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Sample records for understanding concurrent relations

  1. A Concurrent Logical Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker

    2012-01-01

    We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-effect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....

  2. Antisocial Behavior and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…

  3. The Relational Concurrence of Global Warming and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to examine the concurrent relationship between global warming and economic development focusing on the danger it inheres in developing countries. To achieve this, the paper commenced with the conceptualization of global warming and economic development, the natural and human causes ...

  4. Personality and Career Success: Concurrent and Longitudinal Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Costa, Paul T.; Miech, Richard; Eaton, William W.

    2009-01-01

    The present research addresses the dynamic transaction between extrinsic (occupational prestige, income) and intrinsic (job satisfaction) career success and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Participants (N = 731) completed a comprehensive measure of personality and reported their job title, annual income, and job satisfaction; a subset of these participants (n = 302) provided the same information approximately 10 years later. Measured concurrently, emotionally stable and conscientious pa...

  5. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertus F Jeronimus

    Full Text Available The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age effects on Dutch adolescents' school progress and performance (as rated by teachers, physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration, and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls. Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001, our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention.

  6. Understanding mother-adolescent conflict discussions: concurrent and across-time prediction from youths' dispositions and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Spinrad, Tracy L; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Valiente, Carlos; Losoya, Sandra H; Zhou, Qing; Cumberland, Amanda; Liew, Jeffrey; Reiser, Mark; Maxon, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is often thought of as a period during which the quality of parent-child interactions can be relatively stressed and conflictual. There are individual differences in this regard, however, with only a modest percent of youths experiencing extremely conflictual relationships with their parents. Nonetheless, there is relatively little empirical research on factors in childhood or adolescence that predict individual differences in the quality of parent-adolescent interactions when dealing with potentially conflictual issues. Understanding such individual differences is critical because the quality of both parenting and the parent-adolescent relationship is predictive of a range of developmental outcomes for adolescents. The goals of the research were to examine dispositional and parenting predictors of the quality of parents' and their adolescent children's emotional displays (anger, positive emotion) and verbalizations (negative or positive) when dealing with conflictual issues, and if prediction over time supported continuity versus discontinuity in the factors related to such conflict. We hypothesized that adolescents' and parents' conflict behaviors would be predicted by both childhood and concurrent parenting and child dispositions (and related problem behaviors) and that we would find evidence of both parent- and child-driven pathways. Mothers and adolescents (N5126, M age513 years) participated in a discussion of conflictual issues. A multimethod, multireporter (mother, teacher, and sometimes adolescent reports) longitudinal approach (over 4 years) was used to assess adolescents' dispositional characteristics (control/ regulation, resiliency, and negative emotionality), youths' externalizing problems, and parenting variables (warmth, positive expressivity, discussion of emotion, positive and negative family expressivity). Higher quality conflict reactions (i.e., less negative and/or more positive) were related to both concurrent and antecedent

  7. To understand relativity. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This book comprises three parts: the first one is about the restricted relativity theory with ten chapters which are from Galilee to Newton, tools of classical physics, relativity principle, a dreadful child: light, Michelson experience, the restricted relativity and Einstein postulates (1905), Lorentz transformation, relativistic kinematics, Minkowski time-space, and the relativistic dynamics; the second part concerns the general relativity and the gravitation, from chapter 11 to chapter 19, which are towards the general relativity, absolute acceleration has no sense, the equivalence principle, the principle of generalised relativity, the gravitation and the problems that it formulates, non euclidean theory of the gravitation field, the theory of 1915, Gauss coordinates, classical tests of general relativity; in the last and third part are studied the cosmologies with three chapters, the chapter 20 is dedicated to cosmological principle precursors, the chapter 21 is about the modern cosmological models and the last one finishes on that question: universe is it or not finished. (N.C.). 26 refs., 48 figs., 9 appends

  8. Two cases of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome after concurrent oral cancer chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Katsuyuki; Asano, Takanori; Kinoshita, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and therapy-related leukemia (TRL) are reported increasingly often, and we report two cases of T-MDS after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with oral cancer. Patients underwent CCRT with cisplatin (CDDP) or carboplatin (CBDCA). The interval between primary CCRT and t-MDS was 11 months in 1 case and 14 years in the other. Chromosomal analysis indicated abnormal karyotypes. Platinum has a relatively lower t-MDS risk than alkylating agents or topoisomerase II inhibitors, but our experience supports concurrent use of radiotherapy with platinum affects the risk of t-MDS. If pancytopenia is detected after CCRT, bone marrow and cytogenetic examinations should be conducted to rule out t-MDS. (author)

  9. Peer Relations and the Understanding of Faux Pas: Longitudinal Evidence for Bidirectional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Watling, Dawn; Caputi, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    Research connecting children's understanding of mental states to their peer relations at school remains scarce. Previous work by the authors demonstrated that children's understanding of mental states in the context of a faux pas--a social blunder involving unintentional insult--is associated with concurrent peer rejection. The present report…

  10. Assessment of preschoolers’ positive empathy: concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and sympathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sallquist, Julie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a new measure of children’s dispositional positive empathy (i.e., reactions to others’ positive emotions) and its concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and empathy/sympathy with negative emotions. At Time 1, 192 3.5-year-olds (88 girls) participated; at Time 2, 1 year later, 168 4.5-year-olds (79 girls) participated. Children’s positive empathy was reported by mothers and observed in the laboratory at Time 2. A...

  11. Hydropower plans in eastern and southern Africa increase risk of concurrent climate-related electricity supply disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan; Dalin, Carole; Landman, Willem A.; Osborn, Timothy J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydropower comprises a significant and rapidly expanding proportion of electricity production in eastern and southern Africa. In both regions, hydropower is exposed to high levels of climate variability and regional climate linkages are strong, yet an understanding of spatial interdependences is lacking. Here we consider river basin configuration and define regions of coherent rainfall variability using cluster analysis to illustrate exposure to the risk of hydropower supply disruption of current (2015) and planned (2030) hydropower sites. Assuming completion of the dams planned, hydropower will become increasingly concentrated in the Nile (from 62% to 82% of total regional capacity) and Zambezi (from 73% to 85%) basins. By 2030, 70% and 59% of total hydropower capacity will be located in one cluster of rainfall variability in eastern and southern Africa, respectively, increasing the risk of concurrent climate-related electricity supply disruption in each region. Linking of nascent regional electricity sharing mechanisms could mitigate intraregional risk, although these mechanisms face considerable political and infrastructural challenges.

  12. International Relations: Understanding the Behavior of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, David R.; And Others

    In today's world, no nation acts in isolation; the interdependence of nations makes international relations complex and ever-changing. This book is designed to help students understand why nations compete, why they cooperate, and why they sometimes go to war. Chapter 1 examines the behavior of nations and how national interest dictates the…

  13. Concurrent relations among cigarette smoking status, resting heart rate variability, and erectile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Christopher B

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of sympathovagal balance; it has been implicated in erectile function and is also altered by tobacco use. Furthermore, smoking and erectile health are strongly related, given that smokers are at increased risk for erectile dysfunction. Few studies have explored the interrelationships between smoking, HRV, and erectile function concurrently. The aim of this study was to examine potential mechanisms underlying tobacco's effects on penile hemodynamics by exploring the mediating role of HRV. The sample comprised 119 men (smokers = 64; nonsmokers = 55) (mean age 28.90 years; standard deviation (SD) 11.68; range 18-58) selected from the control conditions of three previously published experiments. Participants were free from a history of cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarct, and/or cardiac/cardiovascular medication use. During a laboratory visit, self-report, anthropometric, cardiovascular, and electrocardiographic data were assessed, as well as sexual arousal responses elicited from viewing an erotic film. Objective sexual arousal indices (circumferential change via penile plethysmography), self-reported erectile function (per the erectile function domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-EF]), and time- (SD of beat-to-beat intervals) and frequency-domain parameters of HRV (ratio of low-frequency [LF] power to high-frequency [HF] power [LF/HF ratio]) were assessed. Being a current long-term cigarette smoker was associated with dysregulated sympathovagal balance (higher LF/HF ratios, indicative of sympathetic nervous system dominance), which in turn showed inverse relations with magnitude of erectile tumescence. HRV did not mediate relations between tobacco use and either IIEF-EF scores or resting penile circumference. Findings suggest that dysfunctional cardiac autonomic tone may be an underlying mechanism by which tobacco exerts its deleterious effects on erectile health. Further research

  14. Concurrent validity of the PAM accelerometer relative to the MTI Actigraph using oxygen consumption as a reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootmaker, S.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Koppes, L.L.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the Personal Activity Monitor (PAM) accelerometer relative to the Actigraph accelerometer using oxygen consumption as a reference, and to assess the test-retest reliability of the PAM. Thirty-two fit, normal weight adults (aged

  15. Compelled attention: the effects of viewing trauma-related stimuli on concurrent task performance in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Roitblat, H L; Hamada, R S; Muraoka, M Y; Carlson, J G; Bauer, G B

    1999-04-01

    We examined the ability of Vietnam veterans with PTSD to focus attention on a primary digit detection task while concurrently viewing neutral or Vietnam-related picture and word distractors. Controlling for combat exposure, military service, and psychopathology, veterans with PTSD took longer to detect the target when Vietnam-related pictures were distractors. There were no reaction time differences when word stimuli were distractors. The latency effect was specific to trials with trauma-related pictures and did not spread to neutral trials interleaved within a mixed block of trauma and neutral pictures. Individuals with PTSD recalled proportionally more Vietnam-related words than other groups, implying differential attention to Vietnam-related words. Attending to trauma-related pictures interferes with performance of a concurrent task by individuals with PTSD.

  16. Forward progress on GPU concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donaldson, A.F.; Ketema, J.; Sorensen, T.; Wickerson, J.

    2017-01-01

    The tutorial at CONCUR will provide a practical overview of work undertaken over the last six years in the Multicore Programming Group at Imperial College London, and with collaborators internationally, related to understanding and reasoning about concurrency in software designed for acceleration on

  17. Concurrent AURKA and MYCN Gene Amplifications Are Harbingers of Lethal TreatmentRelated Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mosquera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC, also referred to as anaplastic prostate cancer, is a lethal tumor that most commonly arises in late stages of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA with predilection to metastasize to visceral organs. In the current study, we explore for evidence that Aurora kinase A (AURKA and N-myc (MYCN gene abnormalities are harbingers of treatment-related NEPC (t-NEPC. We studied primary prostate tissue from 15 hormone naïve PCAs, 51 castration-resistant prostate cancers, and 15 metastatic tumors from 72 patients at different stages of disease progression to t-NEPC, some with multiple specimens. Histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed and correlated with clinical variables. AURKA amplification was identified in overall 65% of PCAs (hormone naïve and treated from patients that developed t-NEPC and in 86% of metastases. Concurrent amplification of MYCN was present in 70% of primary PCAs, 69% of treated PCAs, and 83% of metastases. In contrast, in an unselected PCA cohort, AURKA and MYCN amplifications were identified in only 5% of 169 cases. When metastatic t-NEPC was compared to primary PCA from the same patients, there was 100% concordance of ERG rearrangement, 100% concordance of AURKA amplification, and 60% concordance of MYCN amplification. In tumors with mixed features, there was also 100% concordance of ERG rearrangement and 94% concordance of AURKA and MYCN co-amplification between areas of NEPC and adenocarcinoma. AURKA and MYCN amplifications may be prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as they are harbingers of tumors at risk of progressing to t-NEPC after hormonal therapy.

  18. Risk characterization of hospitalizations for mental illness and/or behavioral disorders with concurrent heat-related illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Schmeltz

    Full Text Available Many studies have found significant associations between high ambient temperatures and increases in heat-related morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in heat-related hospitalizations are elevated among individuals with diagnosed mental illnesses and/or behavioral disorders (MBD. However, there are a limited number of studies regarding risk factors associated with specific mental illnesses that contribute, at least in part, to heat-related illnesses (HRI in the United States.To identify and characterize individual and environmental risk factors associated with MBD hospitalizations with a concurrent HRI diagnosis.This study uses hospitalization data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2001-2010. Descriptive analyses of primary and secondary diagnoses of MBDs with an HRI were examined. Risk ratios (RR were calculated from multivariable models to identify risk factors for hospitalizations among patients with mental illnesses and/or behavioral disorders and HRI.Nondependent alcohol/drug abuse, dementia, and schizophrenia were among the disorders that were associated with increased frequency of HRI hospitalizations among MBD patients. Increased risk of MBD hospitalizations with HRI was observed for Males (RR, 3.06, African Americans (RR, 1.16, Native Americans (RR, 1.70, uninsured (RR, 1.92, and those 40 years and older, compared to MBD hospitalizations alone.Previous studies outside the U.S. have found that dementia and schizophrenia are significant risk factors for HRI hospitalizations. Our results suggest that hospitalizations among substance abusers may also be an important risk factor associated with heat morbidity. Improved understanding of these relative risks could help inform future public health strategies.

  19. Couples' Concurrent Cognitions: The Influence of Relational Satisfaction on the Thoughts Couples Have as They Converse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelisti, Anita L.; Corbin, Susan D.; Lucchetti, Anne E.; Sprague, Rhonda J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the thoughts romantic partners (one or both of whom were enrolled in introductory communication courses) have during the course of interaction. Indicates that those dissatisfied with their relationship expressed significantly more negative thoughts. Suggests that there are distinctions between the concurrent cognitions of satisfied and…

  20. Developing strong concurrent multiphysics multiscale coupling to understand the impact of microstructural mechanisms on the structural scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulk, James W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alleman, Coleman N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mota, Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bergel, Guy Leshem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Popova, Evdokia [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering; Montes de Oca Zapiain, David [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering; Kalidindi, Suryanarayana Raju [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering; Ernst, Corey [Elemental Technologies, Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The heterogeneity in mechanical fields introduced by microstructure plays a critical role in the localization of deformation. To resolve this incipient stage of failure, it is therefore necessary to incorporate microstructure with sufficient resolution. On the other hand, computational limitations make it infeasible to represent the microstructure in the entire domain at the component scale. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of concurrent multi- scale modeling to incorporate explicit, finely resolved microstructure in a critical region while resolving the smoother mechanical fields outside this region with a coarser discretization to limit computational cost. The microstructural physics is modeled with a high-fidelity model that incorporates anisotropic crystal elasticity and rate-dependent crystal plasticity to simulate the behavior of a stainless steel alloy. The component-scale material behavior is treated with a lower fidelity model incorporating isotropic linear elasticity and rate-independent J 2 plas- ticity. The microstructural and component scale subdomains are modeled concurrently, with coupling via the Schwarz alternating method, which solves boundary-value problems in each subdomain separately and transfers solution information between subdomains via Dirichlet boundary conditions. Beyond cases studies in concurrent multiscale, we explore progress in crystal plastic- ity through modular designs, solution methodologies, model verification, and extensions to Sierra/SM and manycore applications. Advances in conformal microstructures having both hexahedral and tetrahedral workflows in Sculpt and Cubit are highlighted. A structure-property case study in two-phase metallic composites applies the Materials Knowledge System to local metrics for void evolution. Discussion includes lessons learned, future work, and a summary of funded efforts and proposed work. Finally, an appendix illustrates the need for two-way coupling through a single degree of

  1. Narrative Therapy's Relational Understanding of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2016-06-01

    We describe how we think of identity as relational, distributed, performed, and fluid, and we illustrate the use of this conceptualization within a narrative worldview. Drawing on the work of Michael White, we describe how this relational view of identity leads to therapeutic responses that give value to interconnection across multiple contexts and that focus on becoming rather than on being. We show how a narrative worldview helps focus on the relational, co-evolving perspective that was the basis of our early attraction to family therapy. We offer detailed examples from our work of practices that help us stay firmly situated in a relational worldview that is counter to the pervasive influence of individualism in our contemporary culture. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  2. A case presenting concurrence of Marfan syndrome, Basedow's disease and Arg353Gln polymorphism-related factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kotoko; Seino, Yoshihiko; Inokuchi, Koiti; Ohmura, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Takano, Teruo

    2005-02-15

    We report the case of a 48-year-old Japanese man who suffered from Marfan syndrome with severe aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation and rapid atrial fibrillation, which were aggravated by hyperdynamic circulatory conditions associated with coexistent Basedow's disease. Furthermore, concurrence of Arg353Gln polymorphism-related factor VII deficiency was discovered at the preoperative assessments. Both of his two brothers suffered from Marfan syndrome; however they had no findings of Arg353Glu polymorphism-related factor VII deficiency or Basedow's disease. After normalization of thyroid function, he had successfully the operations of Bentall procedure: a composite prosthetic graft: replacement of both the ascending aorta and aortic valve, and mitral valve annuloplasty. No specific therapy such as fresh frozen plasma or factor VII replacement therapy was required. He completely returned to his business work 6 weeks after the operation. Concurrence of Marfan syndrome and factor VII deficiency induced by two-hit genomic abnormalities and furthermore Basedow's disease, which significantly compromised the pathophysiological condition of Marfan syndrome, is extremely rare.

  3. It's about time understanding Einstein's relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mermin, N David

    2005-01-01

    In It's About Time, N. David Mermin asserts that relativity ought to be an important part of everyone's education--after all, it is largely about time, a subject with which all are familiar. The book reveals that some of our most intuitive notions about time are shockingly wrong, and that the real nature of time discovered by Einstein can be rigorously explained without advanced mathematics. This readable exposition of the nature of time as addressed in Einstein's theory of relativity is accessible to anyone who remembers a little high school algebra and elementary plane geometry. The book evolved as Mermin taught the subject to diverse groups of undergraduates at Cornell University, none of them science majors, over three and a half decades. Mermin's approach is imaginative, yet accurate and complete. Clear, lively, and informal, the book will appeal to intellectually curious readers of all kinds, including even professional physicists, who will be intrigued by its highly original approach.

  4. Automata and concurrency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priese, L

    1983-07-01

    The author presents a precise notion of a realization (or simulation) of one concurrent system by another, and studies the relations of modular concurrent systems and non-persistent (i.e. With conflicts) concurrent systems in an automata theoretical style. He introduces a conception of realization that obeys three requirements: it allows for proper hierarchies in certain classes of concurrent systems; it allows for normal-form theorems, and the standard constructions of the literature remain realizations in formal concept; and it clarifies some counterintuitive examples. Further, although this realization conception is developed to translate the computational aspects of concurrent systems, it also gives a formal tool for the handling of synchronization problems. 38 references.

  5. Evolutionary understanding of the concept "Public relations"

    OpenAIRE

    Кам’янецька, О.В.

    2013-01-01

    The considered approaches to determination of notion of «public relations» different research and practical workers. The analyzed stages of development of communications with public and described their signs. Розглянуті підходи до визначення поняття «паблік рілейшнз» різних науковців та практиків. Проаналізовані етапи розвитку підходів до зв’язків з громадськістю та охарактеризовані їх ознаки....

  6. Effects of concurrent respiratory resistance training on health-related quality of life in wheelchair rugby athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchke, Lyn G; Lloyd, Lisa K; Schmidt, Eric A; Russian, Christopher J; Reardon, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effects of 9 weeks of training with a concurrent flow resistance (CFR) device versus a concurrent pressure threshold resistance (CPTR) device on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in wheelchair rugby (WR) athletes. Twenty-four male WR athletes (22 with tetraplegia, 1 with a spastic cerebral palsy, and 1 with congenital upper and lower limb deformities) were matched by lesion level, completeness of injury, and rugby classification prior to being randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) CPTR (n=8), (2) CFR (n=8), or (3) controls (CON, n=8). Pre/post testing included assessment of HRQoL as measured by the Short-Form Health Survey Version 2.0 (SF-36v2). Manufacturer protocol guidelines for the CFR and CPTR groups were followed for breathing exercises. Sixteen participants completed the study (CPTR=4, CFR=5, CON=7). The Mann-Whitney U rank order revealed significantly greater reductions in bodily pain (P = .038) and improvements in vitality (P = .028) for CFR versus CON. Results from this study suggest that training with a CFR device improves some aspects of HRQoL (eg, vitality and bodily pain) in WR athletes. Further research with a larger sample size is needed to examine the impact of these devices on improving HRQoL for wheelchair athletes.

  7. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inappropriate, the district director may adjust the remuneration records of the related corporations to reflect appropriate remuneration. The district director may use the principles of § 1.482-2(b) in making the... remuneration to A are determined by the district director to be appropriate. Under these facts, the tax is...

  9. Health related quality of life in locally advanced NSCLC treated with high dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy or cetuximab – Pooled results from two prospective clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallqvist, Andreas; Bergman, Bengt; Nyman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage III, data on patient reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) are scarce, especially regarding concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Aims: To evaluate HRQL in patients treated with high dose radiotherapy combined with concurrent chemotherapy or the antibody cetuximab. Methods: The study population comprised all patients enroled in either of two phase II trials in locally advanced NSCLC performed in Sweden 2002–2007. The RAKET trial investigated three different ways of increasing local control (accelerated hyperfractionated treatment or concurrent daily or weekly chemotherapy). The Satellite trial evaluated the addition of cetuximab to thoracic irradiation. HRQL was measured at four time points: At baseline, before radiotherapy, 4–6 weeks after radiotherapy and at 3 months follow-up, using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC14 set of questionnaires. Results: 154/220 patients (65%) who completed HRQL assessments at all time points were included in the longitudinal study. There was a significant decline over time regarding most functioning measures. Dyspnoea and fatigue gradually deteriorated without recovery after completed treatment. Chemotherapy related symptoms showed a transient deterioration, whereas radiotherapy related esophagitis had not fully recovered at 3 months. Patients with stage IIIA disease tended to recover better regarding global QL, fatigue and dyspnoea compared to patients with stage IIIB. Patients with WHO performance status (PS) 0 reported improved global QL and less fatigue over time compared with PS 1. Concurrent chemotherapy was associated with more pronounced fatigue and dysphagia, and worse global QL compared with concurrent cetuximab. Baseline physical functioning was an independent predictor of overall survival. Conclusion: Patients undergoing high dose thoracic radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy or cetuximab reported a gradual deterioration in functioning, dyspnoea and fatigue, while

  10. Concurrent overexpression of serum p53 mutation related with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo-Peñuelas Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Aims In the province of Cadiz (Spain, the adjusted mortality rate for gastric cancer in the coastal town of Barbate is 10/100.000 inhabitants, whereas in the inland town of Ubrique, the rate is twice as high. The rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection (H. pylori antibodies in the normal population was 54% in Ubrique, but only 32% in Barbate. In the two decades since its original discovery, p53 has found a singularly prominent place in our understanding of human gastric cancer and H. pylori cause accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the mucosa compartment. This study was designed to compare serum levels of p53 in a population characterized by high mortality due to stomach cancer and a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and another population in which mortality from this cause and the prevalence of H. pylori infection are low. Materials and methods 319 subjects from the low mortality population and 308 from the high mortality population were studied, as were 71 patients with stomach cancer. We measured serum immunoglobulin G antibody to H. pylori and serum mutant p53 protein and ceruloplasmin. Results The difference between the two populations in the prevalence of H. pylori infection was significant (p Conclusions There is a significant association between infection with H. pylori, elevated titers of H. pylori antibodies, and positivity for serum mutant p53 protein. Such information can significantly increase our basic knowledge in molecular pathology of gastric cancer and protection against H. pylori infection.

  11. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean D'Souza

    Full Text Available Typically developing (TD infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS, fragile X syndrome (FXS, and Williams syndrome (WS, and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen and a sound (/ga/. One face (the congruent face mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/, while the other face (the incongruent face mouthed a different syllable (/ba/ from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour.

  12. The concurrence of musculoskeletal pain and associated work-related factors: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pereira Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several recent studies have described the presence of musculoskeletal complaints, presenting evidence that multisite musculoskeletal pain (MP is more often present than single-site musculoskeletal pain. However, less is known about determinants of this multimorbidity, particularly, concerning the role of occupational factors and, mainly, what determines single or multisite pain. This study described the associations between pain in different body sites and investigated related factors to MP in workers from Brazil. Methods A total of 1070 workers (228 women and 842 men, from urban cleaning services and from shoe manufacturers, participated in this cross sectional study (response 97 %. Interviewer-administered questionnaire included sociodemographic factors, physical and psychosocial work demands, leisure-time activities and musculoskeletal pain which was presence of pain in previous seven days, considering eight body sites and MP, the sum score of all painful sites, varying 0–8. A factor analysis was performed that captured the nine variables of physical exposure into two latent factors. Associations of pain between different body sites were assessed. Cox regression analyses, presenting the prevalence ratio (PR, showed the related factors to MP. Results In the previous seven days, 30 % of workers had MP. For all body sites, comorbidity ranged from 72 % to 91 %. Having pain in one body site is associated with pain in other site and the associations between proximal sites were stronger than between more distal sites. High exposure to manual material handling and awkward postures (PR = 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1–2.0, job strain (PR = 1.2, 95 % CI 1.0–1.6, and low social support (PR = 1.3, 95 % CI 1.0–1.7 and being woman (PR = 1.7, 95 % CI 1.3–2.3 were associated with MP. Risk factors for single–site pain and for subsequent musculoskeletal comorbidity were very similar, suggesting an additive effect of

  13. Concurrent Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Budimlić, Zoran; Burke, Michael; Cavé, Vincent; Knobe, Kathleen; Lowney, Geoff; Newton, Ryan; Palsberg, Jens; Peixotto, David; Sarkar, Vivek; Schlimbach, Frank; Taşırlar, Sağnak

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC is implicitly parallel, with the user providing high-level operations along with semantic ordering constraints that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model guarantees deterministic computation. We evaluate the performance of CnC implementations on several applications an...

  14. The family drawings of at-risk children: concurrent relations with contact with incarcerated parents, caregiver behavior, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined children's attachment representations as assessed with their family drawings in relation to contact with an incarcerated or estranged parent, caregiver behavior, and family stress in a high-risk sample of children (N = 44, M (age) = 8.14), 55% of whom had incarcerated parents. Greater phone, mail, and physical contact with an incarcerated parent was associated with more role reversal in children's family drawings. Additional results show that child-reports of more hostile caregiver behavior were associated with greater overall insecurity in their family drawings; child and caregiver reports of stress were associated with increased global pathology and bizarreness/dissociation in children's family drawings. Given the lack of research on concurrent familial-based correlates of ratings made of children's family drawings, these results provide additional insights into children's representations of attachment relationships in early middle childhood. Further, the results regarding contact with incarcerated parents have implications for researchers and clinicians working with families impacted by parental incarceration.

  15. Concurrent validity of the PAM accelerometer relative to the MTI Actigraph using oxygen consumption as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootmaker, S M; Chin A Paw, M J M; Schuit, A J; van Mechelen, W; Koppes, L L J

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the Personal Activity Monitor (PAM) accelerometer relative to the Actigraph accelerometer using oxygen consumption as a reference, and to assess the test-retest reliability of the PAM. Thirty-two fit, normal weight adults (aged 21-54) performed two activities, treadmill walking and stair walking, while wearing the PAM, the Actigraph and the Cosmed K4b(2). Correlation coefficients and agreement in absolute energy expenditure (EE) levels between PAM, Actigraph and Cosmed were calculated. The test-retest reliability was examined among 296 PAM's using a laboratory shaker. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. Correlations for treadmill walking and stair walking, respectively, were r(2)=0.95 and r(2)=0.65 for PAM with Actigraph, r(2)=0.82 and r(2)=0.93 for PAM with VO(2) and r(2)=0.64 and 0.74 for Actigraph with VO(2). Both the PAM and Actigraph underestimated EE during treadmill and stair walking by a substantial amount. The test-retest reliability of the PAM was high [ICC=0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.28;0.92) and intra-CV=1.5%]. The PAM and Actigraph accelerometer are comparable in assessing bodily movement during treadmill and stair walking. The PAM is a valid device to rank subjects in EE and can be useful in collecting objective data to monitor habitual physical activity.

  16. Is happiness good for your personality? Concurrent and prospective relations of the big five with subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    The present research examined longitudinal relations of the Big Five personality traits with three core aspects of subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Latent growth models and autoregressive models were used to analyze data from a large, nationally representative sample of 16,367 Australian residents. Concurrent and change correlations indicated that higher levels of subjective well-being were associated with higher levels of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and with lower levels of Neuroticism. Moreover, personality traits prospectively predicted change in well-being, and well-being levels prospectively predicted personality change. Specifically, prospective trait effects indicated that individuals who were initially extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, and emotionally stable subsequently increased in well-being. Prospective well-being effects indicated that individuals with high initial levels of well-being subsequently became more agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and introverted. These findings challenge the common assumption that associations of personality traits with subjective well-being are entirely, or almost entirely, due to trait influences on well-being. They support the alternative hypothesis that personality traits and well-being aspects reciprocally influence each other over time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reactive and Proactive Subtypes of Relational and Physical Aggression in Middle Childhood: Links to Concurrent and Longitudinal Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Peer aggression in children is a serious issue that school psychologists often encounter on a daily basis. To develop a better understanding of aggression, it is important to look at specific subtypes of aggression and how they are related to adjustment difficulties. Past research has examined the links between reactive and proactive physical…

  18. University students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi; Watabe, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of university students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power before and after Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant accident, and analyzed the difference between before and after the accident. The results show that university students' understanding level improved after the accident, especially in the case of reported words by mass media. Understanding level of some nuclear power security words which were not reported so much by mass media also improved. That may be caused by rising of people's concern about nuclear power generation after the accident, and there is a possibility that the accident motivated people to access such words via internet, journals, etc. (author)

  19. Algebraic topology and concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Raussen, Martin; Goubault, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We show in this article that some concepts from homotopy theory, in algebraic topology,are relevant for studying concurrent programs. We exhibit a natural semantics of semaphore programs, based on partially ordered topological spaces, which are studied up to “elastic deformation” or homotopy...... differences between ordinary and directed homotopy through examples. We also relate the topological view to a combinatorial view of concurrent programs closer to transition systems, through the notion of a cubical set. Finally we apply some of these concepts to the proof of the safeness of a two...

  20. Idiom understanding in adulthood: examining age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Idioms are figurative expressions such as hold your horses, kick the bucket, and lend me a hand, which commonly occur in everyday spoken and written language. Hence, the understanding of these expressions is essential for daily communication. In this study, we examined idiom understanding in healthy adults in their 20s, 40s, 60s and 80s (n=30 per group) to determine if performance would show an age-related decline. Participants judged their own familiarity with a set of 20 idioms, explained the meaning of each, described a situation in which the idiom could be used, and selected the appropriate interpretation from a set of choices. There was no evidence of an age-related decline on any tasks. Rather, the 60s group reported greater familiarity and offered better explanations than did the 20s group. Moreover, greater familiarity with idioms was associated with better understanding in adults.

  1. Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

    2012-01-01

    A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

  2. Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Daniel; Borgstrom, Erica

    2016-06-01

    Health-related behaviours are a concern for contemporary health policy and practice given their association with a range of illness outcomes. Many of the policies and interventions aimed at changing health-related behaviours assume that people are more or less free to choose their behaviour and how they experience health. Within sociology and anthropology, these behaviours are viewed not as acts of choice but as actions and practices situated within a larger sociocultural context. In this paper, we outline three theoretical perspectives useful in understanding behaviours that may influence one's health in this wider context: theories of social practice, social networks and interactionism. We argue that by better understanding how health-related behaviours are performed in people's everyday lives, more suitable interventions and clinical management can be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Teaching Physics for Conceptual Understanding Exemplified for Einstein's Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undreiu, Lucian M.

    2006-12-01

    In most liberal arts colleges the prerequisites for College Physics, Introductory or Calculus based, are strictly related to Mathematics. As a state of fact, the majorities of the students perceive Physics as a conglomerate of mathematical equations, a collection of facts to be memorized and they regard Physics as one of the most difficult subjects. A change of this attitude towards Physics, and Science in general, is intrinsically connected with the promotion of conceptual understanding and stimulation of critical thinking. In such an environment, the educators are facilitators, rather than the source of knowledge. One good way of doing this is to challenge the students to think about what they see around them and to connect physics with the real world. Motivation occurs when students realize that what was learned is interesting and relevant. Visual teaching aids such as educational videos or computer simulations, as well as computer-assisted experiments, can greatly enhance the effectiveness of a science lecture or laboratory. Difficult topics can be discussed through animated analogies. Special Relativity is recognized as a challenging topic and is probably one of the most misunderstood theories of Physics. While understanding Special Relativity requires a detachment from ordinary perception and every day life notions, animated analogies can prove to be very successful in making difficult topics accessible.

  4. Clinical factors related to recurrence after hepatic arterial concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced but liver-confined hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyejung; Yoon, Hong In; Lee, Ik Jae; Koom, Woong Sub; Seong, Jinsil; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2013-01-01

    Before the sorafenib era, advanced but liver-confined hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was treated by liver-directed therapy. Hepatic arterial concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has been performed in our group, giving substantial local control but frequent failure. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of failure and find out predictive clinical factors in HCC treated with a liver-directed therapy, CCRT. A retrospective analysis was done for 138 HCC patients treated with CCRT between May 2001 and November 2009. Protocol-based CCRT was performed with local radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC), followed by monthly HAIC (5-FU and cisplatin). Patterns of failure were categorized into three groups: infield, intrahepatic-outfield and extrahepatic failure. Treatment failure occurred in 34.0% of patients at 3 months after RT. Infield, intrahepatic-outfield and extrahepatic failure were observed in 12 (8.6%), 26 (18.7%) and 27 (19.6%) patients, respectively. Median progression-free survival for infield, outfield and extrahepatic failure was 22.4, 18 and 21.5 months, respectively. For infield failure, a history of pre-CCRT treatment was a significant factor (P=0.020). Pre-CCRT levels of alpha-fetoprotein and prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II were significant factors for extrahepatic failure (P=0.029). Treatment failures after CCRT were frequent in HCC patients, and were more commonly intrahepatic-outfield and extrahepatic failures than infield failure. A history of pre-CCRT treatment and levels of pre-CCRT tumor markers were identified as risk factors that could predict treatment failure. More intensified treatment is required for patients presenting risk factors. (author)

  5. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.

  6. Morse Theory and Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    The work is intended to provide some insight about concurrency theory using ideas from geometry and algebraic topology. We define a topological space containing all traces of execution of the computer program and the information about how time flows. This is the main difference with standard...... topological reasoning in which there is no information about relation "in time" among points. The main task is to define equivalence of paths reflecting execution of a program. We use the notion of homotopy history equivalence relation. The model space considered in this work is a differentiable manifold...

  7. Borderline Personality Disorder Features Are Associated with Concurrent Pain-Related Disability in a Chronic Pain Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Caleb J; Tragesser, Sarah L

    2018-04-03

    To determine whether core features of borderline personality disorder are associated with increased rates of being on disability benefits due to chronic pain conditions. A total of 147 patients currently in treatment for chronic pain at a multimodal chronic pain clinic. We tested for a concurrent relationship between borderline personality disorder features and employment status using self-report measures. Borderline personality disorder features were associated with increased likelihood of currently being on disability due to pain conditions (odds ratio [OR] = 23.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-318.73), on disability due to other conditions (OR = 33.65, 95% CI = 2.15-526.13), and unemployed (OR = 20.14, 95% CI = 1.38-294.93), even while controlling for pain severity and interference, depression, and trait anxiety. A follow-up analysis revealed that these associations were due to the negative relationships facet of borderline personality disorder features. Borderline personality disorder features, particularly negative relationships, are associated with increased rates of pain disability, general disability, and unemployment in a chronic pain sample. Future research should examine mechanisms by which the maladaptive interpersonal behaviors and cognitions of borderline personality disorder might result in worse long-term employment outcomes of chronic pain.

  8. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Leask, Julie; Aggett, Sian; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV) think tank) explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies. PMID:26344114

  9. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Sevdalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV think tank explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies.

  10. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  11. Understanding nephro-blastomas. Information dedicated to parents and relatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusco, S.; Carretier, J.; Delavigne, V.; Fervers, B.; Leichtnam-Dugarin, L.; Bergeron, C.; Claude, L.; Philip, T.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Coze, C.; Leclair, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program. The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information developed in this program is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, The National Cancer Institute, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and care-givers. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas is an adapted version of various scientific publications and international clinical practice guidelines, validated by oncology experts and by the Nephro-blastomas Committee of the French Society against Cancers and Leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE). It was elaborated with the active participation of parents and other family members. It is meant to provide a basis for the explanation of the disease, to help parents asking questions, and to facilitate discussions with the health-care team. It is available from the FNCLCC (101, rue de Tolbiac, 75013 PARIS, Tel. (0033)1 76 64 78 00, www.fncicc.fr). This document was validated at the end of 2005 and published in May 2006. SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guides are systematically updated when new research becomes available. Information leaflets, extracted from the handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas and published in this edition of the Cancer et Radiotherapie, describe the physiopathology

  12. Effects of multiple congruent cues on concurrent sound segregation during passive and active listening: an event-related potential (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Winkler, István; Szalárdy, Orsolya; Bendixen, Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    In two experiments, we assessed the effects of combining different cues of concurrent sound segregation on the object-related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potential components. Participants were presented with sequences of complex tones, half of which contained some manipulation: one or two harmonic partials were mistuned, delayed, or presented from a different location than the rest. In separate conditions, one, two, or three of these manipulations were combined. Participants watched a silent movie (passive listening) or reported after each tone whether they perceived one or two concurrent sounds (active listening). ORN was found in almost all conditions except for location difference alone during passive listening. Combining several cues or manipulating more than one partial consistently led to sub-additive effects on the ORN amplitude. These results support the view that ORN reflects a combined, feature-unspecific assessment of the auditory system regarding the contribution of two sources to the incoming sound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Presenteeism and absenteeism: differentiated understanding of related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Eric; Lemyre, Louise; Corneil, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In the past it was assumed that work attendance equated to performance. It now appears that health-related loss of productivity can be traced equally to workers showing up at work as well as to workers choosing not to. Presenteeism in the workplace, showing up for work while sick, seems now more prevalent than absenteeism. These findings are forcing organizations to reconsider their approaches regarding regular work attendance. Given this, and echoing recommendations in the literature, this study seeks to identify the main behavioral correlates of presenteeism and absenteeism in the workplace. Comparative analysis of the data from a representative sample of executives from the Public Service of Canada enables us to draw a unique picture of presenteeism and absenteeism with regards not only to the impacts of health disorders but also to the demographic, organizational, and individual factors involved. Results provide a better understanding of the similarities and differences between these phenomena, and more specifically, of the differentiated influence of certain variables. These findings provide food for thought and may pave the way to the development of new organizational measures designed to manage absenteeism without creating presenteeism.

  14. Concurrent enrichment in δD and δ13C in CH4 within stems of aquatic plants relative to methane within sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanton, J.P.; Showers, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    13 CH 4 enrichment in methane within the stems of aquatic macrophytes relative to methane held within the sediments has been demonstrated previously. Hypotheses offered to explain this phenomenon include methane oxidation, production and transport effects (Chanton et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 799, 1989). The authors report here concurrent enrichment of δD and δ 13 C ranging from 36-59 per-thousand and 5.8-11.5 per-thousand respectively for methane within stems relative to methane within the sediments in a stand of Pontederia cordata. This sympathetic variation of H and C isotopes serves to eliminate the production hypothesis as an explanation of the effects observed. If production effects were responsible for the 13 CH 4 enrichment within macrophyte stems, H and C isotopes would have been expected to vary antipathetically (Whiticar et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 50, 693, 1986)

  15. Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litro, Robert Frank

    1970-01-01

    A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

  16. Concurrent IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive crescentic glomerulonephritis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Yang, Li; Cui, Zhao; Wang, Su-Xia; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-05-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic disease. The typical pathological finding in the kidney is abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration with characteristic storiform fibrosis in the interstitium. Antibodies of the IgG4 subclass have been linked to certain autoimmune diseases including antiproteinase 3 (PR3) anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) of the IgG4 subclass. Here, we report a rare case of kidney injury with concurrent typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 subclass of myeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. A 42-year-old Chinese man presented with repeated epigastric pain, sausage-shaped pancreas observed morphologically in computed tomography, effectiveness of prednisone therapy and was diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. He subsequently developed acute kidney injury. The patient had an elevated serum IgG4, eosinophilia, and positive MPO-ANCA of IgG4-dominant subclass. Renal biopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic nephritis and typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. The patient was treated with a combination of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and a course of rituximab was later added to deplete peripheral B cells. The patient responded well and his renal function improved. This is the first case report of an IgG4-RD with concurrent IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 MPO-ANCA-associated necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. It raises the difficulty in differentiation diagnosis of the two separate diseases that is worthy of further study.

  17. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  18. Relational benefits and quality of relation – towards understanding of the ties between science and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grzegorczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to answer the question in what way relational marketing and in particular, the concept of relational benefits, as well as quality of relation may influence the transfer of knowledge and technologies from universities to business. Another goal is to highlight significant, future directions of research in this area. Integration of the theory of relational marketing and technology transfer may create a new framework for fuller understanding of the ties between science and business. Research in this area may contribute to the expansion and development of the theory of relational marketing, which until now was limited to the analysis of relations within a single sector. The results of conducted research show that ties characterized by high relational engagement are common, recognized by both academic and business environment as precious and play an important role in stimulating innovations. The quality of relations and relational benefits may play an important role in building long-term ties between universities and the industry. Integration of behavioural theories with the theory of technology transfer may contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour of particular participants of the transfer on the individual level.

  19. Nutritional strategies to support concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Schindler, Joaquin; Hamilton, D Lee; Moore, Daniel R; Baar, Keith; Philp, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training (the combination of endurance exercise to resistance training) is a common practice for athletes looking to maximise strength and endurance. Over 20 years ago, it was first observed that performing endurance exercise after resistance exercise could have detrimental effects on strength gains. At the cellular level, specific protein candidates have been suggested to mediate this training interference; however, at present, the physiological reason(s) behind the concurrent training effect remain largely unknown. Even less is known regarding the optimal nutritional strategies to support concurrent training and whether unique nutritional approaches are needed to support endurance and resistance exercise during concurrent training approaches. In this review, we will discuss the importance of protein supplementation for both endurance and resistance training adaptation and highlight additional nutritional strategies that may support concurrent training. Finally, we will attempt to synergise current understanding of the interaction between physiological responses and nutritional approaches into practical recommendations for concurrent training.

  20. Measuring and modelling concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This article explores three critical topics discussed in the recent debate over concurrency (overlapping sexual partnerships): measurement of the prevalence of concurrency, mathematical modelling of concurrency and HIV epidemic dynamics, and measuring the correlation between HIV and concurrency. The focus of the article is the concurrency hypothesis – the proposition that presumed high prevalence of concurrency explains sub-Saharan Africa's exceptionally high HIV prevalence. Recent surveys using improved questionnaire design show reported concurrency ranging from 0.8% to 7.6% in the region. Even after adjusting for plausible levels of reporting errors, appropriately parameterized sexual network models of HIV epidemics do not generate sustainable epidemic trajectories (avoid epidemic extinction) at levels of concurrency found in recent surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to support the concurrency hypothesis with a statistical correlation between HIV incidence and concurrency prevalence are not yet successful. Two decades of efforts to find evidence in support of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to build a convincing case. PMID:23406964

  1. Treatment-Related Death during Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available Treatment related death (TRD is the worst adverse event in chemotherapy and radiotherapy for patients with cancer, the reports for TRDs were sporadically. We aimed to study TRDs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, and determine whether high radiation dose and newer chemotherapy regimens were associated with the risk of TRD. Data from randomized clinical trials for locally advanced/unresectable NSCLC patients were analyzed. Eligible studies had to have at least one arm with CCRT. The primary endpoint was TRD. Pooled odds ratios (ORs for TRDs were calculated. In this study, a total of fifty-three trials (8940 patients were eligible. The pooled TRD rate (accounting for heterogeneity was 1.44% for all patients. In 20 trials in which comparison of TRDs between CCRT and non-CCRT was possible, the OR (95% CI of TRDs was 1.08 (0.70-1.66 (P = 0.71. Patients treated with third-generation chemotherapy and concurrent radiotherapy had an increase of TRDs compared to those with other regimens in CCRT (2.70% vs. 1.37%, OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.09-2.07, P = 0.008. No significant difference was found in TRDs between high (≥ 66 Gy and low (< 66 Gy radiation dose during CCRT (P = 0.605. Neither consolidation (P = 0.476 nor induction chemotherapy (P = 0.175 had significant effects with increased TRDs in this study. We concluded that CCRT is not significantly associated with the risk of TRD compared to non-CCRT. The third-generation chemotherapy regimens may be a risk factor with higher TRDs in CCRT, while high dose radiation is not significantly associated with more TRDs. This observation deserves further study.

  2. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  3. Generalization of concurrence vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, based on the generalization of concurrence vectors for bipartite pure state with respect to employing tensor product of generators of the corresponding rotation groups, we generalize concurrence vectors to the case of mixed states; a new criterion of separability of multipartite pure states is given out, for which we define a concurrence vector; we generalize the vector to the case of multipartite mixed state and give out a good measure of free entanglement

  4. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  5. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no......Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized...

  6. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review of the literature identified eight relevant studies that put current estimates of the prevalence of HIV-related PTSD between 4.2% and 40%. Even the ...

  7. Understanding News Values: Secret to Good Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Rita Haugh

    1981-01-01

    Explains the news values that journalists use. Shows English teachers and administrators how they can apply this knowledge of news media to improve public relations between the school and the community. (RL)

  8. Proactive interference and concurrent inhibitory processes do not differentially affect item and associative recognition: Implication for the age-related associative memory deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jonathan; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested an associative deficit hypothesis [Naveh-Benjamin, M. ( 2000 ). Adult age differences in memory performance: Tests of an associative deficit hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1170-1187] to explain age-related episodic memory declines. The hypothesis attributes part of the deficient episodic memory performance in older adults to a difficulty in creating and retrieving cohesive episodes. In this article, we further evaluate this hypothesis by testing two alternative processes that potentially mediate associative memory deficits in older adults. Four experiments are presented that assess whether failure of inhibitory processes (proactive interference in Experiments 1 and 2), and concurrent inhibition (in Experiments 3 and 4) are mediating factors in age-related associative deficits. The results suggest that creating conditions that require the operation of inhibitory processes, or that interfere with such processes, cannot simulate associative memory deficit in older adults. Instead, such results support the idea that associative memory deficits reflect a unique binding failure in older adults. This failure seems to be independent of other cognitive processes, including inhibitory and other resource-demanding processes.

  9. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Vos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s usefulness by illustrating its explanatory power in two instances of cooperation and two of non-cooperation within two health information technology projects. The study contributes to project management theory through its combined focus on transactional and relational motives. Further, the study contributes to practice by providing a tool for planning and evaluating cooperation in health Information Technology projects and similar complex multi-stakeholder environments.

  10. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  11. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  12. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young unmarried women bore the brunt of being stigmatized. They reported a lack of a supportive environment that provides guidance on correct information on how to prevent unwanted pregnancy and where to get help. Abortion-related stigma plays a major role in women's decision on whether to have a safe or unsafe ...

  13. Toward an Understanding of Achievement-Related Conflicts in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Matina S.

    1972-01-01

    Identifies the motive to avoid success as an internal psychological representative of the dominant societal stereotype which views competence, independence, competition, and intellectual achievement as qualities basically inconsistent with femininity, even though positively related to masculinity and mental health. (Author/JM)

  14. Probing Students' Understanding of Some Conceptual Themes in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    This work is an attempt to see how physics undergraduates view the basic ideas of general relativity when they are exposed to the topic in a standard introductory course. Since the subject is conceptually and technically difficult, we adopted a "case studies" approach, focusing in depth on about six students who had just finished a one semester…

  15. A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Understanding HIV-related stigma among Indonesian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluyo, Agung; Culbert, Gabriel J; Levy, Judith; Norr, Kathleen F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates widespread stigmatization of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Indonesia. Such attitudes among health care workers could impede the country's policies for effective diagnosis and medical treatment of PLWH. Nonetheless, research to guide interventions to reduce stigma in health care settings is lacking. Also, the contributions of workplace, religion, and HIV knowledge to nurses' HIV-related stigma are poorly understood. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe factors associated with nurses' stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH. Four hundred nurses recruited from four hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia, were surveyed using the Nurse AIDS Attitude Scale to measure stigma. Stigmatizing attitudes were significantly predicted by education, HIV training, perceived workplace stigma, religiosity, Islamic religious identification, and affiliation with the Islamic hospital. HIV knowledge was not a significant predictor of stigmatizing attitudes. Organization changes fostering workplace diversity are likely to substantially reduce stigmatizing attitudes in nurses. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Storytelling Aspect of Interpersonal Relations: Understanding "Relating" from a Mentalization Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Mark; Tuch, Richard

    Improving a patient's ability to form and maintain satisfactory interpersonal relations is an important goal in many therapies. A mentalization-based approach to treatment is ideally suited to achieve this end to the extent it's designed to help improve a patient's ability to form more nuanced guesses about why others act as they do, based on a more accurate "read" of that individual's beliefs and desires. Interpersonal difficulties often issue when patients remain insistent on their own interpretation of another's motives that fly in the face of that individual's understanding of what is "driving" them. Helping patients explore the basis upon which they'd formed their conclusions about others goes a ways toward opening their mind to the possibility that things are a bit more complicated than first imaged. This in turn leads to greater curiosity and willingness to explore their own narratives and perceptions.

  18. It Is the Family Context That Matters: Concurrent and Predictive Effects of Aspects of Parent-Child Interaction on Video Gaming-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angel Yee-Lam; Lo, Barbara Chuen-Yee; Cheng, Cecilia

    2018-06-01

    Studies have shown that children frequently experiencing poor parent-child interaction are prone to video gaming-related problems, but it is unclear which specific aspects of such an interaction play a predictive role in the problems. To extend previous research that relies primarily on the self-report method to assess parent-child interaction, we conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study. In a laboratory setting, three major aspects of interaction (i.e., affectivity, cohesiveness, and parental behavior) were observed in 241 parent-child dyads (Children: 43 percent female, age range = 8-15, M age  = 12.09, SD age  = 1.41; Parents: 78 percent female, age range = 27-63, M age  = 44.44, SD age  = 6.09). In addition, both parent and children participants completed questionnaires that measured children's symptoms of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and exposure to violent video games at baseline (Time 1) and 12 months later (Time 2). The results revealed that at Time 1, positive affectivity and cohesiveness were inversely associated with child-report symptoms of IGD. Also, Time 1 coerciveness (i.e., control dimension of parental behavior) was positively associated with Time 1 child-report exposure to violent video games and Time 2 child-report symptoms of IGD, respectively. Apart from main effects, the results also showed that Time 1 negative affectivity moderated the protective effects of Time 1 positive affectivity on Time 1 parent-report and Time 2 child-report exposure to violent video games, respectively. Overall, this study identifies various key aspects of parent-child interaction that may serve as concurrent or temporal predictors of video gaming-related issues.

  19. Preliminary Proceedings 15th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The EXPRESS workshops aim at bringing together researchers interested in the relations between various formal systems, particularly in the field of Concurrency. More specifically, they focus on the comparison between programming concepts (such as concurrent, functional, imperative, logic and obje...

  20. Chronic treatment with prazosin or duloxetine lessens concurrent anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake: evidence of disrupted noradrenergic signaling in anxiety-related alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Mary J; Weiner, Jeff L

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders have been linked to increased anxiety, and enhanced central noradrenergic signaling may partly explain this relationship. Pharmacological interventions believed to reduce the excitatory effects of norepinephrine have proven effective in attenuating ethanol intake in alcoholics as well as in rodent models of ethanol dependence. However, most preclinical investigations into the effectiveness of these drugs in decreasing ethanol intake have been limited to acute observations, and none have concurrently assessed their anxiolytic effects. The purpose of these studies was to examine the long-term effectiveness of pharmacological interventions presumed to decrease norepinephrine signaling on concomitant ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats with relatively high levels of antecedent anxiety-like behavior. Adult male Long-Evans rats self-administered ethanol on an intermittent access schedule for eight to ten weeks prior to being implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either an a1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (prazosin, 1.5 mg/kg/day), a β1/2-adrenoreceptor antagonist (propranolol, 2.5 mg/kg/day), a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (duloxetine, 1.5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (10% dimethyl sulfoxide). These drugs were continuously delivered across four weeks, during which animals continued to have intermittent access to ethanol. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze before treatment and again near the end of the drug delivery period. Our results indicate that chronic treatment with a low dose of prazosin or duloxetine significantly decreases ethanol self-administration (P chronic treatment with putative inhibitors of central noradrenergic signaling may attenuate ethanol intake via a reduction in anxiety-like behavior.

  1. Evaluation of concurrent peak responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.C.; Curreri, J.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of combining two or more concurrent responses which are induced by dynamic loads acting on nuclear power plant structures. Specifically, the acceptability of using the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) value of peak values as the combined response is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a simplified criterion that is convenient and relatively easy to use by design engineers

  2. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  3. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  4. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  5. Channel's Concurrence and Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yin-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Concurrence can measure the entanglement property of a system. If the channel is a pure state, positive concurrence state can afford the good performance in the teleportation process. If the channel ia a mixed state, positive concurrence state cannot assure the good performance in the teleportation. The conditions of the positive concurrence and the quantum teleportation in the Heisenberg spin ring is derived.

  6. Analysis of clinical and dosimetric factors associated with treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shulian; Liao Zhongxing; Wei Xiong; Liu, Helen H.; Tucker, Susan L.; Hu Chaosu; Mohan, Rodhe; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate factors associated with treatment-related pneumonitis in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 223 patients treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Treatment-related pneumonitis was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictive factors. Results: Median follow-up was 10.5 months (range, 1.4-58 months). The actuarial incidence of Grade ≥3 pneumonitis was 22% at 6 months and 32% at 1 year. By univariate analyses, lung volume, gross tumor volume, mean lung dose, and relative V5 through V65, in increments of 5 Gy, were all found to be significantly associated with treatment-related pneumonitis. The mean lung dose and rV5-rV65 were highly correlated (p 42% were 3% and 38%, respectively (p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this study, a number of clinical and dosimetric factors were found to be significantly associated with treatment-related pneumonitis. However, rV5 was the only significant factor associated with this toxicity. Until it is better understood which dose range is most relevant, multiple clinical and dosimetric factors should be considered in treatment planning for non-small-cell lung cancer patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy

  7. What You Don't Notice Can Harm You: Age-Related Differences in Detecting Concurrent Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Brandon J; Sarter, Nadine

    2018-06-01

    Objective This research sought to determine whether people can perceive and process three nonredundant (and unrelated) signals in vision, hearing, and touch at the same time and how aging and concurrent task demands affect this ability. Background Multimodal displays have been shown to improve multitasking and attention management; however, their potential limitations are not well understood. The majority of studies on multimodal information presentation have focused on the processing of only two concurrent and, most often, redundant cues by younger participants. Method Two experiments were conducted in which younger and older adults detected and responded to a series of singles, pairs, and triplets of visual, auditory, and tactile cues in the absence (Experiment 1) and presence (Experiment 2) of an ongoing simulated driving task. Detection rates, response times, and driving task performance were measured. Results Compared to younger participants, older adults showed longer response times and higher error rates in response to cues/cue combinations. Older participants often missed the tactile cue when three cues were combined. They sometimes falsely reported the presence of a visual cue when presented with a pair of auditory and tactile signals. Driving performance suffered most in the presence of cue triplets. Conclusion People are more likely to miss information if more than two concurrent nonredundant signals are presented to different sensory channels. Application The findings from this work help inform the design of multimodal displays and ensure their usefulness across different age groups and in various application domains.

  8. Coalgebra, concurrency and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCoalgebra is used to generalize notions and techniques from concurrency theory, in order to apply them to problems concerning the supervisory control of discrete event systems. The main ingredients of this approach are the characterization of controllability in terms of (a variant of)

  9. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  10. Do Science and Common Wisdom Collide or Coincide in their Understanding of Relational Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Heather S; McLoughlin, Caven S

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a form of covert or indirect aggression or bullying in which harm is caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group, rather than through physical violence. We compare findings from empirical research into relational aggression with the depictions, interpretations and interventions described in trade-books and popular media dealing with that same topic. Relational aggression is more common and more studied among girls than boys and is popularly described as synonymous with "mean-girl" behaviors. We investigate the degree that popular trade books and movies accurately portray findings from researched investigations including the incidence and indicators of the condition and its remedies. We determine that there is a great deal of similarity between these two sources in how relational aggression is understood and how it may be treated. The concurrence across both dissemination formats reflects terminology and definitions, the harmful effects of relational aggression, the gender-specific nature of the condition to women and girls, its age of occurrence, the impact of parenting styles, its relationship to girls' social competence, and nature of its expression through non-physical means.

  11. Motivation and flow: toward an understanding of the dynamics of the relation in architecture students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Maura J; Fullagar, Clive J

    2008-09-01

    The authors investigated the relation between motivation and flow in a sample of 327 architecture students. Specifically, they investigated the relation between flow and several levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as amotivation. They also assessed the need for autonomy in moderating the relation between intrinsic motivation and engagement. Results indicated a significant relation between flow experiences in academic activities and the more self-determined forms of intrinsic motivation, but not for extrinsic motivation. The need for autonomy moderated the relation between flow and intrinsic motivation. These results are discussed in the context of understanding flow as an intrinsically motivating state and a viable construct for understanding engagement.

  12. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  13. Proportional Reasoning and Related Concepts: Analysis of Gaps and Understandings of Middle Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojose, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated proportional reasoning and the related concepts of decimal, percent, and ratio. In particular, the research focused on analyzing the gaps and understandings that grades 6, 7, and 8 students have and advanced factors for such gaps and understandings. The study employed a mixed method approach in which quantitative data was…

  14. Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  15. Prospective Elementary Teacher Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.; Heinze, Kirk L.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers elicited their understanding of pest-related benchmarks. Those with out-of-school experience were better able to articulate their understanding. Many were unable to make connections between scientific, societal and technological concepts. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  16. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  17. Public relations and public understanding in the nuclear industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Michel, A. [Belgonucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    Before talking about public understanding and public relations in the nuclear industry in Europe, a word about the mosaic structure of the European energy policy and public is required because a similar structure will be found in the European public understanding policy. Afterwards, we explain what communications tools are available and how the different European countries apply them.

  18. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  19. Concurrent credit portfolio losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicking, Joachim; Guhr, Thomas; Schäfer, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of concurrent portfolio losses in two non-overlapping credit portfolios. In order to explore the full statistical dependence structure of such portfolio losses, we estimate their empirical pairwise copulas. Instead of a Gaussian dependence, we typically find a strong asymmetry in the copulas. Concurrent large portfolio losses are much more likely than small ones. Studying the dependences of these losses as a function of portfolio size, we moreover reveal that not only large portfolios of thousands of contracts, but also medium-sized and small ones with only a few dozens of contracts exhibit notable portfolio loss correlations. Anticipated idiosyncratic effects turn out to be negligible. These are troublesome insights not only for investors in structured fixed-income products, but particularly for the stability of the financial sector. JEL codes: C32, F34, G21, G32, H81.

  20. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  1. Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, K.K.

    1985-01-01

    The principal objective of combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy (XRT) for the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer is to improve the therapeutic ratio through the enhancement of local control and reduction of distant metastases without excessively enhancing normal tissue effects. Improved tumour control can result from sole additivity of either therapy or direct interactions between drug and radiation leading to increased tumour cell kill. Chemotherapy may sensitize the cells to radiation, interfere with repair of sublethal or potentially lethal radiation damage, induce cell synchrony, and reduce tumour mass leading to reoxygenation and decreased fraction of resistant hypoxic cells. Radiation may improve drug accessibility to tumour cells and reduce tumour volume leading to increased cell proliferation and chemosensitivity. If the enhanced effects of combined therapy are purely additive, then the two modalities can be administered either sequentially or concurrently with the same results. However, if the enhanced effects result from the direct interaction between drug and radiation, it is necessary that the two modalities be administered concurrently and in close temporal proximity. This review summarizes the results of clinical studies in which chemotherapy was administered concurrently during the course of radiotherapy for patients with previously untreated advanced squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck

  2. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Kleef, van E.; Mela, D.J.; Hulshof, T.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we

  3. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding: How to Deal with the Relations between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to…

  4. Concurrency in product realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    1994-03-01

    Technology per se does not provide a competitive advantage. Timely exploitation of technology is what gives the competitive edge, and this demands a major shift in the product development process and management of the industrial enterprise. `Teaming to win' is more than a management theme; it is the disciplined engineering practice that is essential to success in today's global marketplace. Teaming supports the concurrent engineering practices required to integrate the activities of people responsible for product realization through achievement of shorter development cycles, lower costs, and defect-free products.

  5. Domain Theory for Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel

    and associated comonads, it highlights the role of linearity in concurrent computation. Two choices of comonad yield two expressive metalanguages for higher-order processes, both arising from canonical constructions in the model. Their denotational semantics are fully abstract with respect to contextual...... equivalence. One language, called HOPLA for Higher-Order Process LAnguage, derives from an exponential of linear logic. It can be viewed as an extension of the simply-typed lambda calculus with CCS-like nondeterministic sum and prefix operations, in which types express the form of computation path of which...

  6. Mastering concurrency in Go

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyra, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    A practical approach covering everything you need to know to get up and running with Go, starting with the basics and imparting increasingly more detail as the examples and topics become more complicated. The book utilizes a casual, conversational style, rife with actual code and historical anecdotes for perspective, as well as usable and extensible example applications. This book is intended for systems developers and programmers with some experience in either Go and/or concurrent programming who wish to become fluent in building high-performance applications that scale by leveraging single-c

  7. Clinical characteristics of synthetic cannabinoid-induced psychosis in relation to schizophrenia: a single-center cross-sectional analysis of concurrently hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Merih Altintas,1 Leman Inanc,2 Gamze Akcay Oruc,1 Selim Arpacioglu,1 Huseyin Gulec1 1Department of Psychiatry, Erenköy Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 2Department of Psychiatry, Dr Cevdet Aykan Mental Health and Diseases Hospital, Tokat, Turkey Background: This study aimed to evaluate synthetic cannabinoid (SC-induced psychosis in terms of patient profile and clinical characteristics with reference to concurrently hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Methods: A total of 81 male patients diagnosed with psychotic disorder induced by the use of SCs (n=50; mean (standard deviation [SD] age: 25.9 (5.5 years or with schizophrenia (n=31, mean (SD age: 42.9 (11.6 years based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnosis criteria who were concurrently hospitalized at Erenköy Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital were included in this cross-sectional study. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A were recorded in all the patients. Results: Mean (SD age at disease onset in SC-induced psychosis patients was 22.3 (5.6 years; 26.0% had suicidal ideation and 58.4% were hospitalized involuntarily. Marijuana was the most common first used substance (72.0%, and solitary use of SC was noted in 38.0% of patients. SC-induced psychosis patients had similar PANSS positive, BPRS, HRSD, and FAB scores and significantly lower PANSS negative scores (18.0 [6.5] vs 22.3 [6.0], P=0.004 than patients with schizophrenia, while they had similar HAM-A scores (17.8 [10.3] vs 21.6 [5.5], P=0.085 as young schizophrenics. Age at onset for SC (r=0.364, P=0.05 or substance (r=0.395, P=0.01 use was correlated positively with total FAB scores.Conclusion: In conclusion, our

  8. FlashLight: A Dynamic Detector of Shared State, Race Conditions, and Locking Models in Concurrent Java Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hale, Scott C

    2006-01-01

    .... Many factors contribute to concurrency faults in Java code; for example, programmers may not understand Java language semantics or, when using a Java library or framework, may not understand that their resulting program is concurrent...

  9. From rational numbers to algebra: separable contributions of decimal magnitude and relational understanding of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Video-cued narrative reflection: a research approach for articulating tacit, relational, and embodied understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raingruber, Bonnie

    2003-10-01

    The author's purpose in this article is to describe the effectiveness of video-cued narrative reflection as a research approach for accessing relational, practice-based, and lived understandings. Video-cued narrative reflection provides moment-by-moment access to tacit experience. The immediate nature of the videotape captures emotional nuances, embodied perceptions, spatial influences, relational understandings, situational factors, and temporal manifestations. By watching videotaped interactions, participants are able to re-collect, re-experience, and interpret their life world. Video-cued narrative reflection allows participants to be simultaneously engaged and reflective while describing significant understandings. By inserting audiotaped reflective commentary of participants into the original videotape transcript, contextual meanings can be located and articulated more easily. Although not appropriate for all types of research, this approach offers promise for certain studies.

  11. Rethinking serializable multiversion concurrency control

    OpenAIRE

    Faleiro, Jose M.; Abadi, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-versioned database systems have the potential to significantly increase the amount of concurrency in transaction processing because they can avoid read-write conflicts. Unfortunately, the increase in concurrency usually comes at the cost of transaction serializability. If a database user requests full serializability, modern multi-versioned systems significantly constrain read-write concurrency among conflicting transactions and employ expensive synchronization patterns in their design....

  12. Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.

  13. Concurrent Models for Object Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for the concurrent execution of functions on different levels of abstraction. It shows that the traditional sequential execution of function is just a possible implementation of an abstract computational model that allows for the concurrent execution of functions. We use this framework as base for the development of abstract computational models that allow for the concurrent execution of objects.

  14. Lie-Telling Behavior in Children with Autism and Its Relation to False-Belief Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goulden, Keith J.; Manji, Shazeen; Loomes, Carly; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Children's lie-telling behavior and its relation to false-belief understanding was examined in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 26) and a comparison group of typically developing children (n = 27). Participants were assessed using a temptation resistance paradigm, in which children were told not to peek at a forbidden toy while…

  15. Towards the understanding of microbial metabolism in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as a model organism to understand the effects of microbial cell growth and metabolite production under anaerobic conditions in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery. The bacterium was able to grow anaerobically on different carbon compounds...

  16. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  17. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: Current understanding and preventive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most serious complication of transfusion medicine. TRALI is defined as the onset of acute hypoxia within 6 hours of a blood transfusion in the absence of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The past decades have resulted in a better understanding of the

  18. Modelling Joint Decision Making Processes Involving Emotion-Related Valuing and Mutual Empathic Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a social agent model for joint decision making is presented addressing the role of mutually acknowledged empathic understanding in the decision making. The model is based on principles from recent neurological theories on mirror neurons, internal simulation, and emotion-related

  19. Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

  20. Economic explanations for concurrent sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent sourcing is a phenomenon where firms simultaneously make and buy the same good, i.e. they simultaneously use the governance modes of market and hierarchy. Though concurrent sourcing seems to be widespread, few studies of sourcing have focused on this phenomenon. This paper reviews...... different economic explanations for why firms use concurrent sourcing. The distinctive features of the explanations are compared, and it is discussed how they may serve as a springboard for research on concurrent sourcing. Managerial implications are also offered....

  1. Concurrency Control for Transactional Drago

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño-Martinez, Marta; Jiménez-Peris, Ricardo; Kienzle, Jörg; Arévalo, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    The granularity of concurrency control has a big impact on the performance of transactional systems. Concurrency control granu- larity and data granularity (data size) are usually the same. The e ect of this coupling is that if a coarse granularity is used, the overhead of data access (number of disk accesses) is reduced, but also the degree of concurrency. On the other hand, if a ne granularity is chosen to achieve a higher degree of concurrency (there are less con icts), the cost of data ac...

  2. Concurrent systems and time synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Mark; Grathoff, Annette

    2018-05-01

    In the majority of scientific fields, system dynamics is described assuming existence of unique time for the whole system. However, it is established theoretically, for example, in relativity theory or in the system theory of time, and validated experimentally that there are different times and time scales in a variety of real systems - physical, chemical, biological, social, etc. In spite of this, there are no wide-ranging scientific approaches to exploration of such systems. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to study systems with this property. We call them concurrent systems because processes in them can go, events can happen and actions can be performed in different time scales. The problem of time synchronization is specifically explored.

  3. 29 CFR 502.17 - Concurrent actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concurrent actions. 502.17 Section 502.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION...

  4. 29 CFR 501.17 - Concurrent actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concurrent actions. 501.17 Section 501.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION...

  5. Beyond Normal Competencies: Understanding Organisation Designs to Develop and Sustain IT-Related Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acklesh Prasad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is apparent that IT resources are important for organisations. It is also clear that organisations unique competencies, their IT-related capabilities, leverage the IT resources uniquely to create and sustain competitive advantage. However, IT resources are dynamic, and evolve at an exponential rate. This means that organisations will need to sustain their competencies to leverage opportunities offered by new IT resources. Research on ways to sustain IT-related capabilities is limited and a deeper understanding of this situation is important. Amongst other factors, a possible reason for this lack of progress in this area could be due to the lack of validated measurement items of the theoretical constructs to conduct such studies. We suggest an environment in which organisations could build new and sustain their existing IT-related capabilities. We then report on the development of valid and reliable measures for this environment. The validated measures would be useful in extending our understanding on how firms could sustain their IT-related capabilities. This effort will provide a deeper understanding of how firms can secure sustainable IT-related business value from their acquired IT resources.

  6. Understanding men's health and illness: a gender-relations approach to policy, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L

    2000-05-01

    Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.

  7. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding. How to Deal with the Relations Between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.

  8. A Highly Concurrent Replicated Data Structure EAI Endorsed Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Well defined concurrent replicated data structure is very important to design collaborative editing system, particularly, certain properties like out-of-order execution of concurrent operations and data convergence. In this paper, we introduce novel linear data structure based on unique identifier scheme required for indexed communication. These identifiers are real numbers holding specific pattern of precision. Based on the uniqueness and the total order of these identifiers, here, we present two concurrency control techniques to achieve high degree of concurrency according to strong and lazy happened-before relations. Our data structure preserves data convergence, yields better performance and avoids overheads as compared to existing approaches.

  9. Measuring coherence with entanglement concurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2017-07-01

    Quantum coherence is a fundamental manifestation of the quantum superposition principle. Recently, Baumgratz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 140401) presented a rigorous framework to quantify coherence from the view of theory of physical resource. Here we propose a new valid quantum coherence measure which is a convex roof measure, for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, essentially using the generalized Gell-Mann matrices. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed coherence measure, coherence concurrence, fulfills all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence measures. Moreover, strong links between the resource frameworks of coherence concurrence and entanglement concurrence is derived, which shows that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement based on two kinds of concurrence. This new coherence measure, coherence concurrence, may also be beneficial to the study of quantum coherence.

  10. Understanding Basic Temporal Relations in Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka

    2015-09-01

    Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.

  11. Understanding Work-related Musculoskeletal Injuries in Rehabilitation from a Nursing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Rozina

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries is a top concern for nurses. These injuries are thought to be a dynamic interplay of multiple factors. A literature review reveals a knowledge gap in understanding context-specific patterns of nursing injuries. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, 58 rehabilitation nurses participated in this study. Anonymous paper surveys were sent to all rehabilitation nursing personnel on the unit. Six themes emerged: lack of time and help, patient acuity, ergonomics, body movement issues, knowledge deficit, and communication. Nursing input is critical in understanding and reducing context-specific work-related musculoskeletal injuries. Further research that includes nursing voices is advocated. Rehabilitation nursing injuries appear to be a complex interaction of multiple determinants; therefore, multifaceted solutions using a quality improvement lens are recommended to improve the working conditions on the units. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  12. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: a review and conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles

    2011-06-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review of the literature identified eight relevant studies that put current estimates of the prevalence of HIV-related PTSD between 4.2% and 40%. Even the lower estimates suggest that PTSD in response to the trauma of being diagnosed and living with HIV is a significant mental health burden. However, a conceptual framework to advance our understanding of the prevalence and phenomenology of HIV-related PTSD is lacking. This article argues that the Ehlers & Clark (2000) cognitive model of PTSD provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding HIV-related PTSD in South Africa. The model emphasises the role of trauma appraisals in the development and maintenance of PTSD, which can also be usefully applied to some of the other psychological disorders associated with HIV infection. The model appears to fit some of the important research findings, and it offers insights into the relationships between HIV-related PTSD and other psychological disorders, HIV stigma, the high prevalence of non-HIV traumatic events, occasional problems with the delivery of antiretroviral drugs in the South African public health service, the unpredictable course of HIV illness, and the quality of HIV testing and counselling. Implications for individual treatment strategies and broader public health interventions are briefly discussed.

  13. Understanding energy-related regimes: A participatory approach from central Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foran, Tira; Fleming, David; Spandonide, Bruno; Williams, Rachel; Race, Digby

    2016-01-01

    For a particular community, what energy-related innovations constitute no-regrets strategies? We present a methodology to understand how alternative energy consuming activities and policy regimes impact on current and future liveability of socio-culturally diverse communities facing climate change. Our methodology augments the energy policy literature by harnessing three concepts (collaborative governance, innovation and political economic regime of provisioning) to support dialogue around changing energy-related activities. We convened workshops in Alice Springs, Australia to build capability to identify no-regrets energy-related housing or transport activities and strategies. In preparation, we interviewed policy actors and constructed three new housing-related future scenarios. After discussing the scenarios, policy and research actors prioritised five socio-technical activities or strategies. Evaluations indicate participants enjoyed opportunities given by the methodology to have focussed discussions about activities and innovation, while requesting more socially nuanced scenario storylines. We discuss implications for theory and technique development. - Highlights: •Energy-related activities and regimes frustrate pro-sustainability action. •Participatory workshops increased understanding of activities and regimes. •Workshops used a novel combination of governance and social theories. •Results justify inclusive dialogue around building energy standards and transport options.

  14. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2018-02-01

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  15. Using Machine Reading to Understand Alzheimer’s and Related Diseases from the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tsutsui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to better understand a large number of papers in the medical domain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related diseases using the machine reading approach. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the topic modeling method to obtain an overview of the field, and employs open information extraction to further comprehend the field at a specific fact level. Findings: Several topics within the AD research field are identified, such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS, which can help answer the question of how AIDS/HIV and AD are very different yet related diseases. Research limitations: Some manual data cleaning could improve the study, such as removing incorrect facts found by open information extraction. Practical implications: This study uses the literature to answer specific questions on a scientific domain, which can help domain experts find interesting and meaningful relations among entities in a similar manner, such as to discover relations between AD and AIDS/HIV. Originality/value: Both the overview and specific information from the literature are obtained using two distinct methods in a complementary manner. This combination is novel because previous work has only focused on one of them, and thus provides a better way to understand an important scientific field using data-driven methods.

  16. Students’ Relational Understanding in Quadrilateral Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, A. N.; Juniati, D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    The type of research is qualitative approach which aims to describe how students’ relational understanding of solving mathematic problem that was seen from Adversity Quotient aspect. Research subjects were three 7th grade students of Junior High School. They were taken by category of Adversity Quotient (AQ) such quitter, camper, and climber. Data collected based on problem solving and interview. The research result showed that (1) at the stage of understanding the problem, the subjects were able to state and write down what is known and asked, and able to mention the concepts associated with the quadrilateral problem. (2) The three subjects devise a plan by linking concepts relating to quadrilateral problems. (3) The three subjects were able to solve the problem. (4) The three subjects were able to look back the answers. The three subjects were able to understand the problem, devise a plan, carry out the plan and look back. However, the quitter and camper subjects have not been able to give a reason for the steps they have taken.

  17. Understanding Emerging Impacts and Requirements Related to Utility-Scale Solar Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Heidi M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heath, Garvin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, Konstance L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Utility-scale solar energy plays an important role in the nation’s strategy to address climate change threats through increased deployment of renewable energy technologies, and both the federal government and individual states have established specific goals for increased solar energy development. In order to achieve these goals, much attention is paid to making utility-scale solar energy cost-competitive with other conventional energy sources, while concurrently conducting solar development in an environmentally sound manner.

  18. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  19. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  20. Understanding and taking relational context into account is critical for social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eClark-Polner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1 all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger, and (2 relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: a We describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help and receiving help that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. b We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  1. Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Peng, Z.; Ferrier, K.; Lin, C. H.; Hsu, Y. J.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes, landslides, and tropical cyclones are extreme hazards that pose significant threats to human life and property. Some of the couplings between these hazards are well known. For example, sudden, widespread landsliding can be triggered by large earthquakes and by extreme rainfall events like tropical cyclones. Recent studies have also shown that earthquakes can be triggered by erosional unloading over 100-year timescales. In a NASA supported project, titled "Cascading hazards: Understanding triggering relations between wet tropical cyclones, landslides, and earthquake", we study triggering relations between these hazard types. The project focuses on such triggering relations in Taiwan, which is subjected to very wet tropical storms, landslides, and earthquakes. One example for such triggering relations is the 2009 Morakot typhoon, which was the wettest recorded typhoon in Taiwan (2850 mm of rain in 100 hours). The typhoon caused widespread flooding and triggered more than 20,000 landslides, including the devastating Hsiaolin landslide. Six months later, the same area was hit by the 2010 M=6.4 Jiashian earthquake near Kaohsiung city, which added to the infrastructure damage induced by the typhoon and the landslides. Preliminary analysis of temporal relations between main-shock earthquakes and the six wettest typhoons in Taiwan's past 50 years reveals similar temporal relations between M≥5 events and wet typhoons. Future work in the project will include remote sensing analysis of landsliding, seismic and geodetic monitoring of landslides, detection of microseismicity and tremor activities, and mechanical modeling of crustal stress changes due to surface unloading.

  2. Concurrent LISP and its interpreter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K; Sugimoto, S; Ohno, Y

    1981-01-01

    In the research field of artificial intelligence many languages have been developed based on LISP, such as Planner, Conniver and so on. They have been developed to give users many useful facilities, especially for describing flexible control structures. Backtracking and coroutine facilities are typical ones introduced into these languages. Compared with backtracking and coroutine facilities, multi-process description facilities are considered to be a better alternative for writing well-structured programs. This paper describes concurrent LISP, a new concurrent programming language based on LISP. Concurrent LISP is designed to provide simple and flexible facilities for multi-process description without changing the original language features of LISP. This paper also describes the concurrent LISP interpreter which has been implemented on a FACOM M-200 at the Data Processing Center of Kyoto University. 19 references.

  3. Reference Capabilities for Concurrency Control

    OpenAIRE

    Castegren, Elias; Wrigstad, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of shared mutable state in object-oriented programming complicates software development as two seemingly unrelated operations may interact via an alias and produce unexpected results. In concurrent programming this manifests itself as data-races. Concurrent object-oriented programming further suffers from the fact that code that warrants synchronisation cannot easily be distinguished from code that does not. The burden is placed solely on the programmer to reason ab...

  4. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  5. Recent advances in understanding and treating COPD related to α1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Maria Paula; Craig, Timothy J

    2016-12-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an orphan disease that predisposes individuals to COPD and liver disease. The following is a comprehensive review of AATD from epidemiology to treatment for physicians who treat COPD or asthma. Areas covered: In this comprehensive review of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, we describe the historical perspective, genetics, epidemiology, clinical presentation and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, and treatments of the condition. Expert commentary: The two most important directions for advancing the understanding of AATD involve improving detection of the condition, especially in asymptomatic patients, and advancing knowledge of treatments directed specifically at AATD-related conditions. With regard to treatment for AATD-related conditions, research must continue to explore the implications and importance of augmentation therapy as well as consider new implementations that may prove more successful taking into consideration not only factors of pulmonary function and liver health, but also product availability and financial viability.

  6. Nitpicking C++ concurrency

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchette, Jasmin Christian; Weber, Tjark; Batty, Mark; Owens, Scott; Sarkar, Susmit

    2011-01-01

    Previous work formalized the C++ memory model in Isabelle/HOL in an effort to clarify the proposed standard's semantics. Here we employ the model finder Nitpick to check litmus test programs that exercise the memory model, including a simple locking algorithm. Nitpick is built on Kodkod (Alloy's backend) but understands Isabelle's richer logic; hence it can be applied directly to the C++ memory model. We only need to give it a few hints, and thanks to the underlying SAT solver it scales much ...

  7. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Understanding of the Relational Structure of Physics Concepts: Organising Subject Contents for Purposes of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo; Nousiainen, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Good conceptual understanding of physics is based on understanding what the key concepts are and how they are related. This kind of understanding is especially important for physics teachers in planning how and in what order to introduce concepts in teaching; connections which tie concepts to each other give direction of progress--there is "flux…

  8. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  9. Understanding the Determinants of Weight-Related Quality of Life among Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Tessier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its relation to quality of life are multifaceted. The purpose of this paper was to contribute evidence to support a framework for understanding the impact of obesity on quality of life in 42 morbidly obese subjects considering a wide number of potential determinants. A model of weight-related quality of life (WRQL was developed based on the Wilson-Cleary model, considering subjects' weight characteristics, arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2, walking capacity (6-minute walk test, 6MWT, health-related quality of life (HRQL; Physical and Mental Component Summaries of the SF-36 PCS/MCS, and WRQL. The model of WRQL was tested with linear regressions and a path analysis, which showed that as PaO2 at rest increased 6MWT increased. 6MWT was positively associated with the PCS, which in turn was positively related to WRQL along with the MCS. The model showed good fit and explained 38% of the variance in WRQL.

  10. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Lu; Soyeon Park; Eunsoo Seo; Yuanyuan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  11. Understanding HIV-related stigma in older age in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Emily

    2016-09-01

    The combination of HIV- and age-related stigma exacerbates prevalence of HIV infection and late diagnosis and initiation of anti-retroviral therapy among older populations (Moore, 2012; Richards et al. 2013). Interventions to address these stigmas must be grounded in understanding of situated systems of beliefs about illness and older age. This study analyses constructions of HIV and older age that underpinned the stigmatisation of older adults with HIV in rural Balaka, Malawi. It draws on data from a series of in-depth interviews (N = 135) with adults aged 50-∼90 (N = 43) in 2008-2010. Around 40% (n = 18) of the sample had HIV. Dominant understandings of HIV in Balaka pertained to the sexual transmission of the virus and poor prognosis of those infected. They intersected with understandings of ageing. Narratives about older age and HIV in older age both centred on the importance of having bodily, moral and social power to perform broadly-defined "work". Those who could not work were physically and socially excluded from the social world. This status, labelled as "child-like", was feared by all participants. In participants' narratives, growing old involves a gradual decline in the power required to produce one's membership of the social world through work. HIV infection in old age is understood to accelerate this decline. Understandings of the sexual transmission of HIV, in older age, imply the absence of moral power and in turn, loss of social power. The prognosis of those with HIV, in older age, reflects and causes amplified loss of bodily power. In generating dependency, this loss of bodily power infantilises older care recipients and jeopardises their family's survival, resulting in further loss of social power. This age-and HIV-related loss of power to produce social membership through work is the discrediting attribute at the heart of the stigmatisation of older people with HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  13. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  14. Understanding the relative roles of pharmacogenetics and ontogeny in pediatric drug development and regulatory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, J Steven; Kearns, Gregory L; Spielberg, Stephen P; van den Anker, John

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the dose-exposure-response relationship across the pediatric age spectrum from preterm and term newborns to infants, children, adolescents, and adults is a major challenge for clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory agencies. Over the past 3 decades, clinical investigations of many drugs commonly used in pediatric therapeutics have provided valuable insights into age-associated differences in drug disposition and action. However, our understanding of the contribution of genetic variation to variability in drug disposition and response in children generally has lagged behind that of adults. This article proposes a systematic approach that can be used to assess the relative contributions of ontogeny and genetic variation for a given compound. Application of the strategy is illustrated using the current regulatory dilemma posed by the safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter cough and cold remedies as an example. The results of the analysis can be used to aid in the design of studies to yield maximally informative data in pediatric populations of different ages and developmental stages and thereby improve the efficiency of study design.

  15. Moral distress: a comparative analysis of theoretical understandings and inter-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützén, Kim; Kvist, Beatrice Ewalds

    2012-03-01

    Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care.

  16. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  17. A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Cameron, Amy Y; Ameral, Victoria E

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of emotion regulation strategies (or, more broadly, coping) have failed due to a lack of focus on context. That is, examining strategies in isolation of the context in which they are used provides limited information on the suitability, rigid adherence, or effectiveness of a given strategy in that situation. Several of these researchers have proposed the development of new models to define and measure various types of behavioral flexibility. We would like to suggest that an explanation of the phenomenon already exists and that we can go back to our behavioral roots to understand this phenomenon rather than focusing on defining and capturing a new process. Indeed, thorough contextual behavioral analyses already yield a useful account of what has been observed. We will articulate a model explaining behavioral flexibility using a functional, contextual framework, with anxiety-related disorders as an example.

  18. Oxidative Stress in Oral Diseases: Understanding Its Relation with Other Systemic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress occurs in diabetes, various cancers, liver diseases, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic inflammation, and other degenerative diseases related to the nervous system. The free radicals have deleterious effect on various organs of the body. This is due to lipid peroxidation and irreversible protein modification that leads to cellular apoptosis or programmed cell death. During recent years, there is a rise in the oral diseases related to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress in oral disease is related to other systemic diseases in the body such as periodontitis, cardiovascular, pancreatic, gastric, and liver diseases. In the present review, we discuss the various pathways that mediate oxidative cellular damage. Numerous pathways mediate oxidative cellular damage and these include caspase pathway, PERK/NRF2 pathway, NADPH oxidase 4 pathways and JNK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathway. We also discuss the role of inflammatory markers, lipid peroxidation, and role of oxygen species linked to oxidative stress. Knowledge of different pathways, role of inflammatory markers, and importance of low-density lipoprotein, fibrinogen, creatinine, nitric oxide, nitrates, and highly sensitive C-reactive proteins may be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis and plan better treatment for oral diseases which involve oxidative stress.

  19. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  20. Advanced transgenic approaches to understand alcohol-related phenotypes in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, the use of genetically manipulated animal models in alcohol research has greatly improved the understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction. In this chapter, we present an overview of the progress made in this field by summarizing findings obtained from studies of mice harboring global and conditional mutations in genes that influence alcohol-related phenotypes. The first part reviews behavioral paradigms for modeling the different phases of the alcohol addiction cycle and other alcohol-induced behavioral phenotypes in mice. The second part reviews the current data available using genetic models targeting the main neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems involved in the reinforcement and stress pathways, focusing on the phenotypes modeling the alcohol addiction cycle. Finally, the third part will discuss the current findings and future directions, and proposes advanced transgenic mouse models for their potential use in alcohol research.

  1. Development of preservice elementary teachers' science self- efficacy beliefs and its relation to science conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the changes in preservice elementary teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and the factors associated in a specialized elementary physics content course. In addition, the study is one of few to investigate the relationship between the changes in science self-efficacy beliefs and changes in physical science conceptual understanding. Participants included fifty-one preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two term of the physical science content course. Data collection and analysis procedures included both qualitative and quantitative measures. Data collection included implementation of Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) (Bleicher, 2004) and Physical Science Concept Test as pre- and post-test, two semi-structured interviews with 18 participants (nine each semester), classroom observations and artifacts. A pre-post, repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs on both scales of STEBI-B - personal science teaching beliefs and outcome expectancy beliefs. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between science conceptual understandings and personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Post-hoc analysis of the STEBI-B data was used to select 18 participants for interviews. The participants belonged to each group representing the low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. Participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and confidence to teach science in future. Four categories that represented the course-related factors contributing towards science self

  2. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well...... as refutation of safety and liveness properties. However, the algorithmic construction of finite abstractions from potentially infinite concurrent processes is a missing link that prevents their more widespread usage for model checking of concurrent systems. Our algorithm is a worklist algorithm using concepts...... from abstract interpretation and operating upon mappings from sets to intervals in order to express simultaneous over- and underapprox-imations of the multisets of process actions available in a particular state. We obtain a finite abstraction that is 3-valued in both states and transitions...

  3. Managing Complexity of Control Software through Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we are concerned with the development of concurrent software for embedded systems. The emphasis is on the development of control software. Embedded systems are concurrent systems whereby hardware and software communicate with the concurrent world. Concurrency is essential, which

  4. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    of concurrency in DCR Graphs admits asynchronous execution of declarative workflows both conceptually and by reporting on a prototype implementation of a distributed declarative workflow engine. Both the theoretical development and the implementation is supported by an extended example; moreover, the theoretical....... In this paper, we pro- pose a notion of concurrency for declarative process models, formulated in the context of Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) graphs, and exploiting the so-called “true concurrency” semantics of Labelled Asynchronous Transition Systems. We demonstrate how this semantic underpinning...

  5. Understanding adolescent mental health: the influence of social processes, doing gender and gendered power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Asplund, Kenneth; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2009-11-01

    Despite a well-documented gender pattern in adolescent mental health, research investigating possible explanatory factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This paper reports a grounded theory study based on 29 focus groups. The aim was to explore 16- to 19-year-old students' perceptions of what is significant for mental health, and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to advance understanding of the gender pattern in adolescent mental health. Significant factors were identified in three social processes categories, including both positive and negative aspects: (1) social interactions, (2) performance and (3) responsibility. Girls more often experienced negative aspects of these processes, placing them at greater risk for mental health problems. Boys' more positive mental health appeared to be associated with their low degree of responsibility-taking and beneficial positions relative to girls. Negotiating cultural norms of femininity and masculinity seemed to be more strenuous for girls, which could place them at a disadvantage with regard to mental health. Social factors and processes (particularly responsibility), gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities and femininities should be acknowledged as important for adolescent mental health.

  6. Tumour biology of obesity-related cancers: understanding the molecular concept for better diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Seong Lin; Das, Srijit

    2016-11-01

    Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Overexpression of miR-143 inhibits tumour growth by suppressing B cell lymphoma 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 activities and KRAS oncogene. Cancers of the breast, uterus, renal, thyroid and liver are also related to obesity. Any disturbance in the production of sex hormones and insulin, leads to distortion in the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The possible mechanism linking obesity to cancer involves alteration in the level of adipokines and sex hormones. These mediators act as biomarkers for cancer progression and act as targets for cancer therapy and prevention. Interestingly, many anti-cancerous drugs are also beneficial in treating obesity and vice versa. We also reviewed the possible link in the mechanism of few drugs which act both on cancer and obesity. The present review may be important for molecular biologists, oncologists and clinicians treating cancers and also pave the way for better therapeutic options.

  7. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  8. A Model for Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for concurrent objects where obejcts interact by taking part in common events that are closely matched to form call-response pairs, resulting in resulting in rendez-vous like communications. Objects are built from primitive objects by parallel composition, encapsulation...

  9. True Concurrency can be Traced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sets of labelled partial orders are employed as fundamental mathematical entities for modelling nondeterministic and concurrent processes thereby obtaining so-called noninterleaving semantics. Based on closures of sets of labelled partial orders, a simple algebraic language with ref...

  10. Relationships between models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro; Winskel, Glynn

    1994-01-01

    Models for concurrency can be classified with respect to the three relevant parameters: behaviour/system, interleaving/noninterleaving, linear/branching time. When modelling a process, a choice concerning such parameters corresponds to choosing the level of abstraction of the resulting semantics....

  11. Making species checklists understandable to machines - a shift from relational databases to ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenne, Nina; Tuominen, Jouni; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    The scientific names of plants and animals play a major role in Life Sciences as information is indexed, integrated, and searched using scientific names. The main problem with names is their ambiguous nature, because more than one name may point to the same taxon and multiple taxa may share the same name. In addition, scientific names change over time, which makes them open to various interpretations. Applying machine-understandable semantics to these names enables efficient processing of biological content in information systems. The first step is to use unique persistent identifiers instead of name strings when referring to taxa. The most commonly used identifiers are Life Science Identifiers (LSID), which are traditionally used in relational databases, and more recently HTTP URIs, which are applied on the Semantic Web by Linked Data applications. We introduce two models for expressing taxonomic information in the form of species checklists. First, we show how species checklists are presented in a relational database system using LSIDs. Then, in order to gain a more detailed representation of taxonomic information, we introduce meta-ontology TaxMeOn to model the same content as Semantic Web ontologies where taxa are identified using HTTP URIs. We also explore how changes in scientific names can be managed over time. The use of HTTP URIs is preferable for presenting the taxonomic information of species checklists. An HTTP URI identifies a taxon and operates as a web address from which additional information about the taxon can be located, unlike LSID. This enables the integration of biological data from different sources on the web using Linked Data principles and prevents the formation of information silos. The Linked Data approach allows a user to assemble information and evaluate the complexity of taxonomical data based on conflicting views of taxonomic classifications. Using HTTP URIs and Semantic Web technologies also facilitate the representation of the

  12. Laypersons' understanding of relative risk reductions: Randomised cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients in decisions on preventive healthcare interventions, little is known about how well patients understand and utilise information provided on the relative benefits from these interventions. The aim of this study was to explore whether lay people can discriminate between preventive interventions when effectiveness is presented in terms of relative risk reduction (RRR, and whether such discrimination is influenced by presentation of baseline risk. Methods The study was a randomised cross-sectional interview survey of a representative sample (n = 1,519 of lay people with mean age 59 (range 40–98 years in Denmark. In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked to consider a hypothetical drug treatment to prevent heart attack. Its effectiveness was randomly presented as RRR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 percent, and half of the respondents were presented with quantitative information on the baseline risk of heart attack. The respondents had also been asked whether they were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total, 873 (58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. While 49% accepted the treatment when RRR = 10%, the acceptance rate was 58–60% for RRR>10. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates across respondents irrespective of whether they had been presented with quantitative information on baseline risk or not. Conclusion In this study, lay people's decisions about therapy were only slightly influenced by the magnitude of the effect when it was presented in terms of RRR. The results may indicate that lay people have difficulties in discriminating between levels of effectiveness when they are presented in terms of RRR.

  13. Patterns of adult cross-racial friendships: A context for understanding contemporary race relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Deborah L; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Powell, Lauren; Allison, Jeroan

    2016-10-01

    This study examined patterns, characteristics, and predictors of cross-racial friendships as the context for understanding contemporary race relations. A national survey included 1,055 respondents, of whom 55% were white, 32% were black, and 74% were female; ages ranged from 18 to ≥65 years. Focus groups were conducted to assess societal and personal benefits. Participants (n = 31) were racially diverse and aged 20 to 66 years. After accounting for multiple covariates, regression analysis revealed that Asians, Hispanics, and multiracial individuals are more likely than their white and black counterparts to have cross-racial friends. Females were less likely than males to have 8 or more cross-racial friends. Regression analysis revealed that the depth of cross-racial friendships was greater for women than men and for those who shared more life experiences. Increasing age was associated with lower cross-racial friendship depth. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and focus group data established the social context as directly relevant to the number and depth of friendships. Despite the level of depth in cross-racial friendships, respondents described a general reluctance to discuss any racially charged societal events, such as police shootings of unarmed black men. This study identified salient characteristics of individuals associated with cross-racial friendships and highlighted the influence of the social, historical, and political context in shaping such friendships. Our findings suggest that contemporary race relations reflect progress as well as polarization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  15. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  16. Understanding the role of mind wandering in stress-related working memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Boals, Adriel

    2017-08-01

    Mind wandering has been identified as a possible cause for stress-related working memory (WM) task impairments following laboratory stressors. The current study attempted to induce mind wandering regarding negative, positive, or neutral events using an expressive writing task and examined the impact on WM task performance. We examined the role of mind wandering in understanding the impact of life stress on WM. Additionally, we explored the role of thought suppression on the relationship between mind wandering and WM. One hundred and fifty participants completed WM measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the writing manipulation. The writing manipulation did not alter mind wandering or WM task performance. Time 1 WM predicted mind wandering during the Time 2 WM task, which subsequently predicted poorer Time 2 WM task performance. The impact of daily life stress on WM was mediated by mind wandering. Trait levels of thought suppression moderated the impact of mind wandering on WM. Specifically, higher levels of suppression resulted in stronger negative impact of mind wandering on WM task performance. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of mind wandering on WM task performance.

  17. Making Sense of Abstract Algebra: Exploring Secondary Teachers' Understandings of Inverse Functions in Relation to Its Group Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on semi-structured, task-based interviews to explore secondary teachers' (N = 7) understandings of inverse functions in relation to abstract algebra. In particular, a concept map task is used to understand the degree to which participants, having recently taken an abstract algebra course, situated inverse functions within its…

  18. Children’s understanding of Aesop’s fables: Relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Patricia Pelletier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined children’s developing understanding of Aesop’s fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop’s fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old and Senior (5-year-old Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children’s responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children’s theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children’s fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children’s ability to judge characters’ intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  19. Children’s understanding of Aesop’s fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children’s developing understanding of Aesop’s fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop’s fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children’s responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children’s theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children’s fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children’s ability to judge characters’ intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables. PMID:26500569

  20. How does undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding, in regard to the role of the seed plant root system, relate to their level of understanding of photosynthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeng'ere, James Gicheha

    This research study investigated how undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding of the role of the seed plant root system relates to their level of understanding of photosynthesis. This research was conducted with 65 undergraduate non-majors biology who had completed 1 year of biology at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge and Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond. A root probe instrument was developed from some scientifically acceptable propositional statements about the root system, the process of photosynthesis, as well as the holistic nature of the tree. These were derived from research reviews of the science education and the arboriculture literature. This was administered to 65 students selected randomly from class lists of the two institutions. Most of the root probe's items were based on the Live Oak tree. An in-depth, clinical interview-based analysis was conducted with 12 of those tested students. A team of root experts participated by designing, validating and answering the same questions that the students were asked. A "systems" lens as defined by a team of college instructors, root experts (Shigo, 1991), and this researcher was used to interpret the results. A correlational coefficient determining students' level of understanding of the root system and their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis was established by means of Pearson's r correlation (r = 0.328) using the SAS statistical analysis (SAS, 1987). From this a coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.104) was determined. Students' level of understanding of the Live Oak root system (mean score 5.94) was not statistically different from their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis (mean score 5.54) as assessed by the root probe, t (129) = 0.137, p > 0.05 one tailed-test. This suggests that, to some degree, level of the root system limits level of understanding of photosynthesis and vice versa. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative

  1. Understanding the Relation between Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa in a Swedish National Twin Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura; Root, Tammy L.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Background We present a bivariate twin analysis of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) to determine the extent to which shared genetic and environmental factors contribute to liability to these disorders. Method Focusing on females from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) (N=7000), we calculated heritability estimates for narrow and broad AN and BN and estimated their genetic correlation. Results In the full model, the heritability estimate for narrow AN was (a2 = .57; 95% CI: .00, .81) and for narrow BN (a2 = .62; 95% CI: .08, .70) with the remaining variance accounted for by unique environmental factors. Shared environmental factors estimates were (c2 = .00; 95% CI: .00, .67) for AN and (c2 = .00; 95% CI: .00, .40) for BN. Moderate additive genetic (.46) and unique environmental (.42) correlations between AN and BN were observed. Heritability estimates for broad AN were lower (a2 = .29; 95% CI: .04, .43) than for narrow AN, but estimates for broad BN were similar to narrow BN. The genetic correlation for broad AN and BN was .79 and the unique environmental correlation was .44. Conclusions We highlight the contribution of additive genetic factors to both narrow and broad AN and BN and demonstrate a moderate overlap of both genetic and unique environmental factors that influence the two conditions. Common concurrent and sequential comorbidity of AN and BN can in part be accounted for by shared genetic and environmental influences on liability although independent factors also operative. PMID:19828139

  2. Once upon a time : Understanding team processes as relational event networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.T.A.J.; Contractor, N.; DeChurch, L.

    2016-01-01

    For as long as groups and teams have been the subject of scientific inquiry, researchers have been interested in understanding the relationships that form within them, and the pace at which these relationships develop and change. Despite this interest in understanding the process underlying the

  3. Introductory Psychology: How Student Experiences Relate to Their Understanding of Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Thomas; Richardson, Deborah; Hammock, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Many students who declare a psychology major are unaware that they are studying a scientific discipline, precipitating a need for exercises and experiences that help students understand the scientific nature of the discipline. The present study explores aspects of an introductory psychology class that may contribute to students' understanding of…

  4. Children's understanding of cancer and views on health-related behaviour: a 'draw and write' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, K; Rowa-Dewar, N; Malcolm, C; Kearney, N; Gibson, F

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored young children's understanding of cancer and health-related behaviours yet this is essential to develop health promotion initiatives that build on young children's current knowledge levels and awareness. An exploratory descriptive design using the 'draw and write' technique was used to investigate children's views of cancer and health behaviours. The sample included 195 children aged eight to 11 years from five schools in deprived, affluent and rural locations in Scotland. When asked about cancer children demonstrated a good level of awareness by responding with text and drawings about the what they understood cancer to be; types of cancer; causes of cancer; what happens to people who have cancer; their personal experience of cancer and the emotions they associated with cancer. Older children, and children attending affluent schools, have more defined ideas about the causes of cancer and awareness of broader issues such as the risk of passive smoking or the potential impact on the family. Factors such as alcohol and illegal drugs were only reported by children attending schools in deprived locations. Children demonstrated considerable knowledge about healthy and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours; however, it is not clear whether this knowledge translates into their behaviours or the choices offered within their home environment. Children view cancer in a negative way from an early age, even without personal experience. There is a need to demystify cancer in terms of its causes, how to recognize it, how it is treated and to publicize improved survival rates. There is a need for targeted and developmentally appropriate approaches to be taken to health education in schools, with an awareness of the influence of the media on children's information. Strategies should take into consideration the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lives which influence their choices and behaviours. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  6. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    it is a structural premise. We also know that logistics costs generally are estimated 15-20% of total product costs. Accordingly, it stands to reason that a company can reduce costs, and thereby gain an edge on its competitors, by tailoring the supply chain in question to an individual product or product family; i.......e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...... and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....

  7. Moments analysis of concurrent Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBeth, G.W.; Cross, P.

    1975-01-01

    A moments analysis of concurrent Poisson processes has been carried out. Equations are given which relate combinations of distribution moments to sums of products involving the number of counts associated with the processes and the mean rate of the processes. Elimination of background is discussed and equations suitable for processing random radiation, parent-daughter pairs in the presence of background, and triple and double correlations in the presence of background are given. The theory of identification of the four principle radioactive series by moments analysis is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Concurrency control in distributed database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, W; Gelenbe, E

    1989-01-01

    Distributed Database Systems (DDBS) may be defined as integrated database systems composed of autonomous local databases, geographically distributed and interconnected by a computer network.The purpose of this monograph is to present DDBS concurrency control algorithms and their related performance issues. The most recent results have been taken into consideration. A detailed analysis and selection of these results has been made so as to include those which will promote applications and progress in the field. The application of the methods and algorithms presented is not limited to DDBSs but a

  9. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  10. PyCSP - controlled concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Brian; Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus

    2010-01-01

    Producing readable and correct programs while at the same time taking advantage of multi-core architectures is a challenge. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes algebra (CSP) for the Python programming language, that take advantage of CSP's formal and verifiable approach...... to controlling concurrency and the readability of Python source code. We describe PyCSP, demonstrate it through examples and demonstrate how PyCSP compares to Pthreads in a master-worker benchmark....

  11. PyCSP - controlled concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Vinter, Brian; Bjørndalen, John Markus

    Producing readable and correct programs while at the same time taking advantage of multi-core architectures is a challenge. PyCSP is an implementation of Communicating Sequential Processes algebra (CSP) for the Python programming language, taking advantage of CSP’s formal and verifiable approach...... to controlling concurrency and the readability of Python source code. We describe PyCSP, demonstrate it through examples and demonstrate how PyCSP compares to Pthreads using a benchmark....

  12. Activities relating to understanding the initiation, organization and structure of moist convection in the Southeast environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnider, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 1986, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will sponsor the Satellite Precipitation And Cloud Experiment (SPACE) to be conducted in the Central Tennessee, Northern Alabama, and Northeastern Mississippi area. The field program will incorporate high altitude flight experiments associated with meteorological remote sensor development for future space flight, and an investigation of precipitation processes associated with mesoscale and small convective systems. In addition to SPACE, the MIcroburst and Severe Thunderstorm (MIST) program, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the FAA-Lincoln Laboratory Operational Weather Study (FLOWS), sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), will take place concurrently within the SPACE experiment area. All three programs (under the joint acronym COHMEX (COoperative Huntsville Meteorological EXperiment)) will provide a data base for detailed analysis of mesoscale convective systems while providing ground truth comparisons for remote sensor evaluation. The purpose of this document is to outline the experiment design criteria for SPACE, and describe the special observing facilities and data sets that will be available under the COHMEX joint program. In addition to the planning of SPACE-COHMEX, this document covers three other parts of the program. The field program observations' main activity was the operation of an upper air rawinsonde network to provide ground truth for aircraft and spacecraft observations. Another part of the COHMEX program involved using boundary layer mesoscale models to study and simulate the initiation and organization of moist convection due to mesoscale thermal and mechanical circulations. The last part of the program was the collection, archival and distribution of the resulting COHMEX-SPACE data sets.

  13. Concurrent chemoradiation for vaginal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Miyamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy improves outcomes in primary vaginal cancer. Here, we review clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT. METHODS: Seventy-one patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution were identified and their records reviewed. A total of 51 patients were treated with RT alone; 20 patients were treated with CRT. Recurrences were analyzed. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 18-92 years and the median follow-up time among survivors was 3.0 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for OS and DFS differed significantly between the RT and CRT groups (3-yr OS = 56% vs. 79%, log-rank p = 0.037; 3-yr DFS = 43% vs. 73%, log-rank p = 0.011. Twenty-three patients (45% in the RT group had a relapse at any site compared to 3 (15% in the CRT group (p = 0.027. With regard to the sites of first relapse, 10 patients (14% had local only, 4 (6% had local and regional, 9 (13% had regional only, 1 (1% had regional and distant, and 2 (3% had distant only relapse. On univariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy, FIGO stage, tumor size, and date of diagnosis were significant predictors of DFS. On multivariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy remained a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10-0.97; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal cancer results in poor outcomes. Adequate radiation dose is essential to ensure curative management. Concurrent chemotherapy should be considered for vaginal cancer patients.

  14. Concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hoshang

    2005-01-01

    We propose concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states based on an orthogonal complement of a positive operator-valued measure on quantum phase. In particular, we construct W m class, GHZ m , and GHZ m-1 class concurrences for general pure m-partite states. We give explicit expressions for W 3 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure three-partite states and for W 4 , GHZ 4 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure four-partite states

  15. Using Geomorphic Change Detection to Understand Restoration Project Success Relative to Stream Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A.; Segura, C.

    2017-12-01

    Large wood (LW) jams have long been utilized as a stream restoration strategy to create fish habitat, with a strong focus on Coho salmon in the Pacific Northwest. These projects continue to be implemented despite limited understanding of their success in streams of different size. In this study, we assessed the changes triggered by LW introductions in 10 alluvial plane bed reaches with varying drainage areas (3.9-22 km²) and bankfull widths (6.4-14.7 m) in one Oregon Coast Range basin. In this basin, LW was added in an effort to improve winter rearing habitat for Coho salmon. We used detailed topographic mapping (0.5 m² resolution) to describe the local stream and floodplain geometry. Pebble counts were used to monitor changes in average substrate size after the LW addition. Field surveys were conducted immediately after the LW were installed, in the summer of 2016, and one year after installation, in the summer of 2017. We used geomorphic change detection analysis to quantify the amount of scour and deposition at each site along with changes in average bankfull width. Then we determined the relative amount of change among all sites to identify which size stream changed the most. We also modeled fluctuations in water surface elevation at each site, correlating frequency and inundation of the LW with geomorphic changes detected from the topographic surveys. Preliminary results show an increase in channel width and floodplain connectivity at all sites, indicating an increase in off-channel habitat for juvenile Coho salmon. Bankfull widths increased up to 75% in small sites and up to 25% in large sites. Median grain size became coarser in large streams (increased up to 20%), while we saw a similar amount of fining at smaller sites. The overall increase in channel width is compensated by an overall decrease in bed elevation at both large and small sites, suggesting the maintenance of overall geomorphic equilibrium. Further work will include quantifying these

  16. Mindful Parenting and Emotion Socialization Practices: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Laura G; Parent, Justin; Zachary, Chloe R; Forehand, Rex

    2017-11-01

    Caregivers play a crucial role in the socialization of youth emotion understanding, competence, and regulation, which are implicated in youth social and emotional health; however, there is less understanding of parental psychosocial or cognitive factors, like mindful parenting, that may be associated with the use of particular emotion socialization (ES) strategies. This study tests a model of the cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal associations between mindful parenting and supportive and nonsupportive ES strategies in a community sample of parents (N = 246; 63.8% mothers) of youth ranging from ages 3-12. Caregivers reported on mindful parenting and ES strategies at two time points 4 months apart. The structural equation model indicated that higher levels of mindful parenting are positively related to supportive ES responses and negatively related to nonsupportive ES responses both concurrently and over time. The longitudinal association between mindful parenting and nonsupportive, but not supportive, ES was marginally larger for fathers as compared to mothers. Given the documented impact of ES strategies on youth emotional and behavioral outcomes and interventions emerging to educate parents about how to provide a healthy emotional atmosphere, incorporating a focus on mindful parenting strategies may provide one pathway to increase supportive responses and decrease nonsupportive ones. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  17. Prediction of Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation Skills of 4-5 Age Group Children with Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…

  18. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  19. Mother- and Father-Reported Reactions to Children's Negative Emotions: Relations to Young Children's Emotional Understanding and Friendship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    Mother- and father-reported reactions to children's negative emotions were examined as correlates of emotional understanding (Study 1, N = 55, 5- to 6-year-olds) and friendship quality (Study 2, N = 49, 3- to 5-year-olds). Mothers' and fathers' supportive reactions together contributed to greater child-friend coordinated play during a sharing task. Further, when one parent reported low support, greater support by the other parent was related to better understanding of emotions and less intens...

  20. Seeking Understanding of Foreign Language Teachers' Shifting Emotions in Relation to Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohotie-Lyhty, Maria; Korppi, Aino; Moate, Josephine; Nyman, Tarja

    2018-01-01

    Teaching is recognised as an emotional practice. Studies have highlighted the importance of teachers' emotional literacy in the development of pupils' emotional skills, the central position of emotions in teachers' ways of knowing, and in their professional development. This longitudinal study draws on a dialogic understanding of emotion to…

  1. Managing Resources and Relations in Higher Education Institutions: A Framework for Understanding Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sophia Shi-Huei; Peng, Michael Yao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social systems demonstrate that various structural disadvantages have jointly led to increasing competition among higher education institutions (HEIs) in many countries, especially Taiwan. Institutional administrators must recognize the need to understand how to improve performance and consistently outperform other institutions.…

  2. Expanded Understanding of IS/IT Related Challenges in Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Organizational Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) occur at an increasingly frequent pace in today’s business life. Paralleling this development, M&As has increasingly attracted attention from the Information Systems (IS) domain. This emerging line of research has started form an understanding...

  3. Development of Body-Part Vocabulary in Toddlers in Relation to Self-Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Whitney E.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand young children's ability to communicate about their bodies, toddlers' comprehension and production of 27 common body-part words was assessed using parental report at 20 and 30 months (n?=?64), and self-awareness was assessed using mirror self-recognition. Children at both ages comprehended more body-part words that referred to…

  4. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  5. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  6. Mathematical techniques for analyzing concurrent and probabilistic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, J J M M; Panangaden, Prakash; Panangaden, Prakash; Breugel, Franck van

    2004-01-01

    The book consists of two sets of lecture notes devoted to slightly different methods of analysis of concurrent and probabilistic computational systems. The first set of lectures develops a calculus of streams (a generalization of the set of natural numbers) based on the coinduction principle coming from the theory of coalgebras. It is now well understood that the interplay between algebra (for describing structure) and coalgebra (for describing dynamics) is crucial for understanding concurrent systems. There is a striking analogy between streams and formula calculus reminiscent to those appearing in quantum calculus. These lecture notes will appeal to anyone working in concurrency theory but also to algebraists and logicians. The other set of lecture notes focuses on methods for automatically verifying probabilistic systems using techniques of model checking. The unique aspect of these lectures is the coverage of both theory and practice. The authors have been responsible for one of the most successful experi...

  7. How Formal Dynamic Verification Tools Facilitate Novel Concurrency Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aananthakrishnan, Sriram; Delisi, Michael; Vakkalanka, Sarvani; Vo, Anh; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Kirby, Robert M.; Thakur, Rajeev

    With the exploding scale of concurrency, presenting valuable pieces of information collected by formal verification tools intuitively and graphically can greatly enhance concurrent system debugging. Traditional MPI program debuggers present trace views of MPI program executions. Such views are redundant, often containing equivalent traces that permute independent MPI calls. In our ISP formal dynamic verifier for MPI programs, we present a collection of alternate views made possible by the use of formal dynamic verification. Some of ISP’s views help pinpoint errors, some facilitate discerning errors by eliminating redundancy, while others help understand the program better by displaying concurrent even orderings that must be respected by all MPI implementations, in the form of completes-before graphs. In this paper, we describe ISP’s graphical user interface (GUI) capabilities in all these areas which are currently supported by a portable Java based GUI, a Microsoft Visual Studio GUI, and an Eclipse based GUI whose development is in progress.

  8. Toward a better understanding of the relation between music preference, listening behavior, and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunn, Greg; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Bouwhuis, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research relating personality and music preferences has often measured such reported preferences according to genre labels. To support previous research, the current paper has expanded investigation of the relation between personality and music preferences to include direct measurement of

  9. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  10. Understanding Vehicle Related Crime to Elaborate on Countermeasures Based on ADAS and V2X Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter; Schoch, Elmar; Müller, Maik; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous types of criminal activities, vehicle related crime contributes to personal injury as well as to economic losses. Over the last 10 years vehicle related crime continuously constitutes over 10% of all crime in Germany. However, vehicle related crime is not particularly a German

  11. Steps in Modular Specifications for Concurrent Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Rocha Pinto, Pedro; Dinsdale-Young, Thomas; Gardner, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent module......, in particular highlighting four key concepts: auxiliary state, interference abstraction, resource ownership and atomicity. We show how these concepts combine to provide powerful approaches to specifying concurrent modules.......The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent modules...

  12. Specifying and Verifying Concurrent Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    for Verification and Specification of Concurrent Systems, held in La - Colle - Sur - Loup , France in October, 1984. Work Supported in part by the National...Proc. ACM Symposium on Princi- 0 ples of Programming Languages, Las Vegas, (January 1980), 251-261. [7] J. V. Guttag and J. J. Horning. An Introduction...names in ’V(S). However, the two formulas behave differently under a renaming mapping p. In particu- lar. p(Vv :A( LA )) equals Vv :p(A(v)), so the

  13. Multiprocessor systems and their concurrency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, P H

    1984-01-01

    A multiprocessor system can be considered as a collection of finite automata which communicate over channels or shared memory units. The behaviour of such a system can be described by a semilanguage. This approach allows to define a numerical measure for the concurrency of multiprocessor systems and of distributed systems. This measure is characterized algebraically and the reconfiguration problem asking for an algorithm to construct an l-processor system which is equivalent to a given n-processor system is solved in the paper. 6 references.

  14. Exploring students' understanding of reference frames and time in Galilean and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hosson, C; Kermen, I; Parizot, E

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring prospective physics teachers' reasoning associated with the concepts of reference frame, time and event which form the framework of the classical kinematics and that of the relativistic kinematics. About 100 prospective physics teachers were surveyed by means of a questionnaire involving classical kinematics situations and relativistic ones. The analysis of the answers shows a deep lack of understanding of both concepts of reference frame and event. Some students think that events may be simultaneous for an observer and not simultaneous for another one, even when both observers are located in the same reference frame. Most of the students surveyed cannot give an answer only depending on the location of the observer when his/her velocity is mentioned as if the movement contaminated the event. This lack of understanding is embodied in reasoning implemented by the population surveyed to address classical kinematics questions and seems to form a major obstacle to grasping relativistic kinematics.

  15. Qatar pharmacists' understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al-Saeed, Hassna Sohil; Khaja, Maryam

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceutical care (PC) is the philosophy of practice that includes identifying and resolving medication therapy problems to improve patient outcomes. The study objectives were to examine the extent of pharmaceutical care practice and the barriers to pharmaceutical care provision as perceived by Qatar pharmacists and to assess their level of understanding of pharmaceutical care and their attitudes about pharmaceutical care provision. Setting Qatar pharmacies. A cross sectional survey of all pharmacists in Qatar was made. Consenting pharmacists were given the option to complete the survey either online using an online software or as paper by fax or by hand. 1. Extent of pharmaceutical care practice in Qatar. 2. Barriers to pharmaceutical care provision in Qatar. 3. Qatar pharmacists' level of understanding of pharmaceutical care. 4. Qatar pharmacists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical care provision. Over 8 weeks, 274 surveys were collected (34 % response rate). More than 80 % of respondents had correct understanding of the aim of PC and of the pharmacist role in PC. However, only 47 % recognized the patient role in PC and only 35 % were aware of the differences between clinical pharmacy and PC. Yet, more than 80 % believed that they could be advocates when it comes to patients' medications and health matters. Concerning their practice, respondents reported spending little time on PC activities. Offering feedback to the physician about the patient progress was always or most of the time performed by 21 % of respondents. The top perceived barriers for PC provision included inconvenient access to patient medical information (78 %) and lack of staff and time (77 and 74 % respectively). Although PC is not incorporated into pharmacy practice, Qatar pharmacists showed positive attitudes toward PC provision. Further work should focus on improving their PC understanding and on overcoming all barriers.

  16. Phase 1/2 Trial of 5-Fraction Stereotactic Radiosurgery With 5-mm Margins With Concurrent and Adjuvant Temozolomide in Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Glioblastoma: Health-Related Quality of Life Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Fujimoto, Dylann; Wynne, Jacob; Seiger, Kira; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jacobs, Lisa R.; Azoulay, Melissa; Eyben, Rie von; Tupper, Laurie; Gibbs, Iris C.; Hancock, Steven L.; Li, Gordon; Chang, Steven D.; Adler, John R.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Harraher, Ciara; Nagpal, Seema; Thomas, Reena P.; Recht, Lawrence D.; Choi, Clara Y.H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We report a longitudinal assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) treated on a prospective dose escalation trial of 5-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (25-40 Gy in 5 fractions) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. Methods: HRQOL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaire core-30 (QLQ-C30) general, the EORTC quality of life questionnaire-brain cancer specific module (QLQ-BN20), and the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory–Brain Tumor (MDASI-BT). Questionnaires were completed at baseline and at every follow-up visit after completion of radiosurgery. Changes from baseline for 9 predefined HRQOL measures (global quality of life, physical functioning, social functioning, emotional functioning, motor dysfunction, communication deficit, fatigue, insomnia, and future uncertainty) were calculated at every time point. Results: With a median follow-up time of 10.4 months (range, 0.4-52 months), 139 total HRQOL questionnaires were completed by the 30 patients on trial. Compliance with HRQOL assessment was 76% at 12 months. Communication deficit significantly worsened over time, with a decline of 1.7 points per month (P=.008). No significant changes over time were detected in the other 8 scales of our primary analysis, including global quality of life. Although 8 patients (27%) experienced adverse radiation effects (ARE) on this dose escalation trial, it was not associated with a statistically significant decline in any of the primary HRQOL scales. Disease progression was associated with communication deficit, with patients experiencing an average worsening of 13.9 points per month after progression compared with 0.7 points per month before progression (P=.01). Conclusion: On this 5-fraction dose escalation protocol for newly diagnosed GBM, overall HRQOL remained stable and appears similar to historical controls of 30 fractions of

  17. Phase 1/2 Trial of 5-Fraction Stereotactic Radiosurgery With 5-mm Margins With Concurrent and Adjuvant Temozolomide in Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Glioblastoma: Health-Related Quality of Life Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Fujimoto, Dylann; Wynne, Jacob; Seiger, Kira; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jacobs, Lisa R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Azoulay, Melissa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Eyben, Rie von; Tupper, Laurie; Gibbs, Iris C.; Hancock, Steven L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Li, Gordon; Chang, Steven D.; Adler, John R.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Harraher, Ciara [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Nagpal, Seema; Thomas, Reena P.; Recht, Lawrence D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Choi, Clara Y.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (United States); and others

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: We report a longitudinal assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) treated on a prospective dose escalation trial of 5-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (25-40 Gy in 5 fractions) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. Methods: HRQOL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaire core-30 (QLQ-C30) general, the EORTC quality of life questionnaire-brain cancer specific module (QLQ-BN20), and the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory–Brain Tumor (MDASI-BT). Questionnaires were completed at baseline and at every follow-up visit after completion of radiosurgery. Changes from baseline for 9 predefined HRQOL measures (global quality of life, physical functioning, social functioning, emotional functioning, motor dysfunction, communication deficit, fatigue, insomnia, and future uncertainty) were calculated at every time point. Results: With a median follow-up time of 10.4 months (range, 0.4-52 months), 139 total HRQOL questionnaires were completed by the 30 patients on trial. Compliance with HRQOL assessment was 76% at 12 months. Communication deficit significantly worsened over time, with a decline of 1.7 points per month (P=.008). No significant changes over time were detected in the other 8 scales of our primary analysis, including global quality of life. Although 8 patients (27%) experienced adverse radiation effects (ARE) on this dose escalation trial, it was not associated with a statistically significant decline in any of the primary HRQOL scales. Disease progression was associated with communication deficit, with patients experiencing an average worsening of 13.9 points per month after progression compared with 0.7 points per month before progression (P=.01). Conclusion: On this 5-fraction dose escalation protocol for newly diagnosed GBM, overall HRQOL remained stable and appears similar to historical controls of 30 fractions of

  18. A step towards understanding the mechanisms of running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between training-related characteristics and running-related injury using a new conceptual model for running-related injury generation, focusing on the synergy between training load and previous injuries, short-term running experience or body mass index (> or running training characteristics (weekly distance, frequency, speed), other sport participation and injuries on a dedicated internet platform. Weekly volume (dichotomized into running-related injury. Non-training-related characteristics were included in Cox regression analyses as effect-measure modifiers. Hazard ratio was the measure of association. The size of effect-measure modification was calculated as the relative excess risk due to interaction. One hundred sixty-seven runners reported a running-related injury. Crude analyses revealed that weekly volume running-related injury is influenced by body mass index and previous injury. These results show the importance to distinguish between confounding and effect-measure modification in running-related injury research. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concurrency at work with Go

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries are now required to be increasingly multi-thread-safe, if not multi-thread-friendly and multi-threaded. This is usually done using the new constructs and library components offered by the C++11 and C++14 standards. These components are however quite low-level (threads, mutexes, locks, ...) and hard to use and compose, or easy to misuse. However, Go -- a somewhat new language -- provides a set of better building blocks for tackling concurrency: goroutines and channels. This language is now used by the cloud industry at large; docker/moby, rkt, Kubernetes, OpenShift, etc... are obvious flagships for Go. It is also used in other interesting places like SpaceX's telemetry monitoring system and in the New York Times', YouTube's or Disney's content delivery infrastructures. In this talk, we will describe the building blocks of Go and see how they are combined to easily create concurrent programs that grow with grace, are fast to compile and deploy, but also easy to...

  20. Patients survey after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimane, Toshikazku; Egawa, Syunya; Mori, Tomoaki; Ono, Tomohiro; Monden, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Sei; Sanbe, Takeyuki; Suzaki, Harumi

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cancer of head and neck is becoming more popular as the treatment of choice. It is considered to maintain the quality of life (QOL) of patients better than operative treatments in terms of preserving the functions, organs, and figure, but recently we cannot necessarily say that it maintains the QOL of patients better than operative treatments because its complications after therapy disturb daily life. We report the results of a questionnaire survey about complications after therapy, problems during therapy, improvements, and satisfaction level directed at patients with cancer of the head and neck who received Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for the purpose of ascertaining if patients can actually maintain their QOL after therapy. As a result, the most controversial problem was mouth dryness, but the symptom improved as the follow-up duration got longer. As for the satisfaction level, 'very-satisfied' and 'almost-satisfied' were more than 90%, so we concluded that the QOL of patients is maintained after therapy, while there are still improvements to be made. We also concluded that we should continue to make improvement and try to improve the QOL of patients during and after therapy. (author)

  1. Understanding poverty-related diseases in Cameroon from a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Poverty-related diseases (PRDs) assume poverty as a determinant in catching disease and an obstacle for cure and recovery. In Cameroon, over 48 % of the population lives below the poverty line. This dissertation starts from the premise that the relation between poverty and disease is mediated by

  2. Toward an Understanding of the Use of Academic Theories in Public Relations Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Joep P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a focal issue in the public relations field: the way that practitioners use academic theories. Offers an exploration of the possible modes of use of academic or scientific theory in public relations practice. Notes that the premise of this model is that scientific knowledge is seldom used in an unaltered form in practice. Closes by…

  3. Understanding and Using the Relationships between Business and Professional Communication and Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of research and pedagogy from the public relations discipline can benefit the business and professional communication instructor seeking new dimensions for the business and professional communication classroom. Elements of public relations (PR) found in Association for Business Communication articles and journals may be incorporated in the…

  4. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  5. Understanding Work-Related Stress and Practice of Professional Self-Care--An Innovative Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Social workers experience tremendous work-related stress--particularly among those providing direct services in healthcare settings. A review of related literature summarized several critical challenges faced by social workers who work with highly difficult clients in these settings, including (a) clients who engage in manipulative high-risk…

  6. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Difficulties in Understanding Special Relativity Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü Yavas, Pervin; Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the reasons why pre-service physics teachers have difficulties related to special relativity topics. In this study conducted with 25 pre-service physics teachers, the case study method, which is a qualitative research method, was used. Interviews were held with the participants about their reasons for…

  7. Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah M; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the utility of the global positioning system (GPS) in the study of health-related physical activity. The paper draws from existing literature to outline the current work performed using GPS to examine transport-related physical activity, with a focus on the relative utility of the approach when combined with geographic information system (GIS) and other data sources including accelerometers. The paper argues that GPS, especially when used in combination with GIS and accelerometery, offers great promise in objectively measuring and studying the relationship of numerous environmental attributes to human behaviour in terms of physical activity and transport-related activity. Limitations to the use of GPS for the purpose of monitoring health-related physical activity are presented, and recommendations for future avenues of research are discussed.

  8. Children's aesthetic understanding of photographic art and the quality of art-related parent-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szechter, Lisa E; Liben, Lynn S

    2007-01-01

    This research was designed to examine the quality of children's aesthetic understanding of photographs, observe social interactions between parents and children in this aesthetic domain, and study whether qualitatively different dyadic interactions were associated with children's own aesthetic understanding. Parents and children (7-13 years; 40 dyads) individually completed measures of aesthetic understanding and jointly selected photographs for a souvenir scrapbook. Parents' artistic experience varied widely and was associated with their own performance on aesthetic understanding measures. Children's performance on the individual aesthetic tasks was related to age, but not to parents' art experience nor to the qualities of parent-child discussions of aesthetic concepts. Among both parents and children, artistic experience was associated with aesthetic preferences for photographs.

  9. Patient understanding of oral contraceptive pill instructions related to missed pills: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B; Steenland, Maria W; Brahmi, Dalia; Marchbanks, Polly A; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2013-05-01

    Instructions on what to do after pills are missed are critical to reducing unintended pregnancies resulting from patient non-adherence to oral contraceptive (OC) regimens. Missed pill instructions have previously been criticized for being too complex, lacking a definition of what is meant by "missed pills," and for being confusing to women who may not know the estrogen content of their formulation. To help inform the development of missed pill guidance to be included in the forthcoming US Selected Practice Recommendations, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence on patient understanding of missed pill instructions. We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles that examined patient understanding of OC pill instructions that were published in any language from inception of the database through March 2012. We included studies that examined women's knowledge and understanding of missed pill instructions after exposure to some written material (e.g., patient package insert, brochure), as well as studies that compared different types of missed pill instructions on women's comprehension. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. From 1620 articles, nine studies met our inclusion criteria. Evidence from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 1 pill than after missing 2 or 3 pills (Level I, good, to Level II-3, poor), and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 2 pills than after missing 3 pills (Level II-3, fair). Data from two descriptive studies documented the difficulty women have understanding missed pill instructions contained in patient package inserts (Level II-3, poor), and evidence from two RCTs found that providing written brochures with information on missed pill instructions in addition to contraceptive counseling significantly improved

  10. Understanding the gender differences in pathways to social deviancy: relational aggression and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Bonnie H

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Advancing Understanding on Industrial Relations in Multinational Companies: Key Research Challenges and the INTREPID Contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnigle, Patrick; Valeria, Pulignano; Edwards, Tony

    2015-01-01

    companies using INTREPID (Investigation of Transnationals’ Employment Practices: an International Database) data. Finally, the paper identifies some of the main industrial relations issues that remain to be addressed, in effect charting a form of research agenda for future work using the INTREPID data......This paper has three principal aims. It firstly provides some theoretical background on the key current research issues and challenges in regard to industrial relations in multinational companies. It then presents a concise review of scholarship to date on industrial relations in multinational...

  12. Performance of particle in cell methods on highly concurrent computational architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.F.; Ethier, S.; Wichmann, N.

    2009-01-01

    Particle in cell (PIC) methods are effective in computing Vlasov-Poisson system of equations used in simulations of magnetic fusion plasmas. PIC methods use grid based computations, for solving Poisson's equation or more generally Maxwell's equations, as well as Monte-Carlo type methods to sample the Vlasov equation. The presence of two types of discretizations, deterministic field solves and Monte-Carlo methods for the Vlasov equation, pose challenges in understanding and optimizing performance on today large scale computers which require high levels of concurrency. These challenges arises from the need to optimize two very different types of processes and the interactions between them. Modern cache based high-end computers have very deep memory hierarchies and high degrees of concurrency which must be utilized effectively to achieve good performance. The effective use of these machines requires maximizing concurrency by eliminating serial or redundant work and minimizing global communication. A related issue is minimizing the memory traffic between levels of the memory hierarchy because performance is often limited by the bandwidths and latencies of the memory system. This paper discusses some of the performance issues, particularly in regard to parallelism, of PIC methods. The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is used for these studies and a new radial grid decomposition is presented and evaluated. Scaling of the code is demonstrated on ITER sized plasmas with up to 16K Cray XT3/4 cores.

  13. Performance of particle in cell methods on highly concurrent computational architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M F; Ethier, S; Wichmann, N

    2007-01-01

    Particle in cell (PIC) methods are effective in computing Vlasov-Poisson system of equations used in simulations of magnetic fusion plasmas. PIC methods use grid based computations, for solving Poisson's equation or more generally Maxwell's equations, as well as Monte-Carlo type methods to sample the Vlasov equation. The presence of two types of discretizations, deterministic field solves and Monte-Carlo methods for the Vlasov equation, pose challenges in understanding and optimizing performance on today large scale computers which require high levels of concurrency. These challenges arises from the need to optimize two very different types of processes and the interactions between them. Modern cache based high-end computers have very deep memory hierarchies and high degrees of concurrency which must be utilized effectively to achieve good performance. The effective use of these machines requires maximizing concurrency by eliminating serial or redundant work and minimizing global communication. A related issue is minimizing the memory traffic between levels of the memory hierarchy because performance is often limited by the bandwidths and latencies of the memory system. This paper discusses some of the performance issues, particularly in regard to parallelism, of PIC methods. The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is used for these studies and a new radial grid decomposition is presented and evaluated. Scaling of the code is demonstrated on ITER sized plasmas with up to 16K Cray XT3/4 cores

  14. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  15. Reconsidering Feminisms and the Work of Norbert Elias for Understanding Gender, Sport and Sport-Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the relationships between feminist perspectives and the figurational/process-sociological perspective of Norbert Elias for understanding gender, sport and sport-related activities. The main aim of the article is to respond to Colwell's claim that there are differences between feminist and figurational approaches to…

  16. The Development of Gender Constancy in Early Childhood and Its Relation to Time Comprehension and False-Belief Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyj, Norbert; Bischof-Köhler, Doris

    2015-01-01

    What is the developmental course of children's gender constancy? Do other cognitive abilities such as time comprehension and false-belief understanding foster gender constancy and the subcomponents gender stability and gender consistency? We examined the development of gender constancy and its relation to time comprehension and false-belief…

  17. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  18. Student Understanding of the First Law of Thermodynamics: Relating Work to the Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverude, Michael E.; Kautz, Christian H.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of student understanding of the first law of thermodynamics. Involves students from a first-year university physics course and a second-year thermal physics course. Focuses on the ability of students to relate the first law to the adiabatic physics course. Discusses implications for thermal physics and mechanics…

  19. Applying linguistic methods to understanding smoking-related conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Brown, Cati G; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-03-01

    Social media, such as Twitter, have become major channels of communication and commentary on popular culture, including conversations on our nation's leading addiction: tobacco. The current study examined Twitter conversations following two tobacco-related events in the media: (1) President Obama's doctor announcing that he had quit smoking and (2) the release of a photograph of Miley Cyrus (a former Disney child star) smoking a cigarette. With a focus on high-profile individuals whose actions can draw public attention, we aimed to characterise tobacco-related conversations as an example of tobacco-related public discourse and to present a novel methodology for studying social media. Tweets were collected 11-13 November 2011 (President Obama) and 1-3 August 2011 (Miley Cyrus) and analysed for relative frequency of terms, a novel application of a linguistic methodology. The President Obama data set (N=2749 tweets) had conversations about him quitting tobacco as well as a preponderance of information on political activity, links to websites, racialised terms and mention of marijuana. Websites and terms about Obama's smoke-free status were most central to the conversation. In the Miley Cyrus data (N=4746 tweets), terms that occurred with the greatest relative frequency were positive, emotional and supportive of quitting (eg, love, and please), with words such as 'love' most central to the conversation. People are talking about tobacco-related issues on Twitter, and semantic network analysis can be used to characterise on-line conversations. Future interventions may be able to harness social media and major current events to raise awareness of smoking-related issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Understanding drug-related mortality in released prisoners: a review of national coronial records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Jessica Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prisoner population is characterised by a high burden of disease and social disadvantage, and ex-prisoners are at increased risk of death following release. Much of the excess mortality can be attributed to an increased risk of unnatural death, particularly from drug overdose; however, relatively few studies have investigated the circumstances surrounding drug-related deaths among released prisoners. This study aimed to explore and compare the circumstances of death for those who died from accidental drug-related causes to those who died from all other reportable causes. Methods A nationwide search of the Australian National Coroners Information System (NCIS was conducted to identify reportable deaths among ex-prisoners from 2000 to 2007. Using a structured coding form, NCIS records for these cases were interrogated to explore causes and circumstances of death. Results Coronial records for 388 deceased ex-prisoners were identified. Almost half of these deaths were a result of accidental drug-related causes (45%. The majority of accidental drug-related deaths occurred in a home environment, and poly-substance use at or around the time of death was common, recorded in 72% of drug-related deaths. Ex-prisoners who died of accidental drug-related causes were on average younger and less likely to be Indigenous, born in Australia, married, or living alone at or around the time of death, compared with those who died from all other reportable causes. Evidence of mental illness or self-harm was less common among accidental drug-related deaths, whereas evidence of previous drug overdose, injecting drug use, history of heroin use and history of drug withdrawal in the previous six months were more common. Conclusions Drug-related deaths are common among ex-prisoners and often occur in a home (vs. public setting. They are often associated with use of multiple substances at or around the time of death, risky drug-use patterns, and even

  1. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  2. Understanding work related musculoskeletal pain: does repetitive work cause stress symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2005-01-01

    for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. AIMS: To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. METHODS: In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive...... Profile Inventory. RESULTS: Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS......: The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted...

  3. Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Scott

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

  4. Children's Attachment-Related Narratives Following US Gulf Coast Hurricanes: Linkages with Understanding and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Verbovaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The central focus of this study was the perceptions of emotional security among 64 elementary school-aged children exposed to the hurricanes that affected the US Gulf Coast in 2005. Specifically, we examined the representational qualities of attachment, exploration, and caregiving as assessed with a narrative story-stem task in relation to…

  5. Substrate-Related Factors Affecting Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocelluloses: Our Recent Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of cellulose is a key step in conversion of plant biomass to advanced biofuel and chemicals. Many substrate-related factors affect saccharification. Rather than examining the role of each individual factor on overall saccharification efficiency, this study examined how each factor affects the three basic processes of a heterogeneous...

  6. Understanding the Relation between Attitude Involvement and Response Latitude Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Christopher J.; Withrow, Scott; Zickar, Michael J.; Wood, Nicole L.; Dalal, Dev K.; Bochinski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Adapting the original latitude of acceptance concept to Likert-type surveys, response latitudes are defined as the range of graded response options a person is willing to endorse. Response latitudes were expected to relate to attitude involvement such that high involvement was linked to narrow latitudes (the result of selective, careful…

  7. The Aftermath of Combat-Related PTSD: Toward an Understanding of Transgenerational Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearrow, Melissa; Cosgrove, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The number of military personnel who are involved in combat situations continues to increase. As a result, researchers have identified risk factors associated with the development of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors of this article review some of the characteristics of military personnel involved in these conflicts,…

  8. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  9. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  10. Understanding Social Learning Relations of International Students in a Large Classroom Using Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together with other students, which allows…

  11. Challenging the myth of the irrational dairy farmer; understanding decision-making related to herd health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, E; Jakobsen, E B

    2011-01-01

    Veterinarians working with dairy cows are suggested to refocus their efforts from being task-oriented providers of single-cow therapy and develop themselves into advice-oriented herd health management advisors. The practising cattle veterinarian's ability to translate knowledge into on-farm application requires a profound understanding of the dairy farm as an integrated system. Consequently, educating and motivating farmers are key issues. To achieve such insight the veterinarian needs to work with several scientific disciplines, especially epidemiology and (behavioural) economics. This trans-disciplinary approach offers new methodological possibilities and challenges to students of dairy herd health management. Advisors working with dairy herd health management may sometimes experience that farmers do not follow their advice. Potentially, this could lead to the interpretation that such farmers are behaving irrationally. However, farmers who are confronted with advice suggesting a change of behaviour are placed in a state of cognitive dissonance. To solve such dissonance they may either comply with the advice or reduce the dissonance by convincing themselves that the suggested change in management is impossible to implement. Consequently, herd health management advisors must understand the fundamental and instrumental relationships between individual farmers' values, behaviour and perception of risk, to stimulate and qualify the farmer's decision-making in a way that will increase the farmer's satisfaction and subjective well-being. Traditionally, studies on herd health economics have focussed on financial methods to measure the value of technical outcomes from suggested changes in management, following the basic assumption that farmers strive to maximise profit. Farmers, however, may be motivated by very different activities, e.g. animal health and welfare or other farmers' recognition, making it impossible to provide 'one-size-fts-all' consultancy because the

  12. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rana, Aadia; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2012-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women, or the social, structural and behavioural factors influencing concurrency. We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioural factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships, guided by grounded theory. Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors included social normalisation of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners' concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting partners. Lack of trust was the most commonly cited reason that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners' dependence on women for economic support and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioural factors included alcohol and cocaine use. Social, structural and behavioural factors strongly influenced these African American women's concurrent sexual partnerships. Many HIV interventions disseminated by the CDC focus largely on behavioural factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women's sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women's HIV risks are urgently needed.

  13. Rain VM: Portable Concurrency through Managing Code

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    A long-running recent trend in computer programming is the growth in popularity of virtual machines. However, few have included good support for concurrency - a natural mechanism in the Rain programming language. This paper details the design and implementation of a secure virtual machine with support for concurrency, which enables portability of concurrent programs. Possible implementation ideas of many-to-many threading models for the virtual machine kernel are discussed, and initial benchm...

  14. Comparative Approaches to Understanding the Relation Between Aging and Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Jamie N; Cesari, Matteo; Seals, Douglas R; Shively, Carol A; Carter, Christy S

    2016-10-01

    Despite dedicated efforts to identify interventions to delay aging, most promising interventions yielding dramatic life-span extension in animal models of aging are often ineffective when translated to clinical trials. This may be due to differences in primary outcomes between species and difficulties in determining the optimal clinical trial paradigms for translation. Measures of physical function, including brief standardized testing batteries, are currently being proposed as biomarkers of aging in humans, are predictive of adverse health events, disability, and mortality, and are commonly used as functional outcomes for clinical trials. Motor outcomes are now being incorporated into preclinical testing, a positive step toward enhancing our ability to translate aging interventions to clinical trials. To further these efforts, we begin a discussion of physical function and disability assessment across species, with special emphasis on mice, rats, monkeys, and man. By understanding how physical function is assessed in humans, we can tailor measurements in animals to better model those outcomes to establish effective, standardized translational functional assessments with aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The role of household chaos in understanding relations between early poverty and children's academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Irina; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Willoughby, Michael; Pan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The following prospective longitudinal study used an epidemiological sample (N = 1,236) to consider the potential mediating role of early cumulative household chaos (6–58 months) on associations between early family income poverty (6 months) and children's academic achievement in kindergarten. Two dimensions of household chaos, disorganization and instability, were examined as mediators. Results revealed that, in the presence of household disorganization (but not instability) and relevant covariates, income poverty was no longer directly related to academic achievement. Income poverty was, however, positively related to household disorganization, which was, in turn, associated with lower academic achievement. Study results are consistent with previous research indicating that household chaos conveys some of the adverse longitudinal effects of income poverty on children's outcomes and extend previous findings specifically to academic achievement in early childhood. PMID:27330247

  16. Renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation: Towards a relational understanding of technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruckenberg, Lena J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a surge in international programmes established to assist the adoption of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in low and lower-middle income countries. So far, such programmes have yielded mixed success. While partnerships between international, national and local organisations have become the pre-eminent model for RET programmes, we know relatively little about their contribution. This article traces the role of renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation, shifting the analytical emphasis from barriers and drivers to key actors and their relationships. It presents a relational approach for the analysis of development assistance for renewable energy, drawing on theories concerning the role of strong and weak ties in inter-organisational networks. Through an analysis of seven empirical cases from Central America, the article provides insights into how different forms of inter-organisational relationships can facilitate implementation of RET programmes but do not necessarily enhance the capacities of local organisations in a way to support a more sustainable adoption of RETs. On the basis of this analysis, theoretical and policy implications are given concerning the potential of relational approaches for researching technology diffusion processes, and the role of strong and weak ties for the success – or failure – of renewable energy partnerships. - Highlights: • Study of renewable energy partnerships in development cooperation. • Relational framework for analysis of inter-organisational technology diffusion. • Empirical cases of renewable energy partnerships in Central America. • Different types of network relationships enable/inhibit sustainable adoption. • Three policy recommendations for programme development

  17. Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing,, high throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterizati...

  18. Pragmatic critical realism: could this methodological approach expand our understanding of employment relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearns, Susan Lesley

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the need for employment relations academics and researchers to expand their use of research methodologies in order for them to enable the advancement of theoretical debate within their discipline. It focuses on the contribution that pragmatical critical realism has made to the field of perception and argues that it would add value to the subject of employment relations. It is a theoretically centred review of pragmatical critical realism and the possible contribution this methodology would make to the field of employment relations. The paper concludes that the employment relationship does not take place in a vacuum rather it is focussed on the interaction between imperfect individuals. Therefore, their interactions are moulded by emotions which can not be explored thoroughly or even acknowledged through a positivists' rigorous but limited acknowledgment of what constitutes 'knowledge' and development of theory. While not rejecting the contribution that quantitative data or positivism have made to the field, the study concludes that pragmatic critical realism has a lot to offer the development of the area and its theoretical foundations.

  19. Understanding work related musculoskeletal pain: does repetitive work cause stress symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, J P; Mikkelsen, S; Andersen, J H; Fallentin, N; Baelum, J; Svendsen, S W; Thomsen, J F; Frost, P; Kaergaard, A

    2005-01-01

    Pain in the neck and upper extremity is reported with high frequency in repetitive work. Mechanical overload of soft tissues seems a plausible mechanism, but psychological factors have received considerable attention during the past decade. If psychological factors are important for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive work and 813 workers with varied work were enrolled. Measures of repetitiveness and force requirements were quantified using video observations to obtain individual exposure estimates. Stress symptoms were recorded at baseline and after approximately one, two, and three years by the Setterlind Stress Profile Inventory. Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution because the stress inventory has not been validated against a gold standard.

  20. Work-related deaths among youth: Understanding the contribution of US child labor violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Miller, Mary E

    2016-11-01

    Evidence shows that violations of the United States (US) child labor regulations are common. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude and nature of work-related deaths among youth involving violations of US child labor regulations. We analyzed Census of Fatal Occupational Injury data from 2001 to 2012 using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Between 2001 and 2012, 406 workers under age 18 were recorded in the CFOI as having suffered a fatal work-related injury. Among these cases, 233 were covered by the US child labor regulations. Forty-three percent of these cases involved at least one violation. The majority of cases that were not covered by the regulations involved decedents working on their family's farms (N = 139). Violations of federal child labor regulations are a significant contributor to work-related deaths among youth in the United States. Increased investment in enforcement is needed to prevent further young worker deaths involving child labor violations. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:959-968, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Concurrent sexual partnerships among married Zimbabweans – implications for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugweni E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Esther Mugweni,1 Stephen Pearson,2 Mayeh Omar2 1UCL Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, 2The Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Background: Concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role in sustaining the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe. Married couples are at an increased risk of contracting HIV from sexual networks produced by concurrent sexual partnerships. Addressing these partnerships is an international HIV prevention priority. Methods: Our qualitative study presents the socioeconomic factors that contribute to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships among married people in Zimbabwe. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008 to understand the organizations of concurrent sexual partnerships. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results: Our study indicates that relationship dissatisfaction played a key role in the engagement of concurrent sexual partnerships. Depending on the source of the dissatisfaction, there were four possible types of concurrent sexual relationships that were formed: sex worker, casual partner, regular girlfriend or informal polygyny which was referred to as “small house”. These relationships had different levels of intimacy, which had a bearing on practicing safer sex. Participants described three characteristics of hegemonic masculinity that contributed to the sources of dissatisfaction leading to concurrent sexual activity. Similarly, various aspects of emphasized femininity were described as creating opportunities for the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. Economic status was also listed as a factor that contributed to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships. Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction was indicated as a contributing factor to the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. There were several

  2. Concurrence of three Jaynes-Cummings systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wen-Chao; Sun, Guo-Hua; Dong, Qian; Camacho-Nieto, Oscar; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2018-04-01

    We apply genuine multipartite concurrence to investigate entanglement properties of three Jaynes-Cummings systems. Three atoms are initially put in GHZ-like state and locally interact with three independent cavities, respectively. We present analytical concurrence expressions for various subsystems including three-atom, three-cavity and some atom-cavity mixed systems. We also examine the global system and illustrate the evolution of its concurrence. Except for the sudden death of entanglement, we find for some initial entanglement parameter θ , the concurrence of the global system may maintain unchanged in some time intervals.

  3. How does concurrent sourcing affect performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    be modelled. The propositions and discussion offer researchers a starting-point for further research. Practical implications – The propositions that are developed suggest that managers should consider using concurrent sourcing when they face problems caused by volume uncertainty, technological uncertainty....../methodology/approach – Based on transaction cost, agency, neoclassical economic, knowledge-based, and resource-based theory, it is proposed to show how concurrent sourcing affects performance. Findings – The paper argues that concurrent sourcing improves performance when firms face a combination of volume uncertainty...... how concurrent sourcing affects performance of the market and the hierarchy....

  4. A Reference Framework for Concurrent Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Considering the diversity of methods and tools offered to concurrent engineering, the aspects playing important roles in the concurrent engineering c ontext have been pinpointed as being four core elements which are Activity, Meth od, Object and Information. Based on these four elements, a reference framework called AMOI is proposed to be the guideline for the systematic concurrent produc t design. Using the AMOI reference framework, concurrent product development sys tem can be structured into four function models (including the activity model, m ethod model, object model and information model) which are interconnected with e ach other.

  5. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars.

  6. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: examining the stages of change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-10-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old-new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old-new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central-parietal old-new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old-new effect. The younger adults' early old-new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults' behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults.

  7. Using scaling relations to understand trends in the catalytic activity of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G; Bligaard, T; Abild-Pedersen, F; Noerskov, J K

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed to estimate the potential energy diagram for a full catalytic reaction for a range of late transition metals on the basis of a calculation (or an experimental determination) for a single metal. The method, which employs scaling relations between adsorption energies, is illustrated by calculating the potential energy diagram for the methanation reaction and ammonia synthesis for 11 different metals on the basis of results calculated for Ru. It is also shown that considering the free energy diagram for the reactions, under typical industrial conditions, provides additional insight into reactivity trends

  8. Donor understandings of blood and the body in relation to more frequent donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, R; Cohn, S

    2018-05-01

    The INTERVAL trial aimed to find the optimum frequency of blood donation to enhance blood supplies and maintain donor health. This not only requires biological knowledge, but also an appreciation of donor perspectives, and how their experiences and beliefs might be central if any changes are ever to be made. To address this, trial participants were interviewed about their ideas of blood and the body in relation to their experiences of increased donation frequency. Thirty in depth face-to-face interviews conducted with blood donors participating in the trial. Three key themes emerged: ideas about how blood and iron reserves are replenished, and what people did to facilitate this; beliefs about physiological differences relating to age and gender; and practical issues that affected the experience of donation. Overall, participants interviewed welcomed more frequent donation, despite a range of pragmatic concerns. Despite some practical obstacles, increased donation frequency aligned with participant's ideas about bodily replenishment, the value of donation, and their identity as enduring blood donors. They therefore supported the idea of increasing frequency of donation, independently of the biomedical evidence from the trial itself. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve ‘The Crow and the Pitcher’ task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause–effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended ‘learning–prediction–abstraction’ loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. PMID:27466440

  10. Improved communication, understanding of risk perception and ethics related to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Raskob, Wolfgang; Jourdain, Jean-Rene

    2016-06-06

    In Europe today, institutions, media and the general public exchange information about ionizing radiation and associated risks. However, communication about ionising radiation with the general public has to be further improved, as has been previously highlighted by international responses to the 2011 accident in Japan. This article reports the main activities and findings in this field from the following three FP7 projects: EAGLE, PREPARE and OPERRA and discussed by a broad spectrum of stakeholders at the conference RICOMET 2015. These projects, among other aims, also investigate how communication about ionising radiation in different fields could be improved and harmonised, how radiological risks are perceived, how to encourage ethical considerations in all fields of nuclear applications and what kind of transdisciplinary research is needed. The projects relate to several domains; the first relates to education, training and communication, the second to nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and the third to research and development in the radiation protection field. Incorporation of stakeholder engagement activities such as the RICOMET conference broadens social and ethical aspects and takes them into account during coordination activities as well as during core scientific and nuclear research and development performed in the projects. These activities offered opportunities for moving closer to a citizen-centred ideal of risk communication in particular and nuclear research and development in general.

  11. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. DOES TRAINING IN THE CIRCLE OF SECURITY FRAMEWORK INCREASE RELATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN INFANT/CHILD AND FAMILY WORKERS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Catherine; Huber, Anna; Kohlhoff, Jane; Camberis, Anna-Lisa

    2017-09-01

    This article evaluated whether attendance at Circle of Security training workshops resulted in attendees showing greater empathy and attachment-related knowledge and understanding, and fewer judgmental responses to viewing a stressful parent-child interaction. Participants were 202 practitioners who attended and completed a 2-day (n = 70), 4-day (n = 105), or 10-day (n = 27) COS training workshop in Australia or New Zealand in 2015. In a pre/post design, participant reactions to a video clip of a challenging parent-child interaction were coded for empathic, judgmental, or attachment-focused language. Attachment understanding was coded in response to questions about the greatest challenge that the dyad faced. In all training conditions, participants provided significantly more attachment-focused descriptors and showed significantly greater attachment understanding after training, but significantly fewer empathic descriptors. While participants at the longer workshops provided significantly fewer judgmental/critical descriptors, there was no change for those attending the 2-day workshop. Irrespective of workshop duration or professional background, participants took a more relational perspective on the vignette after the training workshops. More detailed research is required to establish the extent to which this increased knowledge and understanding is retained and integrated into infant mental health practice with parents and young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  14. Foucault's contributions for understanding power relations in British classical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Guizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategic role played by British classical political economy in constructing new technologies of power. Michel Foucault drew attention to a change that political economists promoted concerning the role of the state, which has been overlooked by historians of economic thought. This paper explores the main arguments provided by the most important British political economists of the 18th and 19th centuries on what concerns population management, State's role and economic dynamics in order to examine Foucault's considerations. Although British classical political economy consolidated the mechanism of markets and economic individuality, thus creating a system of truth that changed economic norms and practices, its discourse also established a political conduct that was responsible for creating mechanisms of control that disseminated new forms of power relations.

  15. Understanding the increase in the number of childbirth-related leave beneficiaries in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past number of years, the public expenditures for childbirth-related leave benefits have more than doubled – in 2015 amounted to 0.7% GDP in relation to 0.3% GDP in 2002. This increase can mainly be attributed to the increased number of beneficiaries that grew consistently from 24 thousand in 2002 up to 40 thousand in 2015, despite the fact that the annual number of live births has been almost continually decreasing and the registered employment has dropped by almost 20 per cent in the observed period. One of the clear reasons explaining part of this increase is the extension of 3+ order of birth leaves in 2006, from one to two years, which can explain the increase of around 3.5 thousand of beneficiaries. Another reason is high number of beneficiaries using special child-care leave meant for parents with children with disabilities, but which, in reality, is very often used simply as the extension of parental leave. The average number of special child-care leave beneficiaries in the second half of 2015 amounted to 2.8 thousand. When these two effects are taken into account, we still notice significant increase of beneficiaries of around 10 thousand in the observed period. Fictitious employment during the pregnancy can explain this increase to some extent. Available data unambiguously show that a number of women formally employing during the second and third trimester of pregnancy has increased from 800 in 2002 to almost 3.5 thousand monthly average in the second half of 2015. There are two flaws of the childbirth-related leave programme in Serbia, which together lead to the constant increase of the number of beneficiaries. First is the lack of flexibility of the programme, both in terms of eligibility for acquiring the right as well as in terms of flexibility in use. Maternity/parental leave benefit may acquire only those in „standard employment” i.e. employed under employment contract (and entrepreneurs while other type of

  16. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLocatelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  17. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Joseph Maclean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN – a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuo-motor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuo-motor aftereffect has been used to study visuo-motor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided space. In order to optimize PA’s use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch, then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late. Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an early error-related negativity (ERN, and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  18. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Stephane J; Hassall, Cameron D; Ishigami, Yoko; Krigolson, Olav E; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN)-a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuomotor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuomotor aftereffect has been used to study visuomotor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided) space. In order to optimize PA's use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch), then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss) and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late). Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an error-related negativity (ERN), and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  19. Addressing pre-service teachers' understandings and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Students' understanding of and difficulties with core elements (time, length, mass and density) were tested using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (including four questions) and in-depth interviews after the instruction of related modern physics topics. The analyses of the collected data were based on quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that pre-service teachers at different academic levels have specific and considerable difficulties with proper time, time dilation, proper length, mass and relativistic density concepts. In this paper, the conclusions of the study and implications for physics teaching are discussed.

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome: The incidence of concurrent psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Margie H Wilson; Anita D Stuart; H Gertie Pretorius

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve understanding of the association between physiology and psychology in Functional Gastrointestinal disorders by considering the co-morbidity of lrritable Bowel Syndrome and psychopathology in a sector of the South African population. A comparison was made between the incidence of concurrent psychopathology in a sample of 48 white female patients, aged 25 to 55 years and diagnosed with lrritable Bowel Syndrome and the incidence of psychopathology in a contr...

  1. Understanding the relationship of long working hours with health status and health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, L; Cortès, I; Escribà-Agüir, V; Cascant, L; Villegas, R

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify family and job characteristics associated with long work hours, to analyse the relationship between long work hours and several health indicators, and to examine whether gender differences for both objectives exist. The sample was composed of all salaried workers aged 16-64 years (3950 men and 3153 women) interviewed in the 2006 Catalonian Health Survey. Weekly work hours were categorised as less than 30 h (part-time), 30-40 (reference category), 41-50 and 51-60 h. Multiple logistic regression models separated by sex were fitted. Factors associated with long working hours differed by gender. Among men, extended work hours were related with being married or cohabiting and with being separated or divorced. In men, working 51-60 h a week was consistently associated with poor mental health status (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.24), self-reported hypertension (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.29), job dissatisfaction (aOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.82), smoking (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.72), shortage of sleep (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.85) and no leisure-time physical activity (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.64 to 3.60). Moreover, a gradient from standard working hours to 51-60 h a week was found for these six outcomes. Among women it was only related to smoking and to shortage of sleep. The association of overtime with different health indicators among men could be explained by their role as the family breadwinner: in situations of family financial stress men work overtime in order to increase the income and/or accept poor working conditions for fear of job loss, one of them being long working hours.

  2. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmink, Jan T.

    2010-01-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  3. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  4. A review of constructivism: understanding and using a relatively new theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, N

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to familiarize family medicine educators with a relatively new educational theory, "constructivism." This theory is derived from the philosophical proposition that reality is constructed by the individual. According to the more traditional theory of "objectivism," knowledge exists in the world external to personal experience. Constructivist theory postulates that personal experience cannot be separated from knowledge. In analyzing the literature, the author found that constructivism can be viewed at the cognitive (individual) and social (community) levels. Cognitive constructivism maintains that individuals develop their own models of reality using personal experience and research-based data. Two key elements of cognitive constructivism with implications for family medicine educators are promoting student independence and active learning. Social constructivism maintains that individuals use their membership in a community to continually refine and shape their models of reality. By communicating with each other (for physicians, in the "conversation of medicine"), we test our constructs. Two key elements of social constructivism with implications for application by family medicine educators are promoting collaboration and peer teaching.

  5. Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention.

  6. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  7. Relations between representational consistency, conceptual understanding of the force concept, and scientific reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Nieminen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous physics education research has raised the question of “hidden variables” behind students’ success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students’ reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students’ preinstruction scores for reasoning ability (measured by Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning and their learning of forces [measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI] have been reported in high school and university introductory courses. However, there is no published research concerning the relation between students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency and their learning of forces. To investigate this, we collected 131 high school students’ pre- and post-test data of the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (for representational consistency and the FCI. The students’ Lawson pretest data were also collected. We found that the preinstruction level of students’ representational consistency correlated strongly with student learning gain of forces. The correlation (0.51 was almost equal to the correlation between Lawson prescore and learning gain of forces (0.52. Our results support earlier findings which suggest that scientific reasoning ability is a hidden variable behind the learning of forces. In addition, we suggest that students’ representational consistency may also be such a factor, and that this should be recognized in physics teaching.

  8. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maria DiDonato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual and top-down (cognitive-linguistic resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational versus clear speech technique, the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors, and the environment (in competing speech babble noise versus quiet interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with ‘clear speech,’ (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones their learning efficiency, immediate and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field. This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker’s speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding.

  9. Relatively effortless listening promotes understanding and recall of medical instructions in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Roberta M.; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual) and top-down (cognitive-linguistic) resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational vs. clear speech technique), the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors), and the environment (in competing speech babble noise vs. quiet) interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with “clear speech,” (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones) their learning efficiency, immediate, and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field). This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker's speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding. PMID:26106353

  10. Plant management in concurrent engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubensack, D.; Malvache, P.; Valleix, P.

    1997-01-01

    The ImagIn project consist in a method and a set of computer tools apt to bring perceptible and assessable improvements in the operational safety of a nuclear plant. Its aim is to design an information system that would maintain a highly detailed computerised representation of a nuclear plant, in its initial state and throughout its in-service life. It is not a tool to drive or help driving the nuclear plant, but a tool that manages concurrent operations that modify the plant configuration in a very general way (maintenance for example). The configuration of the plant, as well as rules and constraints about it, are described in a object-oriented, knowledge database, which is built using a generic ImagIn meta-model based on the semantical network theory. An inference engine works on this database and is connected to reality through interfaces to operators and captors on the installation; it verifies constantly in real-time the consistency of the database according to its inner rules, and reports eventual problems to concerned operators. A special effort is made on interfaces to provide natural and intuitive tools (using virtual reality, natural language, voice recognition and synthesis). A laboratory application on a fictive but realistic installation already exist and is used to simulate various test and scenari. A real application is being constructed on SILOE, an experimental reactor of the CEA. (authors)

  11. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  12. Verified compilation of Concurrent Managed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Communications Division Information Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and its...271, 2007. [85] Viktor Vafeiadis. Modular fine-grained concurrency verification. Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR- 726, University of Cambridge, Computer...VERIFIED COMPILATION OF CONCURRENT MANAGED LANGUAGES PURDUE UNIVERSITY NOVEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

  13. Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point-prevalence in South Africa's ethnic groups. Chris Kenyon. Abstract. HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. Numerous authors believe that elevated sexual partner concurrency rates are important in the ...

  14. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  15. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  16. "Understanding my ALS". Experiences and reflections of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives on participation in peer group rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-26

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into experiences and reflections of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives concerning the peer group rehabilitation programme "More Life - Less Illness". This qualitative study used the Interpretive Description methodology with Symbolic Interactionism as the analytical framework. Eighteen programme participants representing persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 8) and relatives (n = 10) were included. Data consisted of individual interviews and participant observation. The analysis revealed two categorical themes, "Sense of Community Building" and "Understanding my ALS", which represented the participants' experiences and reflections on peer group rehabilitation. Through the analysis, it became apparent that "Sense of Community Building" gave rise to an increased and personalised understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among the participants. As a part of the continuous processing of the knowledge gained, "Facing Facts" and "Retaining Normality" appeared as subthemes regarding the participants' ability to live a less dependent and more meaningful life. This study of peer group rehabilitation for persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives indicates that programme participation leads to positive experiences in terms of living a shared meaningful life despite severe disability. The findings may guide practice to develop longitudinal peer group rehabilitation programmes with joint inclusion of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer group rehabilitation may facilitate an increased and personalised understanding of what it means to live with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A programme design with six months of sequential sessions enables a continuous processing of shared experiences and gained knowledge. Joint participation of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their relatives supports both their internal

  17. Understanding Quality of Life in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury Via SCI-Related Needs and Secondary Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shane N; Noreau, Luc; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that can predict greater quality of life (QoL) is important for adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), given that they report lower levels of QoL than the general population. To build a conceptual model linking SCI-related needs, secondary complications, and QoL in adults with SCI. Prior to testing the conceptual model, we aimed to develop and evaluate the factor structure for both SCI-related needs and secondary complications. Individuals with a traumatic SCI (N = 1,137) responded to an online survey measuring 13 SCI-related needs, 13 secondary complications, and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire to assess QoL. The SCI-related needs and secondary complications were conceptualized into factors, tested with a confirmatory factor analysis, and subsequently evaluated in a structural equation model to predict QoL. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor model for SCI related needs, χ(2)(61, N = 1,137) = 250.40, P SCI-related needs (β = -.22 and -.20, P SCI-related needs of individuals with SCI and preventing or managing secondary complications are essential to their QoL.

  18. Couples' joint decision-making: the construction and validation of a key proxy for understanding gender relations in contemporary families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender relations have become a key dimension in family studies, and understanding gender relations as both determining and resulting from outcome of new family configurations requires the use of specific surveys aimed at the dynamics of couples. Unfortunately, nationally representative surveys of this type are not available for Latin American countries. Nonetheless, the most recent versions of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS include a section called "Women's Status and Empowerment", which can provide information about gender relations as well. This study aims at assessing the construct of gender relations in terms of couples' joint decision-making for all five Brazilian geographical regions. To this end, a step-by-step multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA was applied in order to verify whether this concept can be compared across Brazilian regions. Results show that the DHS items can be used reliably for measuring couples' joint decision-making and that this construct can be meaningfully compared over the regions. These findings will contribute to further demographic and sociological research on gender relations which can use this concept and other indicators provided by the DHS to identify the causal processes related to it.

  19. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  20. The Caltech Concurrent Computation Program - Project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, G.; Otto, S.; Lyzenga, G.; Rogstad, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Caltech Concurrent Computation Program wwhich studies basic issues in computational science is described. The research builds on initial work where novel concurrent hardware, the necessary systems software to use it and twenty significant scientific implementations running on the initial 32, 64, and 128 node hypercube machines have been constructed. A major goal of the program will be to extend this work into new disciplines and more complex algorithms including general packages that decompose arbitrary problems in major application areas. New high-performance concurrent processors with up to 1024-nodes, over a gigabyte of memory and multigigaflop performance are being constructed. The implementations cover a wide range of problems in areas such as high energy and astrophysics, condensed matter, chemical reactions, plasma physics, applied mathematics, geophysics, simulation, CAD for VLSI, graphics and image processing. The products of the research program include the concurrent algorithms, hardware, systems software, and complete program implementations.

  1. MLIP: A Concurrent Approach for Clipping Indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Majoju Ravinder; R.Vijay Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional databases are beginning to be used in a wide range of applications. To meet this fast-growing demand, the R-tree family is being applied to support fast access to multidimensional data, for which the R+-tree exhibits outstanding search performance. In order to support efficient concurrent access in multi-user environments, concurrency control mechanisms for multidimensional indexing have been proposed. However, these mechanisms cannot be directly applied to the R+-tree becaus...

  2. Work related Changes And New Understandings Of Prevention: Results Of Multi-Level Participatory Interventions In Four SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of four SMEs’ use of a multi-level participatory self-help intervention model (the PoWRS model – Prevention of Work Related Stress). The model itself supports a new view on prevention of work-related stress in the participating companies besides the concrete...... to explicate tacit knowledge about what creates enthusiasms and stress at the work place, Multi-voting which decided two work-related changes to be initiated, a KickOff session to mark the start-up of the actual changes, continuous interviews of colleagues by the in-house facilitators, and ongoing status...... be addressed and how prevention of work-related stress can be understood. In addition to supporting a new understanding of prevention, the use of the model also results in concrete changes which become solutions to the work-place’s current and specific problems. The use of the PoWRS model thus enables an SME...

  3. Understanding Combat-Related PTSD Symptom Expression Through Index Trauma and Military Culture: Case Studies of Filipino Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G

    2017-05-01

    Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD

  4. How understanding and application of drug-related legal instruments affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Sovannary; Ngin, Chanrith; Pal, Khuondyla; Sou, Sochenda; Sawez, Ghazal; Morgan, Phylicia; Srey, Mony; Chan, Tola; Chhoun, Pheak; Golichenko, Olga; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Yi, Siyan

    2017-06-19

    Harm reduction interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders. This qualitative study was conducted in the capital city of Phnom Penh in 2015. We held five focus group discussions (FGDs) with groups of PWID/PWUD, police officers, Sangkat/commune officers, and local non-governmental organization (NGO) field staff. We also conducted ten key informant interviews (KIIs) with representatives from government agencies, donor agencies, and NGOs. FGDs and KIIs with Cambodian participants were transcribed in Khmer and translated into English. KIIs with foreign participants were transcribed in English. Transcripts were read and re-read to identify emerging themes, which were reviewed and refined to develop common and divergent patterns. There was a huge gap between what the DCL and VCSP say and how law enforcement officers and PWID/PWUD understood them. The gap was also evident in how law enforcement officers implemented the DCL and VCSP. Harm reduction services, including health- and non-health-related interventions, were limited and challenged by unsupportive attitudes, misinterpretation of the DCL and VCSP, and the lack of full engagement with NGOs in the development of these instruments. The needs of PWID/PWUD in accessing health care services were not met due to misconduct of authorities while practicing the DCL and VCSP. Further, the misconduct and enforcement of the law and policy lead to increased social discrimination and physical abuses against PWID/PWUD. There is a lack of common understanding of the drug-related law and

  5. Characterizing Distributed Concurrent Engineering Teams: A Descriptive Framework for Aerospace Concurrent Engineering Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Hihn, Jairus; Warfield, Keith

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades in a cost-efficient manner. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is also essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. This paper is an extension of a recent white paper written by the Concurrent Engineering Working Group, which details the unique challenges of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering. This paper includes a short history of aerospace concurrent engineering, and defines the terms 'concurrent', 'collaborative' and 'distributed' in the context of aerospace concurrent engineering. In addition, a model for the levels of complexity of concurrent engineering teams is presented to provide a way to conceptualize information and data flow within these types of teams.

  6. Cooperative Planning, Uncertainty, and Managerial Control in Concurrent Design

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria L. Mitchell; Barrie R. Nault

    2007-01-01

    We examine whether cooperative planning and uncertainty affect the magnitude of rework in concurrent engineering projects with upstream and downstream operations, and explore the impact of such rework on project delays. Using survey data from a sample of 120 business process (BP) redesign and related information technology (IT) development projects in healthcare and telecommunications, our results indicate that upstream (BP) rework and downstream (IT) rework is mediated and mitigated by coope...

  7. The Relation Between Emotion Understanding and Theory of Mind in Children Aged 3 to 8: The Key Role of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Grazzani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a significant body of research has investigated the relationships among children’s emotion understanding (EU, theory of mind (ToM, and language abilities. As far as we know, no study to date has been conducted with a sizeable sample of both preschool and school-age children exploring the direct effect of EU on ToM when the role of language was evaluated as a potential exogenous factor in a single comprehensive model. Participants in the current study were 389 children (age range: 37–97 months, M = 60.79 months; SD = 12.66, to whom a False-Belief understanding battery, the Test of Emotion Comprehension, and the Peabody Test were administered. Children’s EU, ToM, and language ability (receptive vocabulary were positively correlated. Furthermore, EU scores explained variability in ToM scores independently of participants’ age and gender. Finally, language was found to play a crucial role in both explaining variance in ToM scores and in mediating the relationship between EU and ToM. We discuss the theoretical and educational implications of these outcomes, particularly in relation to offering social and emotional learning programs through schools.

  8. The Relation Between Emotion Understanding and Theory of Mind in Children Aged 3 to 8: The Key Role of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica; Conte, Elisabetta; Pepe, Alessandro; Caprin, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Although a significant body of research has investigated the relationships among children's emotion understanding (EU), theory of mind (ToM), and language abilities. As far as we know, no study to date has been conducted with a sizeable sample of both preschool and school-age children exploring the direct effect of EU on ToM when the role of language was evaluated as a potential exogenous factor in a single comprehensive model. Participants in the current study were 389 children (age range: 37-97 months, M = 60.79 months; SD = 12.66), to whom a False-Belief understanding battery, the Test of Emotion Comprehension, and the Peabody Test were administered. Children's EU, ToM, and language ability (receptive vocabulary) were positively correlated. Furthermore, EU scores explained variability in ToM scores independently of participants' age and gender. Finally, language was found to play a crucial role in both explaining variance in ToM scores and in mediating the relationship between EU and ToM. We discuss the theoretical and educational implications of these outcomes, particularly in relation to offering social and emotional learning programs through schools.

  9. Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.

  10. An investigation of student understanding of classical ideas related to quantum mechanics: Potential energy diagrams and spatial probability density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanik, Brian Michael

    This dissertation describes the results of two related investigations into introductory student understanding of ideas from classical physics that are key elements of quantum mechanics. One investigation probes the extent to which students are able to interpret and apply potential energy diagrams (i.e., graphs of potential energy versus position). The other probes the extent to which students are able to reason classically about probability and spatial probability density. The results of these investigations revealed significant conceptual and reasoning difficulties that students encounter with these topics. The findings guided the design of instructional materials to address the major problems. Results from post-instructional assessments are presented that illustrate the impact of the curricula on student learning.

  11. The project “understAID” – a platform that helps informal caregivers to understand and aid their demented relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Mojs, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    “UnderstAID” is a platform that helps informal caregivers to understand and aid their demented relatives. It is an international project initiated by Denmark, Poland and Spain. The aim of the project is to design, and implement the multimedia platform “understAID” to support informal caregivers...... of dementia patients. The project was launched in April 2013 and is expected to end 36 months later. The project is divided into fi ve tasks concerning the fi nal aim. The aim of task 1 is the management of the project, as well as the exploitation and dissemination of gathered information. Task 2 is meant...... to defi ne the contents and solutions of the CarePlatform based on the knowledge gained from real-case studies. Demented elderlies from each country (n = 40) suffering from different degrees of dementia were evaluated by formal caregivers and dementia professionals. The aim of task 3 is the development...

  12. Helping cancer patients to quit smoking by understanding their risk perception, behavior, and attitudes related to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, William H C; Chan, Sophia S C; Lam, T H

    2014-08-01

    Evidence shows that smoking is a major cause of cancer, and cancer patients who continue smoking are at greater risk for all causes of mortality, cancer recurrence, and second primary cancers. Nevertheless, many cancer patients still smoke and are not willing to quit. This study aimed at understanding the needs and concerns of current and ex-smoking cancer patients, including their risk perceptions, and the behavior and attitudes related to smoking. A qualitative research was conducted in an oncology outpatient clinic. A one-to-one semi-structured interview was conducted with current Chinese smokers and ex-smokers after they had been diagnosed with cancer. Data saturation was achieved after interviewing a total of 20 current smokers and 20 ex-smokers. A total of 241 patients who were smokers prior to their diagnosis of cancer were identified. Of 241 patients, 208 (86.31%) quitted and 33 (13.69%) continued smoking after receiving a cancer diagnosis. In general, patients who refused to quit smoking subsequent to a cancer diagnosis thought that the perceived barriers to quitting outweighed the perceived benefits of quitting. In contrast, most cancer patients who quit after their cancer diagnoses thought that the perceived benefits of quitting greatly outweighed the perceived barriers to quitting. It is vital that healthcare professionals should help cancer patients to quit smoking. Understanding how current smokers and ex-smokers perceive the risks of smoking, and their behavior, attitudes, and experiences related to smoking is an essential prerequisite for the design of an effective smoking cessation intervention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Understanding Autoimmune Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis Using Gene Expression Microarrays: Treatment Effect and Cytokine-related Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achiron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a central nervous system disease in which activated autoreactive T-cells invade the blood brain barrier and initiate an inflammatory response that leads to myelin destruction and axonal loss. The etiology of MS, as well as the mechanisms associated with its unexpected onset, the unpredictable clinical course spanning decades, and the different rates of progression leading to disability over time, remains an enigma. We have applied gene expression microarrays technology in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC to better understand MS pathogenesis and better target treatment approaches. A signature of 535 genes were found to distinguish immunomodulatory treatment effects between 13 treated and 13 untreated MS patients. In addition, the expression pattern of 1109 gene transcripts that were previously reported to significantly differentiate between MS patients and healthy subjects were further analyzed to study the effect of cytokine-related pathways on disease pathogenesis. When relative gene expression for 26 MS patients was compared to 18 healthy controls, 30 genes related to various cytokine-associated pathways were identified. These genes belong to a variety of families such as interleukins, small inducible cytokine subfamily and tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor. Further analysis disclosed seven cytokine-associated genes within the immunomodulatory treatment signature, and two cytokine-associated genes SCYA4 (small inducible cytokine A4 and FCAR (Fc fragment of IgA, CD89 that were common to both the MS gene expression signature and the immunomodulatory treatment gene expression signature. Our results indicate that cytokine-associated genes are involved in various pathogenic pathways in MS and also related to immunomodulatory treatment effects.

  14. Deterministic behavioural models for concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1993-01-01

    This paper offers three candidates for a deterministic, noninterleaving, behaviour model which generalizes Hoare traces to the noninterleaving situation. The three models are all proved equivalent in the rather strong sense of being equivalent as categories. The models are: deterministic labelled...... event structures, generalized trace languages in which the independence relation is context-dependent, and deterministic languages of pomsets....

  15. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  16. Concurrent administration of anticancer chemotherapy drug and herbal medicine on the perspective of pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yi Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing number of cancer patients seeking an improved quality of life, complementary and alternative therapies are becoming more common ways to achieve such improvements. The potential risks of concurrent administration are serious and must be addressed. However, comprehensive evidence for the risks and benefits of combining anticancer drugs with traditional herbs is rare. Pharmacokinetic investigations are an efficient way to understand the influence of concomitant remedies. Therefore, this study aimed to collect the results of pharmacokinetic studies relating to the concurrent use of cancer chemotherapy and complementary and alternative therapies. According to the National Health Insurance (NHI database in Taiwan and several publications, the three most commonly prescribed formulations for cancer patients are Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. The three most commonly prescribed single herbs for cancer patients are Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, and Astragalus membranaceus. Few studies have discussed herb–drug interactions involving these herbs from a pharmacokinetics perspective. Here, we reviewed Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Curcuma longa and milk thistle to provide information based on pharmacokinetic evidence for healthcare professionals to use in educating patients about the risks of the concomitant use of various remedies. Keywords: Traditional Chinese medicine, Chemotherapy drug, Pharmacokinetics, Herb–drug interaction

  17. Competition partition of soil and solar radiation resources between soybean cultivars and concurrent genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.A.; Fleck, N.G.; Dillenburg, L.R.

    2006-01-01

    Plants compete for environmental resources located below and over soil surface. Physical separation of competition allows understanding the relative importance of each fraction, as well as identifying possible differences among species. The aim of this research was to separate the individual effects resulting from competition for soil or solar radiation resources, between soybean and concurrent plants. Thus, experiments using pots were carried out at UFRGS, in Porto Alegre-RS, in 2001 and 2002. The treatments tested resulted from the combinations of two concurrent genotypes (crop and competitor) and four competition conditions (absence of competition, competition for soil and solar radiation, competition for soil resources, and competition for solar radiation). Soybean cultivars IAS 5 and FEPAGRO RS 10 represented the crop, whereas radish forage and the soybean cultivar FUNDACEP 33 were the competitors tested. Morpho-physiological variables were evaluated in the soybean plants and radish forage. Growth of the soybean plants was most affected by soil resources competition, with RS 10 cultivar being more competitive than IAS 5.Radish forage did not interfere in the growth of soybean cultivars but it benefited from soybean presence. (author) 6

  18. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A; Sokolowski, H Moriah; Lyons, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals' self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one's self - self-math overlap - may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated.

  19. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

  20. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Necka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This nonverbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r=-.610. We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be

  1. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Renée A; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent predictors of perceived male partner concurrency. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were obtained for HIV and STI incidence in relation to male partner concurrency. A Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to assess the association between perceived male partner concurrency and HIV and STI incidence. The results revealed that 29 % of women reported their male partners to be in concurrent sexual relationships, 22 % reported partners that were not engaging in concurrency, whilst 49 % reported not knowing their partners concurrency status. Older women, having never married, experiencing economic abuse, and women reporting individual concurrency, were found to be significant predictors of perceived male partner concurrency in the studied population. Perceived male partner concurrency was not found to be a significantly associated with incident HIV and STI infections in this analysis. The study provides insight into predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at high risk for STI and HIV acquisition. These results may inform the design of behavioural and biomedical interventions, to address the role of multiple sexual partnerships in HIV prevention.

  2. Concurrent Use of Cannabis and Alcohol: Neuropsychiatric Effect Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Anna; Torrens, Marta; Papaseit, Esther; Arellano, Ana Lucia; Farré, Magi

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent use of cannabis and alcohol is frequent. According different studies, the prevalence is among 20-34% depending on different samples studied. In contrast with the wide evidence available about neuropsychiatric effects associated to the use of cannabis or alcohol separately, there are few studies of the neuropsychiatric effects of their combination. Our aim was to review the literature regarding this topic. We performed a search in MEDLINE and from 114 potentially eligible studies, 27 were selected. Most of them studied the relation between cannabis and alcohol, and with them combined to other substances of abuse, but only a few considered their concurrent effect among mental disorders (ADHD, bipolar disorder) and neuropsychological performance. More research in the neuropsychiatric effects of the concomitant use of cannabis and alcohol is needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Varuni; Samarasinghe, Diyanath; Hanwella, Raveen

    2011-01-01

    The harm from alcohol and tobacco use in low- and middle-income countries includes substantial economic cost to the individual. Our aim was to describe the expenditure on concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in relation to family income in two districts in Sri Lanka. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in two districts in Sri Lanka. We sampled 2684 men over 18 years of age using multistage cluster sampling. Cost of alcohol and cigarettes was calculated using the retail price for each brand and multiplying by the amount consumed. Among current alcohol users 63.1% were also smokers. Among current smokers 61.9% were also using alcohol. Prevalence of concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in urban areas was 20.1% and in rural areas 14%. The two lowest income categories (meaning in such settings. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Meal skipping relates to food choice, understanding of nutrition labeling, and prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Na-Rae; Lee, Jung-Sug; Choi, Young-Sun; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chung, Hae Rang; Kwon, Sehyug; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Soon-Kyu; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.

  5. Understanding and retention of trial-related information among participants in a clinical trial after completing the informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexas, Fernanda; Efron, Anne; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Cailleaux-Cezar, Michelle; Chaisson, Richard E; Conde, Marcus B

    2014-02-01

    for assessing the level of understanding of trial-related information during the informed consent (IC) process in developing countries are lacking. To assess the understanding and retention of trial-related information presented in the IC process by administering an informed consent assessment instrument (ICAI) to participants in a clinical trial for a new tuberculosis (TB) regimen being conducted in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Methods The format of the ICAI was based on the language and structure of the United States National Cancer Institute's IC comprehension checklist. The ICAI was designed to assess points of the RioMAR study IC process that addressed the principles of research ethics requested by Brazilian Regulatory Authority: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Briefly, (1) Is the respondent participating in a clinical trial? (2) Are two different treatments being evaluated? (3) Is the treatment arm chosen by chance? (4) Is an HIV test required? (5) Are liver function tests required? (6) Can participants leave the study at any time? (7) Are the risks and benefits of taking part in the study clear? (8) May pregnant women participate in the study? (9) Can one of the study drugs reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives? (10) Are patients paid to participate in the study? The ICAI was applied at two time points: immediately after enrollment in the clinical trial and 2 months later. A total of 61 patients who enrolled in the RioMAR study participated in this study. The percentage of correct answers to all questions was 82% at the time of the first ICAI; 31 participants (51%) did not recall that an HIV test was required (question 4) and 43 (70%) did not know that they could leave the study (question 6). Other individual questions were answered correctly by at least 76% of participants. There was no association between incorrect answers and age, gender, monthly family income, neighborhood, or level of education (p > 0.07). When the responses to the

  6. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each......When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... of these factors are explained and discussed in the paper. The paper ends by offering a number of theoretical and managerial implications....

  7. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  8. Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-10-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.

  9. Understanding consumption-related sucralose emissions - A conceptual approach combining substance-flow analysis with sampling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neset, Tina-Simone Schmid, E-mail: tina.schmid.neset@liu.se [Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Singer, Heinz; Longree, Philipp; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth; Wittmer, Anita; Andersson, Jafet Clas Martin [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    This paper explores the potential of combining substance-flow modelling with water and wastewater sampling to trace consumption-related substances emitted through the urban wastewater. The method is exemplified on sucralose. Sucralose is a chemical sweetener that is 600 times sweeter than sucrose and has been on the European market since 2004. As a food additive, sucralose has recently increased in usage in a number of foods, such as soft drinks, dairy products, candy and several dietary products. In a field campaign, sucralose concentrations were measured in the inflow and outflow of the local wastewater treatment plant in Linkoeping, Sweden, as well as upstream and downstream of the receiving stream and in Lake Roxen. This allows the loads emitted from the city to be estimated. A method consisting of solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry was used to quantify the sucralose in the collected surface and wastewater samples. To identify and quantify the sucralose sources, a consumption analysis of households including small business enterprises was conducted as well as an estimation of the emissions from the local food industry. The application of a simple model including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis indicates that at present not one large source but rather several small sources contribute to the load coming from households, small business enterprises and industry. This is in contrast to the consumption pattern seen two years earlier, which was dominated by one product. The inflow to the wastewater treatment plant decreased significantly from other measurements made two years earlier. The study shows that the combination of substance-flow modelling with the analysis of the loads to the receiving waters helps us to understand consumption-related emissions.

  10. Understanding consumption-related sucralose emissions - A conceptual approach combining substance-flow analysis with sampling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neset, Tina-Simone Schmid; Singer, Heinz; Longree, Philipp; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth; Wittmer, Anita; Andersson, Jafet Clas Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of combining substance-flow modelling with water and wastewater sampling to trace consumption-related substances emitted through the urban wastewater. The method is exemplified on sucralose. Sucralose is a chemical sweetener that is 600 times sweeter than sucrose and has been on the European market since 2004. As a food additive, sucralose has recently increased in usage in a number of foods, such as soft drinks, dairy products, candy and several dietary products. In a field campaign, sucralose concentrations were measured in the inflow and outflow of the local wastewater treatment plant in Linkoeping, Sweden, as well as upstream and downstream of the receiving stream and in Lake Roxen. This allows the loads emitted from the city to be estimated. A method consisting of solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry was used to quantify the sucralose in the collected surface and wastewater samples. To identify and quantify the sucralose sources, a consumption analysis of households including small business enterprises was conducted as well as an estimation of the emissions from the local food industry. The application of a simple model including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis indicates that at present not one large source but rather several small sources contribute to the load coming from households, small business enterprises and industry. This is in contrast to the consumption pattern seen two years earlier, which was dominated by one product. The inflow to the wastewater treatment plant decreased significantly from other measurements made two years earlier. The study shows that the combination of substance-flow modelling with the analysis of the loads to the receiving waters helps us to understand consumption-related emissions.

  11. Performance monitoring in the medial frontal cortex and related neural networks: From monitoring self actions to understanding others' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Taihei; Noritake, Atsushi; Ullsperger, Markus; Isoda, Masaki

    2018-04-27

    Action is a key channel for interacting with the outer world. As such, the ability to monitor actions and their consequences - regardless as to whether they are self-generated or other-generated - is of crucial importance for adaptive behavior. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has long been studied as a critical node for performance monitoring in nonsocial contexts. Accumulating evidence suggests that the MFC is involved in a wide range of functions necessary for one's own performance monitoring, including error detection, and monitoring and resolving response conflicts. Recent studies, however, have also pointed to the importance of the MFC in performance monitoring under social conditions, ranging from monitoring and understanding others' actions to reading others' mental states, such as their beliefs and intentions (i.e., mentalizing). Here we review the functional roles of the MFC and related neural networks in performance monitoring in both nonsocial and social contexts, with an emphasis on the emerging field of a social systems neuroscience approach using macaque monkeys as a model system. Future work should determine the way in which the MFC exerts its monitoring function via interactions with other brain regions, such as the superior temporal sulcus in the mentalizing system and the ventral premotor cortex in the mirror system. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  13. Deep, multi-stage transcriptome of the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata provides platform for understanding molluscan disease-related pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J Kenny

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gastropod mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata is well known as a vector for the tropical disease schistosomiasis, which affects nearly 200 million people worldwide. Despite intensive study, our understanding of the genetic basis of B. glabrata development, growth and disease resistance is constrained by limited genetic resources, constraints for which next-generation sequencing methods provide a ready solution. Methods Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly using the Trinity program was used to generate a high-quality transcriptomic dataset spanning the entirety of in ovo development in schistosomiasis-free B. glabrata. This was subjected to automated (KEGG, BLAST2GO and manual annotation efforts, allowing insight into the gene complements of this species in a number of contexts. Results Excellent dataset recovery was observed, with 133,084 contigs produced of mean size 2219.48 bp. 80,952 (60.8 % returned a BLASTx hit with an E value of less than 10-3, and 74,492 (55.97 % were either mapped or assigned a GO identity using the BLAST2GO program. The CEGMA set of core eukaryotic genes was found to be 99.6 % present, indicating exceptional transcriptome completeness. We were able to identify a wealth of disease-pathway related genes within our dataset, including the Wnt, apoptosis and Notch pathways. This provides an invaluable reference point for further work into molluscan development and evolution, for studying the impact of schistosomiasis in this species, and perhaps providing targets for the treatment of this widespread disease. Conclusions Here we present a deep transcriptome of an embryonic sample of schistosomiasis-free B. glabrata, presenting a comprehensive dataset for comparison to disease-affected specimens and from which conclusions can be drawn about the genetics of this widespread medical model. Furthermore, the dataset provided by this sequencing provides a useful reference point for comparison to other mollusc

  14. Emotion as Opportunity: Reflections on Multiple Concurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partner reduction has been shown to be one of the most important aspects of any programme that seeks to contain the spread of HIV. In South Africa, however, multiple concurrent sexual partnerships are a common feature of township life for young people, especially young men. Following on from XXXXX's (2009) study on ...

  15. Declarative interpretations of session-based concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Mauricio; Rueda, Camilo; López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Session-based concurrency is a type-based approach to the analysis of communication-intensive systems. Correct behavior in these systems may be specified in an operational or declarative style: the former defines how interactions are structured; the latter defines governing conditions...

  16. Integrated concurrent utilization quality review, Part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterinicchio, R P

    1987-01-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series which argues for the concurrent management of the appropriateness, necessity, and quality of patient care. Intensifying scrutiny by the credentialing groups, the PROs and all third-party payors underscores the vital need to implement cost-effective information systems which integrate the departmentalized functions of patient-physician profiling, DRG case-mix analyses, length of stay monitoring, pre-admission/admission and continued stay review, discharge planning, risk management, incident reporting and quality review. In the domain of physician performance regarding admitting and practice patterns, the ability to exercise concurrent utilization-quality review means early detection and prevention of events which would otherwise result in denials of payment and/or compromised patient care. Concurrent utilization-quality review must, by definition, be managerially invasive and focused; hence, it is integral to maintaining the integrity of the services and product lines offered by the provider. In fact, if PPO status is a marketing agenda, then the institutional objectives of cost-effectiveness, productivity, value, and competitiveness can only be achieved through concurrent utilization-quality review.

  17. An Evaluation of Concurrent Priority Queue Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    path pronlem are testedi A! -S7 ?o An Evaluation of Concurrent Priority Queue Algorithms bv Qin Huang BS. Uiversity - of Science andi Technology of China...who have always supported me through my entire career and made my life more enjoyable. This research was supported in part by the Advanced Research

  18. Concurrent Engineering in seafood product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    benefit from the CE approach which can support product developers to provide concurrent specifications for raw materials, ingredients, packaging, and production methods. The approach involves the use of product models from which line extensions are more easily generated than by use of customary stepwise...... techniques. it is anticipated that other food industries also can benefit from the more simultaneous approach...

  19. Concurrency meets probability: theory and practice (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.

    Treating random phenomena in concurrency theory has a long tradition. Petri nets [18, 10] and process algebras [14] have been extended with probabilities. The same applies to behavioural semantics such as strong and weak (bi)simulation [1], and testing pre-orders [5]. Beautiful connections between

  20. On run-time exploitation of concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzenspies, P.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    The `free' speed-up stemming from ever increasing processor speed is over. Performance increase in computer systems can now only be achieved through parallelism. One of the biggest challenges in computer science is how to map applications onto parallel computers. Concurrency, seen as the set of

  1. Concurrent Design of Embedded Control Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, M.A.; Frijns, Raymond; Voeten, Jeroen; Broenink, Johannes F.; Margaria, T.; Padberg, J.; Taentzer, G.; Levendovszky, T.; Lengyel, L.; Karsai, G.; Hardebolle, C.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded software design for mechatronic systems is becoming an increasingly time-consuming and error-prone task. In order to cope with the heterogeneity and complexity, a systematic model-driven design approach is needed, where several parts of the system can be designed concurrently. There is

  2. Angelic semantics of fine-grained concurrency

    OpenAIRE

    Dan R. Ghica; Andrzej S. Murawski

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a game model for an Algol-like programming language with primitives for parallel composition and synchronization on semaphores. The semantics is based on a simplified version of Hyland–Ong-style games and it emphasizes the intuitive connection between the concurrent nature of games and that of computation. The model is fully abstract for may-equivalence.

  3. A body sensor platform for concurrent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.V.; Verhoeven, R.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Body Sensor Platform supporting concurrent applications that share resources and data. Concerns are application isolation, data privacy and platform trustworthiness in view of dynamic loading of applications. A prototype has been built on commercial-off-the-shelf hardware. The

  4. A relational understanding of sibling experiences of children with rare life-limiting conditions: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Cari; Gibson, Faith; Adams, Sally; Anderson, Gillian; Forbat, Liz

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and Batten disease are rare life-limiting conditions (LLCs) characterised by progressive and permanent physical and cognitive decline. The impact of such conditions on families, and notably on siblings, has not yet been described or documented. This paper presents data from a UK-wide study that sought to understand the family experience of supporting a child with the rare degenerative LLCs of MPS and Batten disease. The aim of this paper is to report sibling experiences related to these rare degenerative and progressive conditions, in order to inform the future development of supportive interventions. Eight siblings of children with MPS (n = 7) and Batten Disease (n = 1) participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. A card sort technique was utilised to support and engage the children. Siblings are clearly impacted emotionally, pragmatically and relationally by the ill health of another child in the family. The data indicate four key themes which demonstrate impacts on siblings: perceptions of the condition and its symptoms, impact on daily life, emotional consequences and ways of coping. Siblings often had considerable knowledge of the condition and took on important roles in symptom management. However, these experiences were in the context of managing relationships within the family (often protecting parents from an awareness of how much they knew) and relationships at school (including distraction from learning and being bullied by peers). The data highlight how sibling experiences are generated through a combination of negative disability discourses and support through peers and family members. The data indicate how these features shift as a consequence of witnessing the advancement of their brother's or sister's condition and the emotional sequelae of disease progression. Exploration of siblings' experiences of living with such rare progressive and degenerative LLCs suggest the focus of interventions to support this

  5. Concurrent analysis: towards generalisable qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Martin, Colin R

    2011-10-01

    This study develops an original method of qualitative analysis coherent with its interpretivist principles. The objective is to increase the likelihood of achieving generalisability and so improve the chance of the findings being translated into practice. Good qualitative research depends on coherent analysis of different types of data. The limitations of existing methodologies are first discussed to justify the need for a novel approach. To illustrate this approach, primary evidence is presented using the new methodology. The primary evidence consists of a constructivist grounded theory of how mental health nurses with prescribing authority integrate prescribing into practice. This theory is built concurrently from interviews, reflective accounts and case study data from the literature. Concurrent analysis. Ten research articles and 13 semi-structured interviews were sampled purposively and then theoretically and analysed concurrently using constructivist grounded theory. A theory of the process of becoming competent in mental health nurse prescribing was generated through this process. This theory was validated by 32 practising mental health nurse prescribers as an accurate representation of their experience. The methodology generated a coherent and generalisable theory. It is therefore claimed that concurrent analysis engenders consistent and iterative treatment of different sources of qualitative data in a manageable manner. This process supports facilitation of the highest standard of qualitative research. Concurrent analysis removes the artificial delineation of relevant literature from other forms of constructed data. This gives researchers clear direction to treat qualitative data consistently raising the chances of generalisability of the findings. Raising the generalisability of qualitative research will increase its chances of informing clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A Qualitative Study of Urban and Suburban Elementary Student Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.

    2000-01-01

    Clinical interviews with nine fifth graders revealed that experiences play a pivotal role in their understanding of pests. They lack well-developed schema and language to discuss pest management. A foundation of core biological concepts was necessary for understanding pests and pest management. (Conatains 34 references.) (SK)

  7. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…

  8. Children's Aesthetic Understanding of Photographic Art and the Quality of Art-Related Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szechter, Lisa E.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    This research was designed to examine the quality of children's aesthetic understanding of photographs, observe social interactions between parents and children in this aesthetic domain, and study whether qualitatively different dyadic interactions were associated with children's own aesthetic understanding. Parents and children (7-13 years; 40…

  9. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the Science Process Skills Questionnaire (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88. The findings showed that the teachers' conceptual understanding of SPS was much weaker than their practical application of SPS. The teachers' understanding of SPS differed by their teaching qualifications but not so much by their teaching experience. Emphasis needs to be given to both conceptual and operational understanding of SPS during pre-service and in-service teacher education to enable science teachers to use the skills and implement inquiry-based lessons in schools.

  10. Understanding the Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, Jake G.; Swigris, Jeff J.; Morisset, Julie; Elicker, Brett M.; Jones, Kirk D.; Fischer, Aryeh; Collard, Harold R.; Lee, Joyce S.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is impaired among patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Little is understood about HRQL in specific subtypes of ILD. Objectives The aim of this study was to characterize and identify clinical determinants of HRQL among patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) and compare them to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods We identified patients with a diagnosis of RA-ILD and IPF from an ongoing longitudinal cohort of ILD patients. HRQL was measured at their baseline visit using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), versions 1 and 2. Regression models were used to characterize and understand the relationship between selected baseline clinical covariates, the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) of the SF-36. Measurements and Main Results RA-ILD patients (n=50) were more likely to be younger and female compared to IPF patients (n=50). After controlling for age and pulmonary function, RA-ILD patients had a lower HRQL compared to IPF patients, as measured by the PCS (P=0.03), with significant differences in two of four PCS domains – bodily pain (P<0.01) and general health (P=0.01). Clinical covariates most strongly associated with a lower PCS in RA-ILD patients compared to IPF patients were the presence of joint pain or stiffness and dyspnea severity (P<0.01). Mental and emotional health, as measured by the MCS, was similar between RA-ILD and IPF patients. Conclusion The physical components of HRQL appear worse in RA-ILD patients compared to IPF patients as measured by the PCS of the SF-36. Differences in the PCS of the SF-36 can be explained in part by dyspnea severity and joint symptoms among patients with RA-ILD. PMID:28502413

  11. The Interaction of Mindful-based Attention and Awareness and Disengagement Coping with HIV/AIDS-related Stigma in regard to Concurrent Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among Adults with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Adam; Solomon, Sondra E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Miller, Carol T.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation examined the interaction of disengagement coping with HIV/AIDS-related stigma and mindful-based attention and awareness in regard to levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people with HIV/AIDS. Participants included 98 (31 women; Mage = 44.97 years, SD = 7.70) adults with HIV/AIDS. As predicted, there was a significant interaction for disengagement coping with HIV/AIDS-related stigma and mindful-based attention and awareness in regard to anxiety symptoms. In...

  12. Mundane science use in a practice theoretical perspective: Different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public communication initiatives build on scientific claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkier, Bente

    2015-08-13

    Public communication initiatives play a part in placing complicated scientific claims in citizen-consumers' everyday contexts. Lay reactions to scientific claims framed in public communication, and attempts to engage citizens, have been important subjects of discussion in the literatures of public understanding and public engagement with science. Many of the public communication initiatives, however, address lay people as consumers rather than citizens. This creates specific challenges for understanding public engagement with science and scientific citizenship. The article compares five different understandings of the relations between citizen-consumers and public issue communication involving science, where the first four types are widely represented in the Public Understanding of Science discussions. The fifth understanding is a practice theoretical perspective. The article suggests how the public understanding of and engagement in science literature can benefit from including a practice theoretical approach to research about mundane science use and public engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The Study of Understanding a Child through "Episodic Recording Method" : Focusing on the relation of contents of childcare "Language"

    OpenAIRE

    岡花, 祈一郎

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify influence of colleagues in childcare upon the process of understanding a child. Now day, "Episodic Recording Method" is not only childcare recordings but refleective practice in Childcare. The results are as follows. First, there exist both verbal and nonverbal types of information. Second, there are four types of information to modify the teacher's understanding. Third, the information has both quantitative and qualitative effects. The colleagues hav...

  14. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  15. Understanding Leisure-related Program Effects by Using Process Data in the HealthWise South Africa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda L; Younker, Anita S; Wegner, Lisa; Patrick, Megan E; Vergnani, Tania; Smith, Edward A; Flisher, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    As the push for evidence-based programming gathers momentum, many human services programs and interventions are under increased scrutiny to justify their effectiveness across different conditions and populations. Government agencies and the public want to be assured that their resources are being put to good use on programs that are effective and efficient (Guskey, 2000). Thus, programs are increasingly based on theory and evaluated through randomized control trials using longitudinal data. Despite this progress, hypothesized outcomes are often not detected and/or their effect sizes are small (Gingiss, Roberts-Gray, Boerm, 2006). Moreover, findings may go against intuition or "gut feelings" on the part of project staff. Given the need to understand how program implementation issues relate to outcomes, this study focuses on whether process measures that focus on program implementation and fidelity can shed light on associated outcomes. In particular, we linked the process evaluation of the HealthWise motivation lesson with outcomes across four waves of data collection. We hypothesized that HealthWise would increase learners' intrinsic and identified forms of motivation, and decrease amotivation and extrinsic motivation. We did not hypothesize a direction of effects on introjected motivation due to its conceptual ambiguity. Data came from youth in four intervention schools (n = 902, 41.1%) and five control schools (n = 1291, 58.9%) who were participating in a multi-cohort, longitudinal study. The schools were in a township near Cape Town, South Africa. For each cohort, baseline data are collected on learners as they begin Grade 8. We currently have four waves of data collected on the first cohort, which is the focus of this paper. The mean age of the sample at Wave 3 was 15.0 years (SD = .86) and 51% of students were female. Results suggested that there was evidence of an overall program effect of the curriculum on amotivation regardless of fidelity of implementation

  16. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...... concurrent access to web service resources and data. In this paper we propose an extension to the WS-Transaction Protocol which ensures the consistency of the data when independent business transactions access the data concurrently under the relaxed transaction properties. Our extension is based...

  17. Authentic And Concurrent Evaluation-refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström; Åkesson, Maria; Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for more detailed accounts for evaluation in design science research literature. By revisiting a design project regarding the future e-newspaper we give detailed descriptions of its authentic and concurrent evaluation approach by illustrating the what, why and how...... of all evaluation activities throughout the whole project. The project produced seven different design artifacts that were evaluated. The utility and theoretical outcomes of the evaluation activities clearly influenced design decisions regarding newspaper design, user value and business model design...... as well as decisions on strategic levels. We emphasize a holistic and concurrent approach to evaluation compared to the general design science research thinking and argue that reflecting on how to seek authenticity is important. By authenticity we refer to the notion of how closely an evaluation captures...

  18. Micro-transactions for concurrent data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meawad, Fadi; Iyer, Karthik; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    implementation of transactional memory that we call micro-transactions. In particular, we argue that hardware support for micro-transactions allows us to efficiently implement certain data structures. Those data structures are difficult to realize with the atomic operations provided by stock hardware and provide......, atomic instructions, and micro-transactions. Our results suggest that transactional memory is an interesting alternative to traditional concurrency control mechanisms....

  19. Continuous Activity Monitoring During Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kabarriti, Rafi; Bodner, William R.; Mehta, Keyur J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Shankar, Viswanathan [Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Halmos, Balazs; Haigentz, Missak [Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Rapkin, Bruce [Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To perform a prospective trial testing the feasibility and utility of acquiring activity data as a measure of health status during concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ambulatory patients who were planned for treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent for cancers of the head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal tract were provided with activity monitors before treatment initiation. Patients were asked to wear the devices continuously throughout the radiation therapy course. Step count data were downloaded weekly during radiation therapy and 2 and 4 weeks after radiation therapy completion. The primary objective was to demonstrate feasibility, defined as collection of step counts for 80% of the days during study subjects' radiation therapy courses. Secondary objectives included establishing step count as a dynamic predictor of unplanned hospitalization risk. Results: Thirty-eight enrolled patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Primary diagnoses included head and neck cancer (n=11), lung cancer (n=13), and a variety of gastrointestinal cancers (n=14). Step data were collected for 1524 of 1613 days (94%) during patients' radiation therapy courses. Fourteen patients were hospitalized during radiation therapy or within 4 weeks of radiation therapy completion. Cox regression modeling demonstrated a significant association between recent step counts (3-day average) and hospitalization risk, with a 38% reduction in the risk of hospitalization for every 1000 steps taken each day (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.83, P=.002). Inferior quality of life scores and impaired performance status were not associated with increased hospitalization risk. Conclusion: Continuous activity monitoring during concurrent chemoradiotherapy is feasible and well-tolerated. Step counts may serve as powerful, objective, and dynamic indicators of hospitalization risk.

  20. Using Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training

    OpenAIRE

    Baar, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This revie...

  1. Continuous Activity Monitoring During Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohri, Nitin; Kabarriti, Rafi; Bodner, William R.; Mehta, Keyur J.; Shankar, Viswanathan; Halmos, Balazs; Haigentz, Missak; Rapkin, Bruce; Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a prospective trial testing the feasibility and utility of acquiring activity data as a measure of health status during concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ambulatory patients who were planned for treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent for cancers of the head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal tract were provided with activity monitors before treatment initiation. Patients were asked to wear the devices continuously throughout the radiation therapy course. Step count data were downloaded weekly during radiation therapy and 2 and 4 weeks after radiation therapy completion. The primary objective was to demonstrate feasibility, defined as collection of step counts for 80% of the days during study subjects' radiation therapy courses. Secondary objectives included establishing step count as a dynamic predictor of unplanned hospitalization risk. Results: Thirty-eight enrolled patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Primary diagnoses included head and neck cancer (n=11), lung cancer (n=13), and a variety of gastrointestinal cancers (n=14). Step data were collected for 1524 of 1613 days (94%) during patients' radiation therapy courses. Fourteen patients were hospitalized during radiation therapy or within 4 weeks of radiation therapy completion. Cox regression modeling demonstrated a significant association between recent step counts (3-day average) and hospitalization risk, with a 38% reduction in the risk of hospitalization for every 1000 steps taken each day (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.83, P=.002). Inferior quality of life scores and impaired performance status were not associated with increased hospitalization risk. Conclusion: Continuous activity monitoring during concurrent chemoradiotherapy is feasible and well-tolerated. Step counts may serve as powerful, objective, and dynamic indicators of hospitalization risk.

  2. Concurrent semantics for structured design methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Also in Jelly, I., Gordon, I., & Groll, P. Software Engineering for Parallel and Distributed Systems. London: Chapman Hall. Design methods can be ambiguous due to di#11;erent interpretations of symbols or concepts. This paper presents a formal semantics for the Ward/Mellor Structured Analysis Method for Real Time systems. These semantics ensures that an unambiguous meaning can be attributed to a particular design. Speci#12;cally, it ensures that concurrent and real-time propert...

  3. Children's understanding of fraction and decimal symbols and the notation-specific relation to pre-algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-04-01

    Fraction and decimal concepts are notoriously difficult for children to learn yet are a major component of elementary and middle school math curriculum and an important prerequisite for higher order mathematics (i.e., algebra). Thus, recently there has been a push to understand how children think about rational number magnitudes in order to understand how to promote rational number understanding. However, prior work investigating these questions has focused almost exclusively on fraction notation, overlooking the open questions of how children integrate rational number magnitudes presented in distinct notations (i.e., fractions, decimals, and whole numbers) and whether understanding of these distinct notations may independently contribute to pre-algebra ability. In the current study, we investigated rational number magnitude and arithmetic performance in both fraction and decimal notation in fourth- to seventh-grade children. We then explored how these measures of rational number ability predicted pre-algebra ability. Results reveal that children do represent the magnitudes of fractions and decimals as falling within a single numerical continuum and that, despite greater experience with fraction notation, children are more accurate when processing decimal notation than when processing fraction notation. Regression analyses revealed that both magnitude and arithmetic performance predicted pre-algebra ability, but magnitude understanding may be particularly unique and depend on notation. The educational implications of differences between children in the current study and previous work with adults are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding Mathematic Concept in Relation and Function Method through Active Learning Type Group to Group Distributed LKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudri, F.; Rahmi, R.; Haryono, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This research is motivated by the lack of understanding of mathematical concepts students and teachers have not familiarize students discussed in groups. This researchaims to determine whether an understanding of mathematical concepts junior class VIII SMPN 2 in Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat by applying active learning strategy group to group types with LKS better than conventional learning. The type of research is experimental the design of randomized trials on the subject. The population in the study were all students VIII SMPN 2 Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat in year 2012/2013 which consists of our class room experiment to determine the grade and control class with do nerandomly, so that classes VIII1 elected as a experiment class and class VIII4 as a control class. The instruments used in the test empirically understanding mathematical concepts are shaped by the essay with rt=0,82 greater than rt=0,468 means reliable tests used. The data analysis technique used is the test with the help of MINITAB. Based on the results of the data analisis known that both of the sample are normal and homogenity in real rate α = 0,05, so the hypothesis of this research is received. So, it can be concluded students’ understanding mathematical concept applied the active Group to Group learning strategy with LKS is better than the students’ understanding mathematical concept with Conventional Learning.

  5. Chemistry teachers’ understanding of science process skills in relation of science process skills assessment in chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Yamtinah, S.; Ashadi; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    A Science process skill (SPS) is a fundamental scientific method to achieve good knowledge. SPS can be categorized into two levels: basic and integrated. Learning SPS helps children to grow as individuals who can access knowledge and know how to acquire it. The primary outcomes of the scientific process in learning are the application of scientific processes, scientific reasoning, accurate knowledge, problem-solving, and understanding of the relationship between science, technology, society, and everyday life’s events. Teachers’ understanding of SPS is central to the application of SPS in a learning process. Following this point, this study aims to investigate the high school chemistry teachers’ understanding of SPS pertains to their assessment of SPS in chemistry learning. The understanding of SPS is measured from the conceptual and operational aspects of SPS. This research uses qualitative analysis method, and the sample consists of eight chemistry teachers selected by random sampling. A semi-structured interview procedure is used to collect the data. The result of the analysis shows that teachers’ conceptual and operational understanding of SPS is weak. It affects the accuracy and appropriateness of the teacher’s selection of SPS assessment in chemistry learning.

  6. How to share concurrent asynchronous wait-free variables: Preliminary version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Li (Ming); P.M.B. Vitányi (Paul)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractWe use a structured top-down approach to develop algorithms for atomic variables shared by concurrent asynchronous wait-free processes, starting from the problem specification. By this design we obtain a better understanding of what the algorithms do, why they do it, and that they

  7. Salivary gland function after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kenichiro; Shimane, Toshikazu; Uzuki, Aya; Sugimoto, Akane; Mori, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Rio; Gomibuchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Sei; Sanbe, Takeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cancer of head and neck is becoming more and more prevalent. In fact, it is considered to better maintain quality of life (QOL) of patients than operative treatment in terms of preserving the functions, organs, and structures, but recently I seems that it does not maintain the QOL of patients better than operative treatment because its complications after therapy disturb daily life. We previously conducted a questionnaire survey that investigated the complications experienced by patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and reported that xerostomia was markedly reduced QOL in these patients. In this study, we divided patients who were exposed to radiation in both major salivary glands into two groups: 20 patients who received a 36 Gy dose of radiation (36 Gy group) and 15 patients who underwent radiation therapy alone at a dose of 40 Gy (radiotherapy (RT) group). The gum test was conducted with the following results (mean volume of saliva): 11.2 ml in the 36 Gy group, 6.0 ml in the RT group. There was no significant difference between the 36 Gy group and RT group. Our findings suggest that there is no significant difference in the extent of salivary gland dysfunction even after chemotherapy is carried out concurrently with radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Paclitaxel and concurrent radiation for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safran, Howard; Wanebo, Harry J.; Hesketh, Paul J.; Akerman, Paul; Ianitti, David; Cioffi, William; Di Petrillo, Thomas; Wolf, Brian; Koness, James; McAnaw, Robert; Moore, Todd; Chen, M.-H.; Radie-Keane, Kathy

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the activity and toxicity of paclitaxel and concurrent radiation for gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients were studied. Twenty-five had proximal gastric cancers, two had distal cancers. Eight had esophageal extension, 6 had celiac adenopathy, and 7 had retroperitoneal adenopathy. Patients received paclitaxel, 50 mg/m 2 by 3-hour intravenous (IV) infusion, weekly, on days 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29. Radiation was administered concurrently to a total dose of 45.0 Gy, in 1.80 Gy fractions, for 25 treatments. Patients who were medically or surgically inoperable received a sixth week of paclitaxel with a radiation boost to 50.4 Gy. Results: Esophagitis and gastritis were the most important toxicities, Grade 3 in four patients (15%), and Grade 4 in three patients (11%). Five patients (19%) had Grade 3 nausea. The overall response rate was 56%, including three patients (11%) with a complete response. The 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 29% and 31%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent paclitaxel and radiation demonstrates substantial local-regional activity in gastric cancer. Future investigations combining paclitaxel and radiation with other local-regional and systemic treatments are warranted

  9. Managing Asynchronous Data in ATLAS's Concurrent Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Baines, John; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In order to be able to make effective use of emerging hardware, where the amount of memory available to any CPU is rapidly decreasing as the core count continues to rise, ATLAS has begun a migration to a concurrent, multi-threaded software framework, known as AthenaMT. Significant progress has been made in implementing AthenaMT - we can currently run realistic Geant4 simulations on massively concurrent machines. the migration of realistic prototypes of reconstruction workflows is more difficult, given the large amounts of legacy code and the complexity and challenges of reconstruction software. These types of workflows, however, are the types that will most benefit from the memory reduction features of a multi-threaded framework. One of the challenges that we will report on in this paper is the re-design and implementation of several key asynchronous technologies whose behaviour is radically different in a concurrent environment than in a serial one, namely the management of Conditions data and the Detector D...

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Wakako; Ogino, Takashi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    To investigate factors influencing response and survival for patients with squamous cell cancer of the esophagus. Forty-nine patients with squamous cell cancer of the esophagus, classified by guidelines for the clinical and pathologic studies on carcinoma of the esophagus published by the Japanese Society for Esophageal Disease, were treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy using chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil with definitive irradiation of 60 Gy concurrently. Endoscopic findings and biopsy were used for evaluating the response. Nurse charts recording patient's feeding status were adopted to estimate severity of dysphagia. Complete response (CR) rate was 69.4%, median survival time (MST) was 12.3 months, and median local failure-free survival time 7.3 months. Patients in early stage (= 32.4 months, 20.4 months, 20.4 months, 15.7 months, respectively). Patients in A3 stage were often suffered from severe dysphagia both before and after treatment (81.5%, 70.4%), respectively. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was effective treatment for esophageal cancer. Degree of dysphagia was considered to be a good prognosticator of patients' survival. (author)

  11. Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the International Personality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the International Personality item Pool (IPIP) Big-five Factor Markers in Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry ... Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the internal consistency and concurrent validity ...

  12. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  13. Age-Related Changes in Children's Understanding of Effort and Ability: Implications for Attribution Theory and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Amy S.; Cole, David A.; Sigal, Amanda B.; Benbow, Lovisa D.; Satterwhite, Lindsay F.; Swygert, Katherine E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Building on Nicholls's earlier work, we examined developmental changes in children's understanding of effort and ability when faced with a negative outcome. In a sample of 166 children and adolescents (ages 5-15 years), younger children conflated the meaning of effort and ability, explaining that smart students work hard, whereas older children…

  14. Concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Maulik, Pallab K; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Saxena, Shekhar

    2005-01-01

    The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco and its deleterious effects have been reported in the western literature. However, studies on the relationship between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in India are limited. This study outlines the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in a western Indian cohort after controlling for various sociodemographic factors. A total of 35 102 men, 45 years of age and above were interviewed for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use. The sample was part of an earlier cohort drawn from the general population. The data were analysed after controlling for age, education, religion and mother-tongue. Among alcohol users, 51.1% smoked tobacco and 35.6% used smokeless tobacco. The relative risk of alcohol use was highest among those smoking cigarettes or beedis and among those using mishri with betel quid and tobacco. The risk of alcohol use increased with the frequency of tobacco use. The risk also increased with higher amounts of alcohol consumption, but peaked at around 100-150 ml of absolute alcohol use. The study highlights the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among the Indian population. This has important public health implications since concurrent use of these is synergistic for increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers.

  15. Características de plantas de cultivares de arroz irrigado relacionadas à habilidade competitiva com plantas concorrentes Characteristics of flooded rice cultivar plants related to competitive ability against weeds concurrent plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Fleck

    2003-04-01

    , variations in leaf area, plant height, and dry weight of rice plants were evaluated. The data were used to calculate leaf area rate (LAR, relative growth rate (RGR, and net assimilation rate (NAR of the cultivars. The cultivars Ligeirinho and XL 6 presented the fastest increments in leaf area, plant height, and dry weight, reaching the highest soil cover values, together with the cultivar IR 841. On the other hand, cultivars Bluebelle and Formosa showed slow absolute growth during the evaluated period, even though presenting the highest values for RGR and NAR, overall.

  16. Patterns of and Motivations for Concurrent Use of Video Games and Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey L. Ream

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available “Behavioral addictions” share biological mechanisms with substance dependence, and “drug interactions” have been observed between certain substances and self-reinforcing behaviors. This study examines correlates of patterns of and motivations for playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance (concurrent use. Data were drawn from a nationally-representative survey of adult Americans who “regularly” or “occasionally” played video games and had played for at least one hour in the past seven days (n = 3,380. Only recent concurrent users’ data were included in analyses (n = 1,196. Independent variables included demographics, substance use frequency and problems, game genre of concurrent use (identified by looking titles up in an industry database, and general game playing variables including problem video game play (PVP, consumer involvement, enjoyment, duration, and frequency of play. Exploratory factor analysis identified the following dimensions underlying patterns of and motivations for concurrent use: pass time or regulate negative emotion, enhance an already enjoyable or positive experience, and use of video games and substances to remediate each other’s undesirable effects. Multivariate regression analyses indicated PVP and hours/day of video game play were associated with most patterns/motivations, as were caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and painkiller use problems. This suggests that concurrent use with some regular situational pattern or effect-seeking motivation is part of the addictive process underlying both PVP and substance dependence. Various demographic, game playing, game genre of concurrent use, and substance use variables were associated with specific motivations/patterns, indicating that all are important in understanding concurrent use.

  17. Patterns of and motivations for concurrent use of video games and substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-10-01

    "Behavioral addictions" share biological mechanisms with substance dependence, and "drug interactions" have been observed between certain substances and self-reinforcing behaviors. This study examines correlates of patterns of and motivations for playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance (concurrent use). Data were drawn from a nationally-representative survey of adult Americans who "regularly" or "occasionally" played video games and had played for at least one hour in the past seven days (n = 3,380). Only recent concurrent users' data were included in analyses (n = 1,196). Independent variables included demographics, substance use frequency and problems, game genre of concurrent use (identified by looking titles up in an industry database), and general game playing variables including problem video game play (PVP), consumer involvement, enjoyment, duration, and frequency of play. Exploratory factor analysis identified the following dimensions underlying patterns of and motivations for concurrent use: pass time or regulate negative emotion, enhance an already enjoyable or positive experience, and use of video games and substances to remediate each other's undesirable effects. Multivariate regression analyses indicated PVP and hours/day of video game play were associated with most patterns/motivations, as were caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and painkiller use problems. This suggests that concurrent use with some regular situational pattern or effect-seeking motivation is part of the addictive process underlying both PVP and substance dependence. Various demographic, game playing, game genre of concurrent use, and substance use variables were associated with specific motivations/patterns, indicating that all are important in understanding concurrent use.

  18. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tob...

  19. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  20. Concurrent paclitaxel and radiotherapy. Treatment feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.G.; Martin, T.; Kolotas, C.; Hey, S.; Schneider, L.; Templin, T.; Zamboglou, N.; Dornoff, W.; Kettner, H.

    1997-01-01

    Background: The anti-neoplastic effect of paclitaxel has been demonstrated in various clinical studies in different malignant diseases. Clinical studies have also demonstrated a greater efficacy for simultaneous radio-chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone when using radiosensitizing drugs. Based on these clinical and in-vitro data we initiated several pilot studies using paclitaxel as a radiosensitizing agent and we now present our initial experience in its use in a combined modality protocol, radiation and simultaneous chemotherapy with paclitaxel. Methods: I. Concurrent paclitaxel and radiation for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): In a phase-I-study we applicated paclitaxel (45 to 65 mg/m 2 ) as a 3-hour infusion weekly for 3 to 7 weeks simultaneously with primary radiotherapy in shrinking field technique with 5x1.8 Gy/week up to 59.4 Gy. - II. Concurrent paclitaxel and radiation for breast cancer as neoadjuvant or palliative: 50 mg/m 2 paclitaxel as a 3-hour infusion weekly for 6 weeks simultaneous with neoadjuvant or palliative radiotherapy of the breast/chest wall with 5x1.8 Gy/week up to 54.0 Gy. - III./IV. Concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin and combined radiation (EBRT+brachytherapy) for locally advanced inoperable cancer of the cervix: 50 mg/m 2 paclitaxel as a 3-hour infusion weekly for 5 weeks, 50 mg/m 2 carboplatin at day 1 to 5 in week 1 and 5 simultaneously with external beam radiotherapy of the pelvis with 5x1.8 Gy/week up to 54.0 Gy and endocavitary LDR-brachytherapy (4x5 Gy). - V. Concurrent paclitaxel and radiation for locally advanced inoperable cancer of the bladder: 50 mg/m 2 paclitaxel as a 3-hour infusion weekly for 5 weeks simultaneous with radiotherapy of the pelvis with 5x1.8 Gy/week up to 50.4 Gy. VI. Concurrent paclitaxel and radiation in locally advanced inoperable head and neck cancer: 50 mg/m 2 paclitaxel as a 3-hour infusion weekly for 7 to 8 weeks simultaneous with radiotherapy in shrinking field technique

  1. THE EFFECTS OF NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLE ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION--SPECIAL RELATIVITY, A CASE HISTORY. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDBERG, STANLEY

    COMPARED ARE THE RESPONSES TO EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN FOUR COUNTRIES BETWEEN THE YEARS 1905 AND 1911. THE COUNTRIES STUDIED ARE GERMANY, FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND THE UNITED STATES. ON THE BASIS OF THE RESPONSE, NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC STYLES ARE IDENTIFIED, AND THESE STYLES ARE RELATED TO PREVIOUS NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DOING SCIENCE AND…

  2. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  3. Concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks: COCONETS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kleessen

    Full Text Available The accumulation of high-throughput data from different experiments has facilitated the extraction of condition-specific networks over the same set of biological entities. Comparing and contrasting of such multiple biological networks is in the center of differential network biology, aiming at determining general and condition-specific responses captured in the network structure (i.e., included associations between the network components. We provide a novel way for comparison of multiple networks based on determining network clustering (i.e., partition into communities which is optimal across the set of networks with respect to a given cluster quality measure. To this end, we formulate the optimization-based problem of concurrent conditional clustering of multiple networks, termed COCONETS, based on the modularity. The solution to this problem is a clustering which depends on all considered networks and pinpoints their preserved substructures. We present theoretical results for special classes of networks to demonstrate the implications of conditionality captured by the COCONETS formulation. As the problem can be shown to be intractable, we extend an existing efficient greedy heuristic and applied it to determine concurrent conditional clusters on coexpression networks extracted from publically available time-resolved transcriptomics data of Escherichia coli under five stresses as well as on metabolite correlation networks from metabolomics data set from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to eight environmental conditions. We demonstrate that the investigation of the differences between the clustering based on all networks with that obtained from a subset of networks can be used to quantify the specificity of biological responses. While a comparison of the Escherichia coli coexpression networks based on seminal properties does not pinpoint biologically relevant differences, the common network substructures extracted by COCONETS are supported by

  4. Development of a conceptual framework for understanding financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic disease: a protocol for a qualitative (grounded theory) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J T; Manns, Braden J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sanmartin, Claudia; King-Shier, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases may face financial barriers to accessing health care, even in Canada, where universal health care insurance is in place. No current theory or framework is adequate for understanding the impact of financial barriers to care on these patients or how they experience financial barriers. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework for understanding the role of financial barriers to care in the lives of patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases and the impact of such barriers on their health. We will perform an inductive qualitative grounded theory study to develop a framework to understand the effect of financial barriers to care on patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases. We will use semistructured interviews (face-to-face and telephone) with a purposive sample of adult patients from Alberta with at least 1 of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. We will analyze interview transcripts in triplicate using grounded theory coding techniques, including open, focused and axial coding, following the principle of constant comparison. Interviews and analysis will be done iteratively to theoretical saturation. Member checking will be used to enhance rigour. A comprehensive framework for understanding financial barriers to accessing health care is instrumental for both researchers and clinicians who care for patients with chronic diseases. Such a framework would enable a better understanding of patient behaviour and nonadherence to recommended medical therapies and lifestyle modifications.

  5. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Petri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  6. Amplitude modulation detection with concurrent frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Naveen K

    2016-09-01

    Human speech consists of concomitant temporal modulations in amplitude and frequency that are crucial for speech perception. In this study, amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for 550 and 5000 Hz carriers with and without concurrent frequency modulation (FM), at AM rates crucial for speech perception. Results indicate that adding 40 Hz FM interferes with AM detection, more so for 5000 Hz carrier and for frequency deviations exceeding the critical bandwidth of the carrier frequency. These findings suggest that future cochlear implant processors, encoding speech fine-structures may consider limiting the FM to narrow bandwidth and to low frequencies.

  7. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individual...

  8. Military Retirement, Concurrent Receipt, and Related Major Legislative Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henning, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    .... The change to the system that has generated the most recent legislative activity involves whether some or all military retirees should be allowed to receive both military retired pay and any VA...

  9. The Relational Concurrence of Global Warming and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    global warming and economic development focusing on the danger it inheres in ... that both developing and developed countries should sink their differences, .... with time. Other fossils exist but are still under investigation. These fossil fuels contribute greatly to human existence in the areas of. Electricity generation and ...

  10. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Emily A. Dare; Gillian H. Roehrig

    2016-01-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based...

  11. Difference in Understanding of the Need for Using Radiation in Various Fields between Students Majoring in Radiation and Non-Radiation Related Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Radiological Tecknology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.

  12. Difference in Understanding of the Need for Using Radiation in Various Fields between Students Majoring in Radiation and Non-Radiation Related Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok

    2011-01-01

    As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.

  13. Evaluating the Gifted Students' Understanding Related to Plasma State Using Plasma Experimental System and Two-Tier Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Saadet Deniz; Ayas, Bahadir; Aybek, Eren Can; Pat, Suat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the experimental system design related to plasma state on the gifted students' understanding on the subject of the plasma state. To test the research hypothesis, one group pretest-posttest research model was carried out with 18 eighth-grade (4 girls and 14 boys) gifted students in…

  14. Stepping Stones to Others' Minds: Maternal Talk Relates to Child Mental State Language and Emotion Understanding at 15, 24, and 33 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…

  15. Understanding Science Teaching Effectiveness: Examining How Science-Specific and Generic Instructional Practices Relate to Student Achievement in Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeska, Jamie N.; Shattuck, Tamara; Holtzman, Steven; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Duchesneau, Nancy; Qi, Yi; Stickler, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    In order to create conditions for students' meaningful and rigorous intellectual engagement in science classrooms, it is critically important to help science teachers learn which strategies and approaches can be used best to develop students' scientific literacy. Better understanding how science teachers' instructional practices relate to student…

  16. A String Number-Line Lesson Sequence to Promote Students' Relative Thinking and Understanding of Scale, Key Elements of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    This article describes part of a study in which researchers designed lesson sequences based around using a string number line to help teachers support children's development of relative thinking and understanding of linear scale. In the first year of the study, eight teachers of Years 3-5 participated in four one-day professional development…

  17. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Bailey, Sean P.; Harari, Rachel R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored mathematics anxiety in a longitudinal sample of 113 children followed from second to third grade. We examined how mathematics anxiety related to different types of mathematical performance concurrently and longitudinally and whether the relations between mathematics anxiety and mathematical performance differed as a function of…

  18. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  19. A concurrent multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shaofan; Tong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have derived a multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics (MMMD) from first principle to extend the (Andersen)-Parrinello-Rahman molecular dynamics to mesoscale and continuum scale. The multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics is a con-current three-scale dynamics that couples a fine scale molecular dynamics, a mesoscale micromorphic dynamics, and a macroscale nonlocal particle dynamics together. By choosing proper statistical closure conditions, we have shown that the original Andersen-Parrinello-Rahman molecular dynamics is the homogeneous and equilibrium case of the proposed multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics. In specific, we have shown that the Andersen-Parrinello-Rahman molecular dynamics can be rigorously formulated and justified from first principle, and its general inhomogeneous case, i.e., the three scale con-current multiscale micromorphic molecular dynamics can take into account of macroscale continuum mechanics boundary condition without the limitation of atomistic boundary condition or periodic boundary conditions. The discovered multiscale scale structure and the corresponding multiscale dynamics reveal a seamless transition from atomistic scale to continuum scale and the intrinsic coupling mechanism among them based on first principle formulation

  20. Note on specifying and verifying concurrent processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holenderski, L.

    1984-02-28

    To represent sequential processes, sets of finite sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet are used in this approach, alphabet symbols denote events occurring when a process is being executed, a sequence of symbols is a record of one execution of the process, and a set of such sequences represents the process itself by combining all its possible executions together. Although this model turned out adequate for specifying concurrent processes and allows proving their properties, there are two reasons, at least, why this note takes the same subject up again. First, by analogy to shuffle and its closure, which express parallel combination and parallel iteration of non-interacting processes, there is a need for a similar operation describing the behaviour of interaction processes. A new extension of shuffle is proposed as a generalization. The closure of this operation provides a tool for specification of parallelly iterated processes. Moreover, the closure makes mutually recursive specification unnecessary. Second, when this model was used to prove properties of concurrent computations, only flow-of-control schemes were considered (thus, only some general properties were proved). When applied to concrete programs using variables that have values, such schemes had to be interpreted. In contrast to such a schematic approach, the usefulness of the same method for concrete programs is argued. This is shown using an example of a correctness proof of an implementation of unbounded semaphore by binary semaphores. 8 references.

  1. Exotic species as models to understand biocultural adaptation: Challenges to mainstream views of human-nature relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dourado Sena Gama

    Full Text Available A central argument in the research on traditional knowledge, which persists in the scientific literature, is that the entrance of exotic plants in local medical systems is directly associated with acculturation. However, this logic has put an end for a long period to efforts to understand why such species have so successfully entered socio-ecological systems or even their real role in such systems. This study provides evidence that (1 in some socio-environmental contexts, exotic medicinal species usually confer greater adaptive advantages to local populations, and (2 despite their general importance, exotic species only excel in medical systems when cost-benefit ratio is favorable to them. Thus, in order to avoid the loss of knowledge about native plants and to ensure biocultural conservation, it is necessary to create strategies to amplify the advantages of these species.

  2. Understanding chemical-potential-related transient pore-pressure response to improve real-time borehole (in)stability predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U. A.; Mody, F. K.; Mese, A. I. [Haliburton Energy Services, TX (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In order to develop a real-time wellbore (in)stability modelling capability, experimental work was carried out to investigate the role of the chemical potential of drilling fluids on transient pore pressure and time-dependent rock property alterations of shale formations. Time-dependent alterations in the pore pressure, acoustic and rock properties of formations subjected to compressive tri-axial test were recorded during the experiments involving the Pore Pressure Transmission (PPT) test. Based on the transient pore pressure of shale exposed to the test fluid presented here, the 20 per cent calcium chloride showed a very low membrane efficiency of 4.45 per cent. The need for a thorough understanding of the drilling fluid/shale interaction prior to applying any chemical potential wellbore (in)stability model to real-time drilling operations was emphasized. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  3. The combined fatigue effects of sequential exposure to seated whole body vibration and physical, mental, or concurrent work demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Lang, Angelica E; Stobart, Jamie; Kociolek, Aaron M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Many occupations in agriculture, construction, transportation, and forestry are non-routine, involving non-cyclical tasks, both discretionary and non-discretionary work breaks, and a mix of work activities. Workers in these industries are exposed to seated whole body vibration (WBV) and tasks consisting of physical, mental, or a combination of demands. Risk assessment tools for non-routinized jobs have emerged but there remains a need to understand the combined effects of different work demands to improve risk assessment methods and ultimately inform ergonomists and workers on optimum work arrangement and scheduling strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate fatigue-related human responses of WBV sequentially combined with physical, mental, or concurrent physical and mental demands. Sixteen healthy participants performed four conditions on four separate days: (1) physically demanding work, (2) mentally demanding work, (3) concurrent work, and (4) control quiet sitting. For each condition, participants performed two 15-minute bouts of the experimental task, separated by 30-minutes of simulated WBV based on realistic all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding data. A test battery of fatigue measures consisting of biomechanical, physiological, cognitive, and sensorimotor measurements were collected at four interval periods: pre-session, after the first bout of the experimental task and before WBV, after WBV and before the second bout of the experimental task, and post-session. Nine measures demonstrated statistically significant time effects during the control condition; 11, 7, and 12 measures were significant in the physical, mental, and concurrent conditions, respectively. Overall, the effects of seated WBV in combination with different tasks are not additive but possibly synergistic or antagonistic. There appears to be a beneficial effect of seated ATV operation as a means of increasing task variation; but since excessive WBV may independently pose a health

  4. Hickam's dictum: Myasthenia Gravis presenting concurrently with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Shekhar; Rebello, Roshan; Wolmarans, Louise; Elston, Marianne

    2017-09-07

    We present two patients with Graves' disease and concurrent myasthenia gravis. The impact of the dual diagnosis on the clinical course and the potential for a delayed diagnosis of myasthenia gravis is discussed. Patient 1, a 28-year-old man was diagnosed with Graves' disease following his second respiratory arrest. His history was strongly suggestive of a second pathology. Patient 2, a 66-year-old Cantonese woman with established Graves' disease presented with thionamide-related neutropaenia. Examination revealed bilateral ptosis and right lateral rectus palsy. Both patients had thyrotoxicosis secondary to Graves' disease with concurrent myasthenia gravis. Although neuromuscular weakness is common in Graves' disease, coexisting myasthenia gravis (MG) is rare and can cause profound morbidity. Ocular signs in both diseases may cause diagnostic confusion although ptosis suggests coexisting MG. In both cases, the thyrotoxicosis delayed the diagnosis of MG. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Yuki; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as “social sensors.” Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world. PMID:26659028

  6. Epidemiology of concurrent headache and sleep problems in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Nunu; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Barloese, Mads; Glümer, Charlotte; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-09-01

    There are no previous epidemiologic studies on concurrent headache and sleep problems (HSP). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of HSP in Denmark, broadly characterize those with HSP, and examine associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. A total of 129,150 randomly selected individuals were invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010. Respondents were asked about headache, sleep problems, depression and anxiety in the last two weeks, health-related lifestyle and quality of life (SF-12). Socioeconomic data were retrieved from national registers. Prevalence proportions were adjusted for stratified sampling and non-response. Regression analyses examined associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. Of 68,518 respondents, 16.3% reported only headache, 21.1% only sleep problems, and 18.1% HSP with 2.6% being severely affected. Prevalence was higher among women and the middle-aged. Severe HSP was associated with low socioeconomic position, non-Western ethnicity, unhealthy lifestyle, high stress and anxiety/depression. Those with HSP had substantially reduced quality of life; more so than those having only headache or only sleep problems. HSP is a highly prevalent condition. Lifestyle modification, stress reduction, and screening for concurrent depression and anxiety may play important roles in management. The high prevalence of HSP suggests a common pathophysiological mechanism. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Concurrent Engineering Working Group White Paper Distributed Collaborative Design: The Next Step in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith; Borden, Chester

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades of performance, cost and schedule. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. The purpose of this white paper is to identify a near-term vision for the future of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering design for aerospace missions as well as discuss the challenges to achieving that vision. The white paper also documents the advantages of creating a working group to investigate how to engage the expertise of different teams in joint design sessions while enabling organizations to maintain their organizations competitive advantage.

  8. Study on the concurrent calculation with a multitransputer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Shinji; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1992-06-01

    A relation between the calculation processing time and the overhead of multitransputer network is studied in performing several concurrent calculations. Hardware configuration we used was a ring-type linked nine transputer network on an INMOS B008 mother board which was inserted into a slot of a personal computer compatible with IBM PC/AT. Further we used the occam2 toolset of MS-DOS version to write the calculation programs in the occam2 language. On arithmetic operations, some trigonometric and transcendental functions and numerical integrations, the calculation time and overhead were measured. The results show that the relative calculation speed is proportional to the number of transputers when the ratio of calculation time to overhead is much greater than 1.0. And the overhead is consumed in inter-communicating among transputers for the parallel calculation set-up. (author)

  9. Dental anomalies in different cleft groups related to neural crest developmental fields contributes to the understanding of cleft aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Louise Claudius; Kjær, Inger; Mølsted, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze dental deviations in three cleft groups and relate findings to embryological neural crest fields (frontonasal, maxillary, and palatal). The overall purpose was to evaluate how fields are involved in different cleft types. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of clinical photographs...

  10. Complexities in understanding the role of compensation-related factors on recovery from whiplash-associated disorders : discussion paper 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Linda J.; Connelly, Luke B.; Spearing, Natalie M.; Cote, Pierre; Buitenhuis, Jan; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Study Design. Focused discussion. Objective. To present some of the complexities in conducting research on the role of compensation and compensation-related factors in recovery from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and to suggest directions for future research. Summary of Background Data. There

  11. From patient deference towards negotiated and precarious informality: An Eliasian analysis of English general practitioners' understandings of changing patient relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, P.R.; Elston, M.A.; Gabe, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to sociological debates about trends in the power and status of medical professionals, focussing on claims that deferent patient relations are giving way to a more challenging consumerism. Analysing data from a mixed methods study involving general practitioners in England,

  12. Students' Understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity and Design for a Guided Visit to a Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Solbes, Jordi; Barragues, Jose-Ignacio; Morentin, Maite; Moreno, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of teaching materials that are used as learning tools in school visits to a science museum. An exhibition on "A century of the Special Theory of Relativity", in the Kutxaespacio Science Museum, in San Sebastian, Spain, was used to design a visit for first-year engineering students at the university…

  13. The effects of recall-concurrent visual-motor distraction on picture and word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M W

    1977-05-01

    The dual-coding model (Paivio, 1971, 1975) predicts a larger imaginal component in the recall of pictures relative to words and a larger imaginal component in the recall of concrete words relative to abstract words. These predictions were tested by examining the effect of a recall-concurrent imagery-suppression task (pursuit-rotor tracking) on the recall of pictures vs picture labels and on the recall of concrete words vs abstract words. The results showed that recall-concurrent pursuit-rotor tracking interfered with picture recall, but not word recall (Experiments 1 and 2); however, there was no evidence of an effect of recall-concurrent tracking on the recall of concrete words (Experiment 3). The results suggested a revision of the dual-coding model.

  14. "If I had to do it, then I would": Understanding early middle school students' perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students' perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  15. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Dare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students’ perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  16. Complexities in understanding the role of compensation-related factors on recovery from whiplash-associated disorders: discussion paper 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Linda J; Connelly, Luke B; Spearing, Natalie M; Côté, Pierre; Buitenhuis, Jan; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-12-01

    Focused discussion. To present some of the complexities in conducting research on the role of compensation and compensation-related factors in recovery from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and to suggest directions for future research. There is divergence of opinion, primary research findings, and systematic reviews on the role of compensation and/or compensation-related factors in WAD recovery. The topic of research of compensation/compensation-related factors was discussed at an international summit meeting of 21 researchers from diverse fields of scientific enquiry. This article summarizes the main points raised in that discussion. Traffic injury compensation is a complex sociopolitical construct, which varies widely across jurisdictions. This leads to conceptual and methodological challenges in conducting and interpreting research in this area. It is important that researchers and their audiences be clear about what aspect of the compensation system is being addressed, what compensation-related variables are being studied, and what social/economic environment the compensation system exists in. In addition, summit participants also recommended that nontraditional, sophisticated study designs and analysis strategies be employed to clarify the complex causal pathways and mechanisms of effects. Care must be taken by both researchers and their audiences not to overgeneralize or confuse different aspects of WAD compensation. In considering the role of compensation/compensation-related factors on WAD and WAD recovery, it is important to retain a broad-based conceptualization of the range of biological, psychological, social, and economic factors that combine and interact to define and determine how people recover from WAD.

  17. The vascular phenotype in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and related disorders: Contribution of a genetic disease to the understanding of vascular calcification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eLeftheriotis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a complex and dynamic process occurring in various physiological conditions such as aging and exercise or in acquired metabolic disorders like diabetes or chronic renal insufficiency. Arterial calcifications are also observed in several genetic diseases revealing the important role of unbalanced or defective anti- or pro-calcifying factors. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is an inherited disease (OMIM 264800 characterized by elastic fiber fragmentation and calcification in various soft conjunctive tissues including the skin, eyes and arterial media. The PXE disease results from mutations in the ABCC6 gene, encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter primarily expressed in the liver, kidneys suggesting that it is a prototypic metabolic soft-tissue calcifying disease of genetic origin. The clinical expression of the PXE arterial disease is characterized by an increased risk for coronary (myocardial infarction, cerebral (aneurysm and stroke and lower limb peripheral artery disease. However, the structural and functional changes in the arterial wall induced by PXE are still unexplained. The use of a recombinant mouse model inactivated for the Abcc6 gene is an important tool for the understanding of the PXE pathophysiology although the vascular impact in this model remains limited to date. Overlapping of the PXE phenotype with other inherited calcifying diseases could bring important informations to our comprehension of the PXE disease.

  18. Improving understanding, promoting social inclusion, and fostering empowerment related to epilepsy: Epilepsy Foundation public awareness campaigns--2001 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P; Kobau, R; Buelow, J; Austin, J; Lowenberg, K

    2015-03-01

    It is a significant public health concern that epilepsy, the fourth most common neurological disorder in the United States, is generally poorly understood by both the public and those living with the condition. Lack of understanding may magnify the challenges faced by those with epilepsy, including limiting treatment opportunities, effective management of symptoms, and full participation in daily life activities. Insufficient awareness of epilepsy and appropriate seizure first aid among the public and professionals can result in insufficient treatment, inappropriate seizure response, physical restraint, social exclusion, or other negative consequences. To address the need for increased public education and awareness about epilepsy, the national Epilepsy Foundation, supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has conducted yearly multifaceted public education and awareness campaigns designed to reach the broad population and targeted segments of the population including youth, young adults, racial/ethnic groups (i.e., African-, Hispanic-, and Asian-Americans), and people with epilepsy and their caregivers. Campaign channels have included traditional media, social media, and community opinion leaders and celebrity spokespersons. The key activities of these campaigns, conducted from 2001 to 2013, are summarized in this report. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Understanding the relation between socioeconomic position and inflammation in post-menopausal women: education, income and occupational prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; De Roos, Anneclaire; Garcia, Lorena; Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kroenke, Candyce; Chan, Kei Hang Katie; Liu, Simin; Michael, Yvonne

    2017-12-01

    The role of occupational prestige, a direct measure of the perceived status of job and job holder, in inflammation is unknown. To contribute to understanding the pathways by which socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with inflammation, we aimed to estimate the direct effects of education, income and occupational prestige on C-reactive protein (CRP) and to describe the relationship between these markers and CRP. The study was based on 2026 post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study. Occupational prestige was determined by linking a text description of longest held occupation with a social status item from the Occupational Information Network. Path analysis was employed to estimate direct and mediated effects. The study suggests that higher levels of education, income, and occupational prestige are associated with 8% (95% CI as percentage change -12, -4), 5% [95% CI (-8, -2) and 4% (95% CI - 7, -1)] lower levels of CRP, respectively. The inverse association between education and CRP was explained by the effect of education on income and occupational prestige. The effect of occupational prestige on CRP was independent of mediators in the model. The findings indicate that education may work to influence CRP primarily through increasing income and occupational prestige and provides evidence that occupational prestige captures a unique aspect of SEP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. From patient deference towards negotiated and precarious informality: An Eliasian analysis of English general practitioners' understandings of changing patient relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick; Elston, Mary Ann; Gabe, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    This article contributes to sociological debates about trends in the power and status of medical professionals, focussing on claims that deferent patient relations are giving way to a more challenging consumerism. Analysing data from a mixed methods study involving general practitioners in England, we found some support for the idea that an apparent 'golden age' of patient deference is receding. Although not necessarily expressing nostalgia for such doctor-patient relationships, most GPs described experiencing disruptive or verbally abusive interactions at least occasionally and suggested that these were becoming more common. Younger doctors tended to rate patients as less respectful than their older colleagues but were also more likely to be egalitarian in attitude. Our data suggest that GPs, especially younger ones, tend towards a more informal yet limited engagement with their patients and with the communities in which they work. These new relations might be a basis for mutual respect between professionals and patients in the consulting room, but may also generate uncertainty and misunderstanding. Such shifts are understood through an Eliasian framework as the functional-democratisation of patient-doctor relations via civilising processes, but with this shift existing alongside decivilising tendencies involving growing social distance across broader social figurations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Adopting the perspective of another in belief attribution: contribution of Relational Frame Theory to the understanding of impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatte, Matthieu; Monestès, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baqué, Esteve; Loas, Gwenolé

    2010-06-01

    Impaired ability of identifying mental states is a characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In particular, people suffering from this illness tend to fail at attributing a belief to another, which has been linked to difficulties in changing interpersonal perspective. Following the view of Relational Frame Theory on perspective-taking skills, the current study aimed at examining the involvement of social anhedonia, one of the frequent features of schizophrenia, in the development of deficits in reversing the I-YOU relation (i.e., adopting the perspective of another). A task consisting of attributing a belief to another or to the self was employed with 30 non-clinical participants with a high level of social anhedonia and with 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In comparison to two control groups, both experimental groups showed significant poorer performance when adopting the perspective of another. These results constitute important indications to target specific relational repertoires when attempting to remediate impairments in mental states attribution linked to schizophrenia.

  2. Concurrent medical conditions among pregnant women - ignore at their peril: report from an antenatal anesthesia clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F; Einav, Sharon; Elchalal, Uriel; Ozerski, Vladislav; Shatalin, Daniel; Ioscovich, Alexander; Ginosar, Yehuda

    2018-03-19

    Care of pregnant women with concurrent medical conditions can be optimized by multidisciplinary antenatal management. In the current study we describe women with concurrent medical conditions who attended our antenatal anesthesia clinic over a 14-year period, 2002-2015 and, based on the findings, we suggest new policies, strategies and practices to improve antenatal care. In 2002, an antenatal anesthesia clinic was established in Hadassah Medical Center. Each consultation focused on the concurrent medical condition. A written anesthesia strategy according to the medical condition and its anesthesia considerations was discussed and given to the patient. Data regarding clinic visits were recorded. A total of 451 clinic women attended the antenatal anesthesia clinic. Maternal age was 31.7 ± 6.0 years (mean ± SD), with gestational age of pregnancy 33.0 ± 5.4 weeks at the clinic visit. Musculoskeletal conditions (23% of all the women seen) were the most frequent concurrent conditions, followed by anesthesia related concerns 20%, neurologic conditions 19%, and cardiac conditions 15%. Women were provided plans that were deliberated carefully rather than being concocted during labor. A wide range of concurrent medical conditions was seen in the antenatal anesthesia clinic, however fewer women attended the clinic than expected according to known population frequencies of concurrent medical conditions. Women with concurrent medical conditions should have labor and anesthesia plans considered during the nine months of pregnancy, prior to delivery, and hospitals should have a means of obtaining this information in a timely manner. Finally, there is a need to develop additional antenatal anesthesia clinics.

  3. Concurrent radiochemotherapy in advanced hypopharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukarski Dusko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent platinum-based radiochemotherapy has been recommended as a standard of care in patients with locally advanced squamous cell head and neck carcinomas. Unfortunately, there is a lack of level one evidence on best treatment approach for advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. This report aims to summarize the results of our study on concurrent radiochemotherapy in patients with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. Methods A retrospective analysis of 41 patients with stage III-IV hypopharyngeal cancer was performed. All patients were treated with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and received 70 Gy in 35 fractions (2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week. In dependence of the period when radiotherapy was realized, two different treatment techniques were used. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 30 mg/m2 given on a weekly basis. Results The median age was 52 years (range 29-70. Stage IV disease was recognized in 73.2% of the patients. Complete response rates at the primary site and at the metastatic neck lymph nodes were 68.3% and 36.6%, respectively. A complete composite response was present in 27 patients (65.9%. Median follow-up was 13 months (range 7-36. Distant metastases as initial failure occurred in 7 patients (46.7%. The 2-year local relapse-free survival and regional relapse-free survival rates were 55.2% and 75.8%, respectively. The 2-year locoregional relapse-free survival rate was 51.3%. The 2-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 29.3% and 32.8%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was developed in 46.3% of patients. Leucopenia grade 1 was the most frequent hematological toxicity. The median weight loss at the end of treatment was 12% (range 5-21. The worst grade of late toxicity was most commonly pronounced in the skin and in the subcutaneous tissue. Conclusions Based on unsatisfactory results in our study we suggest that the use of sequential radiochemotherapy or chemotherapy

  4. Concurrent chemoradiation for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Bae; Seong, Jin Sil; Song, Si Young; Park, Seung Woo; Suh, Chang Ok

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the treatment results of concurrent chemoradiation with oral 5-FU plus Gemcitabine or Paclitaxel for unresectable pancreatic cancer. The patients, who were diagnosed by imaging modalities or by explo-laparotomy were treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Radiotherapy was delivered to primary tumor and regional lymph nodes, and the total dose was 45 Gy. Patients received Gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m 2 or Paclitaxel 50 mg/m 2 weekly and oral 5-FU daily. The total number of cycles of chemotherapy ranged from 1 to 39 (median, 11 cycles). The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 36 months. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Fifty-four patients between Jan. 1999 to Nov. 2001 were included in this study. Forty-two patients who completed the planned treatment were included in this analysis. The patients' age ranged from 37 to 73 years (median, 60 years) and the male to female ratio was 30:12. Treatment was interrupted for 12 patients due to; disease progression for 6 (50%), poor performance status for 4 (33.3%), intercurrent disease for 1 (8.3%), and refusal for 1 (8.3%). Response evaluation was possible for 40 patients. One patient gained complete remission and 24 patients gained partial remission, hence the response rate was 59%. The survival rates were 46.7% and 17.0% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively with a median survival time of 12 months. Patients treated with Paclitaxel showed superior outcomes compared to those patients treated with Gemcitabine, in terms of both response rate and survival rate although this difference was not statistically significant. Grade III or IV hematologic toxicity was shown in 8 patients (19%), while grade III or IV non-hematologic toxicity was shown in 5 patients (12%). Concurrent chemoradiation with oral 5-FU and Gemcitabine or Paclitaxel improves both the response rate and survival rate in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. A prospective study should be investigated in order to improve both the patient

  5. Gait parameters are differently affected by concurrent smartphone-based activities with scaled levels of cognitive effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Caramia

    Full Text Available The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load, call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting. Each of these activities is characterized by a different cognitive load. Using an inertial measurement unit on the lower trunk, spatio-temporal gait parameters, together with regularity, symmetry and smoothness parameters, were extracted and grouped for comparison among normal walking and different dual task demands. An overall significant effect of task type on the aforementioned parameters group was observed. The alterations in gait parameters vary as a function of cognitive effort. In particular, stride frequency, step length and gait speed show a decrement, while step time increases as a function of cognitive effort. Smoothness, regularity and symmetry parameters are significantly altered for specific dual task conditions, mainly along the mediolateral direction. These results may lead to a better understanding of the possible risks related to walking and concurrent smartphone use.

  6. Understanding The Behavior Of The Sun'S Large Scale Magnetic Field And Its Relation With The Meridional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Gopal

    2018-02-01

    In this thesis, various studies leading to better understanding of the 11-year solar cycle and its theoretical modeling with the flux transport dynamo model are performed. Although this is primarily a theoretical thesis, there is a part dealing with the analysis of observational data. The various proxies of solar activity (e.g., sunspot number, sunspot area and 10.7 cm radio flux) from various observatory including the sunspot area records of Kodaikanal Observatory have been analyzed to study the irregular aspects of solar cycles and an analysis has been carried out on the correlation between the decay rate and the next cycle amplitude. The theoretical analysis starts with explaining how the magnetic buoyancy has been treated in the flux transport dynamo models, and advantages and disadvantages of different treatments. It is found that some of the irregular properties of the solar cycle in the decaying phase can only be well explained using a particular treatment of the magnetic buoyancy. Next, the behavior of the dynamo with the different spatial structures of the meridional flow based on recent helioseismology results has been studied. A theoretical model is constructed considering the back reaction due to the Lorentz force on the meridional flows which explains the observed variation of the meridional flow with the solar cycle. Finally, some results with 3D FTD models are presented. This 3D model is developed to handle the Babcock-Leighton mechanism and magnetic buoyancy more realistically than previous 2D models and can capture some important effects connected with the subduction of the magnetic field in polar regions, which are missed in 2D surface flux transport models. This 3D model is further used to study the evolution of the magnetic fields due to a turbulent non-axisymmetric velocity field and to compare the results with the results obtained by using a simple turbulent diffusivity coefficient.

  7. Conceptual Understanding of the Russian-Caucasian Relations in the XVI–XIX centuries in the Official Imperial Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadzhi-Murat A. Sabanchiev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic Caucasus Studies contains various, often conflicting concepts and approaches, claiming to be the most complete and objective coverage of issues of Russian-Caucasian historical interaction. Though in different studies, the same category is filled with a variety of semantic content that creates a discursive field requiring thorough scientific research. The article analyzes the research works of official direction of pre-revolutionary historiography devoted to the problem of relations between Russia and the North Caucasus in the XVI–XIX centuries. The disciplinary matrix of historical science of J. Ryuzen is used as an instrument of historiographical analysis in this research. This theoretical construct allowed to typologize and to conceptualize the pre-revolutionary studies, to formulate criteria for selection of the conservative direction in the study of the Russian-Caucasian relations. The authors of the article relate the works of M.M. Shcherbatov, N.K. Karamzin, P.P. Zubov, R.А. Fadeev, A.P. Berge, N.F. Dubrovin, V.A. Potto, D.N. Dubenskiy, I. Ivanin, S.S. Esadze et al to the research works of the official direction of the pre-revolutionary historical thought. The cognitive interest of this group of researchers is caused by the search for the most effective ways of conquest and managing the North Caucasian peoples. Caucasus war was examined by the researchers-conservatives as the process of strengthening the position of the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus region justified from a historical and geopolitical point of view. The official approach supposed the civilizational motivation for the particular military conquest of the North Caucasus societies, deprived of citizenship and social order. The authors conclude that the research works of the conservative direction of imperial historiography solve important problems of legitimation of the Russian policy in the North Caucasus.

  8. The role of interpersonal influence in families in understanding children's eating behavior: a social relations model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coesens, Carolien; De Mol, Jan; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Buysse, Ann

    2010-11-01

    This study investigates children's eating behavior in a context of bidirectional parent-child influences. Parents and children were asked about their sense of influence and of being influenced concerning food rules. For parents, these feelings seemed to be partly correlated with children's eating behavior. Additionally, Social Relations Model analysis revealed that parents' and children's feelings of influence and being influenced were not only dependent on characteristics of the rater or actor, but also characteristics of the partner and of the unique relationship were found to be important. Furthermore, evidence was found for bidirectional influences, but only for the mother-older sibling dyad.

  9. Distributed Management of Concurrent Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Balke, Wolf-Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Business processes involve dynamic compositions of interleaved tasks. Therefore, ensuring reliable transactional processing of Web services is crucial for the success of Web service-based B2B and B2C applications. But the inherent autonomy and heterogeneity of Web services render the applicability...... of conventional ACID transaction models for Web services far from being straightforward. Current Web service transaction models relax the isolation property and rely on compensation mechanisms to ensure atomicity of business transactions in the presence of service failures. However, ensuring consistency...... in the open and dynamic environment of Web services, where interleaving business transactions enter and exit the system independently, remains an open issue. In this paper, we address this problem and propose an architecture that supports concurrency control on the Web services level. An extension...

  10. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  11. High bandwidth concurrent processing on commodity platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Boosten, M; Van der Stok, P D V

    1999-01-01

    The I/O bandwidth and real-time processing power required for high- energy physics experiments is increasing rapidly over time. The current requirements can only be met by using large-scale concurrent processing. We are investigating the use of a large PC cluster interconnected by Fast and Gigabit Ethernet to meet the performance requirements of the ATLAS second level trigger. This architecture is attractive because of its performance and competitive pricing. A major problem is obtaining frequent high-bandwidth I/O without sacrificing the CPU's processing power. We present a tight integration of a user-level scheduler and a zero-copy communication layer. This system closely approaches the performance of the underlying hardware in terms of both CPU power and I/O capacity. (0 refs).

  12. Whether, when, and how is spirituality related to well-being? Moving beyond single occasion questionnaires to understanding daily process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Nezlek, John B

    2012-11-01

    Prior research suggests that spirituality is positively related to well-being. Nevertheless, within-person variability in spirituality has yet to be addressed. Do people experience greater spirituality on some days versus others? Does daily spirituality predict daily well-being? Do within-person relationships between spirituality and well-being vary as a function of trait spirituality? The authors examined such questions using a daily diary study with 87 participants who provided reports of their daily spirituality and well-being for a total of 1,239 days. They found that daily spirituality was positively related to meaning in life, self-esteem, and positive affect, and the link from daily spirituality to both self-esteem and positive affect was fully mediated by meaning in life. Moreover, within-person relationships between daily spirituality and self-esteem and meaning in life were stronger for people higher in trait spirituality. Lagged analyses found positive relationships between present day spirituality and next day's meaning in life; there was no evidence for meaning in life as a predictor of the next day's spirituality. When focusing on affect, for people higher in trait spirituality, greater negative affect (and lower positive affect) predicted greater spirituality the next day. These results provide new insights into how spirituality operates as a fluctuating experience in daily life.

  13. Understanding Faculty and Trainee Needs Related to Scholarly Activity in a Large, Nonuniversity Graduate Medical Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Davida; Garth, Hanna; Hollander, Rachel; Klein, Felice; Klau, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) programs must develop curriculum to ensure scholarly activity among trainees and faculty to meet accreditation requirements and to support evidence-based medicine. Test whether research-related needs and interests varied across four groups: primary care trainees, specialty trainees, primary care faculty, and specialty faculty. We surveyed a random sample of trainees and faculty in Kaiser Permanente Southern California's GME programs. We investigated group differences in outcomes using Fisher exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Research experiences, skills, barriers, motivators, and interests in specific research skills development. Participants included 47 trainees and 26 faculty (response rate = 30%). Among primary care faculty, 12 (71%) reported little or no research experience vs 1 (11%) for specialty faculty, 14 (41%) for primary care trainees, and 1 (8%) for specialty trainees (p work roles taking priority; desire for work-life balance; and lack of managerial support, research equipment, administrative support, and funding. Faculty and trainees in primary care and specialties have differing research-related needs that GME programs should consider when designing curricula to support scholarly activity. Developing research skills of primary care faculty is a priority to support trainees' scholarly activity.

  14. Understanding and remediating social-cognitive dysfunctions in patients with serious mental illness using relational frame theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemieke eHendriks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social cognition and perspective-taking play an important role in the psychopathology and social functioning of individuals with social anxiety, autism or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations. Perspective-taking has mostly been studied using the concept of Theory of Mind (ToM, which describes the sequential development of these skills in young children, as well as clinical populations experiencing perspective-taking difficulties. Several studies mention positive results of Theory of Mind based training programs, however, the precise processes involved in the achievement of these improvements are difficult to determine. Relational Frame Theory (RFT is a modern behavioural account of complex cognitive functions, and is argued to provide a more precise approach to the assessment and training of perspective-taking, among other relational skills. Results of RFT-based studies of perspective-taking in developmental and clinical settings are discussed. The development of training methods targeting perspective-taking deficits from an RFT point of view appears to provide promising applications for the enhancement of current treatments of people with social-cognitive dysfunctions.

  15. 失眠症相关因素分析再认识%Understanding of Insomnia Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章潇迪; 许良

    2013-01-01

    失眠症作为现代社会的一种常见病,其致病因素往往莫衷一是.引起失眠症的相关因素颇多,如性别、年龄、职业、地域、诱因等等.近年来,对失眠症相关因素的研究分析取得了一定的进展.文章对引起失眠的常见因素进行综述并探讨,对失眠症的临床防治具有一定指导意义%Insomnia, as a common disease of modern society, has a lot of pathogenic factors. Causes of insomnia have many related factors, such as gender, age, occupation, geographical, incentives, etc. In recent years, the research and analysis of insomnia-related factors have made some progress. This article summarized and explored the common factors that cause insomnia, and has some significance for the prevention and treatment of insomnia.

  16. A systems approach to understanding the identification and treatment of sport-related concussion in community rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clacy, Amanda; Goode, Natassia; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P; Salmon, Paul

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the present study was to utilise a systems thinking approach to explore the perceived responsibilities for identifying and treating concussion held by different actors across the community rugby system (e.g., players, coaches, parents, medics, referees, and management), as well as their role-specific concussion management strategies. A systems approach was taken to assess what different stakeholders within rugby systems perceive their roles to be regarding concussion identification and treatment. Through an online survey, 118 members of the amateur (community) rugby union system were asked about their role-specific concussion management responsibilities and strategies. Respondents included players, parents, medics, coaches, club managers, administrators, and volunteers. The majority of respondents indicated that they were able to identify the symptoms of rugby-related concussion, however, only medics stated their responsibility to use formal concussion assessments (e.g., SCAT2). A smaller number of the respondents indicated that they were involved in treating concussion within their current role/s (majority of which were medics). This study illustrated that the current challenges in the identification and treatment of rugby-related concussion in community sport may be due to role/responsibility confusion and possible overreliance on field-side medics. These findings offer insight into the possible limitations of the current concussion management guidelines and may offer empirically based direction for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding and Remediating Social-Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Serious Mental Illness Using Relational Frame Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Annemieke L; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; De Mey, Hubert R A; Janssen, Gwenny T L; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social cognition and perspective-taking play an important role in the psychopathology and social functioning of individuals with social anxiety, autism, or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations. Perspective-taking has mostly been studied using the concept of Theory of Mind (ToM), which describes the sequential development of these skills in young children, as well as clinical populations experiencing perspective-taking difficulties. Several studies mention positive results of ToM based training programs; however, the precise processes involved in the achievement of these improvements are difficult to determine. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) is a modern behavioral account of complex cognitive functions, and is argued to provide a more precise approach to the assessment and training of perspective-taking, among other relational skills. Results of RFT-based studies of perspective-taking in developmental and clinical settings are discussed. The development of training methods targeting perspective-taking deficits from an RFT point of view appears to provide promising applications for the enhancement of current treatments of people with social-cognitive dysfunctions.

  18. Fraction magnitude understanding and its unique role in predicting general mathematics achievement at two early stages of fraction instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyi

    2017-09-08

    Prior studies on fraction magnitude understanding focused mainly on students with relatively sufficient formal instruction on fractions whose fraction magnitude understanding is relatively mature. This study fills a research gap by investigating fraction magnitude understanding in the early stages of fraction instruction. It extends previous findings to children with limited and primary formal fraction instruction. Thirty-five fourth graders with limited fraction instruction and forty fourth graders with primary fraction instruction were recruited from a Chinese primary school. Children's fraction magnitude understanding was assessed with a fraction number line estimation task. Approximate number system (ANS) acuity was assessed with a dot discrimination task. Whole number knowledge was assessed with a whole number line estimation task. General reading and mathematics achievements were collected concurrently and 1 year later. In children with limited fraction instruction, fraction representation was linear and fraction magnitude understanding was concurrently related to both ANS and whole number knowledge. In children with primary fraction instruction, fraction magnitude understanding appeared to (marginally) significantly predict general mathematics achievement 1 year later. Fraction magnitude understanding emerged early during formal instruction of fractions. ANS and whole number knowledge were related to fraction magnitude understanding when children first began to learn about fractions in school. The predictive value of fraction magnitude understanding is likely constrained by its sophistication level. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Understanding climatological, instantaneous and reference VTEC maps, its variability, its relation to STEC and its assimilation by VTEC models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orus, R.; Prieto-Cerdeira, R.

    2012-12-01

    As the next Solar Maximum peak is approaching, forecasted for the late 2013, it is a good opportunity to study the ionospheric behaviour in such conditions and how this behaviour can be estimated and corrected by existing climatological models - e.g.. NeQuick, International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)- , as well as, GNSS driven models, such as Klobuchar, NeQuick Galileo, SBAS MOPS (EGNOS and WAAS corrections) and Near Real Time Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) or regional Maps computed by different institutions. In this framework, technology advances allow to increase the computational and radio frequency channels capabilities of low-cost receivers embedded in handheld devices (such mobile phones, pads, trekking clocks, photo-cameras, etc). This may enable the active use of received ionospheric data or correction parameters from different data sources. The study is centred in understanding the ionosphere but focusing on its impact on the position error for low-cost single-frequency receivers. This study tests optimal ways to take advantage of a big amount of Real or Near Real Time ionospheric information and the way to combine various corrections in order to reach a better navigation solution. In this context, the use of real time estimation vTEC data coming from EGNOS or WAAS or near real time GIMs are used to feed the standard GPS single-frequency ionospheric correction models (Klobuchar) and get enhanced Ionospheric corrections with minor changes on the navigation software. This is done by using a Taylor expansion over the 8 coefficients send by GPS. Moreover, the same datasets are used to assimilate it in NeQuick, for broadcast coefficients, as well as, for grid assimilation. As a side product, electron density profiles in Near Real Time could be estimated with data assimilated from different ionospheric sources. Finally, the ionospheric delay estimation for multi-constellation receivers could take benefit from a common and more accurate ionospheric model being

  20. Theory and practical understanding of the migration behavior of proteins and peptides in CE and related techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth; Hilbrig, Frank

    2007-07-01

    CEC is defined as an analytical method, where the analytes are separated on a chromatographic column in the presence of an applied voltage. The separation of charged analytes in CEC is complex, since chromatographic interaction, electroosmosis and electrophoresis contribute to the experimentally observed behavior. The putative contribution of effects such as surface electrodiffusion has been suggested. A sound theoretical treatment incorporating all effects is currently not available. The question of whether the different effects contribute in an independent or an interdependent manner is still under discussion. In this contribution, the state-of-the-art in the theoretical description of the individual contributions as well as models for the retention behavior and in particular possible dimensionless 'retention factors' is discussed, together with the experimental database for the separation of charged analytes, in particular proteins and peptides, by CEC and related techniques.

  1. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Quintero Corzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

  2. Understanding domains of health-related quality of life concerns of Singapore Chinese patients with advanced cancer: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G L; Pang, G S Y; Akhileswaran, R; Ow, M Y L; Fan, G K T; Wong, C C F; Wee, H L; Cheung, Y B

    2016-03-01

    Quality of life concerns in patients with advanced diseases might be different from other patients and are shaped by sociocultural context. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify domains and themes of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that Chinese patients with advanced cancer in Singapore considered relevant and important. English- and Chinese-speaking patients with advanced solid cancer were recruited from a tertiary cancer center and a community-based hospice for in-depth interview or focused group discussion. Thematic analysis was used to identify subthemes, themes, and domains from the transcripts. Forty-six ethnic Chinese (aged 26-86, 48% male) participated in the study. Six domains of HRQoL concerns were identified: pain and suffering, physical health, social health, mental health, financial well-being, and spiritual health. Pain and suffering are not limited to the physical domain, reflecting the multidimensional nature of this concept. Pain and suffering must also be understood within the cultural context. Healthcare relations (i.e., social health), existential well-being and religious well-being (i.e., spiritual health), and suffering (i.e., pain and suffering) are not fully captured in the existing HRQoL instruments. In addition, financial issues and the practice of secrecy in interpersonal relationships emerged as unique features possibly arising from our sociocultural context and healthcare financing landscape. Socioculturally specific issues not measured by the existing HRQoL instruments for use in patients with advanced cancers or terminal diseases were found in our study. These are non-physical pain and suffering, meaning of illness, meaning of death, financial issues, and practice of secrecy in interpersonal relationships.

  3. Erlang Programming A Concurrent Approach to Software Development

    CERN Document Server

    Cesarini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    This book offers you an in-depth explanation of Erlang, a programming language ideal for any situation where concurrency, fault-tolerance, and fast response is essential. You'll learn how to write complex concurrent programs in this language, regardless of your programming background or experience. Erlang Programming focuses on the language's syntax and semantics, and explains pattern matching, proper lists, recursion, debugging, networking, and concurrency, with exercises at the end of each chapter.

  4. Understanding Liking in Relation to Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Concept Associations, Arousal Potential and "Appropriateness for Use" Using Apple Juice as an Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender L P; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2016-01-01

    potential and appropriateness for use using apple juices as an application. First, a laboratory panel (n=15: F=10, M=5) determined the sensory profile of the apple juices using the methods Partial Napping and Ultra Flash Profiling based on taste and flavor. Next, consumers (n=196: F=136, M=60) evaluated key......It is crucial to understand influential parameters for acquisition of consumer liking to ensure succesful product introduction and competativeness in the marketplace. This article aims to study and understand liking in relation to sensory characteristics, consumer concept associations, arousal...... apple juice parameters. The basic tastes sweet and sour were key properties and played a central role in liking acquisition. Apple juices having a sweet/sour balance were most liked. The importance of balance in sensory properties was underlined by the fact that consumer liking was related...

  5. Aging memory for pictures: Using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Brandon A.; Waring, Jill D.; Beth, Ellen H.; McKeever, Joshua D.; Milberg, William P.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to e...

  6. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  7. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

  8. A Challenging Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Disease When Understanding Limitations of Laboratory Testing Was Pivotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Y. Y. Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man was incidentally found on a CT scan to have lymphadenopathy and bilateral kidney enlargement suggestive of infiltrative renal disease. He was largely asymptomatic but had bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland enlargement. A grossly elevated serum IgG (>70 g/L with concomitant suppression of other immunoglobulins, a small IgG restriction, and a parotid biopsy revealing lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with slight kappa light chain excess all suggested a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD. The diagnostic workup was further confounded by a normal serum IgG4 concentration. Moreover, bone marrow and renal biopsies did not reveal evidence of LPD. Discussion with the laboratory not only clarified that the markedly increased total IgG could not be accounted for by the small IgG restriction, but also identified a discrepancy in the IgG4 measurement. Repeat analysis of a follow-up sample revealed an elevated IgG4 of 5.94 (reference interval: 0.039–0.864 g/L, which prompted a repeat parotid biopsy that showed predominant IgG4+ lymphocytic infiltrates. Despite the deluding presentations, a final diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD was made based on elevated serum IgG4 concentrations and histopathological findings. This case highlights the importance of recognizing limitations of laboratory testing and the benefit of close communications among clinical subspecialties and the laboratory.

  9. Understanding the Areas and Correlates of Diabetes-Related Distress in Parents of Teens With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Danielle; Fisher, Lawrence; Polonsky, William; Johnson, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    To identify the unique areas of diabetes-related distress (DD) for parents of teens with type 1 diabetes and parent and teen characteristics associated with DD. Areas of DD were developed from structured interviews and translated into 46 survey items. Items were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis (EFA). An EFA with 332 parents (88% mothers) reduced items to four Parent Diabetes Distress Scale (PDDS) factors (20 items, α = .94): Personal, Teen Management, Parent/Teen Relationship, and Healthcare Team Distress. Parent DD was higher among fathers, younger or single parents, parents of teens with higher hemoglobin A1c or severe low blood glucose levels, authoritarian parenting, depressive symptoms, and low emotional support. 4 areas of parent DD were identified using a newly developed measure, the PDDS. DD was associated with family demographic, teen diabetes status, and parent contextual factors, and can help identify parents who may be more vulnerable to DD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  11. IgG4-related disease -Mechanistic insights from both clinical and immunologic understanding of this condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by tumescent lesions with characteristic storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and a marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate that includes a large number of IgG4 positive plasma cells. It's widely accepted that rituximab-mediated B cell depletion therapy is effective for this disease. Important mechanistic insights correlated with the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD have been gradually disclosed from studies of patients treated by B cell depletion. 1) IgG4-RD patients have the large clonal expansion of activated plasmablasts and CD4 + CTLs, so this disease might be antigen-driven. 2) CD4 + CTLs are the dominant population in affected tissues, on the other hands direct examination of T H1 and T H2 cells in tissues reveal that these subsets are sparse. 3) CD4 + CTLs into affected lesions secret cytotoxic, inflammatory, and pro-fibrotic cytokines, indicating reactivation by antigen in tissue sites. 4) The decline in CD4 + CTLs number by B cell depletion is associated with clinical remission of IgG4-RD patients. 5) CD4 + CXCR5 + T FH cells that express IL-4 are located outside germinal centers and specialized T FH cells that expanded dramatically in conditions with polarized class switching to IgG4. These results suggested that the disease pathogenesis might be based on orchestrating of activated plasmablasts, CD4 + CTLs, and T FH cells.

  12. A review and analysis of the use of 'habit' in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The term 'habit' is widely used to predict and explain behaviour. This paper examines use of the term in the context of health-related behaviour, and explores how the concept might be made more useful. A narrative review is presented, drawing on a scoping review of 136 empirical studies and 8 literature reviews undertaken to document usage of the term 'habit', and methods to measure it. A coherent definition of 'habit', and proposals for improved methods for studying it, were derived from findings. Definitions of 'habit' have varied in ways that are often implicit and not coherently linked with an underlying theory. A definition is proposed whereby habit is a process by which a stimulus generates an impulse to act as a result of a learned stimulus-response association. Habit-generated impulses may compete or combine with impulses and inhibitions arising from other sources, including conscious decision-making, to influence responses, and need not generate behaviour. Most research on habit is based on correlational studies using self-report measures. Adopting a coherent definition of 'habit', and a wider range of paradigms, designs and measures to study it, may accelerate progress in habit theory and application.

  13. A review and analysis of the use of ‘habit’ in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘habit’ is widely used to predict and explain behaviour. This paper examines use of the term in the context of health-related behaviour, and explores how the concept might be made more useful. A narrative review is presented, drawing on a scoping review of 136 empirical studies and 8 literature reviews undertaken to document usage of the term ‘habit’, and methods to measure it. A coherent definition of ‘habit’, and proposals for improved methods for studying it, were derived from findings. Definitions of ‘habit’ have varied in ways that are often implicit and not coherently linked with an underlying theory. A definition is proposed whereby habit is a process by which a stimulus generates an impulse to act as a result of a learned stimulus-response association. Habit-generated impulses may compete or combine with impulses and inhibitions arising from other sources, including conscious decision-making, to influence responses, and need not generate behaviour. Most research on habit is based on correlational studies using self-report measures. Adopting a coherent definition of ‘habit’, and a wider range of paradigms, designs and measures to study it, may accelerate progress in habit theory and application. PMID:25207647

  14. Epidemiology of concurrent headache and sleep problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Nunu; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Barloese, Mads

    2014-01-01

    with 2.6% being severely affected. Prevalence was higher among women and the middle-aged. Severe HSP was associated with low socioeconomic position, non-Western ethnicity, unhealthy lifestyle, high stress and anxiety/depression. Those with HSP had substantially reduced quality of life; more so than those......AIMS: There are no previous epidemiologic studies on concurrent headache and sleep problems (HSP). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of HSP in Denmark, broadly characterize those with HSP, and examine associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. METHODS......: A total of 129,150 randomly selected individuals were invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010. Respondents were asked about headache, sleep problems, depression and anxiety in the last two weeks, health-related lifestyle and quality of life (SF-12). Socioeconomic data were...

  15. Holledge gauge failure testing using concurrent information processing algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.; Daniel, W.E.; Edwards, R.E.; Jannarone, R.J.; Joshi, S.N.; Palakodety, S.S.; Qian, D.

    1996-01-01

    For several decades, computerized information processing systems and human information processing models have developed with a good deal of mutual influence. Any comprehensive psychology text in this decade uses terms that originated in the computer industry, such as ''cache'' and ''memory'', to describe human information processing. Likewise, many engineers today are using ''artificial intelligence''and ''artificial neural network'' computing tools that originated as models of human thought to solve industrial problems. This paper concerns a recently developed human information processing model, called ''concurrent information processing'' (CIP), and a related set of computing tools for solving industrial problems. The problem of focus is adaptive gauge monitoring; the application is pneumatic pressure repeaters (Holledge gauges) used to measure liquid level and density in the Defense Waste Processing Facility and the Integrated DWPF Melter System

  16. Concurrent approach for evolving compact decision rule sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelstein, Robert E.; Hammack, Lonnie P.; Lamont, Gary B.

    1999-02-01

    The induction of decision rules from data is important to many disciplines, including artificial intelligence and pattern recognition. To improve the state of the art in this area, we introduced the genetic rule and classifier construction environment (GRaCCE). It was previously shown that GRaCCE consistently evolved decision rule sets from data, which were significantly more compact than those produced by other methods (such as decision tree algorithms). The primary disadvantage of GRaCCe, however, is its relatively poor run-time execution performance. In this paper, a concurrent version of the GRaCCE architecture is introduced, which improves the efficiency of the original algorithm. A prototype of the algorithm is tested on an in- house parallel processor configuration and the results are discussed.

  17. Concurrent chemoradiation for oesophageal cancer: factor influencing myelotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKean, J.; Denham, J.W. [Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital, NSW (Australia). Radiation Oncology Department; Burmeister, B.H. [Queensland Radium Inst., Herston, QLD (Australia); Lamb, D.S. [Wellington Hospital, Wellington (New Zealand). Wellington Regional Oncology Unit

    1996-11-01

    Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation (CT/RT) for localized oesophageal cancer can cause life-threatening myelosuppression. This non-randomized study examines 95 patients from three Australasian centres treated on the TransTasman Radiation Oncology `definitive` chemoradiation study. Duration of fluorouracil infusion and patient age were independently predictive of myelotoxicity after the first cycle of CT/RT. Overall rates of grade 111 and IV neutropaenic were 23% and of thrombocytopaenia 8% following the first cycle of chemotherapy. Five neutropaenic septic episodes followed the first cycle and six the second. All five patients recovered after the first cycle but there were four treatment-related deaths occurring after the second cycle of CT/RT. Recommendations are made concerning initial dosing, dose reductions and delays to minimize adverse patient outcomes from myelosuppression. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Age dependent prognosis in concurrent chemo-radiation of locally advanced NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine; Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    . Material and methods. Altogether, 478 patients completed radical radiotherapy in doses of 60-66 Gy/30-33 fractions from 1995 to June 2012; 137 of the patients had concurrent chemotherapy. The data was analyzed in age groups ... specific survival the hazard ratio was related to the use of concurrent chemotherapy was 0.49 (95% CI 0.29; 0.82), 0.68 (95% CI 0.48; 0.98) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.67; 1.51) for the age groups ..., the results might be due to selection bias, thus reports from a cohort of consecutively treated patients are warranted. The current single institution study reports on the influence of age on survival of locally advanced NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy combined with or without concurrent chemotherapy...

  19. Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for successful industrial products in a global market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses research results concerning Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for Successful Industrial Products on a Global Market. Concurrent Engineering, often is called just ¿CE¿, that is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and related...... on the world market and the increasing global public demands, requirements and regulations for protection of the environment are both driving forces and challenges for improving the development of control and engineering design. There has always been an ongoing desire to develop and design systems to improve...... performance of products, productivity and efficiency of process operations. Smart use of simulation and modelling IT tools can improve many enterprises ability to compete and survive on the market. European Enterprises developing, designing and manufacturing hydraulic components and hydraulic systems...

  20. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  1. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y; Wong, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  2. Understanding Neighborhood Environment Related to Hong Kong Children’s Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study Using Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y.; Wong, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Methods Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10–11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question “What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?” Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children’s physical activity. Results Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children’s physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included “Sufficient lighting”, “Bridge or tunnel”, “Few cars on roads”, “Convenient transportation”, “Subway station”, “Recreation grounds”, “Shopping malls with air conditioning”, “Fresh air”, “Interesting animals”, and “Perfume shop”. Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included “People who make me feel unsafe”, “Crimes nearby”, “Afraid of being taken or hurt at night”, “Hard to find toilet in shopping mall”, “Too much noise”, and “Too many people in recreation grounds”. Conclusions Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities. PMID:25187960

  3. Definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Yoo Kang; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Kim, Dong Goo; You, Young Kyoung; Hong, Tae Ho; Jang, Hong Seok

    2014-01-01

    Survival outcome of locally advanced pancreatic cancer has been poor and little is known about prognostic factors of the disease, especially in locally advanced cases treated with concurrent chemoradiation. This study was to analyze overall survival and prognostic factors of patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Medical records of 34 patients diagnosed with unresectable pancreatic cancer and treated with definitive CCRT, from December 2003 to December 2012, were reviewed. Median prescribed radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 41.4 to 55.8 Gy), once daily, five times per week, 1.8 to 3 Gy per fraction. With a mean follow-up of 10 months (range, 0 to 49 months), median overall survival was 9 months. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 40% and 10%, respectively. Median and mean time to progression were 5 and 7 months, respectively. Prognostic parameters related to overall survival were post-CCRT CA19-9 (p = 0.02), the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status (p < 0.01), and radiation dose (p = 0.04) according to univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, post-CCRT CA19-9 value below 180 U/mL and ECOG status 0 or 1 were statistically significant independent prognostic factors associated with improved overall survival (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Overall treatment results in locally advanced pancreatic cancer are relatively poor and few improvements have been accomplished in the past decades. Post-treatment CA19-9 below 180 U/mL and ECOG performance status 0 and 1 were significantly associated with an improved overall survival.

  4. Definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Yoo Kang; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Kim, Dong Goo; You, Young Kyoung; Hong, Tae Ho; Jang, Hong Seok [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Survival outcome of locally advanced pancreatic cancer has been poor and little is known about prognostic factors of the disease, especially in locally advanced cases treated with concurrent chemoradiation. This study was to analyze overall survival and prognostic factors of patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Medical records of 34 patients diagnosed with unresectable pancreatic cancer and treated with definitive CCRT, from December 2003 to December 2012, were reviewed. Median prescribed radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 41.4 to 55.8 Gy), once daily, five times per week, 1.8 to 3 Gy per fraction. With a mean follow-up of 10 months (range, 0 to 49 months), median overall survival was 9 months. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 40% and 10%, respectively. Median and mean time to progression were 5 and 7 months, respectively. Prognostic parameters related to overall survival were post-CCRT CA19-9 (p = 0.02), the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status (p < 0.01), and radiation dose (p = 0.04) according to univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, post-CCRT CA19-9 value below 180 U/mL and ECOG status 0 or 1 were statistically significant independent prognostic factors associated with improved overall survival (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Overall treatment results in locally advanced pancreatic cancer are relatively poor and few improvements have been accomplished in the past decades. Post-treatment CA19-9 below 180 U/mL and ECOG performance status 0 and 1 were significantly associated with an improved overall survival.

  5. Percutaneous Intervention for Concurrent Chronic Total Occlusions in Patients With STEMI: The EXPLORE Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriques, J.P.; Hoebers, L.P.; Ramunddal, T.; Laanmets, P.; Eriksen, E.; Bax, M.; Ioanes, D.; Suttorp, M.J.; Strauss, B.H.; Barbato, E.; Nijveldt, R.; Rossum, A.C. van; Marques, K.M.; Elias, J.; Dongen, I.M. van; Claessen, B.E.; Tijssen, J.G.; Schaaf, R.J. van der; Boer, M.J. de; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 10% to 15% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), concurrent coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery is present and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The EXPLORE (Evaluating Xience and Left

  6. Concurrent administration of anticancer chemotherapy drug and herbal medicine on the perspective of pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Yi Cheng; Chen-Hsi Hsieh; Tung-Hu Tsai

    2018-01-01

    With an increasing number of cancer patients seeking an improved quality of life, complementary and alternative therapies are becoming more common ways to achieve such improvements. The potential risks of concurrent administration are serious and must be addressed. However, comprehensive evidence for the risks and benefits of combining anticancer drugs with traditional herbs is rare. Pharmacokinetic investigations are an efficient way to understand the influence of concomitant remedies. There...

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracycline and docetaxel: Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, P.; Crown, J.; Di, Leo A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is more effective than doxorubicin for patients with advanced breast cancer. The Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial tested the effect of incorporating docetaxel into anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy and compared sequential vs concurrent administration....... However, important differences may be related to doxorubicin and docetaxel scheduling, with sequential but not concurrent administration, appearing to produce better DFS than anthracycline-based chemotherapy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/16...

  8. Concurrent applicative implementations of nondeterministic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, R

    1983-01-01

    The author introduces a methodology for utilizing concurrency in place of backtracking in the implementation of nondeterministic algorithms. This is achieved in an applicative setting through the use of the Friedman-Wise multiprogramming primitive frons, and a paradigm which views the action of nondeterministic algorithms as one of data structure construction. The element by element nondeterminism arising from a linearized search is replaced by a control structure which is oriented towards constructing sets of partial computations. This point of view is facilitated by the use of suspensions, which allow control disciplines to be embodied in the form of conceptual data structures that in reality manifest themselves only for purposes of control. He applies this methodology to the class of problems usually solved through the use of simple backtracking (e.g. 'eight queens'), and to a problem presented by Lindstrom (1979) to illustrate the use of coroutine controlled backtracking, to produce backtrack-free solutions. The solution to the latter illustrates the coroutine capability of suspended structures, but also demonstrates a need for further investigations into resolving problems of process communication in applicative languages. 14 references.

  9. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  10. Concurrent Oxytocin in Women Needing Second Dinoprostone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, Z.; Ashraf, M.; Irum, N.; Bashir, S.; Khaliq, N.; Yaqub, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To reduce average induction delivery internal in patients with poor Bishop score without compromising fetomaternal outcome (in terms of birth weight, NICU admission, maternal complications and mode of delivery). Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) General Hospital, Islamabad, from February to December 2009. Methodology: All patients needing 2nd dinoprostone pessary for induction of labour were included in the study. Patients with gestation below 37 weeks, those with intra-uterine growth restriction, bad obstetric history, previous uterine scar and patients in whom Bishop score improved for amniotomy after 1st dinoprostone pessary, were excluded. Data was collected on a special proforma where all variables were defined. Results:Out of 90 patients, 44 (48.8 percentage) had spontaneous vertex deliveries and 12 (13.3 percentage) had instrumental deliveries so a total vaginal deliveries occurred in 56 (62.2 percentage) patients. Thirty four patients (37.8 percentage) had emergency caesarean sections. Main indication for cesarean was failure to progress in 1st stage of labour followed by fetal distress. There were 3 failed inductions. Only 2 patients had hyperstimulation. NICU admission were 8 and all babies were discharged healthy from nursery with no case of early neonatal death. Conclusion:Concurrent oxytocin with 2nd dinoprostone in patients with poor Bishop scores (initial scores 2 and 3) resulted in more vaginal birth and comparatively shorter induction delivery time with almost negligible fetomaternal complications. (author)

  11. 39 CFR 273.7 - Concurrence of Attorney General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concurrence of Attorney General. 273.7 Section 273... PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 273.7 Concurrence of Attorney General. (a) The Attorney General is... the Attorney General or his designee approves such action in a written statement which specifies: (1...

  12. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    submission track of ToPNoC. The 12 papers cover a diverse range of topics including model checking and system verification, synthesis, foundational work on specific classes of Petri nets, and innovative applications of Petri nets and other models of concurrency. Thus, this volume gives a good view of ongoing...... concurrent systems and Petri nets research...

  13. Gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships and HIV prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, Ka Yin; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    The structure of the sexual network of a population plays an essential role in the transmission of HIV. Concurrent partnerships, i.e. partnerships that overlap in time, are important in determining this network structure. Men and women may differ in their concurrent behavior, e.g. in the case of

  14. Gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships and HIV prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, Ka Yin; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the sexual network of a population plays an essential role in the transmission of HIV. Concurrent partnerships, i.e. partnerships that overlap in time, are important in determining this network structure. Men and women may differ in their concurrent behavior, e.g. in the case of

  15. Dynamic Frames Based Verification Method for Concurrent Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a verification method for concurrent Java programs based on the concept of dynamic frames. We build on our earlier work that proposes a new, symbolic permission system for concurrent reasoning and we provide the following new contributions. First, we describe our approach

  16. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual partnerships in South Africa's language groups: An ecological analysis. C Kenyon. Abstract. Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA). Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the ...

  17. Concurrent whole brain radiotherapy and bortezomib for brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, Christopher D; Hamstra, Daniel; Lawrence, Theodore; Hayman, James; Redman, Bruce G; Friedman, Judah; Tsien, Christina I; Normolle, Daniel P; Chapman, Christopher; Cao, Yue; Lee, Oliver; Schipper, Matt; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Survival of patients with brain metastasis particularly from historically more radio-resistant malignancies remains dismal. A phase I study of concurrent bortezomib and whole brain radiotherapy was conducted to determine the tolerance and safety of this approach in patients with previously untreated brain metastasis. A phase I dose escalation study evaluated the safety of bortezomib (0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7 mg/m 2 ) given on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 of whole brain radiotherapy. Patients with confirmed brain metastasis were recruited for participation. The primary endpoint was the dose-limiting toxicity, defined as any ≥ grade 3 non-hematologic toxicity or grade ≥ 4 hematologic toxicity from the start of treatment to one month post irradiation. Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method (TITE-CRM) was used to determine dose escalation. A companion study of brain diffusion tensor imaging MRI was conducted on a subset of patients to assess changes in the brain that might predict delayed cognitive effects. Twenty-four patients were recruited and completed the planned therapy. Patients with melanoma accounted for 83% of all participants. The bortezomib dose was escalated as planned to the highest dose of 1.7 mg/m 2 /dose. No grade 4/5 toxicities related to treatment were observed. Two patients had grade 3 dose-limiting toxicities (hyponatremia and encephalopathy). A partial or minor response was observed in 38% of patients. Bortezomib showed greater demyelination in hippocampus-associated white matter structures on MRI one month after radiotherapy compared to patients not treated with bortezomib (increase in radial diffusivity +16.8% versus 4.8%; p = 0.0023). Concurrent bortezomib and whole brain irradiation for brain metastasis is well tolerated at one month follow-up, but MRI changes that have been shown to predict delayed cognitive function can be detected within one month of treatment

  18. Preoperative concurrent chemo-radiation in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Kirscher, S.; Felix-Faure, C.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Brewer, Y.; Reboul, F.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate retrospectively treatment-related morbidity of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for rectal cancer. Between 1992 and 1995, 38 patients (median age: 60) were treated for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. Median dose of radiotherapy was 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of two courses of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin administered during the first and the fifth weeks of radiotherapy. Median dose of 5-fluorouracil was 350 mg/m 2 /day, and median dose of leucovorin was 350 mg/m 2 /day, day 1 to day 5. Surgery was performed 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Before surgery, one patient died of febrile neutropenia and sepsis after two cycles of chemotherapy and 45 Gy. Main pre-operative grade 3-4 toxicities were respectively: neutropenia: 3% ; nausea/vomiting: 3%; diarrhea: 3%; proctitis: 5%; radiation dermatitis: 8%. Twenty-six patients underwent a low anterior resection and 11 an abdomino-perineal resection. A temporary colostomy was performed in 12 patients. Pathologic complete response rate was 27 %. There was one post-operative death due to thrombo-embolic disease. Major post-operative grade 3-4 complications were: pelvic infection: 14 %; abdominal infection : 5%; perineal sepsis: 8%; anastomotic dehiscence: 8%; cardiac failure: 5%. Delayed perineal wound healing was observed in six patients. No significant prognostic factor of post-operative complications has been observed. Median duration of hospitalization was 22 days. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 82 and 64%. Tolerance of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was acceptable. Ongoing controlled studies will assess the impact of this combined treatment on survival. (authors)

  19. Rejection, acceptance and the spectrum between: understanding male attitudes and experiences towards conflict-related sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jocelyn; Albutt, Katherine; Kabanga, Justin; Anderson, Kimberley; VanRooyen, Michael

    2017-12-08

    Female survivors of sexual violence in conflict experience not only physical and psychological sequelae from the event itself, but often many negative social outcomes, such as rejection and ostracisation from their families and community. Male relatives - whether husbands, fathers, brothers - play a key role in determining how the family and community respond to a survivor of sexual violence. Understanding these perspectives could help improve services for survivors of sexual violence, as well as their families and communities. This study draws on qualitative data gathered from focus groups of 68 men in the eastern region of Democratic Republic of Congo. Men were asked about their experiences as relatives of women who had experienced sexual violence. Two dominant themes arose throughout the focus groups: factors driving rejection and pathways to acceptance. Factors driving rejection included: fear of sexually transmitted infections, social stigma directed toward the husbands themselves, and an understanding of marriage and fidelity that is incompatible with rape. Men also touched on their own trauma, including struggling with witnessing a rape that took place in public, or caring for a survivor with a child from rape. They noted that the economic burden of medical treatment for survivors was a salient factor in the decision to reject. Pathways to acceptance included factors such as the love of their spouse or relative, survivors' potential to give continued financial contribution to the family, the need to keep the family together to care for children in the home, and pressure from people of importance in the community. This study provides unique insight into how male relatives respond to close family members who have experienced sexual violence. This is particularly critical since the reaction of a male relative after rape can be the most pivotal factor in promoting or impeding recovery for a survivor. These results emphasise the importance of services that focus

  20. Reusable coordinator modules for massively concurrent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad); C.L. Blom (Kees); F.J. Burger (Freek); C.T.H. Everaars (Kees)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractIsolating computation and communication concerns into separate pure computation and pure coordination modules enhances modularity, understandability and reusability of parallel and/or distributed software. MANIFOLD is a pure coordination language that encourages this separation. We use

  1. Concurrent Electroconvulsive Therapy and Bupropion Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Christopher R; Leung, Jonathan G; Murphy, Lauren L; Geske, Jennifer R; Palmer, Brian A

    2017-09-01

    Bupropion is associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of seizures. Use of concomitant bupropion and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains controversial because of an increased risk of prolonged seizures. This is the first systematic evaluation of the effect of bupropion on ECT. A case group (n = 119), patients treated with concomitant ECT and bupropion, was compared with an age and gender frequency-matched control group (n = 261), treated with only ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment data including seizure length, number of treatments, and concurrent medications were extracted. Longitudinal mixed models examined ECT versus ECT + bupropion group differences over the course of treatments measured by seizure duration (electroencephalogram [EEG] and motor). Multivariable models examined the total number of treatments and first and last seizure duration. All models considered group differences with ECT treatment measures adjusted for age, gender, benzodiazepine treatment, lead placement, and setting. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment with bupropion led to shorter motor seizure duration (0.047) and EEG seizure duration (P = 0.001). The number of ECT treatments (7.3 vs 7.0 treatments; P = 0.23), respectively, or the probability of a prolonged seizure (P = 0.15) was not significantly different. Benzodiazepine use was significantly more common in control subjects (P = 0.01). This is a retrospective analysis limited in part by unavailable variables (seizure threshold, nature of EEG and motor seizure monitoring, type of ECT device, dosing and formulation of bupropion, and duration of the current depressive illness). This study revealed a significantly shorter duration in seizure length with ECT + concomitant bupropion, but not in the number of required treatments in those treated compared with ECT without bupropion. There remains a critical need to reevaluate the efficacy of concomitant use of psychotropic medications + ECT.

  2. Time takes space: selective effects of multitasking on concurrent spatial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo; Coni, Valentina; Kubik, Veit; Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of complex relations of future goals and deadlines. Cognitive offloading may provide an efficient strategy for reducing control demands by representing future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We tested the hypothesis that multiple-task monitoring involves time-to-space transformational processes, and that these spatial effects are selective with greater demands on coordinate (metric) than categorical (nonmetric) spatial relation processing. Participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four series of deadlines, running on different time scales, while making concurrent coordinate or categorical spatial judgments. We expected and found that multitasking taxes concurrent coordinate, but not categorical, spatial processing. Furthermore, males showed a better multitasking performance than females. These findings provide novel experimental evidence for the hypothesis that efficient multitasking involves metric relational processing.

  3. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  4. Independence of Terminal-Link Entry Rate and Immediacy in Concurrent Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Mark E.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2004-01-01

    In Phase 1, 4 pigeons were trained on a three-component multiple concurrent-chains procedure in which components differed only in terms of relative terminal-link entry rate. The terminal links were variable-interval schedules and were varied across four conditions to produce immediacy ratios of 4:1, 1:4, 2:1, and 1:2. Relative terminal-link entry…

  5. Understanding science teaching effectiveness: examining how science-specific and generic instructional practices relate to student achievement in secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeska, Jamie N.; Shattuck, Tamara; Holtzman, Steven; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Duchesneau, Nancy; Qi, Yi; Stickler, Leslie

    2017-12-01

    In order to create conditions for students' meaningful and rigorous intellectual engagement in science classrooms, it is critically important to help science teachers learn which strategies and approaches can be used best to develop students' scientific literacy. Better understanding how science teachers' instructional practices relate to student achievement can provide teachers with beneficial information about how to best engage their students in meaningful science learning. To address this need, this study examined the instructional practices that 99 secondary biology teachers used in their classrooms and employed regression to determine which instructional practices are predictive of students' science achievement. Results revealed that the secondary science teachers who had well-managed classroom environments and who provided opportunities for their students to engage in student-directed investigation-related experiences were more likely to have increased student outcomes, as determined by teachers' value-added measures. These findings suggest that attending to both generic and subject-specific aspects of science teachers' instructional practice is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms that result in more effective science instruction in secondary classrooms. Implications about the use of these observational measures within teacher evaluation systems are discussed.

  6. On how to understand and present the uncertainties in production assurance analyses, with a case study related to a subsea production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Pedersen, Linda Martens

    2014-01-01

    Production assurance analyses of production systems are in practice typically carried out using flow network modelling and Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the network and probability distribution assumptions for equipment lifetime and restoration time, the simulation tool produces predictions/estimates and uncertainty distributions of the production availability, which is defined as the ratio of production to planned production, or any other reference level, over a specified period of time. To adequately communicate the results from the analyses, it is essential that there is in place a framework which clarifies how to understand the concepts introduced, including the uncertainty distributions produced. Some key elements of such a conceptual framework are well established in the industry, for example the use of probability models to represent the stochastic variation related to lifetimes and restoration times. However an overall framework linking this variation, as well as “model uncertainties”, to the epistemic uncertainty distribution for the output production availability, has been lacking. The purpose of the present paper is to present such a framework, and in this way provide new insights to and guidelines on how to understand and present the uncertainties in practical production assurance analyses. An example related to a subsea production system is used to illustrate the framework and the guidelines

  7. Understanding the Global Water and Energy Cycle Through Assimilation of Precipitation-Related Observations: Lessons from TRMM and Prospects for GPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur; Zhang, Sara; daSilva, Arlindo; Li, Frank; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the Earth's climate and how it responds to climate perturbations relies on what we know about how atmospheric moisture, clouds, latent heating, and the large-scale circulation vary with changing climatic conditions. The physical process that links these key climate elements is precipitation. Improving the fidelity of precipitation-related fields in global analyses is essential for gaining a better understanding of the global water and energy cycle. In recent years, research and operational use of precipitation observations derived from microwave sensors such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) have shown the tremendous potential of using these data to improve global modeling, data assimilation, and numerical weather prediction. We will give an overview of the benefits of assimilating TRMM and SSM/I rain rates and discuss developmental strategies for using space-based rainfall and rainfall-related observations to improve forecast models and climate datasets in preparation for the proposed multi-national Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

  8. ‘It’s a can of worms’: understanding primary care practitioners’ behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSherry Lisa A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer is transforming cervical cancer prevention. HPV tests and vaccinations have recently become available. In Ireland, as elsewhere, primary care practitioners play a key role in prevention. ATHENS (A Trial of HPV Education and Support aims to develop a theory-based intervention to support primary care practitioners in their HPV-related practice. This study, the first step in the intervention development process, aimed to: identify HPV-related clinical behaviours that the intervention will target; clarify general practitioners’ (GPs’ and practice nurses’ roles and responsibilities; and determine factors that potentially influence clinical behaviour. A secondary objective was to informally assess the utility of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF in understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses. The topic guide, which contained open questions and HPV-related clinical scenarios, was developed through literature review and clinical experience. Interview transcripts were content-analysed using the TDF as the coding framework. Results 19 GPs and 14 practice nurses were interviewed. The major HPV-related clinical behaviours were: initiating a discussion about HPV infection with female patients; offering/recommending HPV vaccination to appropriate patients; and answering patients’ questions about HPV testing. While the responsibility for taking smears was considered a female role, both male and female practitioners dealt with HPV-related issues. All 12 theoretical domains arose in relation to HPV infection; the domains judged to be most important were: knowledge, emotion, social influences, beliefs about capabilities and beliefs about consequences. Eleven domains emerged in relation to HPV vaccination

  9. Data-centric concurrency control on the java programming language

    OpenAIRE

    Parreira, Daniel Luis Landeiroto

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática The multi-core paradigm has propelled shared-memory concurrent programming to an important role in software development. Its use is however limited by the constructs that provide a layer of abstraction for synchronizing access to shared resources. Reasoning with these constructs is not trivial due to their concurrent nature. Data-races and deadlocks occur in concurrent programs, encumbering the programmer and furth...

  10. A Concurrent Distributed System for Aircraft Tactical Decision Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of a concurrent version of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS) program, a second generation TDG, is presented. Concurrent computing environments and programming approaches are discussed and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  11. CONCURRENT VALIDITY OF THE STUDENT TEACHER PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Živković

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of study was to examine concurrent validity of the Student Teachers Professional Identity Scale–STPIS (Fisherman and Abbot, 1998 that was for the first time used in Serbia. Indicators of concurrent validity was established by correlation with student teacher self-reported well-being, self-esteem, burnout stress and resilience. Based on the results we can conclude that the STPIS meets the criterion of concurrent validity. The implications of these results are important for researchers and decisions makers in teacher education

  12. Computational simulation of concurrent engineering for aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are summarized of an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulations methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties - fundamental in developing such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering for propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and facets needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  13. Computational simulation for concurrent engineering of aerospace propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Results are summarized for an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties--fundamental to develop such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering of propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and issues needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  14. The HSE Management Standards Indicator Tool: concurrent and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatto, F; Colautti, L; Larese Filon, F; Luis, O; Ferrante, D

    2014-07-01

    The Health & Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool (HSE-MS IT) is a questionnaire commonly used to assess work-related stress risks at an organizational level. A critical factor in determining whether this instrument is actually useful is that higher levels of stress risk in the work-design domains should predict higher levels of stress and stress-related outcomes in workers. Only a few studies, however, have addressed this issue. To test both the concurrent and construct validity of the HSE-MS IT, by relating it with another widely used instrument, the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), and by examining its relationships with a set of work-related stress outcomes. An anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to a sample of employees in an Italian municipality. The questionnaire included the HSE-MS IT, self-reported measures of job satisfaction, job motivation and stress at work, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the reduced form of the JCQ. A total of 760 out of 779 employees completed the questionnaire. Results showed moderate to strong correlation among the corresponding HSE-MS IT and JCQ scales. Hierarchical regression highlighted the specific contribution of each of the HSE-MS IT scales in predicting three relevant work-related stress outcomes (self-reported stress, job satisfaction and job motivation), after controlling for gender, age and life satisfaction. Our findings consolidated the HSE-MS IT validity and showed the specific sensitivity of its scales to assess different aspects of work-related distress, including self-perception of stress at work. These results can have practical implications for the occupational well-being of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Heuvel, Michel van den; Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van; Belderbos, José

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m²). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D mean and D max of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade ≥2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade ≥3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade ≥2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade ≥3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade ≥2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  16. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for gingival carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Y.; Hata, M.; Koike, I.; Inoue, T.; Mitsudo, K.; Koizumi, T.; Oguri, S.; Kioi, M.; Tohnai, I.; Omura, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. In all, 34 patients (21 men and 13 women) with squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva underwent radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of daily external irradiation and concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion with cisplatin and docetaxel. A median total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered to tumors. Of the 34 patients, 29 (85 %) achieved a complete response (CR) and 5 had residual tumors. Of the 29 patients with a CR, 2 had local recurrences and 1 had distant metastasis 1-15 months after treatment. Twenty-six of the 36 patients had survived at a median follow-up time of 36 months (range 12-79 months); 4 died of cancer and 4 died of non-cancer-related causes. At both 3 and 5 years after treatment, the overall survival rates were 79 % and the cause-specific survival rates were 85 %. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone only developed in 1 patient after treatment. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy was effective and safe in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. This treatment may be a promising curative and organ-preserving treatment option for gingival carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  17. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual partnerships in South Africa’s language groups: An ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kenyon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA. Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the spread of HIV, but its effect on differential HIV transmission within SA’s language groups has not been investigated quantitatively. Objective. This ecological analysis was intended to explore the degree to which the variation in HIV prevalence according to language group can be explained by differential concurrency rates. Method. Linear regression was used to assess the association between each language group’s HIV prevalence and four risk factors: the prevalence of concurrency, multiple sexual partners in the preceding year, circumcision, and condom utilisation. Results. In multivariate analysis, only the point prevalence of concurrency remained associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion. There is evidence of a high prevalence of point concurrency in sexual partnerships in SA’s most HIV-affected language groups. Together with evidence that relatively small decreases in concurrency can lead to large declines in HIV incidence, this provides impetus for interventions to promote having only one sexual partner at a time. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:25-28. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.884

  18. A case for evaluating sensor network protocols concurrently

    KAUST Repository

    Gnawali, Omprakash; Guibas, Leonidas; Levis, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Researchers typically evaluate and compare protocols on the testbeds by running them one at a time. This methodology ignores the variation in link qualities and wireless environment across these experiments. These variations can introduce significant noise in the results. Evaluating two protocols concurrently, however, suffers from inter-protocol interactions. These interactions can perturb performance even under very light load, especially timing and timing sensitive protocols. We argue that the benefits of running protocols concurrently greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Protocols rarely run in isolation in real networks, and so considering such interactions is valuable. Although the wireless environment is still uncontrolled, concurrent evaluations make comparisons fair and more statistically sound. Through experiments on two testbeds, we make the case for evaluating and comparing low data-rate sensor network protocols by running them concurrently. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  19. Concurrency-Induced Transitions in Epidemic Dynamics on Temporal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Gleeson, James P; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-09-08

    Social contact networks underlying epidemic processes in humans and animals are highly dynamic. The spreading of infections on such temporal networks can differ dramatically from spreading on static networks. We theoretically investigate the effects of concurrency, the number of neighbors that a node has at a given time point, on the epidemic threshold in the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on temporal network models. We show that network dynamics can suppress epidemics (i.e., yield a higher epidemic threshold) when the node's concurrency is low, but can also enhance epidemics when the concurrency is high. We analytically determine different phases of this concurrency-induced transition, and confirm our results with numerical simulations.

  20. Concurrency-Induced Transitions in Epidemic Dynamics on Temporal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Tomokatsu; Gleeson, James P.; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    Social contact networks underlying epidemic processes in humans and animals are highly dynamic. The spreading of infections on such temporal networks can differ dramatically from spreading on static networks. We theoretically investigate the effects of concurrency, the number of neighbors that a node has at a given time point, on the epidemic threshold in the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on temporal network models. We show that network dynamics can suppress epidemics (i.e., yield a higher epidemic threshold) when the node's concurrency is low, but can also enhance epidemics when the concurrency is high. We analytically determine different phases of this concurrency-induced transition, and confirm our results with numerical simulations.