intervention group was significantly greater compared with the control group on the following measures: CBCL/1.5-5 externalizing scale (effect size, 0.34; P Internet-assisted parent training intervention offered for parents of preschool children with disruptive behavioral problems screened from the whole population. The strategy of population-based screening of children at an early age to offering

  13. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  14. The Efficacy of Noncontingent Escape for Decreasing Children's Disruptive Behavior during Restorative Dental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Patrick M.; Allen, Keith D.; Powell, Shawn; Salama, Fouad

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a dentist-implemented behavioral intervention in which brief escape from dental treatment was provided on a regular basis, independent of the child's behavior. Within a multiple baseline design across subjects, 5 children, ages 4 to 7 years, were provided with temporary escape from dental treatment on a fixed-time…

  15. Assessing Freshman Engineering Students' Understanding of Ethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Murray, Susan L; Olbricht, Gayla R; Ludlow, Douglas K; Hays, Malcolm E; Nelson, Hannah M

    2017-02-01

    Academic dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarism, is on the rise in colleges, particularly among engineering students. While students decide to engage in these behaviors for many different reasons, academic integrity training can help improve their understanding of ethical decision making. The two studies outlined in this paper assess the effectiveness of an online module in increasing academic integrity among first semester engineering students. Study 1 tested the effectiveness of an academic honesty tutorial by using a between groups design with a Time 1- and Time 2-test. An academic honesty quiz assessed participants' knowledge at both time points. Study 2, which incorporated an improved version of the module and quiz, utilized a between groups design with three assessment time points. The additional Time 3-test allowed researchers to test for retention of information. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA and t tests. In Study 1, the experimental group exhibited significant improvement on the plagiarism items, but not the total score. However, at Time 2 there was no significant difference between groups after controlling for Time 1 scores. In Study 2, between- and within-group analyses suggest there was a significant improvement in total scores, but not plagiarism scores, after exposure to the tutorial. Overall, the academic integrity module impacted participants as evidenced by changes in total score and on specific plagiarism items. Although future implementation of the tutorial and quiz would benefit from modifications to reduce ceiling effects and improve assessment of knowledge, the results suggest such tutorial may be one valuable element in a systems approach to improving the academic integrity of engineering students.

  16. Planning for Biotarrorism. Behavioral & Mental Health Responses to Weapons of Mass Destruction & Mass Disruption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... Community and individual responses to potential bioterrorist events were described. Future approaches to the management and treatment of behavioral and mental health issues following exposure to biological agents and bioterrorism were discussed...

  17. "I Got Your Back": Friends' Understandings regarding College Student Spring Break Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E.; Morgan, Nicole; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviors that pose threats to safety and health, including binge drinking and unprotected sex, increase during a week-long break from university. Understandings with peers regarding these behaviors may be important for predicting behavior and related harms. College students (N = 651; 48% men) reported having understandings with their friends…

  18. Guest Editors’ Introduction On Understanding Ethical Behavior and Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); D.M. Mayer (David); M. Schminke (Marshall)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral ethics is an emerging field that takes an empirical, social scientific approach to the study of business ethics. In this special issue, we include six articles that fall within the domain of behavioral ethics and that focus on three themes—moral awareness, ethical decision

  19. Understanding User Behavioral Patterns in Open Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianmin; Song, Shuqiang; Zhao, Xinshuo; Yu, Shengquan

    2018-01-01

    Open knowledge communities (OKCs) have become popular in the era of knowledge economy. This study aimed to explore how users collaboratively create and share knowledge in OKCs. In particular, this research identified the behavior distribution and behavioral patterns of users by conducting frequency distribution and lag sequential analyses. Some…

  20. Harsh Parenting As a Potential Mediator of the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Disruptive Behavior in Families With Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J.; Henry, David; Kestler, Jacqueline; Nieto, Ricardo; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Young children living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are often also exposed to harsh parenting. Both forms of violence increase children’s risk for clinically significant disruptive behavior, which can place them on a developmental trajectory associated with serious psychological impairment later in life. Although it is hypothesized that IPV behaviors may spillover into harsh parenting, and thereby influence risk for disruptive behavior, relatively little is known about these processes in families with young children. The current study examines the overlap of the quality and frequency of psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting, and tests whether harsh parenting mediates the relationship between IPV and child disruptive behavior in a diverse cross-sectional sample of 81 children ages 4 to 6 years. Results suggest that mothers reporting a greater occurrence of psychologically aggressive IPV (e.g., yelling, name-calling) more often engage in psychological and physical aggression toward their children (odds ratios [ORs] = 4.6–9.9). Mothers reporting a greater occurrence of IPV in the form of physical assault more often engage in mild to more severe forms of physical punishment with potential harm to the child (ORs = 3.8–5.0). Psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting all significantly correlated with maternal reports of child disruptive behavior (r = .29–.40). Psychological harsh parenting partially mediated the association between psychological IPV and child disruptive behavior. However, a significant direct effect of psychological IPV on preschool children’s disruptive behavior remained. Implications for child welfare policy and practice and intervention, including the need for increased awareness of the negative impact of psychological IPV on young children, are discussed. PMID:25724875

  1. Harsh Parenting As a Potential Mediator of the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Disruptive Behavior in Families With Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Henry, David; Kestler, Jacqueline; Nieto, Ricardo; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2016-07-01

    Young children living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are often also exposed to harsh parenting. Both forms of violence increase children's risk for clinically significant disruptive behavior, which can place them on a developmental trajectory associated with serious psychological impairment later in life. Although it is hypothesized that IPV behaviors may spillover into harsh parenting, and thereby influence risk for disruptive behavior, relatively little is known about these processes in families with young children. The current study examines the overlap of the quality and frequency of psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting, and tests whether harsh parenting mediates the relationship between IPV and child disruptive behavior in a diverse cross-sectional sample of 81 children ages 4 to 6 years. Results suggest that mothers reporting a greater occurrence of psychologically aggressive IPV (e.g., yelling, name-calling) more often engage in psychological and physical aggression toward their children (odds ratios [ORs] = 4.6-9.9). Mothers reporting a greater occurrence of IPV in the form of physical assault more often engage in mild to more severe forms of physical punishment with potential harm to the child (ORs = 3.8-5.0). Psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting all significantly correlated with maternal reports of child disruptive behavior (r = .29-.40). Psychological harsh parenting partially mediated the association between psychological IPV and child disruptive behavior. However, a significant direct effect of psychological IPV on preschool children's disruptive behavior remained. Implications for child welfare policy and practice and intervention, including the need for increased awareness of the negative impact of psychological IPV on young children, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Disruption of exploratory and habituation behavior in mice with mutation of DISC1: an ethologically based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J; Desbonnet, L; Clarke, N; Waddington, J L; O'Tuathaigh, C M P

    2012-07-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a gene that has been functionally linked with neurodevelopmental processes and structural plasticity in the brain. Clinical genetic investigations have implicated DISC1 as a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia and related psychoses. Studies using mutant mouse models of DISC1 gene function have demonstrated schizophrenia-related anatomical and behavioral endophenotypes. In the present study, ethologically based assessment of exploratory and habituation behavior in the open field was conducted in DISC1 (L100P), wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HET), and homozygous (HOM) mutant mice of both sexes. Ethological assessment was conducted in an open-field environment to explore specific topographies of murine exploratory behavior across the extended course of interaction from initial exploration through subsequent habituation (the ethogram). During initial exploration, HET and HOM DISC1 mutants evidenced increased levels of locomotion and rearing to wall compared with WT. A HOM-specific increase in total rearing and a HET-specific increase in sifting behavior and reduction in rearing seated were also observed. Over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing, total rearing, rearing to wall, rearing free, and rearing seated were increased in HET and HOM mutants vs. WT. Overall, grooming was increased in HOM relative to other genotypes. HET mice displayed a selective decrease in habituation of sifting behavior. These data demonstrate impairment in both initial exploratory and habituation of exploration in a novel environment in mice with mutation of DISC1. This is discussed in the context of the functional role of the gene vis à vis a schizophrenia phenotype as well as the value of ethologically based approaches to behavioral phenotyping. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clerodendrum inerme Leaf Extract Alleviates Animal Behaviors, Hyperlocomotion, and Prepulse Inhibition Disruptions, Mimicking Tourette Syndrome and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Lie Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found a patient with intractable motor tic disorder, a spectrum of Tourette syndrome (TS, responsive to the ground leaf juice of Clerodendrum inerme (CI. Here, we examined the effect of the ethanol extract of CI leaves (CI extract on animal behaviors mimicking TS, hyperlocomotion, and sensorimotor gating deficit. The latter is also observed in schizophrenic patients and can be reflected by a disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response (PPI in animal models induced by methamphetamine and NMDA channel blockers (ketamine or MK-801, based on hyperdopaminergic and hypoglutamatergic hypotheses, respectively. CI extract (10–300 mg/kg, i.p. dose-dependently inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p. and PPI disruptions induced by methamphetamine, ketamine (30 mg/kg, i.p., and MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. but did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, rotarod performance, and grip force. These results suggest that CI extract can relieve hyperlocomotion and improve sensorimotor gating deficit, supporting the therapeutic potential of CI for TS and schizophrenia.

  5. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  6. Astrocyte-specific disruption of SynCAM1 signaling results in ADHD-like behavioral manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S Sandau

    Full Text Available SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes (termed GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice exhibit disrupted diurnal locomotor activity with enhanced and more frequent episodes of activity than control littermates during the day (when the animals are normally sleeping accompanied by shorter periods of rest. GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice also display high levels of basal activity in the dark period (the rodent's awake/active time that are attenuated by the psychostimulant D,L-amphetamine, and reduced anxiety levels in response to both avoidable and unavoidable provoking stimuli. These results indicate that disruption of SynCAM1-dependent astroglial function results in behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in animals model of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, and suggest a hitherto unappreciated contribution of glial cells to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  7. Prior exposure to interpersonal violence and long-term treatment response for boys with a disruptive behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Rausch, Joseph R; Insana, Salvatore P

    2014-10-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is common in children with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and increases the risk for greater DBD symptom severity, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and neuroendocrine disruption. Thus, IPV may make it difficult to change symptom trajectories for families receiving DBD interventions given these relationships. The current study examined whether IPV prior to receiving treatment for a DBD predicted trajectories of a variety of associated outcomes, specifically DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol concentrations. Boys with a DBD diagnosis (N = 66; age range = 6-11 years; 54.5% of whom experienced IPV prior to treatment) of either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder participated in a randomized clinical trial and were assessed 3 years following treatment. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that prior IPV predicted smaller rates of change in DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol trajectories, indicating less benefit from intervention. The effect size magnitudes of IPV were large for each outcome (d = 0.88-1.07). These results suggest that IPV is a predictor of the long-term treatment response for boys with a DBD. Including trauma-focused components into existing DBD interventions may be worth testing to improve treatment effectiveness for boys with a prior history of IPV. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Positive behavioral support planning in the inpatient treatment of severe disruptive behaviors: A description of service features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, Nakia M; Carr, Erika R; Hillbrand, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) plans are increasingly used on inpatient units to assess and treat serious and dangerous behaviors displayed by patients with serious psychiatric impairment. A contemporary extension of traditional applied behavior analytic procedures, PBS plans integrate theories from several domains with perspectives on community psychology, positive psychology, and recovery-oriented care. Because there is little evidence to suggest that more invasive, punitive disciplinary strategies lead to long-term positive behavioral change (Parkes, 1996), PBS plans have emerged as an alternative to the use of seclusion and restraint or other forms of restrictive measures typically used on inpatient psychiatric units (Hammer et al., 2011). Moreover, PBS plans are a preferred method of intervention because more invasive interventions often cause more harm than good to all involved (Elliott et al., 2005). This article seeks to provide an integrated framework for the development of positive behavior support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. In addition to explicating the philosophy and core elements of PBS plans, this work includes discussion of the didactic and pragmatic aspects of training clinical staff in inpatient mental health settings. A case vignette is included for illustration and to highlight the use of PBS plans as a mechanism for helping patients transition to less restrictive settings. This work will add to the scant literature examining the use of positive behavioral support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Psychiatric evaluation of youths with Disruptive Behavior Disorders and psychopathic traits: A critical review of assessment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Brovedani, Paola; Pisano, Simone; Muratori, Pietro

    2016-09-25

    Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking. Recently, research suggests that youth with CU traits, similarly to adults with psychopathy, can present a low-anxious "primary" and high-anxious "secondary" variants. Our aim is to critically review the main measures of psychopathic traits, including the three main dimensions (with specific emphasis on CU traits), and the "primary/secondary" distinction, focusing on the assessment in clinical settings. An assessment procedure is proposed, based on previous literature and personal clinical experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. "It does affect me” Disruptive behaviors in preadolescents directly and indirectly abused at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Aggressive and delinquent behaviors in preadolescents may be indicators of problems suffered at home from direct child abuse by one or both parents or indirect abuse, such as exposure to domestic violence. A total of 532 Italian preadolescents recruited in their schools took part in this study. They

  11. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal undernutrition disrupted the sexual maturation, but not the sexual behavior, in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Iwasa, Takeshi; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tokui, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Sumika; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to various stressors, including psychological, metabolic, and immune, in the perinatal period induces long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders in later life. In the present study, sexual maturation and sexual behavior were assessed in prenatally undernourished mature male rats. All the pregnant rats were divided into the maternal normal nutrition (mNN) group and the maternal undernutrition (mUN) group. The mUN mothers received 50% of the amount of the daily food intake of the mNN mothers. Preputial separation and sexual behavior were observed in randomly selected pups of the mNN and mUN groups. The body weight of the mothers was significantly lighter in the mUN group than in the mNN group. Similarly, the pups in the mUN group showed a significantly lower body weight than those in the mNN group from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 15. The preputial separation day was significantly delayed in the mUN group, compared to the mNN group. Sexual behavior did not show any significant difference between the two groups. These findings indicated that prenatal undernutrition delayed sexual maturation, but did not suppress sexual behavior, in mature male rats.

  13. LD, interpersonal understanding, and social behavior in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravetz, S; Faust, M; Lipshitz, S; Shalhav, S

    1999-01-01

    This study used Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria for mediation to investigate the extent to which interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between learning disabilities (LD) and social adaptation in the classroom. Twenty-two children with and 22 children without a diagnosis of LD completed a semistructured developmental clinical interview measure of interpersonal understanding. They were also rated by their fourth- and fifth-grade teachers on a measure of social adaptation in the classroom. Interpersonal understanding and social adaptation in the classroom were found to be positively correlated. Children with LD exhibited less interpersonal understanding and social adaptation. Although this group difference on social adaptation was greatly reduced when interpersonal understanding was statistically controlled, it remained statistically significant. These results suggest that reduced social adaptation in the classroom and lower interpersonal understanding are both associated with a diagnosis of LD. However, they do not conclusively support the claim that interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between LD and social adaptation. Thus, whether the social difficulties of people with LD stem from the same complex phenomena that produce these people's learning problems remains an open question.

  14. Sustained disruption of narwhal habitat use and behavior in the presence of Arctic killer whales

    OpenAIRE

    Breed, Greg A.; Matthews, Cory J. D.; Marcoux, Marianne; Higdon, Jeff W.; LeBlanc, Bernard; Petersen, Stephen D.; Orr, Jack; Reinhart, Natalie R.; Ferguson, Steven H.

    2017-01-01

    Predators are widely understood to impact the structure and stability of ecosystems. In the Arctic, summer sea ice is rapidly declining, degrading habitat for Arctic species, such as polar bears and ringed seals, but also providing more access to important predators, such as killer whales. Using data from concurrently tracked predator (killer whales) and prey (narwhal), we show that the presence of killer whales significantly changes the behavior and distribution of narwhal. Because killer wh...

  15. Treatment for Disruption of Smartphone Use in Learning Activity Through School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    OpenAIRE

    Mufrihah, Arina

    2017-01-01

    This study is purposed for guiding students to use their smartphone appropriately and opportunely through School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPB). Location of this research was at SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Yogyakarta which used Classroom Action Research and Spiral Self-Reflective as its design. The research process was undertaken within 2 cycles where each cycle consists of the planning phase, action phase, and reflection phase. Group counseling and individual counseling were applied as the for...

  16. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  17. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  18. On the Neuroscience of Self-Regulation in Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltering, Steven; Shi, Qinxin

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation is increasingly recognized as a key predictor of academic and social competence. A multidisciplinary understanding of this ability is timely and can strengthen theory and practice. The present review aims to inform educators on what cognitive neuroscience can teach us about self-regulation. To do so, we will focus on a decade-long…

  19. Toward improving our application and understanding of crown fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Alexander; Miguel G. Cruz; Nicole M. Vaillant

    2014-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that most wildland fire operations personnel base their expectations of how a fire will behave largely on experience and, to a lesser extent, on guides to predicting fire behavior (Burrows 1984). Experienced judgment is certainly needed in any assessment of wildland fire potential but it does have its limitations. The same can be said for...

  20. Understanding Transnational African Migrants' Perspectives of Dietary Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Tshiswaka, Daudet Ilunga; Osideko, Anuolwaupo; Schwingel, Andiara

    2016-10-28

    Dietary behaviors serve as determinants for chronic diseases such as hypertension across various ethnicities worldwide and within the USA. We investigated dietary perspectives specifically for US transnational African migrants, a migrant cohort subset of individuals who maintain cross-border ties with their indigenous communities of origin. Using PEN-3 model, focus group interviews with 14 transnational African migrants (seven males and seven females) were conducted in Chicago to explore the perceptions of dietary behavior in regard to chronic disease risk factors among our target population. The findings underscore that transnational African migrants maintain strong ties with their African community of origin, impacting dietary behaviors and attitudes. Further, transnational African migrants maintain traditional dishes through their connections. Despite the ability to import African traditional foods through personal connections, African migrants face a challenge in maintaining culture yet conforming to norms of acculturation. Results from this study serve to advocate for further exploration of the interaction between African migrant dietary behaviors and risk factors to chronic diseases.

  1. Behavioral accident avoidance science : understanding response in collision incipient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Ridder, S.N. de

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are the single greatest cause of fatality in the workplace and the primary cause of all accidental death in the U.S. to the age of seventy-eight. However, behavioral analysis of response in the final seconds and milliseconds before collision has been a most difficult

  2. Children's Behavior toward and Understanding of Robotic and Living Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, Gail F.; Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Beck, Alan; Friedman, Batya; Roberts, Trace; Garrett, Erik; Gill, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated children's reasoning about and behavioral interactions with a computationally sophisticated robotic dog (Sony's AIBO) compared to a live dog (an Australian Shepherd). Seventy-two children from three age groups (7-9 years, 10-12 years, and 13-15 years) participated in this study. Results showed that more children…

  3. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  4. Understanding patients' behavioral intentions: evidence from Iran's private hospitals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ehsan; Arab, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud Ghazi; Rashidian, Arash; Forushani, Abbas Rahimi; Khabiri, Roghayeh

    2014-01-01

    In the ever-increasing competitive market of private hospital industry, creating a strong relationship with the customers that shapes patients' loyalty has been considered a key factor in obtaining market share. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of customer loyalty among patients of private hospitals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Tehran, the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2010. The study samples composed of 969 patients who were consecutively selected from eight private hospitals. The survey instrument was designed based on a review of the related literature and included 36 items. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. For the service quality construct, three dimensions extracted: Process, interaction, and environment. Both process and interaction quality had significant effects on perceived value. Perceived value along with the process and interaction quality were the most important antecedents of patient overall satisfaction. The direct effect of the process and interaction quality on behavioral intentions was insignificant. Perceived value and patient overall satisfaction were the direct antecedents of patient behavioral intentions and the mediators between service quality and behavioral intentions. Environment quality of service delivery had no significant effect on perceived value, overall satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Contrary to previous similar studies, the role of service quality was investigated not in a general sense, but in the form of three types of qualities including quality of environment, quality of process, and quality of interaction.

  5. Understanding Homophobic Behavior and Its Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Russell, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider recent advances in scholarship on homophobic bullying, and implications for policy and practice. We first consider toward whom homophobic behavior is directed, drawing attention to the nuances among LGBT youth, and the realities of homophobic bullying for heterosexual or straight youth. We review the correlates or…

  6. Incentive Processing in Persistent Disruptive Behavior and Psychopathic Traits: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; Veltman, Dick J; Pape, Louise E; van Lith, Koen; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Popma, Arne

    2015-11-01

    Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e., deficient incentive processing. However, little is known about the relation between deficient incentive processing and persistence of antisocial behavior into adulthood or its relation with callous-unemotional and other psychopathic traits. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the neural correlates of incentive processing and both DBD persistence and psychopathic traits. In a sample of 128 adolescents (mean age 17.7) with a history of criminal offending before age 12, functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during a monetary incentive delay task designed to assess neural responses during incentive processing. Neural activation during incentive processing was then associated with DBD persistence and psychopathic traits, measured with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory. Compared with both healthy control subjects and youths who had desisted from DBD, persistent DBD subjects showed lower neural responses in the ventral striatum during reward outcomes and higher neural responses in the amygdala during loss outcomes. Callous-unemotional traits were related to lower neural responses in the amygdala during reward outcomes, while other psychopathic traits were not related to incentive processing. In the current study, aberrant incentive processing is related to persistence of childhood antisocial behavior into late adolescence and to callous-unemotional traits. This mechanism may underlie treatment resistance in a subgroup of antisocial youth and provide a target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral and neural correlates of disrupted orienting attention in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russman Block, Stefanie; King, Anthony P; Sripada, Rebecca K; Weissman, Daniel H; Welsh, Robert; Liberzon, Israel

    2017-04-01

    Prior work has revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered (a) attentional performance and (b) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in brain networks linked to attention. Here, we sought to characterize and link these behavioral and brain-based alterations in the context of Posner and Peterson's tripartite model of attention. Male military veterans with PTSD (N = 49; all deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan) and healthy age-and-gender-matched community controls (N = 26) completed the Attention Network Task. A subset of these individuals (36 PTSD and 21 controls) also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess rsFC. The behavioral measures revealed that the PTSD group was impaired at disengaging spatial attention, relative to the control group. FMRI measures further revealed that, relative to the control group, the PTSD group exhibited greater rsFC between the salience network and (a) the default mode network, (b) the dorsal attention network, and (c) the ventral attention network. Moreover, problems with disengaging spatial attention increased the rsFC between the networks above in the control group, but not in the PTSD group. The present findings link PTSD to both altered orienting of spatial attention and altered relationships between spatial orienting and functional connectivity involving the salience network. Interventions that target orienting and disengaging spatial attention may be a new avenue for PTSD research.

  8. Arid1b haploinsufficiency disrupts cortical interneuron development and mouse behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eui-Man; Moffat, Jeffrey Jay; Liu, Jinxu; Dravid, Shashank Manohar; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; Kim, Woo-Yang

    2017-12-01

    Haploinsufficiency of the AT-rich interactive domain 1B (ARID1B) gene causes autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability; however, the neurobiological basis for this is unknown. Here we generated Arid1b-knockout mice and examined heterozygotes to model human patients. Arid1b-heterozygous mice showed a decreased number of cortical GABAergic interneurons and reduced proliferation of interneuron progenitors in the ganglionic eminence. Arid1b haploinsufficiency also led to an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we found that Arid1b haploinsufficiency suppressed histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) overall and particularly reduced H3K9ac of the Pvalb promoter, resulting in decreased transcription. Arid1b-heterozygous mice exhibited abnormal cognitive and social behaviors, which were rescued by treatment with a positive allosteric GABA A receptor modulator. Our results demonstrate a critical role for Arid1b in interneuron development and behavior and provide insight into the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

  9. Efficacy of a multimodal treatment for disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents: focus on internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Paciello, Marinella; Lenzi, Francesca; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Muratori, Filippo

    2014-11-30

    Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are among the most common reasons for youth referrals to mental health clinics. Aim of this study is to compare short and medium term efficacy of a multimodal treatment program (MTP), compared to community care (treatment-as-usual, TAU). The sample included 135 youths with DBDs (113 males, age range 9-15 years, mean age 12±2.5 years) were assigned either to a MTP (n=64), or addressed to community care for a TAU (n=71). Outcome measures were the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). All subjects were assessed at the baseline (T0), after 1-year treatment (T1) and after a 2-year follow-up (T2). Compared with patients receiving TAU, youths in the MTP showed, both at T1 and T2, significantly lower scores on CBCL Externalizing Scale, Internalizing Scale, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Aggressive Behavior, and higher scores at the C-GAS. Improvement in Internalizing Scales was particularly evident, with a shift from the clinical to the non-clinical range. Rate of use of mental health services and scholastic failure were reduced in the MTP. It is suggested that the improvement of the Internalizing symptoms is a crucial component of the therapeutic process in this MTP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Gordon J; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions.

  11. Understanding Chinese international college and university students' physical activity behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Yan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Understanding factors that influence PA among Chinese international students is an important step in the process of promoting their long-term health and wellbeing. Designing program that address the identified key factors may help colleges and universities achieve this goal.

  12. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  13. Individual Differences in Toddlers’ Social Understanding & Prosocial Behavior: Disposition or Socialization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekkah Lauren Gross

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18 to 30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g. use of emotion words; self-understanding, prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home, temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear, and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share. Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior.

  14. Treatment for Disruption of Smartphone Use in Learning Activity Through School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Mufrihah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is purposed for guiding students to use their smartphone appropriately and opportunely through School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPB. Location of this research was at SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Yogyakarta which used Classroom Action Research and Spiral Self-Reflective as its design. The research process was undertaken within 2 cycles where each cycle consists of the planning phase, action phase, and reflection phase. Group counseling and individual counseling were applied as the form of SWPB in which students who received these services were selected purposively. All data collected through observation, questionnaire, and interview. Respondents participated cooperatively during counseling service sessions; as a result, they can manage their selves to not use smartphone unless it is necessary for learning resource and assignment in the classroom.

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends' Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-10-01

    To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5 th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6 th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.

  17. Risk of Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual Side Effects in Males 10-20 Years Old Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Treated with Risperidone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Tenback, Diederik; van Harten, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term treatment effects of risperidone on prolactin levels and prolactin-related side effects in pubertal boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Method: Physical healthy 10-20-year-old males with

  18. Comparing Child, Parent, and Family Characteristics in Usual Care and Empirically Supported Treatment Research Samples for Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared data from 34 research trials of five empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with one large usual care (UC) sample on child, parent, and family characteristics for children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Large variations were found within and across ESTs on sample characteristics during the past two decades. Most parent…

  19. The Implementation of a Video-Enhanced Aikido-Based School Violence Prevention Training Program To Reduce Disruptive and Assaultive Behaviors among Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J.

    The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…

  20. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand the Beliefs of Chinese Teachers Concerning Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers…

  1. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris from mid-frequency active sonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moretti

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world's oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville's beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging the individual members of a Blainville's beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150 dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155 This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function.

  2. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) from mid-frequency active sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, David; Thomas, Len; Marques, Tiago; Harwood, John; Dilley, Ashley; Neales, Bert; Shaffer, Jessica; McCarthy, Elena; New, Leslie; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world's oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville's beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL) at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging) the individual members of a Blainville's beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150 dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155) This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function.

  3. Endocrine disrupting pesticides impair the neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters of red munia (Amandava amandava).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Surya Prakash; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-05-01

    The exposure effects of two endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs), mancozeb/MCZ and imidacloprid/IMI of the group dithiocarbamate and neonicotinoid respectively, on reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters have been studied in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird, red munia (Amandava amandava). Adult male birds were exposed to both the pesticides individually (0.25% LD 50 of each) as well as co-exposed (MIX-I: 0.25% LD 50 of each and MIX-II: 0.5% LD 50 of each) through food for 30d in preparatory (July-August) and breeding (September-October) phase of reproductive cycle. Singing and pairing patterns started decreasing from 2nd week to complete disappearance during 4th week of pesticides exposures at both the phases of reproductive cycles. Similar trend was observed in the disappearance of spots on the plumage as well as color of both plumage and beak which turned black/gray from red. Pesticides caused impairment of the lactotropic as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axes as there was increased plasma PRL and decreased LH, FSH and testosterone levels. Testicular expressions of GnRH and androgen receptor/AR were significantly decreased but that of GnIH significantly increased as compared to control. Significant differences among individually- and co-exposed groups were also present. Abnormalities in sexual behaviors and secondary sexual characteristics could be linked to inhibition of HPT axis and/or direct toxicity at the level of hypothalamus, pituitary and testis. In addition, pesticide-induced hyperprolactinemia as well as impaired thyroid hormones might have also affected maintenance of reproductive behaviors. On co-exposures, the more distinct impairments might be due to cumulative toxicity of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PERINATAL DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL EXPOSURE DISRUPTS SOCIAL AND OPEN FIELD BEHAVIOR IN ADULT MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, R.J.; Kelly, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug among women of reproductive age, but little is known about the consequences of using marijuana during pregnancy. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), one of the active chemicals in marijuana, has been shown to cross the placental barrier easily. In this study, pregnant Long Evans rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups (Δ9-THC-exposed, vehicle control, and non-treated control) on day 1 of gestation. Drug exposure consisted of 2 mg/kg of natural Δ9-THC, administered twice daily by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, from gestational day 1 through 22. Pups continued to receive drug exposure via s.c. injection from postnatal day 2 through 10. Male rats from each group were tested starting on postnatal day 90 in a battery of tests which included open field activity, active social interaction, and the forced-swim test. There were no significant differences in weight gained by dams or weight of offspring when compared to controls. Δ9-THC-exposed rats showed decreased time in the inner part of the open field and an increase in investigation time in the test of social interaction compared to both control groups. There were no differences among groups in the forced-swim test. Perinatal Δ9-THC exposure may result in increased susceptibility to anxious behavior and alter social functioning in adult offspring. PMID:18272327

  5. Understanding criminal behavior: Empathic impairment in criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Peretti, Sara; Valenti, Marco; Mazza, Monica

    2017-08-01

    Criminal offenders (CO) are characterized by antisocial and impulsive lifestyles and reduced empathy competence. According to Zaki and Ochsner, empathy is a process that can be divided into three components: mentalizing, emotional sharing and prosocial concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate these competences in 74 criminal subjects compared to 65 controls. The CO group demonstrated a lower ability in measures of mentalizing and sharing, especially in recognizing the mental and emotional states of other people by observing their eyes and sharing other people's emotions. Conversely, CO subjects showed better abilities in prosocial concern measures, such as judging and predicting the emotions and behavior of other people, but they were not able to evaluate the gravity of violations of social rules as well as the control group. In addition, logistic regression results show that the higher the deficits in the mentalizing component are, the higher the probability of committing a crime against another person. Taken together, our results suggest that criminal subjects are able to judge and recognize other people's behavior as right or wrong in a social context, but they are not able to recognize and share the suffering of other people.

  6. Understanding prehospital delay behavior in acute myocardial infarction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Cynthia G

    2006-12-01

    Studies demonstrate that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality can be reduced if reperfusion therapy is initiated within 1 hour of AMI symptom onset. However, a considerable number of men and women arrive at the emergency department outside of the time frame for thrombolytic and angioplasty effectiveness. This is especially true for women who have been shown to delay longer than men due to their prehospital decision-making process utilized. With a mean total delay time greater than 4 hours, the time interval from symptom onset to transport activation to the hospital consumes the majority of the prehospital phase of emergency cardiac care. The health belief model, self-regulation model, theory of reasoned action, and theory of planned behavior have all been used to describe the prehospital decision-making process of both men and women with an AMI and the variables that impact that process. These models have identified the importance of symptom attribution to cardiac-related causes as a target variable for research and interventions related to care-seeking behavior.

  7. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the Relationship Between Subjective Wellbeing and Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lisa

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between gambling behavior and subjective wellbeing. It is often asserted that populations consist of different types of gamblers: those for whom gambling is a harmless leisure activity and those (pathological/problem gamblers) for whom the activity has harmful effects. One might, therefore, assume that subjective wellbeing will be negativity associated with an individual's level of gambling addiction. Alternatively, gamblers may choose to gamble because they derive utility from participating in this activity and so the relationship between happiness and gambling might be positively correlated. In this paper we test this association, empirically, using data from the 2010 British Gambling Prevalence Survey. The statistically significant findings from this analysis support the hypothesis that individual wellbeing falls as gambling disorder increases.

  9. Students’ online purchasing behavior in Malaysia: Understanding online shopping attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Zendehdel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.

  10. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  11. Understanding externalizing behavior from children's personality and parenting characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramura, Hidetoshi; Uji, Masayo; Shikai, Noriko; Chen, Zi; Matsuoka, Nao; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2010-01-30

    A total of 946 Japanese children in the 5th to 9th grades and their parents were studied in order to investigate the extent to which parenting characteristics (measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument) and the personality of the child (measured by the junior version of the Temperament and Character Inventory) would be associated with the two aspects of the externalizing problems--aggression and delinquency--of the child (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist). A series of regression analyses demonstrated that (1) aggressive children were higher in Novelty Seeking, and delinquent children were higher in Novelty Seeking and lower in Harm Avoidance, and (2) both aggressive and delinquent children were characterised by low maternal care, paternal over-protection, and low maternal overprotection. A structural equation model confirmed these findings except for the link between the two externalizing behaviour scores and the maternal care. Moreover, it was suggested that Novelty seeking of the child would be predicted by low parental care and low paternal and high maternal overprotection. The children's aggression and delinquency could, to some extent, be explainable by their temperament patterns and parental characteristics.

  12. Brief report: Examining children's disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brief Report: Examining children’s disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, CK Fred; Miller, Kimberly A.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. PMID:26298676

  14. Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew B; Jensen, Peter S; Jaccard, James; Gollwitzer, Peter; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2007-03-01

    Despite major recent research advances, large gaps exist between accepted mental health knowledge and clinicians' real-world practices. Although hundreds of studies have successfully utilized basic behavioral science theories to understand, predict, and change patients' health behaviors, the extent to which these theories-most notably the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB)-have been applied to understand and change clinician behavior is unclear. This article reviews the application of theory-driven approaches to understanding and changing clinician behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched, along with bibliographies, textbooks on health behavior or public health, and references from experts, to find article titles that describe theory-driven approaches (TRA or TPB) to understanding and modifying health professionals' behavior. A total of 19 articles that detailed 20 studies described the use of TRA or TPB and clinicians' behavior. Eight articles describe the use of TRA or TPB with physicians, four relate to nurses, three relate to pharmacists, and two relate to health workers. Only two articles applied TRA or TPB to mental health clinicians. The body of work shows that different constructs of TRA or TPB predict intentions and behavior among different groups of clinicians and for different behaviors and guidelines. The number of studies on this topic is extremely limited, but they offer a rationale and a direction for future research as well as a theoretical basis for increasing the specificity and efficiency of clinician-targeted interventions.

  15. Applied behavior analysis: understanding and changing behavior in the community-a representative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis, a psychological discipline, has been characterized as the science of behavior change (Chance, 2006). Research in applied behavior analysis has been published for approximately 40 years since the initial publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 1968. The field now encompasses a wide range of human behavior. Although much of the published research centers on problem behaviors that occur in schools and among people with disabilities, a substantial body of knowledge has emerged in community settings. This article provides a review of the behavioral community research published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis as representative of this work, including research in the areas of home and family, health, safety, community involvement and the environment, recreation and sports, crime and delinquency, and organizations. In the interest of space, research in schools and with people with disabilities has been excluded from this review.

  16. Understanding the behavior of buried Bi nanostructures from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Hunter; Pantelides, Sokrates; Song, Jiaming; Hudak, Bethany; Lupini, Andrew; Snijders, Paul

    Bismuth dopants in silicon provide several advantages over other n-type options such as phosphorus for usage as quantum bits (qubits). Self-assembled Bi nanolines on Si (100) surfaces may provide a means of introducing these dopants with greater control over placement and with less damage to the host system than is possible using ion implantation. However, these structures have thus far only been observed in vacuum, limiting their usefulness for application. We examine Bi nanolines overgrown with amorphous Si using density functional theory, comparing our findings with observations from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in order to better understand the way in which the Si surface is influenced by both the Bi ad-dimers and the capping layer. We compare the thermodynamic stability of the generally accepted haiku defect core to the modified core that we observe and offer insight from total energy calculations into how the overgrowth process affects the nanolines. Supported by Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02- 09ER46554 (VU) and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy (ORNL).

  17. Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children's problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills learned during treatment by parents, often referred to as between-session homework. The multiple family group (MFG) model is an evidence-based, skills-based intervention model for the treatment of DBDs in school-age youth residing in urban, socio-economically disadvantaged communities. While data suggest benefits of MFG on DBD behaviors, similar to other skill-based interventions, the effects of MFG are mitigated by the poor homework implementation, despite considerable efforts to support parents in homework implementation. This paper focuses on the study protocol for the development and preliminary evaluation of a theory-based, smartphone mobile health (mHealth) application (My MFG) to support homework implementation by parents participating in MFG. This paper describes a study design proposal that begins with a theoretical model, uses iterative design processes to develop My MFG to support homework implementation in MFG through a series of pilot studies, and a small-scale pilot randomised controlled trial to determine if the intervention can demonstrate change (preliminary efficacy) of My MFG in outpatient mental health settings in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. This preliminary study aims to understand the implementation of mHealth methods to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in routine outpatient mental health care settings for youth with disruptive behavior and their families. Developing methods to augment the benefits of evidence

  18. Towards an understanding of the role of the environment in the development of early callous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Trentacosta, Christopher; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2015-01-01

    Key to understanding the long-term impact of social inequalities is identifying early behaviors that may signal higher risk for later poor psychosocial outcomes, such as psychopathology. A set of early-emerging characteristics that may signal risk for later externalizing psychopathology is Callous-Unemotional (CU) behavior. CU behavior predict severe and chronic trajectories of externalizing behaviors in youth. However, much research on CU behavior has focused on late childhood and adolescence, with little attention paid to early childhood when preventative interventions may be most effective. In this paper, we summarize our recent work showing that: (1) CU behavior can be identified in early childhood using items from common behavior checklists; (2) CU behavior predicts worse outcomes across early childhood; (3) CU behavior exhibits a distinct nomological network from other early externalizing behaviors; and (4) malleable environmental factors, particularly parenting, may play a role in the development of early CU behaviors. We discuss the challenges of studying contextual contributors to the development of CU behavior in terms of gene-environment correlations and present initial results from work examining CU behavior in an adoption study in which gene-environment correlations are examined in early childhood. We find that parenting is a predictor of early CU behavior even in a sample in which parents are not genetically related to the children. PMID:26291075

  19. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...

  20. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  1. Maternal Behavior Modifications during Pretense and Their Long-Term Effects on Toddlers' Understanding of Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their…

  2. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  3. Behavioral and Neural Sustained Attention Deficits in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Adleman, Nancy E; Curhan, Alexa; Zhang, Susan; Towbin, Kenneth E; Brotman, Melissa A; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task. Group differences in intra-subject variability in reaction time (RT) were examined. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach precisely quantified trial-wise associations between RT and brain activity. Group differences manifested in the relation between RT and brain activity (all regions: p  2.54, partial eta-squared [η p 2 ] > 0.06). Patients with DMDD showed specific alterations in the right paracentral lobule, superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellar culmen. In contrast, patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited blunted compensatory increases in activity on long RT trials. In addition, youth with DMDD exhibited increased activity in the postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and cerebellar tonsil and declive (all regions: p  2.46, η p 2 > 0.06). Groups in the imaging sample did not differ significantly in intra-subject variability in RT (F 2,79  = 2.664, p = .076, η p 2  = 0.063), although intra-subject variability in RT was significantly increased in youth with DMDD and ADHD when including those not meeting strict motion and accuracy criteria for imaging analysis (F 2,96  = 4.283, p = .017, η p 2  = 0.083). Patients with DMDD exhibited specific alterations in the relation between pre-stimulus brain activity and RT. Patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited similar blunting of compensatory neural activity in frontal, parietal, and other regions. In addition, patients with DMDD showed increased RT variability compared with healthy

  4. Reduced amygdala response in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits: decreased emotional response versus increased top-down attention to nonemotional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Marsh, Abigail A; Fowler, Katherine A; Schechter, Julia C; Adalio, Christopher; Pope, Kayla; Sinclair, Stephen; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R

    2012-07-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been reported to exist in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. However, there has been disagreement as to whether this dysfunction reflects a primary emotional deficit or is secondary to atypical attentional control. The authors examined the validity of the contrasting predictions. Participants were 15 children and adolescents (ages 10–17 years) with both disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits and 17 healthy comparison youths. Functional MRI was used to assess the response of the amygdala and regions implicated in top-down attentional control (the dorsomedial and lateral frontal cortices) to emotional expression under conditions of high and low attentional load. Relative to youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits, healthy comparison subjects showed a significantly greater increase in the typical amygdala response to fearful expressions under low relative to high attentional load conditions. There was also a selective inverse relationship between the response to fearful expressions under low attentional load and the callous-unemotional component (but not the narcissism or impulsivity component) of psychopathic traits. In contrast, the two groups did not differ in the significant recruitment of the dorsomedial and lateral frontal cortices as a function of attentional load. Youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala responses to fearful expressions under low attentional load but no indications of increased recruitment of regions implicated in top-down attentional control. These findings suggest that the emotional deficit observed in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits is primary and not secondary to increased top-down attention to nonemotional stimulus features.

  5. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  6. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake.

  7. Towards a better understanding of consumer behavior : Marginal Utility as a parameter in Neuromarketing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvino, Letizia; Constantinides, Efthymios; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding consumers’ decision-making process is a recurrent goal in Marketing. However, the traditional tools used in marketing, such as surveys, personal interviews and participant observations are often inadequate to analyze and understand human behavior. Since consumer decisions are often

  8. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples.

  9. Understanding Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behaviors in a Chilean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás C. Bronfman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and restoration are some of the major challenges faced by our society. To address this problem, it is fundamental to understand pro-environmental behaviors in the population, as well as the factors that determine them. There are, however, very few studies conducted in Latin America that are focused in understanding the environmental behavior of its citizens. The main goal of this research was to study the environmental behaviors of a Chilean community and identify the factors that determine them. To that end, a diverse set of environmental behaviors (power and water conservation, environmentally-aware consumer behavior, biodiversity protection, rational automobile use and ecological waste management and sociodemographic and attitudinal factors—based on the VBN model—were evaluated. Survey data was obtained from a statistically representative sample (N = 1537 in Santiago, Chile. Our results suggest that several participants displayed tendencies that favor more responsible environmental behaviors, with high environmental concern, and demonstrating their ample awareness of the consequences of failing to protect the environment. Nevertheless, the highest average scores of environmental behavior were related to low cost behaviors and those that imposed the fewest behavioral restrictions. In global terms, we concluded that the youngest subjects in the lowest socioeconomic group obtained the lowest scores across the pro-environmental behavior spectrum.

  10. Using mobile health technology to improve behavioral skill implementation through homework in evidence-based parenting intervention for disruptive behavior disorders in youth: study protocol for intervention development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko, Anil; Isham, Andrew; Cleek, Andrew F.; McKay, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD)) are prevalent, costly, and oftentimes chronic psychiatric disorders of childhood. Evidence-based interventions that focus on assisting parents to utilize effective skills to modify children?s problematic behaviors are first-line interventions for the treatment of DBDs. Although efficacious, the effects of these interventions are often attenuated by poor implementation of the skills ...

  11. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  12. Context for understanding psychosocial outcomes and behavior among adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Butler, Melissa

    2012-09-01

    Across all age groups, cancer affects relationships with family and friends; challenges one's sense of independence; disrupts goals, aspirations, and achievements; alters one's body image and integrity; and poses existential challenges about the world and one's place in it. When diagnosed with cancer, adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in their 20s and 30s face unique challenges compared with younger children and older adults. Understanding how cancer-related challenges manifest needs and desires for psychological and social support services throughout a continuum of care may help clinicians improve cost-effective quality care and patient outcomes. This article provides a context for understanding the experiences of AYAs with cancer and highlights key domains of psychosocial need in this population.

  13. On Understanding the Human Nature of Good and Bad Behavior in Business: A Behavioral Ethics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe numerous scandals in business, such as those at AIG, Tyco, WorldCom, Enron and Ahold, have made all of us concerned about the emergence of unethical and irresponsible behavior in organizations. Such widespread corruption in business and politics has, as result, prompted a growth of

  14. The Impact of Operating Room Layout on Circulating Nurse's Work Patterns and Flow Disruptions: A Behavioral Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramzadeh, Sara; Joseph, Anjali; San, Dee; Khoshkenar, Amin; Taaffe, Kevin; Jafarifiroozabadi, Roxana; Neyens, David M

    2018-01-01

    To assess how the adjacencies of functionally different areas within operating rooms (ORs) can influence the circulating nurse's (CN) workflow patterns and disruptions. The CN plays a significant role in promoting patient safety during surgical procedures by observing, monitoring, and managing potential threats at and around the surgical field. Their work requires constant movement to different parts of the OR to support team members. The layout of the OR and crowded and cluttered environment might impact the CN's workflow and cause disruptions during the surgery. A convenience sample of 25 surgeries were video recorded and thematically coded for CN's activities, locations, and flow disruptions. The OR layout was categorized into transitional zones and functional zones (workstations, supply zones, support zones, and sterile areas around the surgical table). CN's activities were classified into patient-, equipment-, material-, and information-related activities. Flow disruptions included those related to environmental hazards and layout. The CN traveled through multiple zones during 91% of the activities. The CN's workstation acted as a main hub from which the CN made frequent trips to both sides of the surgical table, the foot of the OR table, supply zones, and support zones. Transitional zones accounted for 58.3% of all flow disruption that the CN was involved in whereas 28% occurred in areas surrounding the OR bed. The similarity of the movement and flow disruption patterns, despite variations in OR layout, highlighted the adjacencies required between major zones that CNs regularly visit. These optimum adjacencies should be considered while designing ORs such that they are more efficient and safer.

  15. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys...

  16. Assessment of Behavioral Disruption in Rats with Abdominal Inflammation Using Visual Cue Titration and the Five-choice Serial-reaction Time Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas J; Strassburg, Tracy J; Grigg, Amanda L; Kim, Susy A; Ririe, Douglas G; Eisenach, James C

    2017-08-01

    Both acute and chronic pain result in a number of behavioral symptoms in patients, including cognitive effects such as decreased attention and working memory. Intraperitoneal administration of dilute lactic acid in rodents has been used to induce abdominal inflammation and produce effects in behavioral assays of both sensory-discriminative and affective pain modalities. Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid was used to study the impact of abdominal inflammation on an operant task requiring sustained visual attention in rats (N = 7 to 15/group) that adapts dynamically to performance ability. The effects of ketoprofen and morphine on lactic acid-induced impairment were compared with those on the disruptive effects of scopolamine. Lactic acid impaired performance in a concentration-dependent manner, increasing the duration of cue presentation required to maintain optimal performance from 0.5 ± 0.2 s (mean ± SD) to 17.2 ± 11.4 s after the administration of 1.8% (v/v) (N = 13). The latency to emit correct responses and to retrieve the food reward were both increased by lactic acid. All effects of lactic acid injection were reversed by both ketoprofen and morphine in a dose-dependent manner. Scopolamine, however, produced dose-dependent, nonpain-related disruption in sustained attention that was not altered by either ketoprofen or morphine. These data demonstrate that abdominal inflammation induced by lactic acid produces robust disruption in a visual attention-based operant task and that this disruption is reversed by analgesics. Future studies will focus on pain-related circuitry and its impact on both limbic forebrain and frontal cortical mechanisms.

  17. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara

    2017-05-11

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  18. A Visual Analytics Approach for Detecting and Understanding Anomalous Resident Behaviors in Smart Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Liao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, it is possible to analyze residents’ daily behaviors for the purpose of smart healthcare in the smart home environment. Many researchers have begun to detect residents’ anomalous behaviors and assess their physical condition, but these approaches used by the researchers are often caught in plight caused by a lack of ground truth, one-sided analysis of behavior, and difficulty of understanding behaviors. In this paper, we put forward a smart home visual analysis system (SHVis to help analysts detect and comprehend unusual behaviors of residents, and predict the health information intelligently. Firstly, the system classifies daily activities recorded by sensor devices in smart home environment into different categories, and discovers unusual behavior patterns of residents living in this environment by using various characteristics extracted from those activities and appropriate unsupervised anomaly detection algorithm. Secondly, on the basis of figuring out the residents’ anomaly degree of every date, we explore the daily behavior patterns and details with the help of several visualization views, and compare and analyze residents’ activities of various dates to find the reasons why residents act unusually. In the case study of this paper, we analyze residents’ behaviors that happened over two months and find unusual indoor behaviors and give health advice to the residents.

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to Understanding Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary; Taylor, Natalie; Harrison, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Conner, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Reasoned action approach (RAA) includes subcomponents of attitude (experiential/instrumental), perceived norm (injunctive/descriptive), and perceived behavioral control (capacity/autonomy) to predict intention and behavior. To provide a meta-analysis of the RAA for health behaviors focusing on comparing the pairs of RAA subcomponents and differences between health protection and health-risk behaviors. The present research reports a meta-analysis of correlational tests of RAA subcomponents, examination of moderators, and combined effects of subcomponents on intention and behavior. Regressions were used to predict intention and behavior based on data from studies measuring all variables. Capacity and experiential attitude had large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with intention; all constructs except autonomy were significant independent predictors of intention in regressions. Intention, capacity, and experiential attitude had medium-large, and other constructs had small-medium-sized correlations with behavior; intention, capacity, experiential attitude, and descriptive norm were significant independent predictors of behavior in regressions. The RAA subcomponents have utility in predicting and understanding health behaviors.

  20. Disruption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.

    1982-07-01

    Calculations of disruption time and energy dissipation have been obtained by simulating the plasma as an electrical conducting loop that varies in resistivity, current density, major radius. The calculations provide results which are in good agreement with experimental observations. It is believed that this approach allows engineering designs for disruptions to be completed in large tokamaks such as INTOR or FED

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other disruptive behavior disorders are risk factors for recurrent epistaxis in children: A prospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Erdoğan; Aksu, Hatice; Gürbüz-Özgür, Börte; Başak, Hatice Sema; Eskiizmir, Görkem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disruptive behavior disorders in children with recurrent epistaxis (RE). Children aged between 6-11 years were enrolled according to presence (n=34) and absence (n=103) of RE. Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale was applied to parents. Moreover, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version was performed. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD were determined in 17.6% and 32.4% of patients, respectively. When psychiatric diagnoses between both groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found in terms of ADHD and ODD (p=0.028 and p=0.003). In children with RE, the frequency of ADHD and ODD are higher than children without RE. A referral to a child psychiatrist should be considered, if a child with RE also has symptoms of increased activity, inattention and/or body-injurious behaviors.

  2. ADHD and Disruptive behavior scores – associations with MAO-A and 5-HTT genes and with platelet MAO-B activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Jan-Olov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacological and genetic studies suggest the importance of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems in the pathogenesis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. We have, in a population-based sample, studied associations between dimensions of the ADHD/DBD phenotype and Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B activity in platelets and polymorphisms in two serotonergic genes: the Monoamine Oxidase A Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MAO-A VNTR and the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTT LPR. Methods A population-based sample of twins, with an average age of 16 years, was assessed for ADHD/DBD with a clinical interview; Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Blood was drawn from 247 subjects and analyzed for platelet MAO-B activity and polymorphisms in the MAO-A and 5-HTT genes. Results We found an association in girls between low platelet MAO-B activity and symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. In girls, there was also an association between the heterozygote long/short 5-HTT LPR genotype and symptoms of conduct disorder. Furthermore the heterozygote 5-HTT LPR genotype in boys was found to be associated with symptoms of Conduct Disorder (CD. In boys, hemizygosity for the short MAO-A VNTR allele was associated with disruptive behavior. Conclusion Our study suggests that the serotonin system, in addition to the dopamine system, should be further investigated when studying genetic influences on the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

  3. Understanding Knowledge Sharing Behavior: An Examination of the Extended Model of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)

  5. A neurogenetics approach to understanding individual differences in brain, behavior, and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, R; Hyde, L W; Hariri, A R

    2013-03-01

    Neurogenetics research has begun to advance our understanding of how genetic variation gives rise to individual differences in brain function, which, in turn, shapes behavior and risk for psychopathology. Despite these advancements, neurogenetics research is currently confronted by three major challenges: (1) conducting research on individual variables with small effects, (2) absence of detailed mechanisms, and (3) a need to translate findings toward greater clinical relevance. In this review, we showcase techniques and developments that address these challenges and highlight the benefits of a neurogenetics approach to understanding brain, behavior and psychopathology. To address the challenge of small effects, we explore approaches including incorporating the environment, modeling epistatic relationships and using multilocus profiles. To address the challenge of mechanism, we explore how non-human animal research, epigenetics research and genome-wide association studies can inform our mechanistic understanding of behaviorally relevant brain function. Finally, to address the challenge of clinical relevance, we examine how neurogenetics research can identify novel therapeutic targets and for whom treatments work best. By addressing these challenges, neurogenetics research is poised to exponentially increase our understanding of how genetic variation interacts with the environment to shape the brain, behavior and risk for psychopathology.

  6. Bridging Models and Business: Understanding heterogeneity in hidden drivers of customer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Korkmaz (Evsen)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Recent years have seen many advances in quantitative models in the marketing literature. Even though these advances enable model building for a better understanding of customer purchase behavior and customer heterogeneity such that firms develop optimal targeting and

  7. An Integrative Model for Understanding Team Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Antecedents and Consequences for Educational Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit; Khotaba, Soha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to use a model to broaden the understanding of the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) phenomenon in educational teams and examines team OCB's mediating role in the relation of the contextual variables of team justice climate (distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice) to team…

  8. Understanding Desisting and Persisting Forms of Delinquency: The Unique Contributions of Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Interpersonal Callousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While associations between conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and interpersonal callousness (IC) symptoms and delinquency onset are well established, less is known about whether these characteristics differentiate desisting and persisting delinquency. The current…

  9. Short-term exposure to dim light at night disrupts rhythmic behaviors and causes neurodegeneration in fly models of tauopathy and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mari; Subramanian, Manivannan; Cho, Yun-Ho; Kim, Gye-Hyeong; Lee, Eunil; Park, Joong-Jean

    2018-01-08

    The accumulation and aggregation of phosphorylated tau proteins in the brain are the hallmarks for the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, disruptions in circadian rhythms (CRs) with altered sleep-wake cycles, dysregulation of locomotion, and increased memory defects have been reported in patients with AD. Drosophila flies that have an overexpression of human tau protein in neurons exhibit most of the symptoms of human patients with AD, including locomotion defects and neurodegeneration. Using the fly model for tauopathy/AD, we investigated the effects of an exposure to dim light at night on AD symptoms. We used a light intensity of 10 lux, which is considered the lower limit of light pollution in many countries. After the tauopathy flies were exposed to the dim light at night for 3 days, the flies showed disrupted CRs, altered sleep-wake cycles due to increased pTau proteins and neurodegeneration, in the brains of the AD flies. The results indicate that the nighttime exposure of tauopathy/AD model Drosophila flies to dim light disrupted CR and sleep-wake behavior and promoted neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  11. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  12. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina F Gaastra

    Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  13. Facebook tells me so: applying the theory of planned behavior to understand partner-monitoring behavior on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvell, Millie J; Walsh, Shari P; White, Katherine M

    2011-12-01

    The social networking site (SNS) Facebook is becoming increasingly recognized as a medium through which individuals can investigate and monitor others' activities. However, little is known about whether Facebook monitoring behavior occurs within romantic relationships and, accordingly, the psychological predictors of this behavior. The present study employed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework including self-esteem, partner trust, and demographic characteristics, to predict frequent Facebook partner-monitoring. Facebook users (N=244) in romantic relationships completed measures assessing the standard TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control), additional predictor variables (self-esteem and partner trust), and demographic characteristics (age, gender, relationship length, daily Facebook logins, and time spent per login). One week later, participants reported their level of Facebook partner-monitoring during the previous week. Regression analyses supported the standard TPB constructs of attitude and subjective norm in predicting intentions to engage in frequent Facebook partner-monitoring, with intention, in turn, predicting behavior. Partner trust, but not self-esteem, significantly predicted frequent Facebook partner-monitoring intentions. Of the demographic characteristics, daily Facebook logins significantly predicted both intention and behavior and, unexpectedly, relationship length directly affected behavior. Overall, the current study revealed that frequent Facebook partner-monitoring is influenced by attitudinal, normative, and relational factors and, potentially, increased visits to Facebook. These findings provide a new understanding of an individual's use of the world's leading SNS to monitor their partner's activities and provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the potential negative implications this activity may have for those in romantic relationships.

  14. Understanding how discrete populations of hypothalamic neurons orchestrate complicated behavioral states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison eGraebner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A major question in systems neuroscience is how a single population of neurons can interact with the rest of the brain to orchestrate complex behavioral states. The hypothalamus contains many such discrete neuronal populations that individually regulate arousal, feeding, and drinking. For example, hypothalamic neurons that express hypocretin (Hcrt neuropeptides can sense homeostatic and metabolic factors affecting wakefulness and orchestrate organismal arousal. Neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP can sense the metabolic needs of the body and orchestrate a state of hunger. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT can detect the hypertonicity of blood and orchestrate a state of thirst. Each hypothalamic population is sufficient to generate complicated behavioral states through the combined efforts of distinct efferent projections. The principal challenge to understanding these brain systems is therefore to determine the individual roles of each downstream projection for each behavioral state. In recent years, the development and application of temporally precise, genetically encoded tools have greatly improved our understanding of the structure and function of these neural systems. This review will survey recent advances in our understanding of how these individual hypothalamic populations can orchestrate complicated behavioral states due to the combined efforts of individual downstream projections.

  15. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  16. Understanding action control of parental support behavior for child physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norman; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    Parental support is the critical family-level variable linked to child physical activity (PA), yet the antecedents of support are poorly understood, and its relationship with intention is modest. The purpose of this study was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multiprocess action control (M-PAC), to understand parental support for regular child PA. Mothers (N = 1,253) with children 5-12 years of age completed measures of attitudes, perceived control over support, behavioral regulation tactics (e.g., planning, self-monitoring), and intention to support. Over half (58%) reported on subsequent support behaviors 6 months later. Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: (a) nonintenders (26.4%; n = 331), (b) unsuccessful intenders (36.6%; n = 458), and (c) successful intenders (33%; n = 414). Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective attitude about support (r = .18), perceived behavioral control over support (r = .55), and behavioral regulation (r = .55) distinguished between all 3 intention-behavior profiles. A disaggregated analysis of specific behavioral regulation tactics showed that most distinguished all 3 profiles, yet planning, information seeking, and monitoring were the critical correlates of the discriminant function. The majority of mothers had positive intentions to support regular child PA, yet over half failed to enact this support. Difficulty of intention translating into support behavior arises from compromised control over support, self-regulation skills, and perceptions that the support experience is unenjoyable. Interventions aimed at strengthening these factors are recommended to improve parental support action control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Acute Nicotine Induces Anxiety and Disrupts Temporal Pattern Organization of Rat Exploratory Behavior in Hole-Board: A Potential Role for the Lateral Habenula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eCasarrubea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNicotine is one of the most addictive drugs of abuse. Tobacco smoking is a major cause of many health problems, and is the first preventable cause of death worldwide. Several findings show that nicotine exerts significant aversive as well as the well-known rewarding motivational effects. Less certain is the anatomical substrate that mediates or enables nicotine aversion. Here, we show that acute nicotine induces anxiogenic effects in rats at the doses investigated (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p., as measured by the hole-board apparatus and manifested in behaviors such as decreased rearing and head-dipping and increased grooming. No changes in locomotor behavior were observed at any of the nicotine doses given. T-pattern analysis of the behavioral outcomes revealed a drastic reduction and disruption of complex behavioral patterns induced by all three nicotine doses, with the maximum effect for 1 mg/kg. Lesion of the lateral habenula (LHb induced hyperlocomotion and, strikingly, reversed the nicotine-induced anxiety obtained at 1 mg/kg to an anxiolytic-like effect, as shown by T-pattern analysis. We suggest that the LHb is critically involved in emotional behavior states and in nicotine-induced anxiety, most likely through modulation of monoaminergic nuclei.

  18. Acute nicotine induces anxiety and disrupts temporal pattern organization of rat exploratory behavior in hole-board: a potential role for the lateral habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Davies, Caitlin; Faulisi, Fabiana; Pierucci, Massimo; Colangeli, Roberto; Partridge, Lucy; Chambers, Stephanie; Cassar, Daniel; Valentino, Mario; Muscat, Richard; Benigno, Arcangelo; Crescimanno, Giuseppe; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs of abuse. Tobacco smoking is a major cause of many health problems, and is the first preventable cause of death worldwide. Several findings show that nicotine exerts significant aversive as well as the well-known rewarding motivational effects. Less certain is the anatomical substrate that mediates or enables nicotine aversion. Here, we show that acute nicotine induces anxiogenic-like effects in rats at the doses investigated (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), as measured by the hole-board apparatus and manifested in behaviors such as decreased rearing and head-dipping and increased grooming. No changes in locomotor behavior were observed at any of the nicotine doses given. T-pattern analysis of the behavioral outcomes revealed a drastic reduction and disruption of complex behavioral patterns induced by all three nicotine doses, with the maximum effect for 1 mg/kg. Lesion of the lateral habenula (LHb) induced hyperlocomotion and, strikingly, reversed the nicotine-induced anxiety obtained at 1 mg/kg to an anxiolytic-like effect, as shown by T-pattern analysis. We suggest that the LHb is critically involved in emotional behavior states and in nicotine-induced anxiety, most likely through modulation of monoaminergic nuclei.

  19. Expanding the Understanding of Risk Behavior Associated With Homelessness Among Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Taylor; Kintzle, Sara; Wenzel, Suzanne; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2017-09-01

    To advance large-scale efforts to end veteran homelessness, an understanding of factors that contribute to housing insecurity is necessary. Common risk behaviors (e.g., substance use and risky sexual practices) are associated with lengthier experiences of homelessness among the general homeless population, but less understood among homeless veterans. Additionally, whether emerging risk behaviors among veterans (e.g., sensation seeking and aggression) are associated with lengthy homeless experiences is unknown. Data were drawn from a sample of Los Angeles County veterans surveyed using a mixed nonprobability sampling strategy, which included recruiting veterans via national and local veterans service organizations, college organizations, and social media campaigns. Measures aligning with factors of sensation seeking (reckless driving, gambling, suicidal ideation); substance use (alcohol misuse, tobacco use, driving while intoxicated); risky sexual practices (risking getting a sexually transmitted disease); and aggression (looking to start a fight) were tested in multivariate, multinomial logistic regression analyses to determine their association with varying lengths of homelessness in the past year (less than 1 month, 2-6 months, 6 months to 1 year). Risking getting a sexually transmitted disease, gambling, suicidal ideation, alcohol misuse, tobacco use, driving while intoxicated, and looking to start a fight were associated with 6 or more months of homelessness. Several indicators of risk were associated with brief periods of homelessness, including gambling and looking to start a fight. Although a clear exposure-response effect was not detected with risk behaviors, results suggested there may be some wavering of engagement in risk behaviors over time. Findings suggest sensation seeking and aggression risk behaviors should be included in risk assessments and prevention efforts along with substance use and risky sexual practices to reduce veterans' risk of becoming

  20. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  1. Copy of Using Emulation and Simulation to Understand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chiang, Ken; Gentile, Ann C.; Lloyd, Levi; Minnich, Ronald G.; Vanderveen, Keith; Van Randwyk, Jamie A; Rudish, Don W.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the work done in the late-start LDRDUsing Emulation and Simulation toUnderstand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet. We describe the creation of a researchplatform that emulates many thousands of machines to be used for the study of large-scale inter-net behavior. We describe a proof-of-concept simple attack we performed in this environment.We describe the successful capture of a Storm bot and, from the study of the bot and furtherliterature search, establish large-scale aspects we seek to understand via emulation of Storm onour research platform in possible follow-on work. Finally, we discuss possible future work.3

  2. Disruption in the balance between goal-directed behavior and habit learning in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillan, C.M.; Papmeyer, M.; Morein-Zamir, S.; Sahakian, B.J.; Fineberg, N.A.; Robbins, T.W.; de Wit, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors and thought patterns. Although patients with OCD report that these compulsive behaviors are unproductive and often senseless, they are unable to desist. This study investigated whether the urge to

  3. Understanding Information Seeking Behavior of Indonesian Postgraduate Students in Malaysian Universities: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Subhan; Ahmad Bashawir Abdul Ghani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract : This study investigates Indonesian postgraduate student’s experience at the pre-sessional program of the process of seeking information and the strategies they used throughout the process. The objective is to understand their information seeking behavior particularly academic-related information in order to improve the effectiveness of educational communication in Malaysia higher institutions. Two research questions are addressed: what experiences do pre-sessional students face i...

  4. Digital disruption ?syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR). We observed this transformation and propose several digital disruption "syndromes" to assist with understanding and management during digital transformation: digital deceleration, digital transparency, digital hypervigilance, data discordance, digital churn and post-digital 'depression'. These 'syndromes' are defined and discussed in detail. Successful management of this temporary digital disruption is important to ensure a successful transition to a digital platform. What is known about this topic? Digital disruption is defined as the changes facilitated by digital technologies that occur at a pace and magnitude that disrupt established ways of value creation, social interactions, doing business and more generally our thinking. Increasing numbers of Australian hospitals are implementing digital solutions to replace traditional paper-based systems for patient care in order to create opportunities for improved care and efficiencies. Such large scale change has the potential to create transient disruption to workflows and staff. Managing this temporary disruption effectively is an important factor in the successful implementation of an EMR. What does this paper add? A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a successful rapid roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR) to become Australia's largest digital hospital over a 3-week period. We observed and assisted with the management of several cultural, behavioural and

  5. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Getting angry matters: Going beyond perspective taking and empathic concern to understand bystanders' behavior in bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the relations between different empathic dimensions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Specifically, the indirect effects of empathic concern and perspective taking via empathic anger on defending and passive bystanding were tested in a sample of Italian young adolescents (N = 398; M age  = 12 years, 3 months, 47.2% girls). Path analysis confirmed the direct and indirect effects, via empathic anger, of empathic concern and perspective taking on bystanders' behavior, with the exception of the direct association between perspective taking and passive bystanding that was not significant. Our findings suggest that considering empathic anger together with empathic concern and perspective taking could help researchers to better understand the links between empathic dispositions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Understanding behavioral intent to participate in shared decision-making in medically uncertain situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Roxana M; Dunn, K; Zhang, J; Hsu, C E; Holmes, J H

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the process undertaken to identify and validate behavioral and normative beliefs and behavioral intent based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and applied to men between the ages of 45 and 70 in the context of their participation in shared decision-making (SDM) in medically uncertain situations. This article also discusses the preliminary results of the aforementioned processes and explores potential future uses of this information that may facilitate greater understanding, efficiency and effectiveness of clinician-patient consultations. Twenty-five male subjects from the Philadelphia community participated in this study. Individual semi-structure patient interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached. Based on their review of the patient interview transcripts, researchers conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify prevalent themes and, subsequently, create a category framework. Qualitative indicators were used to evaluate respondents' experiences, beliefs, and behavioral intent relative to participation in shared decision-making during medical uncertainty. Based on the themes uncovered through the content analysis, a category framework was developed to facilitate understanding and increase the accuracy of predictions related to an individual's behavioral intent to participate in shared decision-making in medical uncertainty. The emerged themes included past experience with medical uncertainty, individual personality, and the relationship between the patient and his physician. The resulting three main framework categories include 1) an individual's Foundation for the concept of medical uncertainty, 2) how the individual Copes with medical uncertainty, and 3) the individual's Behavioral Intent to seek information and participate in shared decision-making during times of medically uncertain situations. The theme of Coping (with uncertainty) emerged as a particularly critical behavior/characteristic amongst the

  8. Parents’ Education, Personality, and Their Children’s Disruptive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to understand the effects of parents' education and personality aspects on child disruptive behavior, (2 to know the correlation between the parents' personality aspects (N-Deference, N-Succorance, NDominance and N-Aggression and the children' disruptive behavior. A quantitative approach to the correlational design was employed. Three variables were studied, namely parents' education and personality as the independent variables and child disruptive behavior as the independent variable. The applied instruments are questionnaires, (2 personality test (EPPS, and (3 observation with time and interval samplings approach. The population is from Magelang, Indonesia, while the participants are 100 children at the age of 5 – 7 years and their parents. The results show that (1 there are some effects of parents' education and personality on child disruptive behavior, and (2 aggressive aspects of the parents' personality gave great effects on child disruptive behavior, followed by the succorance, deference, and at the lowest level, the dominance aspects

  9. Radiography as a tool in understanding soil insect behavior in turfgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, M.G.; Wright, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to gain a more realistic picture of the events that occur within the soil matrix an x-ray technique has been developed that has been used to study seed insects, parasitized cocoons, and wood boring insects in trees to study soil insect movement and behavior. This technique makes it possible to study the movement of the target insects within simulated or natural soil blocks over time. This method also shows physical properties of the soil matrix: particle size, extent of compaction, differences in soil moisture, horizons, and random soil heterogeneity. Blocks of soil up to 14'' x 17'' x 5'' have been removed from the field and x-rayed in my laboratory using this technique. These radiographs are of sufficient quality to determine the movement of white grubs in situ. Such blocks retain their field characteristics and therefore allow for the careful monitoring and manipulation of the system over relatively long (several months) periods of time. Radiographic data are presented which document the behavior of several white grub species in response to dynamic soil ecosystem processes such as moisture and temperature flux. Additional data on the effects of specific soil insecticides on the behavior of white grubs in the soil and the movement of these insecticides through the soil profile are also presented. The importance of understanding the dynamic interaction of soil insect and soil insecticide provided through x-ray technology, both in understanding white grub behavior in the field and maximizing management efforts is discussed

  10. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    Disruption var frem til slutningen af 2016 i Danmark et ord, som kun få kendte og endnu færre havde en holdning til. Nu er der imidlertid sat fokus på begrebet fra allerhøjeste nationale sted, idet regeringen har taget initiativ til nedsættelse af det, Statsminister Lars Løkke Rasmussen indtil...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...... disruption en sag for os alle. Derfor er det også for vigtigt et emne til, at det udelukkende behandles i elitære videnskabelige, industrielle og politiske kredse. Der er behov for en bredere samfundsdebat; og bogen er et forskningsbaseret bidrag ind i denne debat. For a kvalificere debatten om disruption i...

  11. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  12. The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: an application of latent transition growth mixture modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2011-09-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. © Society for Prevention Research 2011

  13. The interacting role of media violence exposure and aggressive-disruptive behavior in adolescent brain activation during an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnin, Andrew J; Edwards, Chad R; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2011-04-30

    Only recently have investigations of the relationship between media violence exposure (MVE) and aggressive behavior focused on brain functioning. In this study, we examined the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggression were compared to investigate whether the association of MVE history and brain activation is moderated by aggressive behavior/personality. Twenty-two adolescents with a history of aggressive behavior and diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorder (DBD sample) and 22 controls completed an emotional Stroop task during fMRI. Primary imaging results indicated that controls with a history of low MVE demonstrated greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulate during the violent word condition. In contrast, in adolescents with DBD, those with high MVE exhibited decreased activation in the right amygdala, compared with those with low MVE. These findings are consistent with research demonstrating the importance of fronto-limbic structures for processing emotional stimuli, and with research suggesting that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Politisk disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på.......Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på....

  15. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  16. Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Lim, Clarise

    2016-11-16

    Walking among dog owners may be a means to achieve health benefits, yet almost half of owners (approximately 30% of households) are not regularly walking their dogs. Current research on the correlates of dog walking has generally considered intention as the primary determinant of behavior, yet the intention-behavior relationship is modest. The purpose of this paper was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multi-process action control (M-PAC), to understand daily walking among dog owners. A community sample of adult dog owners (N = 227) in Victoria, Canada completed M-PAC measures of motivational (dog and human outcome expectations, affective judgments, perceived capability and opportunity), regulatory (planning), and reflexive (automaticity, identity) processes as well as intention to walk and behavior. Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a) non-intenders who were not active (26%; n = 59), b) unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (33%; n = 75), and c) successful intenders who were active (40%; n = 91). Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective judgements (r = 0.33), automaticity (r = 0.38), and planning (r = 0.33) distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while identity (r = 0.22) and dog breed size (r = 0.28) differentiated between successful and unsuccessful intenders. The majority of dog owners have positive intentions to walk, yet almost half fail to meet these intentions. Interventions focused on affective judgments (e.g., more enjoyable places to walk), behavioral regulation (e.g., setting a concrete plan), habit (e.g., making routines and cues) and identity formation (e.g., affirmations of commitment) may help overcome difficulties with translating these intentions into action, thus increasing overall levels of walking.

  17. Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E. Rhodes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking among dog owners may be a means to achieve health benefits, yet almost half of owners (approximately 30% of households are not regularly walking their dogs. Current research on the correlates of dog walking has generally considered intention as the primary determinant of behavior, yet the intention-behavior relationship is modest. The purpose of this paper was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multi-process action control (M-PAC, to understand daily walking among dog owners. Method A community sample of adult dog owners (N = 227 in Victoria, Canada completed M-PAC measures of motivational (dog and human outcome expectations, affective judgments, perceived capability and opportunity, regulatory (planning, and reflexive (automaticity, identity processes as well as intention to walk and behavior. Results Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a non-intenders who were not active (26%; n = 59, b unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (33%; n = 75, and c successful intenders who were active (40%; n = 91. Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective judgements (r = 0.33, automaticity (r = 0.38, and planning (r = 0.33 distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while identity (r = 0.22 and dog breed size (r = 0.28 differentiated between successful and unsuccessful intenders. Conclusions The majority of dog owners have positive intentions to walk, yet almost half fail to meet these intentions. Interventions focused on affective judgments (e.g., more enjoyable places to walk, behavioral regulation (e.g., setting a concrete plan, habit (e.g., making routines and cues and identity formation (e.g., affirmations of commitment may help overcome difficulties with translating these intentions into action, thus increasing overall levels of walking.

  18. Putting the Mind in the Brain: Promoting an Appreciation of the Biological Basis to Understanding Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A surprising number of students in psychology, behavioral science, and related social science classes fail to appreciate the importance of biological mechanisms to understanding behavior. To help teachers promote this understanding, this paper outlines six sources of evidence. These are (a) phylogenetic, (b) genetic/developmental, (c) clinical,…

  19. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  20. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach to Integrate Tsunami Science, Human Behavior, and Unplanned Network Disruptions for Nearfield Tsunami Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. T.; Wang, H.; Cramer, L.; Mostafizi, A.; Park, H.

    2016-12-01

    For the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) and other extreme near-field tsunami hazards, coastal residents and tourist must evacuate within 15 to 30 minutes immediately following intense ground-shaking and will be confronted with an array of choices: Should I evacuate on foot or by car? Alone, or find friends and family first? Head for high ground far away, or seek shelter a nearby building? How will the roads and bridges be affected by the preceding earthquake? In this project, we integrate the disciplines of tsunami inundation science, sociology, and civil engineering to investigate how decision-making by individual evacuees with respect to milling time, mode choice, and destination affects their life safety. We use an Agent-Based Model (ABM) to create credible scenarios for near-field tsunami evacuation. The ABM integrates (1) the time-dependent tsunami inundation computed separately using NOAA's ComMIT/MOST model, (2) population layers to account for variations in population density of residents and tourist, (3) evacuation route network including roads, bridges and foot paths for multi-modal transportation, and (4) evacuation destinations for horizontal and vertical evacuation. For this project, we apply the ABM at two locations: the city Seaside, OR, and South Beach State Park in Newport, OR. In the Seaside scenario, we show how unplanned network disruption - e.g. the partial or total failure of bridges due to the preceding earthquake - will affect life safety and show how the ABM can be used to provide retrofit strategies. For South Beach, we show how alternative routing can have a substantial impact on life safety. The ABM shows results that are initially counterintuitive. For the Seaside example, resource allocation for bridge retrofit favors investments in nodes and links not necessarily in close proximity to population centers. For the South Beach example, the routes which provide for the lowest risk (maximum life safety) are not always those with the

  1. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S

    2016-01-01

    Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  2. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Miller

    Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  3. UNDERSTANDING OF NON VERBAL BEHAVIOR CLIENTS AND TECHNIQUES IN COUNSELING SESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afdal afdal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of counseling by counselor not only need the skills to understand what is expressed by the client, but were further able to understand and have skills in giving meaning to the nonverbal communication, demonstrated by the behavior of a counseling session. During this time many of counselors who focus only on what is revealed by the client and using verbal techniques alone without seeing what goes on inside the client more deeply to understand the communication indicated by nonverbal behavior. The techniques used in the discussion of this article provides the inspiration that counseling is an art, not superficial, not skeptical and just focus on one technique alone, but many of the techniques that can be used to explore client issues. Furthermore, this paper supports the philosophical theory of Gestalt who believe that the client can feel the direct presence in the counseling sessions through the practices of the techniques used, to interpret the expression of various communications made, stationing themselves and find their own meaning.

  4. The influence of risperidone on attentional functions in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and co-morbid disruptive behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Thomas; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Jolles, Jellemer; Konrad, Kerstin

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of risperidone on various attentional functions, including intensity and selectivity aspects of attention plus inhibitory control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with co-morbid Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) and normal IQ. Children with ADHD and DBD, aged 8-15 years, were treated with risperidone (mean daily dose: 1.5 mg; n = 23) and examined with three attentional paradigms before and after a 4-week treatment period. Age- and IQ-matched normal controls (n = 23) were also tested without medication on the same two occasions. No influence of the medication could be detected for any neuropsychological variable, neither as a positive enhancement nor as adverse side effects. However, clinical symptoms of ADHD and DBD assessed on the IOWA Conners Scale significantly improved after the 4-week treatment period. Divergent behavioral and cognitive effects of risperidone on ADHD symptoms were observed, with a significant reduction in behavioral symptoms, whereas no positive treatment effects were found on laboratory tasks of impulsivity. Thus, the cognitive effects of risperidone seem to differ from the cognitive effects of stimulant treatments in children with ADHD + DBD. However, no negative impact of risperidone was observed on attentional functions either, i.e., there was no slowing of cognitive speed.

  5. Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) induced by tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-05-01

    Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50 ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5 ng/L and 50 ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses to Positive versus Negative Interventions to Disruptive Classroom Behavior in a Student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Renee B.

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews pertinent research, then uses a single-subject experimental design and methodology to assess the impact of both positive and negative interventions to reduce the incidence of inappropriate classroom behavior in a 12.2 year-old male student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the context of this study,…

  7. The Importance of Parental Attributions in Families of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte; Ohan, Jeneva L.

    2005-01-01

    Presents a social-cognitive model outlining the role of parental attributions for child behavior in parent?child interactions. Examples of studies providing evidence for the basic model are presented, with particular reference to applications of the model in families of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or…

  8. Understanding professional behavior: experiences of occupational therapy students in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, M

    1997-09-01

    A phenomenological study explored occupational therapy students' experiences in psychiatric fieldwork. Of particular interest was students' understanding of professional behavior toward persons who use mental health services. Data were gathered from 16 informants via in-depth interviews and participant observation on multiple occasions during fieldwork affiliations. Emerging from informants' views of professional behavior were difficulties in their reconciling conflicting expectations with regard to emotional and social distance from persons who use mental health services. Additionally, the informants experienced a need to assume authority and maintain control in their dealings with service users. Students' encounters with such issues during fieldwork are indicative of challenges they may face as health professionals in a changing climate of mental health services. These data are stimuli for reflection on features of professional relationships with service users, particularly in response to expectations of persons with disabilities regarding control over their lives.

  9. Bridging the Gap: Towards a Cell-Type Specific Understanding of Neural Circuits Underlying Fear Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, KM; Morrison, FG; Ressler, KJ

    2016-01-01

    Fear and anxiety-related disorders are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated fear responses. Rodent models of fear learning and memory have taken great strides towards elucidating the specific neuronal circuitries underlying the learning of fear responses. The present review addresses recent research utilizing optogenetic approaches to parse circuitries underlying fear behaviors. It also highlights the powerful advances made when optogenetic techniques are utilized in a genetically defined, cell-type specific, manner. The application of next-generation genetic and sequencing approaches in a cell-type specific context will be essential for a mechanistic understanding of the neural circuitry underlying fear behavior and for the rational design of targeted, circuit specific, pharmacologic interventions for the treatment and prevention of fear-related disorders. PMID:27470092

  10. Lithium reverses behavioral and axonal transport-related changes associated with ANK3 bipolar disorder gene disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Michael G; Leussis, Melanie P; Ruland, Tillmann; Gjeluci, Klaudio; Petryshen, Tracey L; Bahn, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) has been implicated as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder (BD), however the resulting pathophysiological and treatment implications remain elusive. In a preclinical systems biological approach, we aimed to characterize the behavioral and proteomic effects of Ank3 haploinsufficiency and chronic mood-stabilizer treatment in mice. Psychiatric-related behavior was evaluated with the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) paradigm, elevated plus maze (EPM) and a passive avoidance task (PAT). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS E ) was employed for hippocampal proteome profiling. A functional enrichment approach based on protein-protein interactions (PPIs) was performed to outline which biological processes in the hippocampus were affected by Ank3 haploinsufficiency and lithium treatment. Proteomic abundance changes as detected by MS E or highlighted by PPI network modelling were followed up by targeted selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Increased psychiatric-related behavior in Ank3+/- mice was ameliorated by lithium in all assessments (NSF, EPM, PAT). MS E followed by modular PPI clustering and functional annotation enrichment pointed towards kinesin-related axonal transport and glutamate signaling as mediators of Ank3+/- pathophysiology and lithium treatment. SRM validated this hypothesis and further confirmed abundance changes of ANK3 interaction partners. We propose that psychiatric-related behavior in Ank3+/- mice is connected to a disturbance of the kinesin cargo system, resulting in a dysfunction of neuronal ion channel and glutamate receptor transport. Lithium reverses this molecular signature, suggesting the promotion of anterograde kinesin transport as part of its mechanism of action in ameliorating Ank3-related psychiatric-related behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Human behavior understanding in networked sensing theory and applications of networks of sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Distante, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a broad overview of both the technical challenges in sensor network development, and the real-world applications of distributed sensing. Important aspects of distributed computing in large-scale networked sensor systems are analyzed in the context of human behavior understanding, including such topics as systems design tools and techniques, in-network signals, and information processing. Additionally, the book examines a varied range of application scenarios, covering surveillance, indexing and retrieval, patient care, industrial safety, social and ambient

  12. #consumingitall: Understanding The Complex Relationship Between Media Consumption And Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents spend almost nine hours a day engaging with media. As a result, they are confronted with large amounts of obesogenic content that shapes their understanding of what are normal and acceptable eating behaviors. Utilizing primary data collected from a sample of 4,838 low-income, racially and ethnically diverse middle school students in Los Angeles County, I studied the effects of different types of media use (i.e., social media, TV/movies/videos, gaming, music, Internet) on dietary p...

  13. Multiple Family Group Service Model for Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Child Outcomes at Post-Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Dean-Assael, Kara; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Hoagwood, Kimberly; McKay, Mary

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of a multiple family group (MFG) service delivery model compared with services as usual (SAU) in improving the functioning of youth with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder in families residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Participants included 320 youth aged 7 to 11 and their families who were referred to participating outpatient clinics. Participants were assigned to the MFG or the SAU condition, with parent report of child oppositional behavior, social competence, and level of youth impairment as primary outcomes at post-treatment. Family engagement to MFG was measured by attendance to each group session. Caregivers of youth in the MFG service delivery model condition reported significant improvement in youth oppositional behavior and social competence compared with youth in the SAU condition. Impairment improved over time for both groups with no difference between treatment conditions. The MFG led to greater percentage of youth with clinically significant improvements in oppositional behavior. Attendance to the MFG was high, given the high-risk nature of the study population. The MFG service delivery model offers an efficient and engaging format to implement evidence-based approaches to improving functioning of youth with oppositional defiant and/or conduct disorder in families from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.

  14. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Lucy; Harvey, Naomi D.; Green, Martin; England, Gary C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between) a binary event(s) and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM) can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses), and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided. PMID:28804710

  15. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Asher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between a binary event(s and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses, and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided.

  16. Toward a qualitative understanding of binge-watching behaviors: A focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayelle, Maèva; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. This study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching. Methods A focus group of regular TV series viewers (N = 7) was established to explore a wide range of aspects related to TV series watching (e.g., motives, viewing practices, and related behaviors). Results A content analysis identified binge-watching features across three dimensions: TV series watching motivations, TV series watching engagement, and structural characteristics of TV shows. Most participants acknowledged that TV series watching can become addictive, but they all agreed having trouble recognizing themselves as truly being an "addict." Although obvious connections could be established with substance addiction criteria and symptoms, such parallelism appeared to be insufficient, as several distinctive facets emerged (e.g., positive view, transient overinvolvement, context dependency, and low everyday life impact). Discussion and conclusion The research should go beyond the classic biomedical and psychological models of addictive behaviors to account for binge-watching in order to explore its specificities and generate the first steps toward an adequate theoretical rationale for these emerging problematic behaviors.

  17. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchen Wu

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  18. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongchen; Wang, Xinjun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP) model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  19. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Lucy; Harvey, Naomi D; Green, Martin; England, Gary C W

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between) a binary event(s) and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM) can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses), and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided.

  20. Contextual risk factors as predictors of disruptive behavior disorder trajectories in girls: the moderating effect of callous-unemotional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneman, Leoniek M; Hipwell, Alison E; Loeber, Rolf; Koot, Hans M; Pardini, Dustin A

    2011-02-01

    The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) features may delineate a severe and persistent form of conduct problems in children with unique developmental origins. Contextual risk factors such as poor parenting, delinquent peers, or neighborhood risk are believed to influence the development of conduct problems primarily in children with low levels of CU features. However, longitudinal studies examining the moderating effect of CU features on the relation between contextual risk factors and conduct problems trajectories in girls are rare. Growth curve analysis was conducted using five annual measurements of oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) behaviors in a community sample of 1,233 girls aged 7-8 at study onset. The relation between contextual risk factors in multiple domains (i.e., family, peer, community) and trajectories of ODD/CD behaviors across time were examined for girls with differing levels of CU features. Growth curve analysis indicated that CU features were associated with chronically high levels of ODD/CD symptoms over time. Low levels of parental warmth were also associated with chronically high levels of ODD/CD, and this effect was particularly pronounced for girls with high CU features. Exposure to harsh parenting was associated with higher ODD/CD behaviors for girls in childhood regardless of their level of CU features, but this effect dissipated over time. Girls with elevated CU features who are exposed to low levels of parental warmth seem to exhibit particularly severe ODD/CD symptoms and should be targeted for intensive intervention in childhood. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Understanding compressive deformation behavior of porous Ti using finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Sandipan; Khutia, Niloy [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India); Das, Debdulal [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India); Das, Mitun, E-mail: mitun@cgcri.res.in [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Balla, Vamsi Krishna [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Bandyopadhyay, Amit [W. M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Chowdhury, Amit Roy, E-mail: arcbesu@gmail.com [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (India)

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, porous commercially pure (CP) Ti samples with different volume fraction of porosities were fabricated using a commercial additive manufacturing technique namely laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Mechanical behavior of solid and porous samples was evaluated at room temperature under quasi-static compressive loading. Fracture surfaces of the failed samples were analyzed to determine the failure modes. Finite Element (FE) analysis using representative volume element (RVE) model and micro-computed tomography (CT) based model have been performed to understand the deformation behavior of laser deposited solid and porous CP-Ti samples. In vitro cell culture on laser processed porous CP-Ti surfaces showed normal cell proliferation with time, and confirmed non-toxic nature of these samples. - Highlights: • Porous CP-Ti samples fabricated using additive manufacturing technique • Compressive deformation behavior of porous samples closely matches with micro-CT and RVE based analysis • In vitro studies showed better cell proliferation with time on porous CP-Ti surfaces.

  2. Understanding why low-risk patients accept vaccines: a socio-behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemken, Timothy L; Carrico, Ruth M; Kelley, Robert R; Binford, Laura E; Peyrani, Paula; Ford, Kimbal D; Welch, Verna; Ramirez, Julio A

    2015-12-23

    Vaccines are one of the most important public health interventions. Understanding factors associated with vaccine acceptance is critical. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the three constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on the intention to be vaccinated among healthy individuals being seen for pre-travel care, and to evaluate if behavioral intention was associated with vaccine acceptance. We surveyed individuals seeking vaccination at the University of Louisville Vaccine and International Health and Travel Clinic. Linear and two stage least squares regression models were used to define the associations between constructs of the TPB and the intention to be vaccinated, as well as the association between the intention to be vaccinated and vaccine acceptance. A total of 183 individuals were included in the analysis. None of the constructs of the TPB were associated with intention to be vaccinated. Behavioral intention was not associated with vaccination acceptance. This study suggests that the TPB does not predict the intention to get vaccinated among individuals attending our Vaccine and International Health and Travel Clinic. It will be critical to define better predictors of vaccine uptake in healthy, low-risk individuals to increase vaccine acceptance.

  3. Understanding the effects of stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol via behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-06-01

    Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple-choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements, an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand, and a monetary delay discounting task, measuring intertemporal choice. The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Understanding compressive deformation behavior of porous Ti using finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sandipan; Khutia, Niloy; Das, Debdulal; Das, Mitun; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Chowdhury, Amit Roy

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, porous commercially pure (CP) Ti samples with different volume fraction of porosities were fabricated using a commercial additive manufacturing technique namely laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Mechanical behavior of solid and porous samples was evaluated at room temperature under quasi-static compressive loading. Fracture surfaces of the failed samples were analyzed to determine the failure modes. Finite Element (FE) analysis using representative volume element (RVE) model and micro-computed tomography (CT) based model have been performed to understand the deformation behavior of laser deposited solid and porous CP-Ti samples. In vitro cell culture on laser processed porous CP-Ti surfaces showed normal cell proliferation with time, and confirmed non-toxic nature of these samples. - Highlights: • Porous CP-Ti samples fabricated using additive manufacturing technique • Compressive deformation behavior of porous samples closely matches with micro-CT and RVE based analysis • In vitro studies showed better cell proliferation with time on porous CP-Ti surfaces

  5. Influence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Academic Performance and School Functions of Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Yu; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Kao, Wei-Chih; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-12-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning. Youths with ADHD + ODD/CD had more behavioral problems but similar academic performance than those with ADHD only. The multiple linear regression models revealed that ADHD impaired academic performance while ODD/CD aggravated behavioral problems. Our findings imply that comorbid ODD/CD may specifically contribute to social difficulties in youths with ADHD. Measures of early detection and intervention for ODD/CD should be conducted to prevent adverse outcomes.

  6. Disruption of adolescents' circadian clock: The vicious circle of media use, exposure to light at night, sleep loss and risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Touitou, David; Reinberg, Alain

    2016-11-01

    Although sleep is a key element in adolescent development, teens are spending increasing amounts of time online with health risks related to excessive use of electronic media (computers, smartphones, tablets, consoles…) negatively associated with daytime functioning and sleep outcomes. Adolescent sleep becomes irregular, shortened and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and early waking time due to early school starting times on weekdays which results in rhythm desynchronization and sleep loss. In addition, exposure of adolescents to the numerous electronic devices prior to bedtime has become a great concern because LEDs emit much more blue light than white incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs and have therefore a greater impact on the biological clock. A large number of adolescents move to evening chronotype and experience a misalignment between biological and social rhythms which, added to sleep loss, results in e.g. fatigue, daytime sleepiness, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. This paper on adolescent circadian disruption will review the sensitivity of adolescents to light including LEDs with the effects on the circadian system, the crosstalk between the clock and the pineal gland, the role of melatonin, and the behavior of some adolescents(media use, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, smoking habits, stimulant use…). Lastly, some practical recommendations and perspectives are put forward. The permanent social jet lag resulting in clock misalignment experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A proactive classroom management model to enhance self-efficacy levels in teachers of adolescents who display disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Rolanda T; Boykins, Anita D; Davis, Sheila P

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this project were to determine teachers' self-efficacy levels at baseline and after participating in a proactive classroom management model intervention. Teachers (N = 26) were recruited from a rural middle school in a south central state. Data required for analysis were drawn from the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (long form). A statistically significant difference (t[25] = 7.68, p classroom management training for teachers as well as the need for psychiatric and mental health nurse consultants within the school system. Teacher classroom management strategies should also include appropriate response to individual student's needs, effective communication, and insight regarding the behaviors of students from diverse backgrounds. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Effect of Comorbid Psychopathology and Conduct Problem Severity on Response to a Multi-component Intervention for Childhood Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Madison; Waxman, Jordana A; MacDonald, Katie; Andrade, Brendan F

    2018-03-29

    This study examined the effects of comorbid ADHD symptoms, internalizing psychopathology, Callous-Unemotional (CU) Traits, and conduct problem severity on children's response to an evidence-based psychosocial intervention. Clinic-referred children with DBD ages 8-12 years (N = 76) participated in a 15-week multi-component intervention. Parents provided weekly ratings of children's oppositionality-defiance, peer problems, and impairment. Oppositionality-defiance, peer problems, and impairment decreased significantly over the course of the intervention; however, there was considerable variability in weekly ratings. Baseline ADHD symptoms, internalizing psychopathology, CU traits, and conduct problem severity were unrelated to rate of change across treatment. However, ADHD symptoms uniquely predicted more oppositionality-defiance, peer problems, and impairment averaged across the 15 weeks of treatment. Follow-up analyses suggested this was driven by hyperactivity-impulsivity rather than inattention. Children with DBD and comorbid symptoms appear to benefit from a multi-component intervention, but those with ADHD symptoms may require additional support to address social and behavioral challenges.

  9. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Understanding Information Seeking Behavior of Indonesian Postgraduate Students in Malaysian Universities: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Subhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This study investigates Indonesian postgraduate student’s experience at the pre-sessional program of the process of seeking information and the strategies they used throughout the process. The objective is to understand their information seeking behavior particularly academic-related information in order to improve the effectiveness of educational communication in Malaysia higher institutions. Two research questions are addressed: what experiences do pre-sessional students face in the process of information seeking that can be articulated and described? What stages do pre-sessional students experience in the process of information seeking construction? Using the qualitative method, the study found that the pre-sessional students have different patterns in the constructive process of information seeking in two different groups i.e. writing and reading classes. Six stages and four stages of the search process were identified respectively for the two groups.

  11. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  12. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of "leaders" on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of "followers", people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  13. Committee Opinion No. 683: Behavior That Undermines a Culture of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A key element of an organizational safety culture is maintaining an environment of professionalism that encourages communication and promotes high-quality care. Behavior that undermines a culture of safety, including disruptive or intimidating behavior, has a negative effect on the quality and safety of patient care. Intimidating behavior and disruptive behavior are unprofessional and should not be tolerated. Confronting disruptive individuals is difficult. Co-workers often are reluctant to report disruptive behavior because of fear of retaliation and the stigma associated with "blowing the whistle" on a colleague. Additionally, negative behavior of revenue-generating physicians may be overlooked because of concern about the perceived consequences of confronting them. The Joint Commission requires that hospitals establish a code of conduct that "defines acceptable behavior and behavior that undermines a culture of safety." Clear standards of behavior that acknowledge the consequences of disruptive and intimidating behavior must be established and communicated. Institutions and practices should develop a multifaceted approach to address disruptive behavior. Confidential reporting systems and assistance programs for physicians who exhibit disruptive behavior should be established. A concerted effort should be made within each organization to educate staff (ie, medical, nursing, and ancillary staff) about the potential negative effects of disruptive and inappropriate behavior. A clearly delineated hospital-wide policy and procedure relating to disruptive behavior should be developed and enforced by hospital administration. To preserve professional standing, physicians should understand how to respond to and mitigate the effect of complaints or reports.

  14. Understanding social and behavioral drivers and impacts of air quality sensor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Bryan J; Kaufman, Amanda; Rivers, Louie; Schulte, Kayla; Hagler, Gayle; Clougherty, Jane; Cascio, Wayne; Costa, Dan

    2018-04-15

    Lower-cost air quality sensors (hundreds to thousands of dollars) are now available to individuals and communities. This technology is undergoing a rapid and fragmented evolution, resulting in sensors that have uncertain data quality, measure different air pollutants and possess a variety of design attributes. Why and how individuals and communities choose to use sensors is arguably influenced by social context. For example, community experiences with environmental exposures and health effects and related interactions with industry and government can affect trust in traditional air quality monitoring. To date, little social science research has been conducted to evaluate why or how sensors, and sensor data, are used by individuals and communities, or how the introduction of sensors changes the relationship between communities and air quality managers. This commentary uses a risk governance/responsible innovation framework to identify opportunities for interdisciplinary research that brings together social scientists with air quality researchers involved in developing, testing, and deploying sensors in communities. Potential areas for social science research include communities of sensor users; drivers for use of sensors and sensor data; behavioral, socio-political, and ethical implications of introducing sensors into communities; assessing methods for communicating sensor data; and harnessing crowdsourcing capabilities to analyze sensor data. Social sciences can enhance understanding of perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and other human factors that drive levels of engagement with and trust in different types of air quality data. New transdisciplinary research bridging social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and design fields of study, and involving citizen scientists working with professionals from a variety of backgrounds, can increase our understanding of air sensor technology use and its impacts on air quality and public health. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Disrupted Refugee Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Ditte Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Fleeing civil war involves managing life threatening events and multiple disruptions of everyday life. The theoretical potentials of analysing the recreation of everyday family life among Syrian refugees in Denmark is explored based on conceptualizations that emphasize the collective agency...... war and struggle to recreate an everyday life in exile is to contribute with contextualization and expansion of mainstream understandings of family life, suffering, and resilience in refugee family trajectories in multiple contexts....

  16. Advancing our understanding of religion and spirituality in the context of behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Masters, Kevin S; Salsman, John M; Wachholtz, Amy; Clements, Andrea D; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Trevino, Kelly; Wischenka, Danielle M

    2017-02-01

    Recognizing and understanding the potentially powerful roles that religiousness and spirituality (RS) may serve in the prevention and amelioration of disease, as well as symptom management and health related quality of life, significantly enhances research and clinical efforts across many areas of behavioral medicine. This article examines the knowledge established to date and suggests advances that remain to be made. We begin with a brief summary of the current knowledge regarding RS as related to three exemplary health conditions: (a) cardiovascular disease; (b) cancer; and, (c) substance abuse. We then focus on particular concerns for future investigations, emphasizing conceptual issues, possible mediators and moderators of relationships or effects, and methodology. Our discussion is framed by a conceptual model that may serve to guide and organize future investigations. This model highlights a number of important issues regarding the study of links between RS and health: (a) RS comprise many diverse constructs, (b) the mechanisms through which RS may influence health outcomes are quite diverse, and (c) a range of different types of health and health relevant outcomes may be influenced by RS. The multidimensional nature of RS and the complexity of related associations with different types of health relevant outcomes present formidable challenges to empirical study in behavioral medicine. These issues are referred to throughout our review and we suggest several solutions to the presented challenges in our summary. We end with a presentation of barriers to be overcome, along with strategies for doing so, and concluding thoughts.

  17. Computational Intelligence-Assisted Understanding of Nature-Inspired Superhydrophobic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Ding, Bei; Cheng, Ran; Dixon, Sebastian C; Lu, Yao

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, state-of-the-art computational modeling of physical and chemical systems has shown itself to be an invaluable resource in the prediction of the properties and behavior of functional materials. However, construction of a useful computational model for novel systems in both academic and industrial contexts often requires a great depth of physicochemical theory and/or a wealth of empirical data, and a shortage in the availability of either frustrates the modeling process. In this work, computational intelligence is instead used, including artificial neural networks and evolutionary computation, to enhance our understanding of nature-inspired superhydrophobic behavior. The relationships between experimental parameters (water droplet volume, weight percentage of nanoparticles used in the synthesis of the polymer composite, and distance separating the superhydrophobic surface and the pendant water droplet in adhesive force measurements) and multiple objectives (water droplet contact angle, sliding angle, and adhesive force) are built and weighted. The obtained optimal parameters are consistent with the experimental observations. This new approach to materials modeling has great potential to be applied more generally to aid design, fabrication, and optimization for myriad functional materials.

  18. Advancing our understanding of religion and spirituality in the context of behavioral medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Kevin S.; Salsman, John M.; Wachholtz, Amy; Clements, Andrea D.; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Trevino, Kelly; Wischenka, Danielle M.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding the potentially powerful roles that religiousness and spirituality (RS) may serve in the prevention and amelioration of disease, as well as symptom management and health related quality of life, significantly enhances research and clinical efforts across many areas of behavioral medicine. This article examines the knowledge established to date and suggests advances that remain to be made. We begin with a brief summary of the current knowledge regarding RS as related to three exemplary health conditions: (a) cardiovascular disease; (b) cancer; and, (c) substance abuse. We then focus on particular concerns for future investigations, emphasizing conceptual issues, possible mediators and moderators of relationships or effects, and methodology. Our discussion is framed by a conceptual model that may serve to guide and organize future investigations. This model highlights a number of important issues regarding the study of links between RS and health: (a) RS comprise many diverse constructs, (b) the mechanisms through which RS may influence health outcomes are quite diverse, and (c) a range of different types of health and health relevant outcomes may be influenced by RS. The multidimensional nature of RS and the complexity of related associations with different types of health relevant outcomes present formidable challenges to empirical study in behavioral medicine. These issues are referred to throughout our review and we suggest several solutions to the presented challenges in our summary. We end with a presentation of barriers to be overcome, along with strategies for doing so, and concluding thoughts. PMID:27342616

  19. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Himalayan glaciers: understanding contrasting patterns of glacier behavior using multi-temporal satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, A.

    2014-12-01

    High rates of glacier retreat for the last decades are often reported, and believed to be induced by 20th century climate changes. However, regional glacier fluctuations are complex, and depend on a combination of climate and local topography. Furthermore, in ares such as the Hindu-Kush Himalaya, there are concerns about warming, decreasing monsoon precipitation and their impact on local glacier regimes. Currently, the challenge is in understanding the magnitude of feedbacks between large-scale climate forcing and small-scale glacier behavior. Spatio-temporal patterns of glacier distribution are still llimited in some areas of the high Hindu-Kush Himalaya, but multi-temporal satellite imagery has helped fill spatial and temporal gaps in regional glacier parameters in the last decade. Here I present a synopsis of the behavior of glaciers across the Himalaya, following a west to east gradient. In particular, I focus on spatial patterns of glacier parameters in the eastern Himalaya, which I investigate at multi-spatial scales using remote sensing data from declassified Corona, ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Quickbird and Worldview2 sensors. I also present the use of high-resolution imagery, including texture and thermal analysis for mapping glacier features at small scale, which are particularly useful in understanding surface trends of debris-covered glaciers, which are prevalent in the Himalaya. I compare and contrast spatial patterns of glacier area and élévation changes in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya (the Everest region in the Nepal Himalaya and Sikkim in the Indian Himalaya) with other observations from the dry western Indian Himalaya (Ladakh and Lahul-Spiti), both field measurements and remote sensing-based. In the eastern Himalaya, results point to glacier area change of -0.24 % ± 0.08% per year from the 1960's to the 2006's, with a higher rate of retreat in the last decade (-0.43% /yr). Debris-covered glacier tongues show thinning trends of -30.8 m± 39 m

  1. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    , and onongoing research in the extractive industries and social movements, this work-in-progress sets outto examine (a) why and how transparency has been constructed and mobilized in recentinternational attempts to regulate the extractive industries, specifically oil and gas companies; (b)how companies’ normal...... appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices......While projects of governance by transparency have become widespread over the past decades, theyare usually investigated and theorized in isolation from the wider field of visibility and surveillancein which they are embedded. Building on theories of governance, visibility and surveillance...

  2. Understanding the Behavior of the Oligomeric Fractions During Pyrolysis Oils Upgrading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovikj, Filip

    Fast pyrolysis oils represent most viable renewable sources for production of fuels and chemicals, and they could supplement significant portion of the depleting fossil fuels in near future. Progress on their utilization is impeded by their thermal and storage instability, lack of understanding of their complex composition and behavior during upgrading, including the poorly described water soluble fraction (WS). This work offers two new methodologies for simplified, and sensible description of the pyrolysis oils in terms of functional groups and chemical macro-families, augments our understanding of the composition of the WS, and the behavior of the heavy non-volatile fraction during pyrolysis oils stabilization. The concept of analyzing the volatile and non-volatile fraction in terms of functional groups has been introduced, and the quantification power of spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1H-NMR, UV fluorescence) for phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups was shown. The FT-ICR-MS van Krevelen diagram revealed the importance of dehydration reactions in pyrolysis oils and the presence of "pyrolytic humins" was hypothesized. For the first time the WS was analyzed with plethora of analytical techniques. This lead to proposition of a new characterization scheme based on functional groups, describing 90-100 wt.% of the bio-oils. The structure of idealized "pyrolytic humin" was further described as a random combination of 3-8 units of dehydrated sugars, coniferyl-type phenols, furans, and carboxylic acids attached on a 2,5-dioxo-6-hydroxyhexanal (DHH) backbone rich in carbonyl groups. TG-FTIR studies resulted in defining rules for fitting pyrolysis oils' DTG curves and assignment of TG residue. This second method is reliable for estimation of water content, light volatiles, WS and WIS. Finally, stabilization of two oils was analyzed through the prism of functional groups. Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups interconverted. The first attempt to follow silent 31P-NMR oxygen was

  3. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  4. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction to Understand College Students' STI Testing Beliefs, Intentions, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, Kevin; Dai, Minhao; Matig, Jacob J; Harrington, Nancy Grant

    2018-03-22

    To identify salient behavioral determinants related to STI testing among college students by testing a model based on the integrative model of behavioral (IMBP) prediction. 265 undergraduate students from a large university in the Southeastern US. Formative and survey research to test an IMBP-based model that explores the relationships between determinants and STI testing intention and behavior. Results of path analyses supported a model in which attitudinal beliefs predicted intention and intention predicted behavior. Normative beliefs and behavioral control beliefs were not significant in the model; however, select individual normative and control beliefs were significantly correlated with intention and behavior. Attitudinal beliefs are the strongest predictor of STI testing intention and behavior. Future efforts to increase STI testing rates should identify and target salient attitudinal beliefs.

  5. Modulating mimicry: Exploring the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding in 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Johanna E; Hunnius, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    During adult interactions, behavioral mimicry, the implicit copying of an interaction partner's postures and mannerisms, communicates liking and affiliation. While this social behavior likely develops during early childhood, it is unclear which factors contribute to its emergence. Here, the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding on 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry were investigated. Following a social manipulation in which one experimenter shared a sticker with the child and the other experimenter kept two stickers for herself, children watched a video in which these experimenters each told a story. During this story session, children in the experimental group (n = 28) observed the experimenters perform face and hand rubbing behaviors whereas the control group (n = 23) did not see these behaviors. Children's inhibitory control was assessed using the day-night task and their social understanding was measured through a parental questionnaire. Surprisingly, group-level analyses revealed that the experimental group performed the behaviors significantly less than the control group (i.e. a negative mimicry effect) for both the sticker-sharer and sticker-keeper. Yet, the hypothesized effects of inhibitory control and social understanding were found. Inhibitory control predicted children's selective mimicry of the sticker-keeper versus sticker-sharer and children's overall mimicry was correlated with social understanding. These results provide the first indications to suggest that factors of social and cognitive development dynamically influence the emergence and specificity of behavioral mimicry during early childhood.

  6. A Comprehensive Understanding of Machine and Material Behaviors During Inertia Friction Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Daniel J.

    Inertia Friction Welding (IFW), a critical process to many industries, currently relies on trial-and-error experimentation to optimize process parameters. Although this Edisonian approach is very effective, the high time and dollar costs incurred during process development are the driving force for better design approaches. Thermal-stress finite element modeling has been increasingly used to aid in process development in the literature; however, several fundamental questions on machine and material behaviors remain unanswered. The work presented here aims produce an analytical foundation to significantly reduce the costly physical experimentation currently required to design the inertia welding of production parts. Particularly, the work is centered around the following two major areas. First, machine behavior during IFW, which critically determines deformation and heating, had not been well understood to date. In order to properly characterize the IFW machine behavior, a novel method based on torque measurements was invented to measure machine efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the initial kinetic energy of the flywheel to that contributing to workpiece heating and deformation. The measured efficiency was validated by both simple energy balance calculations and more sophisticated finite element modeling. For the first time, the efficiency dependence on both process parameters (flywheel size, initial rotational velocity, axial load, and surface roughness) and materials (1018 steel, Low Solvus High Refractory LSHR and Waspaloy) was quantified using the torque based measurement method. The effect of process parameters on machine efficiency was analyzed to establish simple-to-use yet powerful equations for selection and optimization of IFW process parameters for making welds; however, design criteria such as geometry and material optimization were not addressed. Second, there had been a lack of understanding of the bond formation during IFW. In the present research, an

  7. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding implications of consumer behavior for wildlife farming and sustainable wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno, A; Blumenthal, J M; Austin, T J; Bothwell, J; Ebanks-Petrie, G; Godley, B J; Broderick, A C

    2018-04-01

    Unsustainable wildlife trade affects biodiversity and the livelihoods of communities dependent upon those resources. Wildlife farming has been proposed to promote sustainable trade, but characterizing markets and understanding consumer behavior remain neglected but essential steps in the design and evaluation of such operations. We used sea turtle trade in the Cayman Islands, where turtles have been farm raised for human consumption for almost 50 years, as a case study to explore consumer preferences toward wild-sourced (illegal) and farmed (legal) products and potential conservation implications. Combining methods innovatively (including indirect questioning and choice experiments), we conducted a nationwide trade assessment through in-person interviews from September to December 2014. Households were randomly selected using disproportionate stratified sampling, and responses were weighted based on district population size. We approached 597 individuals, of which 37 (6.2%) refused to participate. Although 30% of households had consumed turtle in the previous 12 months, the purchase and consumption of wild products was rare (e.g., 64-742 resident households consumed wild turtle meat [i.e., 0.3-3.5% of households] but represented a large threat to wild turtles in the area due to their reduced populations). Differences among groups of consumers were marked, as identified through choice experiments, and price and source of product played important roles in their decisions. Despite the long-term practice of farming turtles, 13.5% of consumers showed a strong preference for wild products, which demonstrates the limitations of wildlife farming as a single tool for sustainable wildlife trade. By using a combination of indirect questioning, choice experiments, and sales data to investigate demand for wildlife products, we obtained insights about consumer behavior that can be used to develop conservation-demand-focused initiatives. Lack of data from long-term social

  9. Inner-City African-American Women's Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-06-01

    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces.

  10. Understanding watershed hydrogeochemistry: 2. Synchronized hydrological and geochemical processes drive stream chemostatic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Bao, Chen; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Brantley, Susan; Shi, Yuning; Duffy, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Why do solute concentrations in streams remain largely constant while discharge varies by orders of magnitude? We used a new hydrological land surface and reactive transport code, RT-Flux-PIHM, to understand this long-standing puzzle. We focus on the nonreactive chloride (Cl) and reactive magnesium (Mg) in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). Simulation results show that stream discharge comes from surface runoff (Qs), soil lateral flow (QL), and deeper groundwater (QG), with QL contributing >70%. In the summer, when high evapotranspiration dries up and disconnects most of the watershed from the stream, Cl is trapped along planar hillslopes. Successive rainfalls connect the watershed and mobilize trapped Cl, which counteracts dilution effects brought about by high water storage (Vw) and maintains chemostasis. Similarly, the synchronous response of clay dissolution rates (Mg source) to hydrological conditions, maintained largely by a relatively constant ratio between "wetted" mineral surface area Aw and Vw, controls Mg chemostatic behavior. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cation exchange plays a secondary role in determining chemostasis compared to clay dissolution, although it does store an order-of-magnitude more Mg on exchange sites than soil water. Model simulations indicate that dilution (concentration decrease with increasing discharge) occurs only when mass influxes from soil lateral flow are negligible (e.g., via having low clay surface area) so that stream discharge is dominated by relatively constant mass fluxes from deep groundwater that are unresponsive to surface hydrological conditions.

  11. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  12. Trying not to get burned: understanding homeowners' wildfire risk-mitigation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Champ, Patricia A; Flores, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Three causes have been identified for the spiraling cost of wildfire suppression in the United States: climate change, fuel accumulation from past wildfire suppression, and development in fire-prone areas. Because little is likely to be performed to halt the effects of climate on wildfire risk, and because fuel-management budgets cannot keep pace with fuel accumulation let alone reverse it, changing the behaviors of existing and potential homeowners in fire-prone areas is the most promising approach to decreasing the cost of suppressing wildfires in the wildland-urban interface and increasing the odds of homes surviving wildfire events. Wildfire education efforts encourage homeowners to manage their property to decrease wildfire risk. Such programs may be more effective with a better understanding of the factors related to homeowners' decisions to undertake wildfire risk-reduction actions. In this study, we measured whether homeowners had implemented 12 wildfire risk-mitigation measures in 2 Colorado Front Range counties. We found that wildfire information received from local volunteer fire departments and county wildfire specialists, as well as talking with neighbors about wildfire, were positively associated with higher levels of mitigation. Firsthand experience in the form of preparing for or undertaking an evacuation was also associated with a higher level of mitigation. Finally, homeowners who perceived higher levels of wildfire risk on their property had undertaken higher levels of wildfire-risk mitigation on their property.

  13. Overview of rehabilitative efforts in understanding and managing sexually coercive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Barbara K

    2003-06-01

    In reviewing approaches to rehabilitative efforts in understanding and managing sexually coercive behaviors within the past two decades, one is struck by the development of two totally divergent paths. In 1971, there were a few civil commitment programs operated by mental health departments-most notably were the Sexual Psychopath Program at Western State Hospital in Fort Steilacoom, Washington, and the Massachusetts Treatment Center for Sexually Dangerous Persons. There were a few programs in prisons started by therapists who were interested in this population but given little recognition and even fewer resources. Additionally there were a handful of community-based programs including the J.J. Peters Institute in Philadelphia and PASO (Positive Approaches to Sex Offenders) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Today there are thousands of specialized sexual offender treatment programs treating sexual abusers of every age, gender, ethnicity, and with a wide range of comorbid conditions. They are treated in the community, prisons, mental hospitals, residential facilities, and private practices. There is an international organization, a specialized research journal, and a specialized branch of the Department of Justice, the Center for Sex Offender Management. This chapter will provide an overview of the developments in the field, primarily covering the last 25 years. It will look at the evolution of theoretical approaches, the development of specialized approaches for subpopulations, significant landmarks, and possible future trends.

  14. Disruptive behavior disorders: Multidimensional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López-Villalobos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tiene como objetivo el análisis de la contribución de variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, familiares y académicas en la probabilidad de presentar trastorno de comportamiento perturbador (TC. Se utiliza un diseño ex post facto, retrospectivo, transversal, comparativo con dos grupos (casos de TC y controles clínicos. La muestra es incidental y consta de 1.847 casos clínicos, con edades comprendidas entre los 6 y 16 años. Casos y controles se han definido mediante entrevista clínica según criterios DSM-IV-TR. El procedimiento incluye una fase descriptiva y un método estimativo multivariable de regresión logística para dar respuesta al objetivo principal. El modelo de regresión logística propuesto es significativo y clasifica el 87,2% de los casos. Las variables sexo varón (OR = 1,82; p = 0,00, comorbilidad (OR = 7,68; p = 0,00, CI límite (OR = 3,15; p = 0,00, menor nivel educativo madres (OR = 1,57; p = 0,04 y repetir curso (OR = 2; p = 0,00 incrementan significativamente la probabilidad para TC. Las variables edad, antecedentes psiquiátricos, padres separados y educación de padres no resultan significativas en el modelo. El TC presenta asociación multidimensional con variables clínicas, académicas y familiares, susceptibles de inclusión en programas preventivos.

  15. A qualitative study to understand positive and negative child feeding behaviors of immigrant Asian Indian mothers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Shabnam R; Chung, Kimberly R; Olson, Beth H

    2014-09-01

    To understand current practice of child feeding behaviors, and underlying factors influencing these practices in Asian Indian mothers, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 immigrant Asian Indian mothers of children ages 5-10 years. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding framework, child feeding behaviors employed, beliefs about the outcomes of feeding behaviors, perceived ease or difficultly in practicing feeding behaviors, and social norms were explored during the interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using coding and display matrices. Mothers were motivated by nutrition outcomes when practicing positive and negative controlling feeding behaviors. Outcomes related to preservation of Indian culture and values also influenced feeding behaviors. Pressuring to eat was often practiced despite the perception of ineffectiveness. Use of food rewards was found, and use of TV to control children's food intake despite the clear understanding of undesirable nutrition outcomes was a unique finding. Asian Indian mothers need effective child feeding strategies that are culturally appropriate. Integrating cultural beliefs in nutrition education could help support existing motivation and behavior modification.

  16. Using video technology to disseminate behavioral procedures: a review of Functional Analysis: a Guide for Understanding Challenging Behavior (DVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James E; Fox, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysis has generated many highly effective behavior-change procedures, the procedures have not always been effectively disseminated. One solution to this problem is the use of video technology, which has been facilitated by the ready availability of video production equipment and software and multiple distribution methods (e.g., DVD, online streaming). We review a recent DVD that was produced to disseminate the successful experimental functional analysis procedure. The review is followed by general recommendations for disseminating behavior-analytic procedures via video technology.

  17. Evaluation of the influence of parental anxiety on children's behavior and understanding children's dental anxiety after sequential dental visits

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnali Dilip Shinde; Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying anxiety levels of parents accompanying their children can help the clinician in designing the behavior management strategies for the child. In addition, continued dental experience can improve the child's response, indicating desensitization to dental stress. Aims: To evaluate the influence of parental anxiety on children's behavior and understanding children's dental anxiety after sequential dental visits. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 children of age 6–12 yea...

  18. Risk of hyperprolactinemia and sexual side effects in males 10-20 years old diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders or disruptive behavior disorder and treated with risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Yvette; Buitelaar, Jan K; Boot, Annemieke M; Tenback, Diederik; van Harten, Peter N

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term treatment effects of risperidone on prolactin levels and prolactin-related side effects in pubertal boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Physical healthy 10-20-year-old males with ASD (n=89) and/ or DBD (n=9) chronically treated (mean 52 months, range 16-126 months) with risperidone (group 1, n=51) or not treated with any antipsychotic (group 2, n=47) were recruited to this observational study from the child psychiatry outpatient clinic. Morning non-fasting serum prolactin levels were measured and prolactin-related side effects were assessed by means of questionnaires and physical examination. Group differences were tested with Student's t, χ(2), Fisher exact, and Mann-Whitney tests, and logistic regression analysis, according to the type and distribution of data. Hyperprolactinemia was present in 47% of subjects in group 1 but only in 2% of subjects in group 2 (odds ratio 71.9; 95% CI, 7.7; 676.3). Forty-six percent of subjects in group 1 had asymptomatic hyperprolactinemia. Current risperidone dose and 9-OH risperidone plasma level were significant predictors of hyperprolactinemia (p=0.035 and p=0.03, respectively). Gynecomastia and sexual dysfunction were present in 43% and 14% of the subjects in group 1, respectively, compared with 21% and 0% of subjects in group 2 (p=0.05 and p=0.01). Gynecomastia was not significantly associated with hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is a common side effect in young males treated over the long term with risperidone. Young males treated with risperidone are more likely to report diminished sexual functioning than are those not treated with antipsychotics.

  19. Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacotherapy with atypical antipsychotics is common in child psychiatry, there has been little research on this issue. To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders comorbid with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a university-affiliated child psychiatry clinic in southwest Iran. Forty 3-6-year-old children, diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with ADHD, were randomized to an 8-week trial of treatment with risperidone or aripiprazole (20 patients in each group. Assessment was performed by Conners′ rating scale-revised and clinical global impressions scale, before treatment, and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Mean scores between the two groups were compared by analysis of variance and independent and paired t-test. Mean scores of Conners rating scales were not different between two groups in any steps of evaluation. Both groups had significantly reduced scores in week 2 of treatment (P = 0.00, with no significant change in subsequent measurements. Rates of improvement, mean increase in weight (P = 0.894, and mean change in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.671 were not significantly different between two groups. Mean serum prolactin showed a significant increase in risperidone group (P = 0.00. Both risperidone and aripiprazole were equally effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and relatively safe, but high rates of side effects suggest the cautious use of these drugs in children.

  20. Risking it for Love: Romantic Relationships and Early Pubertal Development Confer Risk for later Disruptive Behavior Disorders in African-American Girls Receiving Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Nichols, Sara; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive behavior problems (DBP) represent a growing concern for young women (e.g., Snyder & Sickmund, 2006), but gender-specific investigations have been traditionally underrepresented in this area. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among gender-relevant risk factors for DBP among 217 African American girls in psychiatric care. African American girls, 12–16 years old (M=14.6; SD=1.2), and their primary female caregivers (N=254) were recruited from outpatient mental health clinics and reported on girls’ DBP, heterosexual dating experiences (romantic and sexual), peer relationships, pubertal development, and self-silencing at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. Structural Equation Modeling examined evidence for full versus mediated (via self-silencing) models and the structural relationships (direct and indirect) among key study variables. Results suggest that the full model was a significantly better fit than the mediated model as indicated by a Chi-squared difference test (p effects of greater romantic dating experiences and lower quality peer relationships at baseline predicted DBP at 12-months. Sexual dating experiences were more strongly linked with DBP at 12-months for early maturing compared to average or later maturing girls. Indirect effects analyses suggested that girls’ suppression of relational needs, assessed through a measure of self-silencing, explained the association between peer relationships and DBP. Findings highlight the importance of the relational context for girls’ DBP, with treatment implications supporting relationship-based models of care, early intervention, and skill building around negotiating needs with peers and partners. PMID:24748499

  1. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  2. Understanding caregivers' intentions for their child to walk to school: Further application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Lisa; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2016-01-01

    Increases in childhood obesity have coincided with declines in active transportation to school. This research builds on largely atheoretical extant literature examining factors that influence walk-to-school behavior through application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Understanding caregivers' decision for their child to walk to/from school is key to developing interventions to promote this cost-effective and accessible health behavior. The results from an online survey of 512 caregivers provide support for the TPB, highlighting the important role of subjective norms. This suggests marketers should nurture caregivers' perception that important others approve of walking to school.

  3. Thigmotaxis Mediates Trail Odour Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E; Sik Roh, Hyun; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Manning, Lee-Anne M; Harper, Aimee R; Suckling, David M

    2017-05-10

    Disruption of foraging using oversupply of ant trail pheromones is a novel pest management application under investigation. It presents an opportunity to investigate the interaction of sensory modalities by removal of one of the modes. Superficially similar to sex pheromone-based mating disruption in moths, ant trail pheromone disruption lacks an equivalent mechanistic understanding of how the ants respond to an oversupply of their trail pheromone. Since significant compromise of one sensory modality essential for trail following (chemotaxis) has been demonstrated, we hypothesised that other sensory modalities such as thigmotaxis could act to reduce the impact on olfactory disruption of foraging behaviour. To test this, we provided a physical stimulus of thread to aid trailing by Argentine ants otherwise under disruptive pheromone concentrations. Trail following success was higher using a physical cue. While trail integrity reduced under continuous over-supply of trail pheromone delivered directly on the thread, provision of a physical cue in the form of thread slightly improved trail following and mediated trail disruption from high concentrations upwind. Our results indicate that ants are able to use physical structures to reduce but not eliminate the effects of trail pheromone disruption.

  4. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  5. Genetic and environmental models of circadian disruption link SRC-2 function to hepatic pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circadian rhythmicity is a fundamental process that synchronizes behavioral cues with metabolic homeostasis. Disruption of daily cycles due to jet lag or shift work results in severe physiological consequences including advanced aging, metabolic syndrome, and even cancer. Our understanding of the mo...

  6. An association rule mining-based framework for understanding lifestyle risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors in Korean adults. METHODS: We utilized data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 14,833 adults (>20 years of age. We used association rule mining to analyze patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors by characterizing non-adherence to public health recommendations related to the Alameda 7 health behaviors. The study variables were current smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, inadequate sleep, breakfast skipping, and frequent snacking. RESULTS: Approximately 72% of Korean adults exhibited two or more lifestyle risk behaviors. Among women, current smoking, obesity, and breakfast skipping were associated with inadequate sleep. Among men, breakfast skipping with additional risk behaviors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep was associated with current smoking. Current smoking with additional risk behaviors such as inadequate sleep or breakfast skipping was associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle risk behaviors are intercorrelated in Korea. Information on patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors could assist in planning interventions targeted at multiple behaviors simultaneously.

  7. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  8. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  9. Understanding strength exercise intentions and behavior in hematologic cancer survivors: an analysis of the intention-behavior gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, James R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Walker, Gordon J; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-12-01

    Strength exercise improves many health outcomes in cancer survivors but the prevalence and correlates of strength exercise have not been well-described. Moreover, no study has examined the critical intention-behavior gap for exercise in cancer survivors. The aims of this study are to quantify the intention-behavior gap for strength exercise in hematologic cancer survivors (HCS) and examine correlates of both intention formation and translation using the multi-process action control framework (M-PAC). A random sample of 2100 HCS in Alberta, Canada, were mailed a survey assessing strength exercise behavior, the M-PAC, and demographic/medical variables. Separate logistic regressions were used to analyze the relationships between the correlates and intention formation and translation. Surveys were completed by 606 HCS with 58 % (n = 353) intending to do strength exercise. HCS who were not retired (OR = 1.56, p = 0.001), were highly educated (OR = 1.32, p = 0.001), and had a favorable attitude (OR = 1.56, p exercise intention. Of those with an exercise intention, 51 % (n = 181) reported regular strength exercise. HCS with a detailed plan (OR = 1.86, p strength exercise and only half of intenders translated that intention into behavior. Interventions targeting both intention formation and translation may provide the best approach for increasing strength exercise in HCS.

  10. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Sheng, Hong; Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen; Ye, Yinjiao

    2017-12-18

    With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals' intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China's three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  11. Applying Self-Efficacy Theory to Understanding the Behavioral Expectations of College Students with Disabilities in Requesting Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitker-Magin, Mikael C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply Bandura's self-efficacy theory to understanding the behavior of college students with disabilities in requesting accommodations. Students with disabilities were recruited from 20 two-year and four-year postsecondary institutions by asking student disabilities services staff to forward an email invitation to…

  12. Understanding the Personality and Behavioral Mechanisms Defining Hypersexuality in Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raymond, Nancy; Janssen, Erick; MacDonald, Angus; Coleman, Eli

    2016-09-01

    Hypersexuality has been conceptualized as sexual addiction, compulsivity, and impulsivity, among others, in the absence of strong empirical data in support of any specific conceptualization. To investigate personality factors and behavioral mechanisms that are relevant to hypersexuality in men who have sex with men. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size mid-western city. Participants were assigned to a hypersexuality group or a control group using an interview similar to the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Self-report inventories were administered that measured the broad personality constructs of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint and more narrow constructs related to sexual behavioral control, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, sexual excitation, sexual inhibition, impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sexual behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the relation between these personality and behavioral variables and group membership. A hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age showed a significant positive relation between hypersexuality and negative emotionality and a negative relation with constraint. None of the behavioral mechanism variables entered this equation. However, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis predicting sexual behavioral control indicated that lack of such control was positively related to sexual excitation and sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance failure and negatively related to sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance consequences and general behavioral inhibition Hypersexuality was found to be related to two broad personality factors that are characterized by emotional reactivity, risk taking, and impulsivity. The associated lack of sexual behavior control is influenced by sexual

  13. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  14. Chemical approaches to understanding the environmental behavior of Pu, Np, and Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: speciation behavior of Pu, Np, and Tc; thermodynamic and radiochemical behavior; sorption studies with soils; Pu oxidation states in fresh water; Np oxidation states in soils; effect of oxidation state of Tc on environmental transport predictions; and thermodynamic calculations of Tc speciation

  15. Parental Cognitions, Parental Behavior, and the Child's Understanding of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekovic, Maja; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Studied the relationship of parental reasoning complexity to parental behavior during parent-child interactions, and the effect of this relationship on children's social cognitions. Results indicate that parental reasoning complexity is related to parental behaviors of restrictive control, authoritative control, and support, which, in turn, are…

  16. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  17. Harsh Parenting, Deviant Peers, Adolescent Risky Behavior: Understanding the Meditational Effect of Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.

  18. Understanding the self-assembly process and behavior of metal-seamed pyrogallol[4]arene nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossine, Andrew V.

    time of measurement as well as the solvent system during synthesis were also performed. Furthermore, SANS was also used to study Fe3+-PgC complexes. These complexes are difficult if not impossible to crystallize, and therefore cannot be studied using scXRD. SANS was used in conjunction with elemental analysis to deduce a structure for these materials. In addition to understanding the synthesis of MONCs, another goal was to also use them for other (possibly practical) purposes. To this end, PgC-based MONCs were used as building blocks in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). This involved the use of divergent ligands to "link" capsular monomers together, resulting in one and two dimensional frameworks. This work not only produced functional materials that may be useful in future research efforts, but also showed that exo-ligand exchange can be used to derivatize MONCs into potentially useful and functional materials. The introduction of radioisotopes into the nanocapsule was another method by which functionality could theoretically be imparted into MONCs. It was envisioned that MONCs could potentially be used as carrier systems for radioisotopes, and thereby function as agents for therapy or medical imaging. Copper hexamers constructed from 64Cu2+ were therefore prepared and studied in a living system. However, these studies were unsuccessful at showing that the copper-seamed MONCs differed in behavior from 64Cu in vivo, either due to poor labeling efficiency or metabolism. Nevertheless, radiolabeling of hexameric nanocapsules was helpful in broadening our understanding of these materials. Some of the studies that were conducted include those that gauge the solubility and stability of nanocapsules, as well as others that explore the conditions required for cationic uptake and exchange.

  19. Medical Drama Viewing and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: Understanding the Role of Health Locus of Control Beliefs and Education Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Baek, Young Min

    2017-11-22

    The present study advances the understanding of how medical drama viewing influences healthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercising, and consuming vegetables) by examining the role of the health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs and education level. An analysis of nationally representative data reveals that watching medical dramas is positively associated with chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. In addition, healthy lifestyle behaviors are positively associated with the internal HLOC belief and are negatively associated with the chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. Research findings demonstrate that there are indirect effects of medical drama viewing on these behaviors via chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. The indirect effect through the powerful others' HLOC belief is also contingent on the education level. The implications for the role of HLOC beliefs and education level in terms of the effects of medical dramas on health-promoting behaviors are discussed.

  20. Understanding Irrigator Bidding Behavior in Australian Water Markets in Response to Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Zuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water markets have been used by Australian irrigators as a way to reduce risk and uncertainty in times of low water allocations and rainfall. However, little is known about how irrigators’ bidding trading behavior in water markets compares to other markets, nor is it known what role uncertainty and a lack of water in a variable and changing climate plays in influencing behavior. This paper studies irrigator behavior in Victorian water markets over a decade (a time period that included a severe drought. In particular, it studies the evidence for price clustering (when water bids/offers end mostly around particular numbers, a common phenomenon present in other established markets. We found that clustering in bid/offer prices in Victorian water allocation markets was influenced by uncertainty and strategic behavior. Water traders evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering and act according to their risk aversion levels. Water market buyer clustering behavior was mostly explained by increased market uncertainty (in particular, hotter and drier conditions, while seller-clustering behavior is mostly explained by strategic behavioral factors which evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering.

  1. Do behavioral scientists really understand HIV-related sexual risk behavior? A systematic review of longitudinal and experimental studies predicting sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Perry, Nicholas S

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior depend on strong health behavior theory. By identifying the psychosocial variables that lead causally to sexual risk, theories provide interventionists with a guide for how to change behavior. However, empirical research is critical to determining whether a particular theory adequately explains sexual risk behavior. A large body of cross-sectional evidence, which has been reviewed elsewhere, supports the notion that certain theory-based constructs (e.g., self-efficacy) are correlates of sexual behavior. However, given the limitations of inferring causality from correlational research, it is essential that we review the evidence from more methodologically rigorous studies (i.e., longitudinal and experimental designs). This systematic review identified 44 longitudinal studies in which investigators attempted to predict sexual risk from psychosocial variables over time. We also found 134 experimental studies (i.e., randomized controlled trials of HIV interventions), but of these only 9 (6.7 %) report the results of mediation analyses that might provide evidence for the validity of health behavior theories in predicting sexual behavior. Results show little convergent support across both types of studies for most traditional, theoretical predictors of sexual behavior. This suggests that the field must expand the body of empirical work that utilizes the most rigorous study designs to test our theoretical assumptions. The inconsistent results of existing research would indicate that current theoretical models of sexual risk behavior are inadequate, and may require expansion or adaptation.

  2. Racial Bias in Drivers' Yielding Behavior at Crosswalks : Understanding the Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project explores social identity factors (race and gender) that influence drivers' behavior in interactions with pedestrians at crosswalks. One dangerous potential point of conflict for pedestrians within the transportation system is interaction...

  3. Understanding adolescent peer sexual harassment and abuse: using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man Yu; Frieze, Irene; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2010-06-01

    This study examines intentions to take protective action against peer sexual harassment and abuse (PSHA). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposes that attitudes about protective action, perceptions of what others would think about doing this (subjective norms), and behavioral control would be important predictors. A total of 1,531 Chinese secondary school students (769 boys and 762 girls) from Hong Kong were surveyed to test this model. Results showed that the TPB model was predictive for girls, but only subjective norms and behavioral control significantly predicted boys' intentions to protect themselves. Results supported the influence of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on youths' intentions to reject PSHA. These factors may be useful in guiding the development of an educational program for prevention of PSHA.

  4. A Better Understanding of Parental Emotional Socialization Behaviors With an Illustrative Context

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide an illustrative framework for synthesizing derived from a growing body of crucial studies on parental emotional socialization behaviors and processes with regard to children’s emotional competence. This explanatory perspective has also been tried to be established with other relevant parental characteristics. Explaining the parental emotional socialization behaviors are firstly established upon the parental styles which is one of the basic conc...

  5. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sundling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+ travelers’ motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers’ critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT, five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers’ access to public transport, key findings were: (a service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  6. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-11-18

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers' motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers' critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 critical incidents were examined. By applying critical incident technique (CIT), five reaction themes were identified that had generated travel-behavior change: firm restrictions, unpredictability, unfair treatment, complicated trips, and earlier adverse experiences. To improve older travelers' access to public transport, key findings were: (a) service must be designed so as to strengthen the feeling of being in control throughout the journey; (b) extended personal service would increase predictability in the travel chain and decrease travel complexity; consequently, (c) when designing new services and making effective accessibility interventions, policy makers should consider and utilize underlying psychological factors that could direct traveler behavior.

  7. Disruptive Innovation in Healthcare & Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Disruption is a powerful body of theory that describes how people interact and react, how behavior is shaped, how organizational cultures form and influence decisions. Innovation is the process of translating an idea or invention into a product or service that creates value or for which customers...... will pay. Disruptive Innovation in context of the author’s body of work in healthcare and rehabilitation relates to how development of a cloud-based converged infrastructure resource, similar to that conceived in a national (Danish) study titled Humanics, can act as an accessible data and knowledge...

  8. Tracking Effects of Problematic Social Networking on Adolescent Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Sleep Disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.

  9. Advances in Understanding Energy Consumption Behavior and the Governance of Its Change – Outline of an Integrated Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Paul; Bezençon, Valéry; Bornemann, Basil; Brosch, Tobias; Carabias-Hütter, Vicente; Farsi, Mehdi; Hille, Stefanie Lena; Moser, Corinne; Ramseier, Céline; Samuel, Robin; Sander, David; Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika; Volland, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  10. Advances in Understanding Energy Consumption Behavior and the Governance of Its Change – Outline of an Integrated Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Paul, E-mail: paul.burger@unibas.ch [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Bezençon, Valéry [Enterprise Institute, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Bornemann, Basil [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Brosch, Tobias [Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Carabias-Hütter, Vicente [Institute of Sustainable Development, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Farsi, Mehdi [Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Hille, Stefanie Lena [Institute for Economy and the Environment, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Moser, Corinne [Institute of Sustainable Development, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Ramseier, Céline [Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Samuel, Robin [Institute of Sociology, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Social Research and Methodology Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Sander, David [Department of Psychology, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmidt, Stephan; Sohre, Annika [Sustainability Research Group, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Volland, Benjamin [Institute of Economic Research, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research.

  11. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  12. Animal models to improve our understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, T D; Georgiou, P; Brenner, L A; Brundin, L; Can, A; Courtet, P; Donaldson, Z R; Dwivedi, Y; Guillaume, S; Gottesman, I I; Kanekar, S; Lowry, C A; Renshaw, P F; Rujescu, D; Smith, E G; Turecki, G; Zanos, P; Zarate, C A; Zunszain, P A; Postolache, T T

    2017-04-11

    Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes. Animal models are similarly a critical resource to help delineate treatment targets and pharmacological means to improve our ability to manage the risk of suicide. In particular, certain pathophysiological pathways to suicidal behavior, including stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, neurotransmitter system abnormalities, endocrine and neuroimmune changes, aggression, impulsivity and decision-making deficits, as well as the role of critical interactions between genetic and epigenetic factors, development and environmental risk factors can be modeled in laboratory animals. We broadly describe human biological findings, as well as protective effects of medications such as lithium, clozapine, and ketamine associated with modifying risk of engaging in suicidal behavior that are readily translatable to animal models. Endophenotypes of suicidal behavior, studied in animal models, are further useful for moving observed associations with harmful environmental factors (for example, childhood adversity, mechanical trauma aeroallergens, pathogens, inflammation triggers) from association to causation, and developing preventative strategies. Further study in animals will contribute to a more informed, comprehensive, accelerated and ultimately impactful suicide research portfolio.

  13. Shared strategies for behavioral switching: understanding how locomotor patterns are turned on and off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A Mesce

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Animals frequently switch from one behavior to another, often to meet the demands of their changing environment or internal state. What factors control these behavioral switches and the selection of what to do or what not to do? To address these issues, we will focus on the locomotor behaviors of two distantly related ‘worms’, the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana (clade Lophotrochozoa and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (clade Ecdysozoa. Although the neural architecture and body morphology of these organisms are quite distinct, they appear to switch between different forms of locomotion by using similar strategies of decision-making. For example, information that distinguishes between liquid and more solid environments dictates whether an animal swims or crawls. In the leech, dopamine biases locomotor neural networks so that crawling is turned on and swimming is turned off. In C. elegans, dopamine may also promote crawling, a form of locomotion that has gained new attention.

  14. Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among College Students: Understanding Gender and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Torres, Hector; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Lloyd, Bronwyn; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of gender and ethnicity in the relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior. Method Sexually active college students (n = 425) reported on alcohol expectancies, perceived risk of HIV, and drinking and sexual behavior in the context of a larger health behavior survey. Results Approximately one-third of participants reported binge drinking 3 or more times in the past two weeks. African American women reported less drinking and less positive alcohol expectancies than other women. Older men engaged more often than younger men in binge drinking and reported more sexual partners in the past year. Younger age and greater perceived risk for HIV were positively associated with condom use for both women and men. Conclusion Collectively, these findings suggest that alcohol abuse and HIV prevention efforts among young adults need to consider gender, ethnicity, and age. PMID:19253158

  15. Understanding environment-influenced swarm behavior from a social force perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Lu, D.; Jiang, Y.; Lee, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, J.

    2018-02-01

    The relevant research on swarm behavior has focused on the facts that when individuals agree with other members in the system globally consistent behaviors are generated and that individual decisions are completely dominated by other members. In fact, when individuals generate their own behavior strategies, they tend to consider not only the influences of other members but also autonomically consider their current environment. For example, in the social foraging of flocks, the behavior strategy of each individual animal is influenced by the food distribution, and individual movement patterns are characterized by a highly efficient search strategy-Lévy walks. To investigate this, this paper proposes using an environment-driven social force perspective to explore the Lévy walks of individuals in a group in patchy food environments. This model adopts the concept of social force to quantify the social effects and the interactions between individuals and food. The coordination between forces is a key in the formation of individual behavior strategies. Our simulation results show a power-law frequency distribution for agent flight lengths that conforms to Lévy walks and verifies the hypothesis of a relationship between food density and the Lévy index. In our model, the flock still exhibits collective consistency and cohesion and yields a high value for the order parameter and population density when moving between food patches. In addition, our model explains the intraspecific cooperation and competition that occurs during foraging as proposed in related work. The simulation also validates the impact of two inducements for individual behaviors compared with several benchmark models.

  16. Disrupting the Industry with Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2016-01-01

    or two ago. This is significantly disrupting the industry in several market sectors. This paper describes the components of the playware and embodied artificial intelligence research that has led to disruption in the industrial robotics sector, and which points to the next disruption of the health care......Decades of research into intelligent, playful technology and user-friendly man-machine interfaces has provided important insight into the creation of robotic systems and intelligent interactive systems which are much more user-friendly, safer and cheaper than what appeared possible merely a decade...... sector. This includes playful robotics, LEGO robots for kids, minimal robot systems, user-friendly, behavior-based, biomimetic, modular robotics and intelligent systems. The insight into these components and the use in synthesis for designing robots and intelligent systems allows anybody, anywhere...

  17. Studying Abroad: Understanding the Relationships among Beliefs, Perceived Value, and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Weiling; King, Kristen; Carnes, Lana

    2015-01-01

    Increased globalization highlights the importance of encouraging university students to participate in an international experience. In this study, the authors investigate how behavioral belief, subjective belief, and control belief influence students' perceived value and intention to study abroad. The authors further examine the moderation effects…

  18. Evolutionary psychology: A fresh perspective for understanding and changing problematic behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Griskevicius, V.

    2013-01-01

    From rising obesity and soaring health care costs to escalating violence and environmental degradation, contemporary society faces many challenges. Are there policies that are naturally effective in changing the behaviors that produce these problems? In this article, the authors examine some of the

  19. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  20. Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

    2001-01-01

    The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

  1. Understanding Artful Behavior as a Human Proclivity: Clues from a Pre-Kindergarten Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt-Gross, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent to the present reduction of arts education in mainstream American schools, many evolutionary-minded scholars are asserting that artistic behavior contributes significantly to cognition, has been advantageous for our survival, and satisfies psychological needs that are biologically embedded. Supported by long-term and wide-spread art…

  2. Understanding Student Behavioral Engagement: Importance of Student Interaction with Peers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Dinh; Cannata, Marisa; Miller, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Recent theoretical conceptualizations of student engagement have raised questions about how to measure student engagement and how engagement varies not only across schools, but also within school and within classrooms. The authors build on existing research on student behavioral engagement and extend this research to emphasize a continuum of…

  3. Compliance pluralisme and processes : Understanding compliance behavior in restaurants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to offer a case study of dynamic compliance processes in selected Chinese restaurants with the main methods of participant observation and in-depth interviews. It applied an integrated and dynamic research approach, called descriptive analysis of compliance behavior, which

  4. Understanding Teamwork Behaviors in the Use of New Ways of Working

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leede, Jan; Nijland, Joyce; de Leede, Jan

    2017-01-01

    New Ways of Working practices like activity-based working and home-based work lead to different behaviors of employees. Due to these NWW practices, employees choose their own preferred times and places to work – albeit to a certain extent and within certain boundaries. This might have an impact on

  5. But I'm Married: Understanding Relationship Status and College Students' Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…

  6. Understanding the influence of social interactions on individual's behavior pattern in a work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Aztiria, Asier; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Aghajan, Hamid; Salah, Albert Ali; Lepri, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study social interactions in a work environment and investigate how the presence of other people changes personal behavior patterns. We design the visual processing algorithms to track multiple people in the environment and detect dyadic interactions using a discriminative

  7. Understanding the relationship between teacher behavior and motivation in students with acquired deafblindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Because little is known about teacher-student relationships that involve students with acquired deafblindness, the authors performed a multiple case study with a multiple-method design to investigate the relationship between need-supportive teaching behaviors and student engagement. Using

  8. Understanding the privacy behavior of adolescents on Facebook : The role of peers, popularity and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, B.; Corten, R.; van Tubergen, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    We study whether peer influence processes, popularity and trust predict privacy settings on Facebook. We use large-scale survey data from 3434 Dutch adolescents combined with observed privacy behavior on Facebook. The findings show that peer influence processes play a role and that adolescents

  9. Understanding problematic game behavior : prevalence and the role of social cognitive determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been growing academic attention on the phenomenon of problematic game use. Empirical research has consistently identified a subgroup of gamers in Western, industrial countries who report adverse psychosocial consequences related to their video-gaming behavior. The

  10. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  11. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  12. Fluoxetine normalizes disrupted light-induced entrainment, fragmented ultradian rhythms and altered hippocampal clock gene expression in an animal model of high trait anxiety- and depression-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufler, Jörg; Ronovsky, Marianne; Savalli, Giorgia; Cabatic, Maureen; Sartori, Simone B; Singewald, Nicolas; Pollak, Daniela D

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances of circadian rhythms are a key symptom of mood and anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - commonly used antidepressant drugs - also modulate aspects of circadian rhythmicity. However, their potential to restore circadian disturbances in depression remains to be investigated. The effects of the SSRI fluoxetine on genetically based, depression-related circadian disruptions at the behavioral and molecular level were examined using mice selectively bred for high anxiety-related and co-segregating depression-like behavior (HAB) and normal anxiety/depression behavior mice (NAB). The length of the circadian period was increased in fluoxetine-treated HAB as compared to NAB mice while the number of activity bouts and light-induced entrainment were comparable. No difference in hippocampal Cry2 expression, previously reported to be dysbalanced in untreated HAB mice, was observed, while Per2 and Per3 mRNA levels were higher in HAB mice under fluoxetine treatment. The present findings provide evidence that fluoxetine treatment normalizes disrupted circadian locomotor activity and clock gene expression in a genetic mouse model of high trait anxiety and depression. An interaction between the molecular mechanisms mediating the antidepressant response to fluoxetine and the endogenous regulation of circadian rhythms in genetically based mood and anxiety disorders is proposed.

  13. Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs: Toward Identification of a Behavioral Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs currently represent the leading cause of mental retardation in North America, ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. The damaging effects of alcohol on the developing brain have a cascading impact on the social and neurocognitive profiles of affected individuals. Researchers investigating the profiles of children with FASDs have found impairments in learning and memory, executive functioning, and language, as well as hyperactivity, impulsivity, poor communication skills, difficulties with social and moral reasoning, and psychopathology. The primary goal of this review paper is to examine current issues pertaining to the identification of a behavioral phenotype in FASDs, as well as to address related screening and diagnostic concerns. We conclude that future research initiatives comparing children with FASDs to nonalcohol-exposed children with similar cognitive and socioemotional profiles should aid in uncovering the unique behavioral phenotype for FASDs.

  14. Understanding the nanoscale local buckling behavior of vertically aligned MWCNT arrays with van der Waals interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Kim, Hyung-ick; Wei, Bingqing; Kang, Junmo; Choi, Jae-boong; Nam, Jae-Do; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2015-09-14

    The local buckling behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) has been investigated and interpreted in the view of a collective nanotube response by taking van der Waals interactions into account. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the case of collective VACNT behavior regarding van der Waals force among nanotubes as a lateral support effect during the buckling process. The local buckling propagation and development of VACNTs were experimentally observed and theoretically analyzed by employing finite element modeling with lateral support from van der Waals interactions among nanotubes. Both experimental and theoretical analyses show that VACNTs buckled in the bottom region with many short waves and almost identical wavelengths, indicating a high mode buckling. Furthermore, the propagation and development mechanism of buckling waves follow the wave damping effect.

  15. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  16. Living systems theory as a paradigm for organizational behavior: understanding humans, organizations, and social processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancouver, J B

    1996-07-01

    Living systems theories have been used to model human, organization, and communication processes. This paper attempts to describe these models and to highlight the isomorphisms among the models. Particular emphasis is given to self-regulating properties of humans as a subsystem of social systems. Attention is given to the advantages of generalizing across levels and phenomena and integrating the middle-range theories that dominate the field of organizational behavior. Three broad recommendations for future research are discussed.

  17. Social Psychology And Marketing: The Consumption Game. Understanding Marketing And Consumer Behavior Through Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina BUTNARU

    2009-01-01

    Consumer psychology provides enough evidence that consumer behavior is not just one side of our existence, but, as a matter of fact, it is a central dimension of our everyday lives, engaging us into changing and defining our identity, beliefs, attitudes and practices. In relation to this, commodification has reached us on all levels: everything that people created, produced and developed over the years, during the post-industrial era, can be commodified and sold to a specific market. Commodif...

  18. Sociocultural Behavior Sensemaking: State of the Art in Understanding the Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    unreliable. Other work (Caimo & Friel, 2012) has wedded ERGMs to a Bayesian framework to assess the quality of model fit. This helps to avoid...population for behavior that contradicted Muslim values. The movement assumed other functions of government as well, such as performing wedding ... ceremonies . The FLN strategy was to win the respect and support of the people and thereby secure hideouts for themselves. Ethnic violence between the French

  19. Towards an integrative understanding of social behavior: new models and new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Blumstein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions among conspecifics are a fundamental and adaptively significant component of the biology of numerous species. Such interactions give rise to group living as well as many of the complex forms of cooperation and conflict that occur within animal groups. Although previous conceptual models have focused on the ecological causes and fitness consequences of variation in social interactions, recent developments in endocrinology, neuroscience, and molecular genetics offer exciting opportunities to develop more integrated research programs that will facilitate new insights into the physiological causes and consequences of social variation. Here, we propose an integrative framework of social behavior that emphasizes relationships between ultimate-level function and proximate-level mechanism, thereby providing a foundation for exploring the full diversity of factors that underlie variation in social interactions, and ultimately sociality. In addition to identifying new model systems for the study of human psychopathologies, this framework provides a mechanistic basis for predicting how social behavior will change in response to environmental variation. We argue that the study of non-model organisms is essential for implementing this integrative model of social behavior because such species can be studied simultaneously in the lab and field, thereby allowing integration of rigorously controlled experimental manipulations with detailed observations of the ecological contexts in which interactions among conspecifics occur.

  20. Toward an Integrative Understanding of Social Behavior: New Models and New Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Ebensperger, Luis A.; Hayes, Loren D.; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Ahern, Todd H.; Burger, Joseph Robert; Dolezal, Adam G.; Dosmann, Andy; González-Mariscal, Gabriela; Harris, Breanna N.; Herrera, Emilio A.; Lacey, Eileen A.; Mateo, Jill; McGraw, Lisa A.; Olazábal, Daniel; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Sakhai, Samuel A.; Saltzman, Wendy; Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Stewart, Monica L.; Wey, Tina W.; Wingfield, John C.; Young, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Social interactions among conspecifics are a fundamental and adaptively significant component of the biology of numerous species. Such interactions give rise to group living as well as many of the complex forms of cooperation and conflict that occur within animal groups. Although previous conceptual models have focused on the ecological causes and fitness consequences of variation in social interactions, recent developments in endocrinology, neuroscience, and molecular genetics offer exciting opportunities to develop more integrated research programs that will facilitate new insights into the physiological causes and consequences of social variation. Here, we propose an integrative framework of social behavior that emphasizes relationships between ultimate-level function and proximate-level mechanism, thereby providing a foundation for exploring the full diversity of factors that underlie variation in social interactions, and ultimately sociality. In addition to identifying new model systems for the study of human psychopathologies, this framework provides a mechanistic basis for predicting how social behavior will change in response to environmental variation. We argue that the study of non-model organisms is essential for implementing this integrative model of social behavior because such species can be studied simultaneously in the lab and field, thereby allowing integration of rigorously controlled experimental manipulations with detailed observations of the ecological contexts in which interactions among conspecifics occur. PMID:20661457

  1. Using Social Network Analysis to Better Understand Compulsive Exercise Behavior Among a Sample of Sorority Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Megan S; Goodson, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    Compulsive exercise, a form of unhealthy exercise often associated with prioritizing exercise and feeling guilty when exercise is missed, is a common precursor to and symptom of eating disorders. College-aged women are at high risk of exercising compulsively compared with other groups. Social network analysis (SNA) is a theoretical perspective and methodology allowing researchers to observe the effects of relational dynamics on the behaviors of people. SNA was used to assess the relationship between compulsive exercise and body dissatisfaction, physical activity, and network variables. Descriptive statistics were conducted using SPSS, and quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analyses were conducted using UCINET. QAP regression analysis revealed a statistically significant model (R 2 = .375, P exercise behavior. Physical activity, body dissatisfaction, and network variables were statistically significant predictor variables in the QAP regression model. In our sample, women who are connected to "important" or "powerful" people in their network are likely to have higher compulsive exercise scores. This result provides healthcare practitioners key target points for intervention within similar groups of women. For scholars researching eating disorders and associated behaviors, this study supports looking into group dynamics and network structure in conjunction with body dissatisfaction and exercise frequency.

  2. The role of mobile phone technology in understanding and preventing suicidal behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, D. de; Kirtley, O.; Kerkhof, A.; Portzky, G.; O'Connor, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this editorial, we discuss how mobile phone technology has the potential to move the field forward in terms of understanding suicide risk as well as laying foundations for the development of effective treatments/interventions. We have focused on mobile health technology given the rapid growth of

  3. Understanding Manual-Based Behavior Therapy: Some Theoretical Foundations of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Laurie A.; Sorrell, John T.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a model of understanding and evaluating manualized treatments by beginning with a review of the theory and data-driven principles upon which one treatment, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is based. As a point of illustration, several principles of PCIT, such as reinforcement, punishment, and stimulus control, are highlighted, and…

  4. Do Students Understand Our Course Structure? Implications for Important Classroom Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicker, Joelle D.; Foust, Michelle Singer; Perry, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of a course's structure may influence how well students understand what is expected of them. Using the foundation of the industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology literature, the authors modified a measure of "Perceived System Knowledge" (Williams & Levy, 1992) for employee performance appraisal to be appropriate for…

  5. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo

    To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based ...

  6. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo

    To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based...

  7. Understanding travel information search behaviors by levels of information technology adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghye Angela Kah; Christine A. Vogt; Kelly MacKay

    2007-01-01

    Although the signifi cance of the Internet has been widely discussed in previous studies, the research of e-commerce has focused primarily on organizational and business perspectives (Sigala 2004). The growing number of Internet users allows a better understanding of online tourists who seek travel information and book or purchase travel products. The levels of...

  8. Disruption studies on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Egorov, S.; Finken, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Disruptions generate large thermal and mechanical stresses on the tokamak components and are occasionally responsible for damages to the machine. For a future reactor disruptions have a significant impact on the design since all loading conditions must be analyzed in accordance with stricter design criteria (due to safety or difficult maintenance). Therefore the uncertainties affecting the predicted stresses must be reduced as much as possible with a more comprehensive set of measurements and analyses in this generation of experimental machines, and avoidance/predictive methods must be developed further. Disruption studies on ASDEX Upgrade are focused on these subjects, namely on: (1) understanding the physical mechanisms leading to this phenomenon in order to learn to avoid it or to predict its occurrence and to mitigate its effects; (2) analyzing the effects of disruptions on the machine to determine the functional dependence of the thermal and mechanical loads upon the discharge parameters. This allows, firstly, to dimension or reinforce the machine components to withstand these loads and, secondly, to extrapolate them to tokamaks still in the design phase; (3) learning to mitigate the consequence of disruptions, i.e. thermal loads, mechanical forces and runaways with injection of impurity pellets or gas. This paper is focused on most recent results concerning points, i.e. on the analysis of the degree of asymmetry of the forces and on the use of impurity puff for mitigation

  9. Symbolic Interactionism: A Framework for Understanding Risk-Taking Behaviors in Farm Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Julie A; Tinc, Pamela J; Weil, Rebecca; Droullard, David

    2017-01-01

    Risk behaviors are key drivers of occupationally related injuries and illnesses, considerably impacting the uptake and success of injury interventions, technologies, and practices. This is certainly true in the agricultural sector, where farmers often ignore recommended safety practices or have even been known to disable safety technologies. Although research studies have characterized specific individual safety or risk behaviors, few studies have thoroughly examined farmers' risk and safety orientations or how these develop in response to environmental and societal exposures. This study utilizes data collected over the past decade with a variety of small to midsize farm personnel to explore the meanings that farmers ascribe to risk and safety and how these influence risk and safety behaviors. In all, over 90 interviews with farmers, farm-wives, and family members were reviewed. Researchers used a grounded theory approach to identify patterns of environmental and societal exposures, as well as their impact on farmers' risk and safety orientations. Analysis revealed exposures and orientations to risk and safety, which could be largely explained through the lens of symbolic interactionism. This framework posits that people create a sense-of-self as a way of adjusting and adapting to their environment. For farmers in this study, belief in their ability to persevere allows them to succeed, despite the considerable stressors and challenges they face each day. However, this identity can, at times, be maladaptive when it is applied to safety decisions and hazard exposures. The authors discuss the implications of this research and how it may be used to productively inform future farm safety efforts.

  10. Understanding the dynamics of sustainable social-ecological systems: human behavior, institutions, and regulatory feedback networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderies, John M

    2015-02-01

    I present a general mathematical modeling framework that can provide a foundation for the study of sustainability in social- ecological systems (SESs). Using basic principles from feedback control and a sequence of specific models from bioeconomics and economic growth, I outline several mathematical and empirical challenges associated with the study of sustainability of SESs. These challenges are categorized into three classes: (1) the social choice of performance measures, (2) uncertainty, and (3) collective action. Finally, I present some opportunities for combining stylized dynamical systems models with empirical data on human behavior and biophysical systems to address practical challenges for the design of effective governance regimes (policy feedbacks) for highly uncertain natural resource systems.

  11. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: understanding the evolution of human behavior and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla

    2010-02-01

    This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built.

  12. Towards a better understanding and behavior recognition of inhabitants in smart cities. A public transport case

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Radoslaw; Kotulski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    The idea of modern urban systems and smart cities requires monitoring and careful analysis of different signals. Such signals can originate from different sources and one of the most promising is the BTS, i.e. base transceiver station, an element of mobile carrier networks. This paper presents the fundamental problems of elicitation, classification and understanding of such signals so as to develop context-aware and pro-active systems in urban areas. These systems are characterized by the omn...

  13. Understanding the Mechanisms behind Changing People’s Recycling Behavior at Work by Applying a Comprehensive Action Determination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Prugsamatz Ofstad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study moves toward a better understanding of the mechanisms behind changing people’s recycling behavior at work by mapping out which pathways and variables change in recycling behavior as triggered by interventions. A questionnaire was designed based on the theory of planned behaviour, the norm-activation model, habits, and a comprehensive action determination model (CADM. The data was collected in two rounds: before the intervention and after a three-month pilot period with implemented interventions using a sample of n = 1269 students and employees. The CADM model appears to be a good fit with the data. The results from the structural equation modelling indicate the pathways to influencing behavioural change. The most important psychological variables accounting for waste separation behaviour are intentions, perceived behavioural control, personal norms, social norms and habits. No difference in waste separation behaviour was observed in the control building. Interventions targeting the increase in waste separation raised participants’ intentions to engage in such behaviour. Results indicate that waste separation at work must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success. Furthermore, understanding human behavior is key in determining the performance and success of an integrated and effective recycling intervention strategy.

  14. Understanding pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors: a mixed-methods study of homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Sussell, Jesse; Golinelli, Daniela; Zhou, Annie; Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2012-12-01

    Pregnancy rates are substantially higher among homeless youth than in the general population of youth, yet little is known about homeless adolescents' and young adults' pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors. Pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors were examined among two samples of sexually active homeless 13-24-year-olds in Los Angeles County. Data from 37 semistructured interviews conducted in March-April 2011 were analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Data from a structured survey with 277 respondents, conducted between October 2008 and August 2009, were analyzed primarily using regression modeling. More than half of interview respondents held ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy, and ambivalent youth reported less contraceptive use than others. The interviews identified several potential influences on pregnancy attitudes: barriers associated with homelessness, readiness to settle down, desire to achieve goals, belief that a child would create something positive in life, and family and partners. In the survey, having positive attitudes toward pregnancy was positively associated with duration of homelessness (odds ratio, 1.6), contact with relatives (1.1) and relationship commitment (1.8); it was negatively associated with frequency of drinking (0.9). Relationship commitment was positively associated with nonuse of an effective contraceptive method at last sex (1.5). Effective and accessible pregnancy prevention and family planning programs for homeless youth are needed. Youths' ambivalence toward pregnancy and feelings of relationship commitment warrant attention as possible areas for programs to address. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  15. The Gist of Delay of Gratification: Understanding and Predicting Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Wilhelms, Evan A

    2017-04-01

    Delay of gratification captures elements of temptation and self-denial that characterize real-life problems with money and other problem behaviors such as unhealthy risk taking. According to fuzzy-trace theory, decision makers mentally represent social values such as delay of gratification in a coarse but meaningful form of memory called "gist." Applying this theory, we developed a gist measure of delay of gratification that does not involve quantitative trade-offs (as delay discounting does) and hypothesize that this construct explains unique variance beyond sensation seeking and inhibition in accounting for problem behaviors. Across four studies, we examine this Delay-of-gratification Gist Scale by using principal components analyses and evaluating convergent and divergent validity with other potentially related scales such as Future Orientation, Propensity to Plan, Time Perspectives Inventory, Spendthrift-Tightwad, Sensation Seeking, Cognitive Reflection, Barratt Impulsiveness, and the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (delay discounting). The new 12-item measure captured a single dimension of delay of gratification, correlated as predicted with other scales, but accounted for unique variance in predicting such outcomes as overdrawing bank accounts, substance abuse, and overall subjective well-being. Results support a theoretical distinction between reward-related approach motivation, including sensation seeking, and inhibitory faculties, including cognitive reflection. However, individuals' agreement with the qualitative gist of delay of gratification, as expressed in many cultural traditions, could not be reduced to such dualist distinctions nor to quantitative conceptions of delay discounting, shedding light on mechanisms of self-control and risk taking.

  16. Understanding the impact of the central atom on the ionic liquid behavior: Phosphonium vs ammonium cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Pedro J.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Batista, Marta L. S.; Schröder, Bernd; Coutinho, João A. P., E-mail: jcoutinho@ua.pt [CICECO, Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia e CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esperança, José [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Mutelet, Fabrice [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés, CNRS (UPR3349), Nancy-Université, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451 54001 Nancy (France)

    2014-02-14

    The influence of the cation's central atom in the behavior of pairs of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids was investigated through the measurement of densities, viscosities, melting temperatures, activity coefficients at infinite dilution, refractive indices, and toxicity against Vibrio fischeri. All the properties investigated are affected by the cation's central atom nature, with ammonium-based ionic liquids presenting higher densities, viscosities, melting temperatures, and enthalpies. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution show the ammonium-based ionic liquids to present slightly higher infinite dilution activity coefficients for non-polar solvents, becoming slightly lower for polar solvents, suggesting that the ammonium-based ionic liquids present somewhat higher polarities. In good agreement these compounds present lower toxicities than the phosphonium congeners. To explain this behavior quantum chemical gas phase DFT calculations were performed on isolated ion pairs at the BP-TZVP level of theory. Electronic density results were used to derive electrostatic potentials of the identified minimum conformers. Electrostatic potential-derived CHelpG and Natural Population Analysis charges show the P atom of the tetraalkylphosphonium-based ionic liquids cation to be more positively charged than the N atom in the tetraalkylammonium-based analogous IL cation, and a noticeable charge delocalization occurring in the tetraalkylammonium cation, when compared with the respective phosphonium congener. It is argued that this charge delocalization is responsible for the enhanced polarity observed on the ammonium based ionic liquids explaining the changes in the thermophysical properties observed.

  17. Understanding smallholders’ intended deforestation behavior in the Brazilian Cerrado following environmental registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Jung, Suhyun; Dantas Brites, Alice; Watkins, Cristy; Agrawal, Arun

    2016-09-01

    Brazil’s Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) is a potentially promising avenue to slow deforestation on private properties as it facilitates the monitoring of land use. Yet limited empirical evidence exists on how the CAR affects smallholders’ behavior and recent scholarly efforts have in fact indicated that it may be doing less to protect forests than previously assumed. Based on 1177 smallholder surveys conducted in the Cerrado, we assess 1) whether the CAR might incentivize smallholders to pursue deforestation and 2) which factors are associated with smallholders’ intended deforestation behavior. We find that upon CAR registration, factors significantly associated with smallholders’ intention to deforest are: the existing percentage of native vegetation on the property, the use of agricultural loans, property owner’s age, and livestock production experience. To curb deforestation that may follow expressed intentions of smallholders, the CAR, and environmental registration programs alike, should account for existing land use by, for example, improving the system already in place for trading areas of native vegetation as this system is not widely adopted by those smallholders with more native vegetation than the legal cut-off. Also, such programs should assess the role of whether conditions related to land cover maintenance may protect against deforestation if credit access is supported especially to younger smallholders and/or livestock producers with a high percentage of native vegetation in their properties.

  18. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women's Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.

  19. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS) in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  20. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2013-01-01

    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB. PMID:24273368

  1. Understanding Psychosocial and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Detained Juveniles: A Descriptive Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Madison L; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Cartier, Jeanne; Best, Candace; Walker, Veronica; Schwartz, David; Yoo, Wonsuk

    2015-12-30

    African American women are disproportionately impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, which are known risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. STIs, particularly chlamydia and gonorrhea, are even more prevalent among young African American women with a juvenile detention history. The population with experiences with the criminal justice system has greater rates of STIs and is diagnosed more often with mental health issues, often related to sexual abuse or intimate partner violence, compared to peers who have not been detained by law enforcement. Psychosocial factors, especially those related to intimate relationships (ie, the imperativeness of being in a relationship and the power one has in their relationship), have emerged as important explanatory factors for acquiring STIs, including HIV, and a component of risk reduction interventions. To investigate more comprehensively the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and STIs, including HIV, as it relates to reduction and prevention of these diseases. The long-term goal is to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions with a major focus on intimate relationship dynamics. This descriptive study surveys young women (ages 13-17) who have been detained (incarcerated) by a department of juvenile justice. In addition to being female and detained, eligibility criteria include being detained longer than 30 days and being free of cognitive impairments. This study will include young women from one juvenile detention center. The primary outcomes to be measured are STI knowledge, intimate relationship dynamics (ie, imperativeness and power), and high-risk sexual behaviors. High-risk sexual behaviors will be assessed using data extracted from health records. Preliminarily, we have received assent from 26 primarily young African American women. The majority of participants (81%) had inadequate knowledge about STIs, 52% perceived a lack of

  2. Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of arterial elastin in glucose via relaxation time distribution spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunjie; Li, Haiyue; Zhang, Yanhang

    2018-01-01

    Elastin is a critical extracellular matrix protein that provides many biological tissues with resilience. In elastic arteries such as aorta, elasticity is crucial for energy storage and transmission of the pulsatile blood flow. As one of the main mechanisms of aging, non-enzymatic glycation can greatly compromise the mechanical properties of the long-lived elastin. In this study, effect of glucose on the viscoelastic behavior of purified porcine aortic elastin was investigated through stress relaxation tests and the corresponding relaxation time distribution spectra. Elastin was incubated in 2M glucose solution at 37°C for 4, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Biaxial stress relaxation tests were performed to study the viscoelastic property of elastin. Elastin samples with glucose treatment show increased stress relaxation with incubation time. Continuous relaxation time distribution spectra were obtained from the stress relaxation data using Tikhonov regularization method. Generally the spectra of both untreated and treated elastin have a broad range of relaxation time constants and multiple peaks located between 0.1-10,000s. The intensity of the short-term peak (0.1-10s) increases after glucose exposure whereas the intensity of the long-term peak (> 100s) decreases. The dominant peaks, i.e., the long-term peak of untreated tissue and the short-term peak of glucose treated tissue, suggest different relaxation mechanisms. The initial stress level dependency of stress relaxation was studied and the results suggested that the intensity of all the peaks increases with higher initial stresses. A multi-exponential model was developed to describe the stress relaxation behavior with material parameters obtained directly from the continuous relaxation spectrum. To fully characterize the relaxation processes, a multi-exponential model with four exponential terms, located between 0.001-1s, 1-10s, 10-100s, and 100-10,000s and obtained directly from the corresponding relaxation spectrum

  3. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X

  5. Physical Chemistry of Nanomedicine: Understanding the Complex Behaviors of Nanoparticles in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Lucas A.; Qian, Ximei; Smith, Andrew M.; Nie, Shuming

    2015-04-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field of research at the interface of science, engineering, and medicine, with broad clinical applications ranging from molecular imaging to medical diagnostics, targeted therapy, and image-guided surgery. Despite major advances during the past 20 years, there are still major fundamental and technical barriers that need to be understood and overcome. In particular, the complex behaviors of nanoparticles under physiological conditions are poorly understood, and detailed kinetic and thermodynamic principles are still not available to guide the rational design and development of nanoparticle agents. Here we discuss the interactions of nanoparticles with proteins, cells, tissues, and organs from a quantitative physical chemistry point of view. We also discuss insights and strategies on how to minimize nonspecific protein binding, how to design multistage and activatable nanostructures for improved drug delivery, and how to use the enhanced permeability and retention effect to deliver imaging agents for image-guided cancer surgery.

  6. Understanding catalyst behavior during in situ heating through simultaneous secondary and transmitted electron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Jane Y.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Bigelow, Wilbur C.; Demers, Hendrix; Overbury, Steven H.

    2014-11-01

    By coupling techniques of simultaneous secondary (SE) and transmitted electron (TE) imaging at high resolution in a modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), with the ability to heat specimens using a highly stable MEMS-based heating platform, we obtained synergistic information to clarify the behavior of catalysts during in situ thermal treatments. Au/iron oxide catalyst 'leached' to remove surface Au was heated to temperatures as high as 700°C. The Fe2O3 support particle structure tended to reduce to Fe3O4 and formed surface terraces; the formation, coalescence, and mobility of 1- to 2-nm particles on the terraces were characterized in SE, STEM-ADF, and TEM-BF modes. If combined with simultaneous nanoprobe spectroscopy, this approach will open the door to a new way of studying the kinetics of nano-scaled phenomena.

  7. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  8. Understanding the intentional acoustic behavior of humpback whales: a production-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Laitman, Jeffrey T; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2013-09-01

    Following a production-based approach, this paper deals with the acoustic behavior of humpback whales. This approach investigates various physical factors, which are either internal (e.g., physiological mechanisms) or external (e.g., environmental constraints) to the respiratory tractus of the whale, for their implications in sound production. This paper aims to describe a functional scenario of this tractus for the generation of vocal sounds. To do so, a division of this tractus into three different configurations is proposed, based on the air recirculation process which determines air sources and laryngeal valves. Then, assuming a vocal function (in sound generation or modification) for several specific anatomical components, an acoustic characterization of each of these configurations is proposed to link different spectral features, namely, fundamental frequencies and formant structures, to specific vocal production mechanisms. A discussion around the question of whether the whale is able to fully exploit the acoustic potential of its respiratory tractus is eventually provided.

  9. A Multi-Method Approach to Understanding Behavior Change. The Case of Texting and Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. HOOD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Distracted driving, specifically texting and driving, has become a nationwide public health problem in the U.S. with negative, and potentially fatal consequences. In an effort to combat the growing problem, non-profit organizations, corporations, and the federal government have all stepped in to try to increase public awareness and persuade drivers to cease texting while driving. These efforts have not had the desired impact as texting and driving has continued to increase in recent years. This research investigates the potential that the messages used to curb texting and driving behavior might not be properly constructed. Specifically, we test the potential for message sponsor and self-relevance of the message to influence message outcomes. Our results suggest that messages sponsored by a combination of company and government that are self-relevant to viewers will have different outcomes than other messages. We identify practical and theoretical implications as well as future research directions.

  10. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-03

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents' risk behaviors.

  11. Understanding parental behavior in pediatric palliative care: Attachment theory as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Joan A; Byrne, Mary W

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this conceptual paper was to present important constructs in attachment theory as they apply to parent and caregiver behavior in pediatric palliative care. Clarification of these constructs is provided with specific reference to their clinical application as well as their reflection in current empirical literature. Social attachment theory is proposed as a developmentally contextual model for the study of parenting in pediatric palliative and end-of-life care. A comprehensive search was conducted of pertinent literatures. These included classic as well as recent theory and research in attachment theory in addition to the empirical literatures on parent and family experience in pediatric palliative care, serious illness, and beyond to parental bereavement. Other relevant literature was examined with respect to the phenomena of concern. The empirical literature in pediatric palliative care supports the use of central concepts in attachment theory as foundational for further inquiry. This is evidenced in the emphasis on the importance of parental protection of the child, as well as executive activities such as decision making and other prominent parental operations, parental psychological resolution of the child's diagnosis and illness as well as coping and meaning making, and the core significance of parental relationships with providers who provide secure-base and safe-haven functions. The promise for developing integrated, conceptually based interventions from construction through implementation is of urgent importance to children and families receiving pediatric palliative care services. Focusing on key parental behaviors and processes within the context of a well-studied and contextually appropriate model will inform this task efficiently. The attachment paradigm meets these criteria and has promise in allowing us to move forward in developing well-defined, inclusive, and conceptually grounded protocols for child and family psychosocial research

  12. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  13. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  14. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016

  15. Utilizing E. coli Autotactic Responses to Understand Quorum Dependent Behaviors in P. aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Shinji; Bienvenu, Samuel; Thatcher, Travis; Gordon, Vernita

    2010-10-01

    Biofilms are multicellular, surface-bound communities of interacting unicellular organisms. In the initial stages of biofilm formation, cells populate the surface and eventually form microcolonies (dense surface-bound clusters of cells). How much these microcolonies arise from clonal growth and how much they arise from attraction and binding of non-clonal cells is not well-understood. A potentially important form of attraction is autotaxis, movement of cells toward like cells. Using microscopy and automated tracking and analysis algorithms, we will study how bacteria respond to each other in a spatially-dependent manner. We will determinine how variations in neighbor density and arrangement stimulate changes in cell motility. E. coli will be our initial model system, and later we will probe early biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa. We will also study chemotaxis (motility toward an attractive chemical), to understand how this drives, complements, or competes with autotaxis in different settings.

  16. Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-06-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.

  17. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or

  18. Using the internet to understand angler behavior in the information age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dustin R.; Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeBoer, Jason A.; Wilde, Gene R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Declining participation in recreational angling is of great concern to fishery managers because fishing license sales are an important revenue source for protection of aquatic resources. This decline is frequently attributed, in part, to increased societal reliance on electronics. Internet use by anglers is increasing and fishery managers may use the Internet as a unique means to increase angler participation. We examined Internet search behavior using Google Insights for Search, a free online tool that summarizes Google searches from 2004 to 2011 to determine (1) trends in Internet search volume for general fishing related terms and (2) the relative usefulness of terms related to angler recruitment programs across the United States. Though search volume declined for general fishing terms (e.g., fishing, fishing guide), search volume increased for social media and recruitment terms (e.g., fishing forum, family fishing) over the 7-year period. We encourage coordinators of recruitment programs to capitalize on anglers’ Internet usage by considering Internet search patterns when creating web-based information. Careful selection of terms used in web-based information to match those currently searched by potential anglers may help to direct traffic to state agency websites that support recruitment efforts.

  19. Discovering and understanding android sensor usage behaviors with data flow analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xing

    2017-03-20

    Today’s Android-powered smartphones have various embedded sensors that measure the acceleration, orientation, light and other environmental conditions. Many functions in the third-party applications (apps) need to use these sensors. However, embedded sensors may lead to security issues, as the third-party apps can read data from these sensors without claiming any permissions. It has been proven that embedded sensors can be exploited by well designed malicious apps, resulting in leaking users’ privacy. In this work, we are motivated to provide an overview of sensor usage patterns in current apps by investigating what, why and how embedded sensors are used in the apps collected from both a Chinese app. market called “AppChina” and the official market called “Google Play”. To fulfill this goal, We develop a tool called “SDFDroid” to identify the used sensors’ types and to generate the sensor data propagation graphs in each app. We then cluster the apps to find out their sensor usage patterns based on their sensor data propagation graphs. We apply our method on 22,010 apps collected from AppChina and 7,601 apps from Google Play. Extensive experiments are conducted and the experimental results show that most apps implement their sensor related functions by using the third-party libraries. We further study the sensor usage behaviors in the third-party libraries. Our results show that the accelerometer is the most frequently used sensor. Though many third-party libraries use no more than four types of sensors, there are still some third-party libraries registering all the types of sensors recklessly. These results call for more attentions on better regulating the sensor usage in Android apps.

  20. Understanding the Role of Context-Specific Drinking in Neglectful Parenting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, yet little is known about how drinking context may be related to particular subtypes of child neglect. This study examines the relationship between parental drinking in multiple contexts and the use of supervisory and physical neglectful. A sample of 2152 parents of children 12 years or younger in 50 cities in California was obtained using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Past-year prevalence of child neglect was measured using the Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale. Information was collected on past month or past-year frequency of having at least one drink in five contexts, continued drinking measures (e.g. number of drinks after the first drink) and sociodemographics. Data were analyzed using multilevel random effects logit models. Frequency of drinking in various contexts was related to different neglect subtypes. Specifically, frequency of drinking with friends was positively related leaving a child home alone when an adult should be present. Parents who drank more frequently with family were less likely to leave their child home alone in the past year yet more likely to unsafely monitor their child in the past year. Drinking at parties more often was related to being more likely to leave a child alone in a car sometime during the past year. That no single drinking context is universally problematic for supervisory and physical neglect suggests that different social mechanisms may underlie the relationships observed between different drinking contexts and neglect subtypes. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.