WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding collective behaviours

  1. Behaviour as a Lever of Ecological Transition? Understanding and Acting on Individual Behaviour and Collective Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2017-01-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  2. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  4. Collective behaviour and swarm intelligence in slime moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chris R; Latty, Tanya

    2016-11-01

    The study of collective behaviour aims to understand how individual-level behaviours can lead to complex group-level patterns. Collective behaviour has primarily been studied in animal groups such as colonies of insects, flocks of birds and schools of fish. Although less studied, collective behaviour also occurs in microorganisms. Here, we argue that slime moulds are powerful model systems for solving several outstanding questions in collective behaviour. In particular, slime mould may hold the key to linking individual-level mechanisms to colony-level behaviours. Using well-established principles of collective animal behaviour as a framework, we discuss the extent to which slime mould collectives are comparable to animal groups, and we highlight some potentially fruitful areas for future research.

  5. Understanding catchment behaviour through model concept improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to model development based on the concept of iterative model improvement, which is a process where by trial and error different hypotheses of catchment behaviour are progressively tested, and the understanding of the system proceeds through a combined process of

  6. Empirical questions for collective-behaviour modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... The collective behaviour of groups of social animals has been an active topic of study across many disciplines, and has a long history of modelling. Classical models have been successful in capturing the large-scale patterns formed by animal aggregations, but fare less well in accounting for details, ...

  7. Bringing a Time-Depth Perspective to Collective Animal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Dora; Sasaki, Takao; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    The field of collective animal behaviour examines how relatively simple, local interactions between individuals in groups combine to produce global-level outcomes. Existing mathematical models and empirical work have identified candidate mechanisms for numerous collective phenomena but have typically focused on one-off or short-term performance. We argue that feedback between collective performance and learning - giving the former the capacity to become an adaptive, and potentially cumulative, process - is a currently poorly explored but crucial mechanism in understanding collective systems. We synthesise material ranging from swarm intelligence in social insects through collective movements in vertebrates to collective decision making in animal and human groups, to propose avenues for future research to identify the potential for changes in these systems to accumulate over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding Casual-Leisure Information Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsweiler, David; Wilson, Max L.; Lunn, Brian Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Originally grounded in library and information science, the majority of information behaviour and information-seeking theories focus on task-based scenarios where users try to resolve information needs. While other theories exist, such as how people unexpectedly encounter information, for example......, they are typically related back to tasks, motivated by work or personal goals. This chapter, however, focuses on casual-leisure scenarios that are typically motivated by hedonistic needs rather than information needs, where people engage in searching behaviours for pleasure rather than to find information....... This chapter describes two studies on (1) television information behaviour and (2) the casual information behaviours described by users of Twitter. The first study focuses on a specific casual-leisure domain that is familiar to many, while the second indicates that our findings generalise to many other casual...

  9. Understanding and Influencing Workplace Sedentary Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    NYSSA TEGAN HADGRAFT

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour (or sitting) is a recently identified chronic disease risk factor. Many adults spend the majority of their working hours sitting, making the workplace a key setting for public health interventions. This thesis aimed to identify factors that influence workplace sitting time and the feasibility of reducing this behaviour. The most prominent factors identified were: the nature of work, social norms and workplace culture, and the workplace physical environment. These findings ...

  10. Understanding consumer decisions using behavioural economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, E.H.; Miyapuram, K.P.; Tobler, P.N.; Pammi, C.; Srinivasan, N.

    2013-01-01

    People make many decisions throughout the day involving finances, food and health. Many of these decisions involve considering alternatives that will occur at some point in the future. Behavioural economics is a field that studies how people make these decisions (Camerer, 1999)[[Au: The reference

  11. School Phobia: Understanding a Complex Behavioural Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Wheeler, John J.

    2006-01-01

    School phobia affects about 5% of the school-age population. If left untreated, school phobia can have devastating long-term consequences in children challenged by this condition. Various treatment approaches have been used to explore this complex behavioural response, major among them being the psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, pharmacological and…

  12. Collective behaviours in the stock market -- A maximum entropy approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bury, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Scale invariance, collective behaviours and structural reorganization are crucial for portfolio management (portfolio composition, hedging, alternative definition of risk, etc.). This lack of any characteristic scale and such elaborated behaviours find their origin in the theory of complex systems. There are several mechanisms which generate scale invariance but maximum entropy models are able to explain both scale invariance and collective behaviours.The study of the structure and collective...

  13. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Energy cultures: A framework for understanding energy behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Janet; Barton, Barry; Carrington, Gerry; Gnoth, Daniel; Lawson, Rob; Thorsnes, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Achieving a 'step-change' in energy efficiency behaviours will require enhanced knowledge of behavioural drivers, and translation of this knowledge into successful intervention programmes. The 'Energy Cultures' conceptual framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from lifestyles and systems thinking. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of 'behaviour' by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. The Energy Cultures framework is discussed in the context of a New Zealand case study, which demonstrates its development and application. It has already provided a basis for cross-disciplinary collaboration, and for multi-disciplinary research design, and has provided insights into behavioural change in a case study community. As the conceptual basis of a 3-year research project, the framework has further potential to identify clusters of 'energy cultures' - similar patterns of norms, practices and/or material culture - to enable the crafting of targeted actions to achieve behaviour change.

  15. Energy cultures: A framework for understanding energy behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, Janet, E-mail: janet.stephenson@otago.ac.n [Centre for the Study of Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Barton, Barry [School of Law, University of Waikato (New Zealand); Carrington, Gerry [Department of Physics, University of Otago (New Zealand); Gnoth, Daniel; Lawson, Rob [Department of Marketing, University of Otago (New Zealand); Thorsnes, Paul [Department of Economics, University of Otago (New Zealand)

    2010-10-15

    Achieving a 'step-change' in energy efficiency behaviours will require enhanced knowledge of behavioural drivers, and translation of this knowledge into successful intervention programmes. The 'Energy Cultures' conceptual framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from lifestyles and systems thinking. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of 'behaviour' by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. The Energy Cultures framework is discussed in the context of a New Zealand case study, which demonstrates its development and application. It has already provided a basis for cross-disciplinary collaboration, and for multi-disciplinary research design, and has provided insights into behavioural change in a case study community. As the conceptual basis of a 3-year research project, the framework has further potential to identify clusters of 'energy cultures' - similar patterns of norms, practices and/or material culture - to enable the crafting of targeted actions to achieve behaviour change.

  16. Energy cultures. A framework for understanding energy behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, Janet [Centre for the Study of Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Barton, Barry [School of Law, University of Waikato (New Zealand); Carrington, Gerry [Department of Physics, University of Otago (New Zealand); Gnoth, Daniel; Lawson, Rob [Department of Marketing, University of Otago (New Zealand); Thorsnes, Paul [Department of Economics, University of Otago (New Zealand)

    2010-10-15

    Achieving a 'step-change' in energy efficiency behaviours will require enhanced knowledge of behavioural drivers, and translation of this knowledge into successful intervention programmes. The 'Energy Cultures' conceptual framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from lifestyles and systems thinking. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of 'behaviour' by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. The Energy Cultures framework is discussed in the context of a New Zealand case study, which demonstrates its development and application. It has already provided a basis for cross-disciplinary collaboration, and for multi-disciplinary research design, and has provided insights into behavioural change in a case study community. As the conceptual basis of a 3-year research project, the framework has further potential to identify clusters of 'energy cultures' - similar patterns of norms, practices and/or material culture - to enable the crafting of targeted actions to achieve behaviour change. (author)

  17. Understanding Student Travel Behaviour in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manullang, O. R.; Tyas, W. P.; Anas, N.; Aji, F. N.

    2018-02-01

    The highest movement in Semarang City is dominated by motorcycles, which reached 79% of the number of vehicles. Highest percentage movement use motorcycle caused the highest percentage accident by motorcycle users, which reached 66% and 9% involving high school students. This happens because of the dependence of motorcycles usage in fulfilling the needs of movement in the city of Semarang. Understanding student travel behavior based on their activities is used to know travel needs and the cause of dependence on motorcycle usage. Analysis method in this study use network analysis to compare the potential accessibility and actual accessibility to known why motorcycle chosen by students as the main mode. In addition, phenomenology analysis is used to explain the intent and reasons the data produced by network analysis. The analysis result indicates that the high use of motorcycles by high school students in the Semarang city due to the absence of other effective and efficient modes in fulfilling the movement needs. Even, the student which can potentially use public transport preferred to use a motorcycle. This mode is more effective and efficient because of its flexibility and lower costs.

  18. Understanding online behavioural advertising: user knowledge, privacy concerns and online coping behaviour in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; van Noort, G.; Voorveld, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Online behavioural advertising (OBA) is a special form of targeted advertising. For OBA, it is necessary to collect data about online surfing behaviour, which is usually undertaken by installing ‘cookies’. The use of cookies is heavily debated by policy makers in the US and Europe. Central to this

  19. Leader Empowering Behaviour: The Leader’s Perspective : Understanding the motivation behind leader empowering behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Hakimi (Natalia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe present dissertation tries to shed light on the phenomenon of empowering leadership. We aim to understand the antecedents of leader empowering behaviour. In doing so, we mean to remedy the stated lack of research on empowering leadership and on the effect of follower’s behaviour on

  20. The influence of collective behaviour on pacing in endurance competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eRenfree

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of theoretical models have been proposed to explain pacing strategies in individual competitive endurance events. These have typically related to internal regulatory processes informing the making of decisions relating to muscular work rate. Despite a substantial body of research investigating the influence of collective group dynamics on individual behaviours in various animal species, this issue has not been comprehensively studied in individual athletic events. This is surprising given that athletes directly compete in close proximity to one another, and that collective behaviour has also been observed in other human environments. Whilst reasons for adopting collective behaviour are not fully understood, it is thought to result from individual agents following simple local rules resulting in seemingly complex large systems acting to confer some biological advantage to the collective as a whole. Although such collective behaviours may generally be beneficial, endurance events are complicated by the fact that increasing levels of physiological disruption as activity progresses may compromise the ability of individuals to continue to interact with other group members. This could result in early fatigue and relative underperformance due to suboptimal utilisation of physiological resources by some athletes. Alternatively, engagement with a collective behaviour may benefit all due to a reduction in the complexity of decisions to be made and a subsequent reduction in cognitive loading and mental fatigue. This paper seeks evidence for collective behaviour in previously published analyses of pacing behaviour and proposes mechanisms through which it could potentially be either beneficial, or detrimental to individual performance.

  1. Understanding Collective Activities of People from Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongun Choi; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a principled framework for analyzing collective activities at different levels of semantic granularity from videos. Our framework is capable of jointly tracking multiple individuals, recognizing activities performed by individuals in isolation (i.e., atomic activities such as walking or standing), recognizing the interactions between pairs of individuals (i.e., interaction activities) as well as understanding the activities of group of individuals (i.e., collective activities). A key property of our work is that it can coherently combine bottom-up information stemming from detections or fragments of tracks (or tracklets) with top-down evidence. Top-down evidence is provided by a newly proposed descriptor that captures the coherent behavior of groups of individuals in a spatial-temporal neighborhood of the sequence. Top-down evidence provides contextual information for establishing accurate associations between detections or tracklets across frames and, thus, for obtaining more robust tracking results. Bottom-up evidence percolates upwards so as to automatically infer collective activity labels. Experimental results on two challenging data sets demonstrate our theoretical claims and indicate that our model achieves enhances tracking results and the best collective classification results to date.

  2. Network Analysis: A Novel Approach to Understand Suicidal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek de Beurs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although suicide is a major public health issue worldwide, we understand little of the onset and development of suicidal behaviour. Suicidal behaviour is argued to be the end result of the complex interaction between psychological, social and biological factors. Epidemiological studies resulted in a range of risk factors for suicidal behaviour, but we do not yet understand how their interaction increases the risk for suicidal behaviour. A new approach called network analysis can help us better understand this process as it allows us to visualize and quantify the complex association between many different symptoms or risk factors. A network analysis of data containing information on suicidal patients can help us understand how risk factors interact and how their interaction is related to suicidal thoughts and behaviour. A network perspective has been successfully applied to the field of depression and psychosis, but not yet to the field of suicidology. In this theoretical article, I will introduce the concept of network analysis to the field of suicide prevention, and offer directions for future applications and studies.

  3. Repeatable group differences in the collective behaviour of stickleback shoals across ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Establishing how collective behaviour emerges is central to our understanding of animal societies. Previous research has highlighted how universal interaction rules shape collective behaviour, and that individual differences can drive group functioning. Groups themselves may also differ considerably in their collective behaviour, but little is known about the consistency of such group variation, especially across different ecological contexts that may alter individuals' behavioural responses. Here, we test if randomly composed groups of sticklebacks differ consistently from one another in both their structure and movement dynamics across an open environment, an environment with food, and an environment with food and shelter. Based on high-resolution tracking data of the free-swimming shoals, we found large context-associated changes in the average behaviour of the groups. But despite these changes and limited social familiarity among group members, substantial and predictable behavioural differences between the groups persisted both within and across the different contexts (group-level repeatability): some groups moved consistently faster, more cohesively, showed stronger alignment and/or clearer leadership than other groups. These results suggest that among-group heterogeneity could be a widespread feature in animal societies. Future work that considers group-level variation in collective behaviour may help understand the selective pressures that shape how animal collectives form and function. PMID:29436496

  4. A framework for understanding culture and its relationship to information behaviour: Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nei-Ching Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. This article proposes a model of culture and its relationship to information behaviour based on two empirical studies of Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour. Method. The research approach is ethnographic and the material was collected through observations, conversations, questionnaires, interviews and relevant documents. In 2003-2004, the author lived with two Taiwan aboriginal tribes, the Yami tribe and the Tsau tribe and conducted forty-two theme-based interviews. An...

  5. Understanding the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Environmental Affairs with the assistance of the CSIR, developed the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards, which contain a range of service standards appropriate to different contexts. The standards, which came into effect...

  6. System Behaviour Charts Inform an Understanding of Biodiversity Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Black

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practitioners working with species and ecosystem recovery typically deal with the complexity of, on one hand, lack of data or data uncertainties and, on the other hand, demand for critical decision-making and intervention. The control chart methods of commercial and industrial and environmental monitoring can complement an ecological understanding of wildlife systems including those situations which incorporate human activities and land use. Systems Behaviour Charts are based upon well-established control chart methods to provide conservation managers with an approach to using existing data and enable insight to aid timely planning of conservation interventions and also complement and stimulate research into wider scientific and ecological questions. When the approach is applied to existing data sets in well-known wildlife conservation cases, the subsequent Systems Behaviour Charts and associated analytical criteria demonstrate insights which would be helpful in averting problems associated with each case example.

  7. Understanding the role of shame and its consequences in female hypersexual behaviours: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Hypersexuality and sexual addiction among females is a little understudied phenomenon. Shame is thought to be intrinsic to hypersexual behaviours, especially in women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand both hypersexual behaviours and consequences of hypersexual behaviours and their respective contributions to shame in a British sample of females (n = 102). Data were collected online via Survey Monkey. Results showed the Sexual Behaviour History (SBH) and the Hypersexual Disorder Questionnaire (HDQ) had significant positive correlation with scores on the Shame Inventory. The results indicated that hypersexual behaviours were able to predict a small percentage of the variability in shame once sexual orientation (heterosexual vs. non-heterosexual) and religious beliefs (belief vs. no belief) were controlled for. Results also showed there was no evidence that religious affiliation and/or religious beliefs had an influence on the levels of hypersexuality and consequences of sexual behaviours as predictors of shame. While women in the UK are rapidly shifting to a feminist way of thinking with or without technology, hypersexual disorder may often be misdiagnosed and misunderstood because of the lack of understanding and how it is conceptualised. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Understanding the role of shame and its consequences in female hypersexual behaviours: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DHUFFAR, MANPREET K.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Hypersexuality and sexual addiction among females is a little understudied phenomenon. Shame is thought to be intrinsic to hypersexual behaviours, especially in women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand both hypersexual behaviours and consequences of hypersexual behaviours and their respective contributions to shame in a British sample of females (n = 102). Methods: Data were collected online via Survey Monkey. Results: Results showed the Sexual Behaviour History (SBH) and the Hypersexual Disorder Questionnaire (HDQ) had significant positive correlation with scores on the Shame Inventory. The results indicated that hypersexual behaviours were able to predict a small percentage of the variability in shame once sexual orientation (heterosexual vs. non-heterosexual) and religious beliefs (belief vs. no belief) were controlled for. Results also showed there was no evidence that religious affiliation and/or religious beliefs had an influence on the levels of hypersexuality and consequences of sexual behaviours as predictors of shame. Conclusions: While women in the UK are rapidly shifting to a feminist way of thinking with or without technology, hypersexual disorder may often be misdiagnosed and misunderstood because of the lack of understanding and how it is conceptualised. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25592308

  9. Observations on fragrance collection behaviour of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W.H. Holland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Male bees of the tribe Euglossini collect volatile chemicals secreted by orchids using dense patches of hair on the front tarsi. After collecting chemicals, the bee hovers while transferring these fragrances to invaginations on the hind tibiae. The fragrance collection and hovering behaviours are repeated multiple times. Here I report preliminary field observations on the length of fragrance collection and hovering phases in bees of the Eulaema meriana (Oliver, 1789 mimicry complex visiting the orchid Catasetum discolor in Kavanayén, Venezuela. I observed that in extended visits with many cycles of fragrance collection and hovering, the length of each collection phase gradually increased, while the length of hovering phase was static. This suggests either that chemicals secreted by orchids are in limited supply or that efficiency of fragrance collection drops.

  10. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  11. Understanding active school travel through the Behavioural Ecological Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginja, Samuel; Arnott, Bronia; Namdeo, Anil; McColl, Elaine

    2018-03-01

    Active school travel (AST) is an important source of physical activity for children and a conceptual understanding of AST is necessary to inform promotion efforts. The aim of this article is to provide a conceptual analysis of AST. All currently identified AST formulations include intra-individual variables which are often recommended as intervention targets. However, existing literature lacks clarity on precisely how these intra-individual variables might shape specific AST interventions. Moreover, evaluative studies of AST interventions typically fail to specify an underpinning theory or model. To address this limitation, the Behavioural Ecological Model (BEM), not previously addressed in AST, is presented to guide this area of research. Based on specific examples, we draw attention to the role of potential antecedents and potential reinforcers of AST, as well as potential reinforcers of motorised travel. Antecedents and reinforcers may help to explain choices of school travel mode, and to inform and increase intervention options to promote AST. Consistent with the BEM, the provision of more immediate consequences, such as fun and material prizes, is an evidence-based strategy for increasing AST which is likely to be low-cost and easier to deliver than alternative interventions. This approach to the study of AST is expected to contribute to similar analyses in this and other areas of behaviour change research, and to a more useful discussion and treatment of theoretical and conceptual behavioural models.

  12. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Olsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067 and teachers (n = 1251 in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  13. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. PMID:29261114

  14. PLASTICITY OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR IN A NOMADIC EARLY SPRING FOLIVORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eDespland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective behaviour in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria meets the thermal constraints of being an early spring folivore, but introduces others constraints in food choice. These are minimized by state-dependent, inter-individual and ontogenetic variations in responses to social cues.Forest tent caterpillars use pheromone trails and tactile communication among colony members to stay together during foraging. At the group level, these rules lead to cohesive synchronised collective nomadic foraging, in which the colony travels en masse between feeding and resting sites. This paper proposes that synchronized collective locomotion prevents individuals from becoming separated from the colony and hence permits them to reap the advantages of group living, notably collective basking to increase their body temperature above ambient and collective defense against natural enemies.However, this cohesive behaviour also implies conservative foraging, and colonies can become trapped on poor food sources. High fidelity to pheromone trails leads to strong amplification of an initial choice, such that colonies seldom abandon the first food source contacted, even if a better one is nearby. The risk of this trapping is modulated both by consistent inter-individual variations in exploratory behaviour and by inner state. Colonies consisting of active-phenotype or protein-deprived individuals that explore more off trails exhibit greater collective flexibility in foraging.An ontogenetic shift toward more independent movement occurs as caterpillars grow. This leads to colony break-up as the season advances. Selection pressures facing older caterpillars favour solitary living more than in the earlier instars. Caterpillars respond to this predictably changing environment by altering their behavioural rules as they grow.

  15. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-05-01

    Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions. Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers' understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for more investigation.

  16. The role of behavioural inhibition in preschoolers' emotion understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural inhibition to the unfamiliar is a temperamental style of reacting to novel situations, peers or adults with fear, wariness and avoidance. Childhood behavioural inhibition is a well-established risk factor for anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia. However, there is presently a gap in the literature with regard to possible links between behavioural inhibition and children’s social development, including their social cognition. There is evidence that behavioural inhibition p...

  17. PROFIL KEPRIBADIAN BIG FIVE DAN COLLECTING BEHAVIOUR KOLEKTOR PIRINGAN HITAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eni nuraeni nugrahawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A collector has peculiarities in their behavior, they have an emotional bond with his collection, persistent in hunting collection and preserved in caring, worried about the loss and damage of his/her collections. This study focused on how the collector’s personality profile and behavior on collecting records by using the theory of the Big Five Personality Profile from McIntosh & Schmeichel. The subjects of research were collector of records aged 30 to 39 years old with the  level of social status was medium. By factors analysis through International Item Pool Representation (IPIP-NEO questionnaire from Goldberg, this research found that  type personality mostly  were the openess to experience was high, Counscientiousness was high, Extraversion was high, Agreeableness was high, and Neuroticsm was low (O↑C↑E↑A↑N↓. Additionally the Collecting Behaviour type were the Passionate was high, the Inquisitive was low, the Hobby was high and the Expressive was high (P↑I↓H↑E↑.

  18. A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

  19. Modelling Influence and Opinion Evolution in Online Collective Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corentin Vande Kerckhove

    Full Text Available Opinion evolution and judgment revision are mediated through social influence. Based on a large crowdsourced in vitro experiment (n = 861, it is shown how a consensus model can be used to predict opinion evolution in online collective behaviour. It is the first time the predictive power of a quantitative model of opinion dynamics is tested against a real dataset. Unlike previous research on the topic, the model was validated on data which did not serve to calibrate it. This avoids to favor more complex models over more simple ones and prevents overfitting. The model is parametrized by the influenceability of each individual, a factor representing to what extent individuals incorporate external judgments. The prediction accuracy depends on prior knowledge on the participants' past behaviour. Several situations reflecting data availability are compared. When the data is scarce, the data from previous participants is used to predict how a new participant will behave. Judgment revision includes unpredictable variations which limit the potential for prediction. A first measure of unpredictability is proposed. The measure is based on a specific control experiment. More than two thirds of the prediction errors are found to occur due to unpredictability of the human judgment revision process rather than to model imperfection.

  20. Modelling Monsoons: Understanding and Predicting Current and Future Behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A; Sperber, K R; Slingo, J M; Meehl, G A; Mechoso, C R; Kimoto, M; Giannini, A

    2008-09-16

    The global monsoon system is so varied and complex that understanding and predicting its diverse behaviour remains a challenge that will occupy modellers for many years to come. Despite the difficult task ahead, an improved monsoon modelling capability has been realized through the inclusion of more detailed physics of the climate system and higher resolution in our numerical models. Perhaps the most crucial improvement to date has been the development of coupled ocean-atmosphere models. From subseasonal to interdecadal timescales, only through the inclusion of air-sea interaction can the proper phasing and teleconnections of convection be attained with respect to sea surface temperature variations. Even then, the response to slow variations in remote forcings (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation) does not result in a robust solution, as there are a host of competing modes of variability that must be represented, including those that appear to be chaotic. Understanding the links between monsoons and land surface processes is not as mature as that explored regarding air-sea interactions. A land surface forcing signal appears to dominate the onset of wet season rainfall over the North American monsoon region, though the relative role of ocean versus land forcing remains a topic of investigation in all the monsoon systems. Also, improved forecasts have been made during periods in which additional sounding observations are available for data assimilation. Thus, there is untapped predictability that can only be attained through the development of a more comprehensive observing system for all monsoon regions. Additionally, improved parameterizations - for example, of convection, cloud, radiation, and boundary layer schemes as well as land surface processes - are essential to realize the full potential of monsoon predictability. Dynamical considerations require ever increased horizontal resolution (probably to 0.5 degree or higher) in order to resolve many monsoon features

  1. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. A review of common approaches to understanding online consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Lillian; Wright, P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main changes in modern consumer behaviour has been the transition from a passive to an active and informed consumer, and one of the key tools of this so-called “postmodern” online consumer has been the Internet. An examination of previous research into online consumer behaviour shows that there may be significant differences from their terrestrial counterparts, however problems of demographic bias, lack of observational data and the Internet’s rapid pace of change may have made it ...

  3. Psychological and behavioural approaches to understanding and governing sustainable mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higham, J.; Cohen, S.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces and explores the psychological and social factors that both contribute to and inhibit behaviour change vis-à-vis sustainable (tourist) mobility. It is based on papers presented at the Freiburg 2012 workshop. Specifically, it reviews climate change attitudes and perceptions, the

  4. Using the Idea of Correlation to Understand Liquid Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo; Tedesco, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    The use of probabilistic concepts is suggested as a way to explore the main differences in the behaviours of solids, liquids and gases with high school pupils. The idea of correlation is introduced with reference to macroscopic systems and then applied to describe the link between particles in solids, liquids and gases: analysis of the graphs of…

  5. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand brand love

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegner, Sabrina; Fenko, Anna; Teravest, Annemiek

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Brand love is perceived as one of the main objectives in brand management. Nevertheless, research into the factors influencing brand love are scarce. This paper aims to apply the theory of planned behaviour to the context of brand love and investigate the influence of several factors on

  6. Use of forensic analysis to better understand shark attack behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, E; Levine, M

    2004-12-01

    Shark attacks have primarily been analyzed from wound patterns, with little knowledge of a shark's approach, behaviour and intention leading to such wounds. For the first time, during a shark-human interaction project in South Africa, a white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, was filmed biting a vertically positioned person at the water surface, and exhibiting distinct approach patterns leading to the bite. This bite was compared to ten white shark attacks that occurred (i) in the same geographical area of South Africa, and (ii) where the same body parts were bitten. Close similarity of some of these wound patterns to the bite imprint of the videotaped case indicate that the observed behaviour of the white shark may represent a common pattern of approaching and biting humans.

  7. A Socio Behavioural Perspective for Understanding and Managing Behaviour Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Cull

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of interictal behaviour disturbance in children with epilepsy, and the management of such problems, are considered. The search for a direct relationship between epilepsy related variables and behaviour disorders is far from conclusive. While such a relationship may exist with respect to ictal behaviour problems, this line of investigation is of limited value in respect of its implications for the management of interictal problems. In the latter case it is proposed that organic factors may be considered to be a risk factor. In addition, the negative psychosocial sequelae of a diagnosis of epilepsy can result in conditions which are likely to foster the development of inappropriate behaviours. Learning theory would further suggest that environmental contingencies have a role to play in the shaping and maintenance of such behaviours. This broader framework for conceptualising the development and maintenance of interictal behaviour disorders has clear management implications. Clinical examples of the successful application of this approach to the management of persistent behavioural problems in two young people with epilepsy are presented.

  8. Modelling collective foraging by means of individual behaviour rules in honey-bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Han de; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    An individual-oriented model is constructed which simulates the collective foraging behaviour of a colony of honey-bees, Apis mellifera. Each bee follows the same set of behavioural rules. Each rule consists of a set of conditions followed by the behavioural act to be performed if the

  9. Understanding and predicting decadal behaviour of sandy barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Developing geological/morphodynamic models of geomorphic systems involves the identification of common attributes from numerous examples or case studies and the distillation away of local variability. Barrier and barrier island systems share many common features, but there is a wide range of variability that strongly influences how they behave at historical timescales. Much morphodynamic modelling is centred on the relationship between dynamic driving forces on the one hand, and geomorphic response on the other. Some models take into account the feedback that exists between these. Less often considered are factors related to sediment volume and supply, underlying geology and the geological setting, and self-organization. Consideration of 'unusual' barrier island systems, where one or more of these factors is particularly important, highlights their role in barrier behaviour. Barrier islands on bedrock in Scotland demonstrate a primary control on evolution of antecedent topography. The low volume of sand in barrier islands in Chesapeake Bay is primarily responsible for very rapid migration rates. Episodic fluvial sediment supply to some South African barriers controls their historical scale behaviour. The high volume of sand in southern Brazil Barriers is a major constraint on their morphological evolution. These and other examples highlight the importance of factors that are often regarded as 'noise' in morphodynamic modelling. The nature of 'local variability' in barriers and barrier islands is diverse, but its important, and even dominant role in their evolution, urges caution in the application of generic modellling approaches in predicting future shoreline behavior.

  10. Understanding Dishonest Academic Behaviour Amongst Business Students--The Business Leaders of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagraim, Jeffrey; Goodman, Suki; Pulker, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This study applies the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to increase understanding about dishonest academic behaviour amongst undergraduate business students. A total of 579 respondents from three universities in South Africa completed an online survey about their beliefs regarding academic dishonesty, their intentions to engage in dishonest…

  11. Frameworks for Understanding Challenging Behaviour in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Delfabbro, Paul; Riggs, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Background: Challenging and disruptive behaviour is commonly reported among children placed in the out-of-home care sector. Little is known about how stakeholders in this sector understand or manage challenging behaviour. Method: Ninety-two stakeholders in the South Australian out-of-home care sector were interviewed about their approach to…

  12. Changing behaviours, pushing social practices towards more sustainability. The contribution of human and social sciences to understand and act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2016-09-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  13. Game Theory Models for the Verification of the Collective Behaviour of Autonomous Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, László Z.

    2017-01-01

    The collective of autonomous cars is expected to generate almost optimal traffic. In this position paper we discuss the multi-agent models and the verification results of the collective behaviour of autonomous cars. We argue that non-cooperative autonomous adaptation cannot guarantee optimal behaviour. The conjecture is that intention aware adaptation with a constraint on simultaneous decision making has the potential to avoid unwanted behaviour. The online routing game model is expected to b...

  14. Sustainable Consumer Behaviour: A Collection of Empirical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Antonides

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainability issues.

  15. Develop a quantitative understanding of rockmass behaviour near excavations in deep mines, part 2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of failure processes in rock is an essential adjustment to the analysis of observations of underground rock fracturing. The identification of mechanisms of deformation represents a basic step in understanding of rock mass behaviour...

  16. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  17. Understanding group design behaviour in engineering design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Thea; McMahon, Christopher Alan

    2017-01-01

    of constructivist inquiry akin to case study research. Five core activity themes emerged; collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, identifying themes, theory-building and testing, and telling the story. Students engaged spontaneously in these core activities. Findings were sense-checked from an ontological...

  18. Tri-Space Framework for Understanding MNC Behaviour and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework called ‘Tri-Space’ that comprises three overlapping social spaces, indicating three different concepts: institution and business systems, civil society, and transnational communities. Tri-space framework broadens the horizon of understanding of how MNCs behave...

  19. Understanding the psychology of mobile gambling: A behavioural synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard J E; O'Malley, Claire; Tunney, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    This manuscript reviews the extant literature on key issues related to mobile gambling and considers whether the potential risks of harm emerging from this platform are driven by pre-existing comorbidities or by psychological processes unique to mobile gambling. We propose an account based on associative learning that suggests this form of gambling is likely to show distinctive features compared with other gambling technologies. Smartphones are a rapidly growing platform on which individuals can gamble using specifically designed applications, adapted websites or text messaging. This review considers how mobile phone use interacts with psychological processes relevant to gambling, the games users are likely to play on smartphones, and the interactions afforded by smartphones. Our interpretation of the evidence is that the schedules of reinforcement found in gambling interact with the ways in which people tend to use smartphones that may expedite the acquisition of maladaptive learned behaviours such as problem gambling. This account is consistent with existing theories and frameworks of problem gambling and has relevance to other forms of mobile phone use. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society.

  20. Scholars in International Relations Cite Books More Frequently than Journals: More Research is Needed to Better Understand Research Behaviour and Use. A Review of: Zhang, Li. ʺCitation Analysis for Collection Development: A Study of International Relations Journal Literature.ʺ Library Collections, Acquisitions, and Technical Services 31.3‐4 (2007: 195‐207.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan von Isenburg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine primary type, format, language and subject category of research materials used by U.S. scholars of international relations. Also, to investigate whether research method, qualitative or quantitative, can be correlated with the type and age of sources that scholars use.Design – Citation analysis.Setting – Research articles published in three journals on international relations with high impact factors: International Organization, International Studies Quarterly, and World Politics.Subjects – A random sample of cited references taken from the 410 full‐length research articles published in these journals from 2000 to 2005. Cited references of articles written by authors of foreign institutions (i.e., non‐American institutions, as well as cited references of editorial and research notes, comments, responses, and review essays were excluded.Methods – Cited references were exported from ISI’s Social Science Citation Index (SSCI to MS Excel spreadsheets for analysis. Data was verified against original reference lists. Citations were numbered and identified by source format, place of publication (foreign or domestic, age, and language used, if other than English. The author used a random number generator to select a random sample of 651 from a total of 29,862 citations. Citations were randomly drawn from each journal according to the proportion of the journals’ citations to the total. These citations were analyzed by material type and language. The author also used the Library of Congress Classification Outline to identify the subject category of each book and journal citation in the sample. A separate sampling method was used to investigate if there is a relationship between research methodology and citation behaviour. Each of the original 410 articles was categorized according to research method: quantitative, qualitative or a combination of the two. Two articles representing qualitative research and two

  1. Information search behaviour, understanding and use of nutrition labeling by residents of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Castillo, L; Royo-Bordonada, M A; Moya-Geromini, A

    2015-03-01

    To describe the information search behaviour, comprehension level, and use of nutritional labeling by consumers according to sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study of consumers recruited in five stores of the main supermarket chains in Madrid: a random sample of 299 consumers (response rate: 80.6%). Interviewers collected information about the information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling using a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Analyses examined the frequency of the variables of interest. Differences were tested using the Chi-square statistic. In this sample, 38.8% of consumers regularly read the nutritional labeling before making a purchase (45% of women vs 30% in men; P = 0.03) and the most common reason reported was choosing healthier products (81.3%). The proportion of people who were interested in additives and fats was the higher, (55% and 50%, respectively). Lack of time (38.9%), lack of interest (27.1%), and reading difficulties (18.1%) were the most common reasons given for not reading labels. Over half (52.4%) of consumers reported completely understanding the nutritional information on labels and 20.5% reported using such information for dietary planning. Reported information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling were relatively high among consumers of the study, and their main goal was picking healthier products. However, not only are there still barriers to reading the information, but also the information most relevant to health is not always read or understood. Thus, interventions to increase nutritional labeling comprehension and use are required in order to facilitate the making of healthier choices by consumers. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  3. Using physiology and behaviour to understand the responses of fish early life stages to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, K A; McNeil, P L

    2012-12-01

    The use of early life stages of fishes (embryos and larvae) in toxicity testing has been in existence for a long time, generally utilizing endpoints such as morphological defects and mortality. Behavioural endpoints, however, may represent a more insightful evaluation of the ecological effects of toxicants. Indeed, recent years have seen a considerable increase in the use of behavioural measurements in early life stages reflecting a substantial rise in zebrafish Danio rerio early life-stage toxicity testing and the development of automated behavioural monitoring systems. Current behavioural endpoints identified for early life stages in response to toxicant exposure include spontaneous activity, predator avoidance, capture of live food, shoaling ability and interaction with other individuals. Less frequently used endpoints include measurement of anxiogenic behaviours and cognitive ability, both of which are suggested here as future indicators of toxicant disruption. For many simple behavioural endpoints, there is still a need to link behavioural effects with ecological relevance; currently, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie toxicant effects on behaviour so early in life has received far less attention, perhaps because physiological measurements can be difficult to carry out on individuals of this size. The most commonly established physiological links with behavioural disruption in early life stages are similar to those seen in juveniles and adults including sensory deprivation (olfaction, lateral line and vision), altered neurogenesis and neurotransmitter concentrations. This review highlights the importance of understanding the integrated behavioural and physiological response of early life stages to toxicants and identifies knowledge gaps which present exciting areas for future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. CEOS Theory: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal-directed behaviours only triumph over contingency-generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self-regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  5. Influence of the temperature on materials electric behaviour: Understanding and students’ learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Carmona

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we defend that in the teaching/learning of the electricity, its contents must be associa ted with contents concerning the structure and behaviour of the matter. Thus, it is possible to understand some electricity topics as the influence of the temperature on electric behaviour of materials. In this sense, we propose a conceptual framework for its teaching, coherent with the Spanish Physics and Chemistry curriculum of Secondary Education. Likewise, we show the results of a research carried out with 60 pupils (age 14-15, about theirs understanding levels and theirs learning difficulties regarding considered topic.

  6. Evolution of Collective Behaviour in an Artificial World Using Linguistic Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Demšar

    Full Text Available Collective behaviour is a fascinating and easily observable phenomenon, attractive to a wide range of researchers. In biology, computational models have been extensively used to investigate various properties of collective behaviour, such as: transfer of information across the group, benefits of grouping (defence against predation, foraging, group decision-making process, and group behaviour types. The question 'why,' however remains largely unanswered. Here the interest goes into which pressures led to the evolution of such behaviour, and evolutionary computational models have already been used to test various biological hypotheses. Most of these models use genetic algorithms to tune the parameters of previously presented non-evolutionary models, but very few attempt to evolve collective behaviour from scratch. Of these last, the successful attempts display clumping or swarming behaviour. Empirical evidence suggests that in fish schools there exist three classes of behaviour; swarming, milling and polarized. In this paper we present a novel, artificial life-like evolutionary model, where individual agents are governed by linguistic fuzzy rule-based systems, which is capable of evolving all three classes of behaviour.

  7. Evolution of Collective Behaviour in an Artificial World Using Linguistic Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Jure; Lebar Bajec, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a fascinating and easily observable phenomenon, attractive to a wide range of researchers. In biology, computational models have been extensively used to investigate various properties of collective behaviour, such as: transfer of information across the group, benefits of grouping (defence against predation, foraging), group decision-making process, and group behaviour types. The question 'why,' however remains largely unanswered. Here the interest goes into which pressures led to the evolution of such behaviour, and evolutionary computational models have already been used to test various biological hypotheses. Most of these models use genetic algorithms to tune the parameters of previously presented non-evolutionary models, but very few attempt to evolve collective behaviour from scratch. Of these last, the successful attempts display clumping or swarming behaviour. Empirical evidence suggests that in fish schools there exist three classes of behaviour; swarming, milling and polarized. In this paper we present a novel, artificial life-like evolutionary model, where individual agents are governed by linguistic fuzzy rule-based systems, which is capable of evolving all three classes of behaviour.

  8. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, E-M; Zijlstra, B J H; de Kort, W L A M

    2017-10-01

    Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this study is the first study to account for variation in donor behaviour across different collection sites. We applied a multilevel approach to data from Donor InSight, including 11 889 donors from 257 fixed and mobile collection sites in the Netherlands. The aim of the multilevel models was to account for variance at two levels, that is donors and collection sites. We estimated the likelihood of showing after invitation based on individual predictors, including demographics, donation history and attitude. At the collection site level, we included satisfaction with the blood bank aggregated from individual responses by donors who donate at this site, opening hours and collection site type, that is fixed/mobile. Most importantly, show behaviour varied considerably across collection sites and depended on characteristics of these sites. Moreover, women, older and more experienced donors had higher odds of showing after invitation than men, younger and less experienced donors. Donors higher on warm glow, self-efficacy and donor identity more likely showed after an invitation. Higher aggregate satisfaction and donating at fixed collection sites increased the odds of show. In addition to individual factors, collection site characteristics are important in explaining variation in donor show behaviour, thus presenting clues for blood bank policies and interventions to improve donor show. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Physiology modulates social flexibility and collective behaviour in equids and other large ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersick, Andrew S; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2017-08-19

    Though morphologically very similar, equids across the extant species occupy ecological niches that are surprisingly non-overlapping. Occupancy of these distinct niches appears related to subtle physiological and behavioural adaptations which, in turn, correspond to significant differences in the social behaviours and emergent social systems characterizing the different species. Although instances of intraspecific behavioural variation in equids demonstrate that the same body plan can support a range of social structures, each of these morphologically similar species generally shows robust fidelity to its evolved social system. The pattern suggests a subtle relationship between physiological phenotypes and behavioural flexibility. While environmental conditions can vary widely within relatively short temporal or spatial scales, physiological changes and changes to the behaviours that regulate physiological processes, are constrained to longer cycles of adaptation. Physiology is then the limiting variable in the interaction between ecological variation and behavioural and socio-structural flexibility. Behavioural and socio-structural flexibility, in turn, will generate important feedbacks that will govern physiological function, thus creating a coupled web of interactions that can lead to changes in individual and collective behaviour. Longitudinal studies of equid and other large-bodied ungulate populations under environmental stress, such as those discussed here, may offer the best opportunities for researchers to examine, in real time, the interplay between individual behavioural plasticity, socio-structural flexibility, and the physiological and genetic changes that together produce adaptive change.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Understanding collective dynamics of soft active colloids by binary scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Timo; Weber, Christoph A; Frey, Erwin

    2013-11-01

    Collective motion in actively propelled particle systems is triggered on the very local scale by nucleation of coherently moving units consisting of just a handful of particles. These units grow and merge over time, ending up in a long-range ordered, coherently moving state. So far, there exists no bottom-up understanding of how the microscopic dynamics and interactions between the constituents are related to the system's ordering instability. In this paper, we study a class of models for propelled colloids allowing an explicit treatment of the microscopic details of the collision process. Specifically, the model equations are Newtonian equations of motion with separate force terms for particles' driving, dissipation, and interaction forces. Focusing on dilute particle systems, we analyze the binary scattering behavior for these models and determine-based on the microscopic dynamics-the corresponding "collision rule," i.e., the mapping of precollisional velocities and impact parameter on postcollisional velocities. By studying binary scattering we also find that the considered models for active colloids share the same principle for parallel alignment: The first incoming particle (with respect to the center of collision) is aligned to the second particle as a result of the encounter. This behavior distinctively differs from alignment in nondriven dissipative gases. Moreover, the obtained collision rule lends itself as a starting point to apply kinetic theory for propelled particle systems in order to determine the phase boundary to a long-range ordered, coherently moving state. The microscopic origin of the collision rule offers the opportunity to quantitatively scrutinize the predictions of kinetic theory for propelled particle systems through direct comparison with multiparticle simulations. We identify local precursor correlations at the onset of collective motion to constitute the essential determinant for a qualitative and quantitative validity of kinetic

  11. Applying a behavioural simulation for the collection of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2005-01-01

    To collect real-time data as opposed to retrospective data requires new methodological traits. One possibility is the use of behavioral simulations that synthesize the self-administered questionnaire, experimental designs, role-playing and scenarios. Supported by Web technology this new data...

  12. Modulation of collective cell behaviour by geometrical constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunova, M.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Dempsey, N.M.; Devillers, T.; Jirsa, M.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Šárka; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2016), s. 1099-1110 ISSN 1757-9694 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : modulation * collective cell * geometrical constraints Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.252, year: 2016

  13. Hybrid Modelling of Individual Movement and Collective Behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Franz, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models of dispersal in biological systems are often written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) which describe the time evolution of population-level variables (concentrations, densities). A more detailed modelling approach is given by individual-based (agent-based) models which describe the behaviour of each organism. In recent years, an intermediate modelling methodology - hybrid modelling - has been applied to a number of biological systems. These hybrid models couple an individual-based description of cells/animals with a PDE-model of their environment. In this chapter, we overview hybrid models in the literature with the focus on the mathematical challenges of this modelling approach. The detailed analysis is presented using the example of chemotaxis, where cells move according to extracellular chemicals that can be altered by the cells themselves. In this case, individual-based models of cells are coupled with PDEs for extracellular chemical signals. Travelling waves in these hybrid models are investigated. In particular, we show that in contrary to the PDEs, hybrid chemotaxis models only develop a transient travelling wave. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Towards a Better Understanding of Consumer Behaviour: Marginal Utility as a Parameter in Neuromarketing Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvino, Letizia; Constantinides, Efthymios; Franco, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Understanding consumers’ decision-making process is one of the most important goal in Marketing. However, the traditional tools (e,g, surveys, personal interviews and observations) used in Marketing research are often inadequate to analyse and study consumer behaviour. Since people’s decisions are

  15. How Trauma and Attachment Can Impact Neurodevelopment: Informing Our Understanding and Treatment of Sexual Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeden, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a notable increase in neurological and neurodevelopmental research, with a keen interest in applying this research to our understanding of everyday human learning and behaviour. One aspect of this research has examined how the experience of trauma in childhood can affect neurodevelopment with implications…

  16. How School Staff Understand the Relationship between Problem Behaviours and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Janet; Cowell, Naina; Gersch, Irvine

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study adopted a mixed methods methodology, a critical realist ontological stance and a constructionist epistemological position to consider how special educational needs coordinators and pastoral managers in mainstream high schools understand the relationship between problem behaviours and language development. Semi-structured…

  17. Understanding researchers’ strategic behaviour in knowledge production: a case of social science and nanotechnology researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper seeks to understand the strategic behaviour of researchers when producing knowledge in two scientific fields – nanotechnology and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach The author conducted semi-structured interviews with 43 researchers to analyse the needs for strategic

  18. The Accuracy of Behavioural Data Collected by Visitors in a Zoo Environment: Can Visitors Collect Meaningful Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer data collection can be valuable for research. However, accuracy of such data is often a cause for concern. If clear, simple methods are used, volunteers can monitor species presence and abundance in a similar manner to professionals, but it is unknown whether volunteers could collect accurate data on animal behaviour. In this study, visitors at a Wetlands Centre were asked to record behavioural data for a group of captive otters by means of a short questionnaire. They were also asked to provide information about themselves to determine whether various factors would influence their ability to collect data. Using a novel analysis technique based on PCA, visitor data were compared to baseline activity budget data collected by a trained biologist to determine whether visitor data were accurate. Although the response rate was high, visitors were unable to collect accurate data. The principal reason was that visitors exceeded the observation time stated in the instructions, rather than being unable to record behaviours accurately. We propose that automated recording stations, such as touchscreen displays, might prevent this as well as other potential problems such as temporal autocorrelation of data and may result in accurate data collection by visiting members of the public.

  19. Understanding sexual healthcare seeking behaviour: why a broader research perspective is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Fiona; Wellings, Kaye; Hickson, Ford; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-07-06

    Despite effective and accessible treatments, many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in high-income countries go untreated, causing poor sexual health for individuals and their partners. Research into STI care has tended to focus on biomedical aspects of infections using patient samples and prioritised attendance at healthcare services. This approach overlooks the broader social context of STIs and healthcare-seeking behaviours, which are important to better understand the issue of untreated infections. This paper is structured around three main arguments to improve understanding of help-seeking behaviour for STIs in order to help reduce the burden of untreated STIs for both individuals and public health. Firstly, biomedical perspectives must be combined with sociological approaches to align individual priorities with clinical insights. More research attention on understanding the subjective experiences of STI symptoms and links to healthcare-seeking behaviour is also needed. Secondly, a focus on non-attendance at healthcare services is required to address the patient-centric focus of STI research and to understand the reasons why individuals do not seek care. Finally, research using non-patient samples recruited from outside medical contexts is vital to accurately reflect the range of behaviours, beliefs and health issues within the population to ensure appropriate and effective service provision. We suggest piggy-backing other research on to existing studies as an effective way to recruit participants not defined by their patient status, and use a study recruiting a purposive non-patient sample from an existing dataset - Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) as an illustrative example. STIs are common but treatable, however a range of social and cultural factors prevent access to healthcare services and contribute to the burden of untreated infection. Different conceptual and empirical approaches are needed to better

  20. An Application of Graphics Processing Units to Geosimulation of Collective Crowd Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cjoskāns Jānis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to assess the ways for computational performance and efficiency improvement of collective crowd behaviour simulation by using parallel computing methods implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU. To perform an experimental evaluation of benefits of parallel computing, a new GPU-based simulator prototype is proposed and the runtime performance is analysed. Based on practical examples of pedestrian dynamics geosimulation, the obtained performance measurements are compared to several other available multiagent simulation tools to determine the efficiency of the proposed simulator, as well as to provide generic guidelines for the efficiency improvements of the parallel simulation of collective crowd behaviour.

  1. Challenges and solutions for studying collective animal behaviour in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Lacey F; Hein, Andrew M; Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Jensen, Frants H

    2018-05-19

    Mobile animal groups provide some of the most compelling examples of self-organization in the natural world. While field observations of songbird flocks wheeling in the sky or anchovy schools fleeing from predators have inspired considerable interest in the mechanics of collective motion, the challenge of simultaneously monitoring multiple animals in the field has historically limited our capacity to study collective behaviour of wild animal groups with precision. However, recent technological advancements now present exciting opportunities to overcome many of these limitations. Here we review existing methods used to collect data on the movements and interactions of multiple animals in a natural setting. We then survey emerging technologies that are poised to revolutionize the study of collective animal behaviour by extending the spatial and temporal scales of inquiry, increasing data volume and quality, and expediting the post-processing of raw data.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.

  3. Understanding sport continuation: an integration of the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Fostering individuals' long-term participation in activities that promote positive development such as organised sport is an important agenda for research and practice. We integrated the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and basic psychological needs (BPN) to identify factors associated with young adults' continuation in organised sport over a 12-month period. Prospective study, including an online psycho-social assessment at Time 1 and an assessment of continuation in sport approximately 12 months later. Participants (N=292) aged between 17 and 21 years (M=18.03; SD=1.29) completed an online survey assessing the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs constructs. Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM) was employed to test the hypothesised theoretical sequence, using informative priors for structural relations based on empirical and theoretical expectations. The analyses revealed support for the robustness of the hypothesised theoretical model in terms of the pattern of relations as well as the direction and strength of associations among the constructs derived from quantitative summaries of existing research and theoretical expectations. The satisfaction of basic psychological needs was associated with more positive attitudes, higher levels of perceived behavioural control, and more favourable subjective norms; positive attitudes and perceived behavioural control were associated with higher behavioural intentions; and both intentions and perceived behavioural control predicted sport continuation. This study demonstrated the utility of Bayesian structural equation modelling for testing the robustness of an integrated theoretical model, which is informed by empirical evidence from meta-analyses and theoretical expectations, for understanding sport continuation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial Stigmergy: An Organising Principle of Multicellular Collective Behaviours of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S. Gloag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-organisation of collective behaviours often manifests as dramatic patterns of emergent large-scale order. This is true for relatively “simple” entities such as microbial communities and robot “swarms,” through to more complex self-organised systems such as those displayed by social insects, migrating herds, and many human activities. The principle of stigmergy describes those self-organised phenomena that emerge as a consequence of indirect communication between individuals of the group through the generation of persistent cues in the environment. Interestingly, despite numerous examples of multicellular behaviours of bacteria, the principle of stigmergy has yet to become an accepted theoretical framework that describes how bacterial collectives self-organise. Here we review some examples of multicellular bacterial behaviours in the context of stigmergy with the aim of bringing this powerful and elegant self-organisation principle to the attention of the microbial research community.

  5. Eco-evolutionary dynamics, density-dependent dispersal and collective behaviour: implications for salmon metapopulation robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakel, Justin D; Gibert, Jean P; Gross, Thilo; Westley, Peter A H; Moore, Jonathan W

    2018-05-19

    The spatial dispersal of individuals plays an important role in the dynamics of populations, and is central to metapopulation theory. Dispersal provides connections within metapopulations, promoting demographic and evolutionary rescue, but may also introduce maladapted individuals, potentially lowering the fitness of recipient populations through introgression of heritable traits. To explore this dual nature of dispersal, we modify a well-established eco-evolutionary model of two locally adapted populations and their associated mean trait values, to examine recruiting salmon populations that are connected by density-dependent dispersal, consistent with collective migratory behaviour that promotes navigation. When the strength of collective behaviour is weak such that straying is effectively constant, we show that a low level of straying is associated with the highest gains in metapopulation robustness and that high straying serves to erode robustness. Moreover, we find that as the strength of collective behaviour increases, metapopulation robustness is enhanced, but this relationship depends on the rate at which individuals stray. Specifically, strong collective behaviour increases the presence of hidden low-density basins of attraction, which may serve to trap disturbed populations, and this is exacerbated by increased habitat heterogeneity. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that density-dependent straying and collective migratory behaviour may help metapopulations, such as in salmon, thrive in dynamic landscapes. Given the pervasive eco-evolutionary impacts of dispersal on metapopulations, these findings have important ramifications for the conservation of salmon metapopulations facing both natural and anthropogenic contemporary disturbances.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Authors.

  6. Collective behaviour of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratushna, Valeriya Igorivna

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I considered the dynamics of self-propelling particles (SPP). Flocking of living organisms like birds, fishes, ants, bacteria etc. is an area where the theory of the collective behaviour of SPP can be applied. One can often see how these animals develop coherent motion, amazing the

  7. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  8. Children's understanding of cancer and views on health-related behaviour: a 'draw and write' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, K; Rowa-Dewar, N; Malcolm, C; Kearney, N; Gibson, F

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored young children's understanding of cancer and health-related behaviours yet this is essential to develop health promotion initiatives that build on young children's current knowledge levels and awareness. An exploratory descriptive design using the 'draw and write' technique was used to investigate children's views of cancer and health behaviours. The sample included 195 children aged eight to 11 years from five schools in deprived, affluent and rural locations in Scotland. When asked about cancer children demonstrated a good level of awareness by responding with text and drawings about the what they understood cancer to be; types of cancer; causes of cancer; what happens to people who have cancer; their personal experience of cancer and the emotions they associated with cancer. Older children, and children attending affluent schools, have more defined ideas about the causes of cancer and awareness of broader issues such as the risk of passive smoking or the potential impact on the family. Factors such as alcohol and illegal drugs were only reported by children attending schools in deprived locations. Children demonstrated considerable knowledge about healthy and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours; however, it is not clear whether this knowledge translates into their behaviours or the choices offered within their home environment. Children view cancer in a negative way from an early age, even without personal experience. There is a need to demystify cancer in terms of its causes, how to recognize it, how it is treated and to publicize improved survival rates. There is a need for targeted and developmentally appropriate approaches to be taken to health education in schools, with an awareness of the influence of the media on children's information. Strategies should take into consideration the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lives which influence their choices and behaviours. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Pooling the ground: Understanding and coordination in collective sense making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eRaczaszek-Leonardi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Common ground is most often understood as the sum of mutually known beliefs, knowledge and suppositions among the participants in a conversation. It explains why participants do not mention things that should be obvious to both. In some accounts of communication, reaching a mutual understanding, i.e., broadening the common ground, is posed as the ultimate goal of linguistic interactions. Yet, congruent with the more pragmatic views of linguistic behavior, in which language is treated as social coordination, understanding each other is not the purpose (or not the sole purpose of linguistic interactions. This purpose is seen as at least twofold (e.g. Fusaroli, Rączaszek-Leonardi & Tylén, 2014: to maintain the systemic character of a conversing dyad and to organize it into a functional synergy in the face of tasks posed for a dyadic system as a whole. It seems that the notion of common ground may not be sufficient to address this dual character of interaction. In situated communication, in which meaning is created in the very process of interaction, both common (sameness and privileged (diversity information must be pooled task-dependently and across participants. In this paper, we analyze the definitions of common and privileged ground and propose extensions that may facilitate a theoretical account of agents that coordinate via linguistic communication. To illustrate the usefulness of this augmented framework, we apply it to one of the recurrent issues in psycholinguistic research, namely the problem of perspective-taking in dialogue, and draw conclusions for the broader problem of audience design.

  10. Pooling the ground: understanding and coordination in collective sense making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Dębska, Agnieszka; Sochanowicz, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Common ground is most often understood as the sum of mutually known beliefs, knowledge, and suppositions among the participants in a conversation. It explains why participants do not mention things that should be obvious to both. In some accounts of communication, reaching a mutual understanding, i.e., broadening the common ground, is posed as the ultimate goal of linguistic interactions. Yet, congruent with the more pragmatic views of linguistic behavior, in which language is treated as social coordination, understanding each other is not the purpose (or not the sole purpose) of linguistic interactions. This purpose is seen as at least twofold (e.g., Fusaroli et al., 2014): to maintain the systemic character of a conversing dyad and to organize it into a functional synergy in the face of tasks posed for a dyadic system as a whole. It seems that the notion of common ground is not sufficient to address the latter character of interaction. In situated communication, in which meaning is created in a distributed way in the very process of interaction, both common (sameness) and privileged (diversity) information must be pooled task-dependently across participants. In this paper, we analyze the definitions of common and privileged ground and propose a conceptual extension that may facilitate a theoretical account of agents that coordinate via linguistic communication. To illustrate the usefulness of this augmented framework, we apply it to one of the recurrent issues in psycholinguistic research, namely the problem of perspective-taking in dialog, and draw conclusions for the broader problem of audience design. PMID:25426087

  11. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Perc

    Full Text Available Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  12. Meta-Structures: The Search of Coherence in Collective Behaviours (without Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliano Pessa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution shortly outlines and reviews a theoretical and computational approach for a theory of change concerning systems where it is not possible to apply the laws of motion ab initio. The concept of meta-structure relates to the emergence of forms of spatiotemporal coherences in collective behaviours intended as coherent sequences of multiple structures. The essential difference compared with traditional methods is the role of the cognitive design by the observer when identifying multiple mesoscopic variables. The goal is both to study the "change without physics" of the dynamics of change and to design non-catastrophic interventions having the purpose to induce, change, keep or restore collective behaviours by influencing -at the mesoscopic level -and not prescribing explicit rules and changes.

  13. The use of drama within midwifery education to facilitate the understanding of professional behaviour and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Joan; Wier, Jacqueline

    2018-04-01

    to develop student midwife understanding of professional values and the application of these in clinical practice, prior to commencing their first clinical placement. an action research project. a Simulation Suite environment within a University setting. 6 year 3 drama students and a cohort of 36 midwifery students. the students were supportive of the idea of collaborative projects as this permitted the facilitation of student understanding of key professional values and their application in the clinical setting. the students felt that the move away from a didactic approach to learning and teaching towards a more experiential model of teaching, enabled a more in depth reflection on the importance of professional standards and behaviour when providing care to pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Re-Conceptualizing Adult Education's Monolithic Behaviourist Interpretation: Toward a New Understanding of Radical Behaviourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    The philosophy of radical behaviourism remains misunderstood within the field of adult education. Contributing to this trend is the field's homogeneous behaviourist interpretation, which attributes methodological behaviourism's principles to radical behaviourism. The guiding principles and assumptions of radical behaviourism are examined to…

  15. Understanding Student Teachers’ Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM Validation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Teck, Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM in the context of Malaysian student teachers’ integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, and structural equation modelling (SEM was used for model comparison and hypotheses testing. The goodness-of-fit test of the analysis shows partial support of the applicability of the TAM in a Malaysian context. Overall, the TAM accounted for 37.3% of the variance in intention to use technology among student teachers and of the five hypotheses formulated, four are supported. Perceived usefulness is a significant influence on attitude towards computer use and behavioural intention. Perceived ease of use significantly influences perceived usefulness, and finally, behavioural intention is found to be influenced by attitude towards computer use. The findings of this research contribute to the literature by validating the TAM in the Malaysian context and provide several prominent implications for the research and practice of technology integration development.

  16. Stakeholder perspectives on workplace-based performance assessment: towards a better understanding of assessor behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Laury P J W M; Timmerman, Angelique A; Govaerts, Marjan J B; Muris, Jean W M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Kramer, Anneke W M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2017-12-01

    Workplace-Based Assessment (WBA) plays a pivotal role in present-day competency-based medical curricula. Validity in WBA mainly depends on how stakeholders (e.g. clinical supervisors and learners) use the assessments-rather than on the intrinsic qualities of instruments and methods. Current research on assessment in clinical contexts seems to imply that variable behaviours during performance assessment of both assessors and learners may well reflect their respective beliefs and perspectives towards WBA. We therefore performed a Q methodological study to explore perspectives underlying stakeholders' behaviours in WBA in a postgraduate medical training program. Five different perspectives on performance assessment were extracted: Agency, Mutuality, Objectivity, Adaptivity and Accountability. These perspectives reflect both differences and similarities in stakeholder perceptions and preferences regarding the utility of WBA. In comparing and contrasting the various perspectives, we identified two key areas of disagreement, specifically 'the locus of regulation of learning' (i.e., self-regulated versus externally regulated learning) and 'the extent to which assessment should be standardised' (i.e., tailored versus standardised assessment). Differing perspectives may variously affect stakeholders' acceptance, use-and, consequently, the effectiveness-of assessment programmes. Continuous interaction between all stakeholders is essential to monitor, adapt and improve assessment practices and to stimulate the development of a shared mental model. Better understanding of underlying stakeholder perspectives could be an important step in bridging the gap between psychometric and socio-constructivist approaches in WBA.

  17. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  18. Effects of prefrontal cortex damage on emotion understanding: EEG and behavioural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Saunders, Samantha N; Stiso, Jennifer; Dewar, Callum; Lubell, Jamie; Meling, Torstein R; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Knight, Robert T

    2017-04-01

    Humans are highly social beings that interact with each other on a daily basis. In these complex interactions, we get along by being able to identify others' actions and infer their intentions, thoughts and feelings. One of the major theories accounting for this critical ability assumes that the understanding of social signals is based on a primordial tendency to simulate observed actions by activating a mirror neuron system. If mirror neuron regions are important for action and emotion recognition, damage to regions in this network should lead to deficits in these domains. In the current behavioural and EEG study, we focused on the lateral prefrontal cortex including dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex and utilized a series of task paradigms, each measuring a different aspect of recognizing others' actions or emotions from body cues. We examined 17 patients with lesions including (n = 8) or not including (n = 9) the inferior frontal gyrus, a core mirror neuron system region, and compared their performance to matched healthy control subjects (n = 18), in behavioural tasks and in an EEG observation-execution task measuring mu suppression. Our results provide support for the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex in understanding others' emotions, by showing that even unilateral lesions result in deficits in both accuracy and reaction time in tasks involving the recognition of others' emotions. In tasks involving the recognition of actions, patients showed a general increase in reaction time, but not a reduction in accuracy. Deficits in emotion recognition can be seen by either direct damage to the inferior frontal gyrus, or via damage to dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex regions, resulting in deteriorated performance and less EEG mu suppression over sensorimotor cortex. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOUR TO THE COLLECTION OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LOREDANA NICOLESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of household behaviour to the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania based on an econometric multifactorial linear regression model. In the model, the amount of WEEE* collected in the counties rep resents the endogenous variable, and factors such as regional gross domestic product, the number of employees, monthly average net nominal earnings, unemployed persons, retirees, existing housing, education and other non - quantifiable factors with regional influence are influence factors or explanatory (exogenous variables. The period considered for the study is 2010 - 2012, and statistics are taken and processed at county level. The study is necessary to identify the extent to which those factors influence t he collection of WEEE from private households. The results of this study may lead to an improvement of the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania, being useful for policy makers and stakeholders involved in the system.

  20. Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

  1. Understanding the Causes and Management of Problem Behaviour in Zimbabwean Schools: Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Chitiyo, George; Chitiyo, Jonathan; Oyedele, Victoria; Makoni, Richard; Fonnah, Davidson; Chipangure, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Problem behaviour continues to present a challenge for school-teachers worldwide. Since school-teachers around the globe have different conceptualisations of what constitutes problem behaviour, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Zimbabwean school-teachers about their perceived causes of problem behaviour among students in…

  2. Can Brief Workshop Interventions Change Care Staff Understanding of Challenging Behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Alan; Toogood, Sandy; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Background: The working culture surrounding challenging behaviour may have a strong effect on staff behaviour. As a first step to influencing staff talk about challenging behaviour, the aim of the present study was to explore whether a 1-day training workshop could have an effect on staff causal explanations. Methods: Fifty-four front line staff,…

  3. Understanding discharge communication behaviours in a pediatric emergency care context: a mixed methods observation study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Bishop, Andrea; Plint, Amy; MacPhee, Shannon; Zemek, Roger; Chorney, Jill; Jabbour, Mona; Porter, Stephen; Sawyer, Scott

    2017-04-17

    One of the most important transitions in the continuum of care for children is discharge to home. Optimal discharge communication between healthcare providers and caregivers (e.g., parents or other guardians) who present to the emergency department (ED) with their children is not well understood. The lack of policies and considerable variation in practice regarding discharge communication in pediatric EDs pose a quality and safety risk for children and their parents. The aim of this mixed methods study is to better understand the process and structure of discharge communication in a pediatric ED context to contribute to the design and development of discharge communication interventions. We will use surveys, administrative data and real-time video observation to characterize discharge communication for six common illness presentations in a pediatric ED: (1) asthma, (2) bronchiolitis, (3) abdominal pain, (4) fever, (5) diarrhea and vomiting, and (6) minor head injury. Participants will be recruited from one of two urban pediatric EDs in Canada. Video recordings will be analyzed using Observer XT. We will use logistic regression to identify potential demographic and visit characteristic cofounders and multivariate logistic regression to examine association between verbal and non-verbal behaviours and parent recall and comprehension. Video recording of discharge communication will provide an opportunity to capture important data such as temporality, sequence and non-verbal behaviours that might influence the communication process. Given the importance of better characterizing discharge communication to identify potential barriers and enablers, we anticipate that the findings from this study will contribute to the development of more effective discharge communication policies and interventions.

  4. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacke Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. Results The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to

  5. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Dacke, Marie

    2010-07-16

    In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to be completely hydrophobic. The differences in

  6. Understanding cannabis use in first-episode psychosis: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Anna; Evangeli, Michael; Harrop, Chris; di Forti, Marta

    2012-02-01

    The study aims to examine whether an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model predicts the frequency of past and intended cannabis use in young adults with psychosis. A cross-sectional correlational design was used with 32 participants (aged 18-36 years old) within 3 years (mean = 7 months) of their first psychotic episode. TPB variables and a measure of social influence (descriptive norms) were measured. The TPB accounted for a large amount of the variance in both the frequency of past cannabis use (25%) and in the intended frequency of future cannabis use (36%). The addition of descriptive norms (beliefs about the frequency of others' cannabis use) accounted for a significant additional amount of the variance in past use (19%). Adding the 'friends' component of descriptive norms only led to a model that accounted for 52% of the variance in past cannabis use. Descriptive social norms should be considered when trying to understand cannabis use in early psychosis. Interventions should take account of the individual's attitude towards cannabis, their perceived control over its use and its social context. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Hydrologic Connectivity: a Framework to Understand Threshold Behaviour in Semi-Arid Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saco, Patricia; Rodriguez, Jose; Keesstra, Saskia; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Sandi, Steven; Baartman, Jantiene; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities and climate change are imposing an unprecedented pressure on arid and semi-arid ecosystems, where shortage of water can trigger shifts in landscapes' structures and function leading to degradation and desertification. Hydrological connectivity is a useful framework for understanding water redistribution and scaling issues associated to runoff and sediment production, since human and/or natural disturbances alter the surface water availability and pathways increasing/decreasing connectivity. In this presentation, we illustrate the use of the connectivity framework for several examples of dryland systems that are analysed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. In doing so, we draw particular attention to the analysis of co-evolution of system structures and function, and how they drive threshold behaviour leading to desertification and degradation. We first analyse the case of semi-arid rangelands, where feedbacks between decline in vegetation density and landscape erosion reinforces degradation processes driven by changes in connectivity until a threshold is crossed above which the return to a functional system is unlikely. We then focus on semi-arid wetlands, where decreases in water volumes promotes dryland vegetation encroachment that changes drainage conditions and connectivity potentially reinforcing redistribution of flow paths to other wetland areas. The examples presented highlight the need to incorporate a co-evolutionary framework for the analysis of changing connectivity patterns and the emergence of thresholds in arid and semi-arid systems.

  8. Understanding anode and cathode behaviour in high-pressure discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, P.; Neiger, M.

    2005-09-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps have widespread and modern areas of application including general lighting, video/movie projection (e.g. UHP lamp), street/industrial lighting, and automotive headlight lamps (D2/xenon lamp). Even though HID lamps have been known for several decades now, the important plasma-electrode interactions are still not well understood. Because HID lamps are usually operated on ac (electrodes switch alternately from anode to cathode phase), time-dependent simulations including realistic and verified anode and cathode models are essential. Therefore, a recently published investigation of external laser heating of an electrode during anode and cathode phase in an operating HID lamp [28] provided the basis for our present paper. These measurements revealed impressive influences of the external laser heating on electrode fall voltage and electrode temperature. Fortunately, the effects are very different during anode and cathode phase. Thus, by comparing the experimental findings with results from our numerical simulations we can learn much about the principles of electrode behaviour and explain in detail the differences between anode and cathode phase. Furthermore, we can verify our model (which includes plasma column, hot plasma spots in front of the electrodes, constriction zones and near-electrode non-local thermal equilibrium-plasma as well as anode and cathode) that accounts for all relevant physical processes concerning plasma, electrodes and interactions between them. Moreover, we investigate the influence of two different notions concerning ionization and recombination in the near electrode plasma on the numerical results. This improves our physical understanding of near-electrode plasma likewise and further increases the confidence in the model under consideration. These results are important for the understanding and the further development of HID lamps which, due to their small dimensions, are often experimentally inaccessible

  9. Understanding the spectrum of residential energy-saving behaviours: French evidence using disaggregated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaïd, Fateh; Garcia, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Analysing household energy-saving behaviours is crucial to improve energy consumption predictions and energy policy making. How should we quantitatively measure them? What are their determinants? This study explores the main factors influencing residential energy-saving behaviours based on a bottom-up multivariate statistical approach using data from the recent French PHEBUS survey. Firstly, we assess energy-saving behaviours on a one-dimension scale using IRT. Secondly, we use linear regression with an innovative variable selection method via adaptive lasso to tease out the effects of both macro and micro factors on the behavioural score. The results highlight the impact of five main attributes incentivizing energy-saving behaviours based on cross-variable analyses: energy price, household income, education level, age of head of household and dwelling energy performance. In addition, our results suggest that the analysis of the inverted U-shape impact of age enables the expansion of the energy consumption life cycle theory to energy-saving behaviours. - Highlights: • We examine the main factors influencing residential energy-saving behaviours. • We use data from the recent French PHEBUS survey. • We use IRT to assess energy-saving behaviours on a one-dimension scale. • We use linear regression with an innovative variable selection method via adaptive lasso. • We highlight the impact of five main attributes incentivizing energy-saving behaviours.

  10. Towards a better understanding of the link between participation in decision-making and organizational citizenship behaviour : A multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; van den Berg, A.E.; Willering, M.C

    In the present study, two models were tested that can improve understanding of the link between participation in decision-making and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). In Model 1, it is assumed that perceived supervisory support mediates the link between participation in decision-making and

  11. Challenged by cognition : toward optimal measurement and greater understanding of youth cognition in school refusal and cognitive behavioural therapy outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maric, Marija

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation was to highlight and address seven challenges related to the measurement of youth cognition, understanding the role of cognitive constructs in anxiety and school refusal, and the examination of cognitive mediators of cognitive-behavioural treatment outcomes. The

  12. Understanding the relationship between dog ownership and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, H; Trapp, G; Lauritsen, C; Wright, K; Giles-Corti, B

    2013-10-01

    Dog ownership is a catalyst for physical activity in adults. Given 50-70% of Australian households with children have a dog, dog-facilitated physical activity may be an effective way to increase physical activity and decrease child obesity. We hypothesized that children with a family dog walk more, are more physically active and are more likely to achieve recommended levels of weekly physical activity compared with children who do not have a dog. Cross-sectional data from the Western Australian TRravel, Environment, and Kids project (TREK) were analyzed for 1218 children aged 10-12 years. Individual and environment factors, child physical activity, walking, screen use, sedentary behaviour and dog ownership status was collected from child and parent questionnaires. Children's height and weight were measured. Approximately 60% of children had a family dog. Dog ownership was associated with, on average, 29 more minutes of walking and 142 more minutes of physical activity per week (P ≤ 0.01). After adjustment, children with a dog were 49% more likely to achieve the recommended level of weekly physical activity (420 min) and 32% more likely to have walked in their neighbourhood in the last week, compared with non-dog owners (P ≤ 0.05). These relationships varied by gender. Dog ownership was not associated with screen use or weight status. Dog ownership was associated with walking and physical activity, but not screen use or weight status. Within dog-owning families, the promotion of walking and active play with a dog may be a strategy to increase children's physical activity. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Adolescent understanding of DOHaD concepts: a school-based intervention to support knowledge translation and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, J L; Mora, H A; Sloboda, D M; Morton, S M; Vickers, M H; Gluckman, P D

    2012-12-01

    A life-course approach to reduction of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) suggests that early-life interventions may be more effective than lifestyle modifications in middle age. Knowledge translation to develop understanding of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) within the community offers the potential to encourage informed diet and lifestyle choices supporting reduction of NCD risk in current and future generations. Many women do not make sustained dietary change before or during pregnancy, therefore appropriate nutritional behaviours need to be established prior to adulthood. This makes adolescence an appropriate stage for interventions to establish suitable dietary and lifestyle behaviours. Therefore, we engaged adolescents in a school-based educational intervention, and assessed the value of this in development of understanding of DOHaD concepts to support behaviour change that could lead to NCD risk reduction in the next generation. Modules of course work were written for 11-14 year olds and trialled in nine schools. Matched pre- and post-intervention questionnaire responses from 238 students and 99 parents, and post-intervention interviews evaluated the intervention. Understanding of a link between maternal diet during pregnancy and the health of the foetus in adulthood increased from 46% to 76% following intervention. Post-intervention evidence suggests the programme facilitated discussion of diet, lifestyle and DOHaD concepts in most families. The intervention was effective in improving understanding of DOHaD concepts and in some cases led to appropriate behaviour change. However, the sustainability of these changes remains to be determined through on-going evaluation of attitudes and behaviour within this cohort.

  14. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  15. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, M.; Nuyts, P.A.W.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.

    Background Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  16. Utilizing the Theoretical Framework of Collective Identity to Understand Processes in Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores collective identity as a useful theoretical framework for understanding social and developmental processes that occur in youth programs. Through narrative analysis of past participant interviews (n = 21) from an after-school theater program, known as "The SOURCE", it was found that participants very clearly describe…

  17. Assessing and understanding sedentary behaviour in office-based working adults: a mixed-method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice N. Waters

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (SB can be characterized by low energy expenditure in a reclining position (e.g., sitting often associated with work and transport. Prolonged SB is associated with increased risk for chronic conditions, and due to technological advances, the working population is in office settings with high occupational exposure to SB. This study aims to assess SB among office workers, as well as barriers and strategies towards reducing SB in the work setting. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach guided by the socio-ecological framework, non-academic office workers from a professional school in a large public university were recruited. Of 180 eligible office workers, 40 enrolled and completed all assessments. Self-reported and objectively measured SB and activity levels were captured. Focus group discussion (FGD were conducted to further understand perceptions, barriers, and strategies to reducing workplace SB. Environmental factors were systematically evaluated by trained research staff using an adapted version of the Checklist for Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW. Thematic analysis of FGD was conducted and descriptive analysis of quantitative data was performed. Results The sample was mostly Chinese (n = 33, 80 % with a total of 24 (60 % female participants. Most participants worked five days a week for about 9.5(0.5 hrs/day. Accelerometer data show that participants spend the majority of their days in sedentary activities both on workdays (76.9 % and non-workdays (69.5 %. Self-report data confirm these findings with median sitting time of 420(180 minutes at work. From qualitative analyses, major barriers to reducing SB emerged, including the following themes: workplace social and cultural norms, personal factors, job scope, and physical building/office infrastructure. CHEW results confirm a lack of support from the physical infrastructure and information environment to reducing SB

  18. Assessing and understanding sedentary behaviour in office-based working adults: a mixed-method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Clarice N; Ling, Er Pei; Chu, Anne H Y; Ng, Sheryl H X; Chia, Audrey; Lim, Yee Wei; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2016-04-27

    Sedentary behaviours (SB) can be characterized by low energy expenditure in a reclining position (e.g., sitting) often associated with work and transport. Prolonged SB is associated with increased risk for chronic conditions, and due to technological advances, the working population is in office settings with high occupational exposure to SB. This study aims to assess SB among office workers, as well as barriers and strategies towards reducing SB in the work setting. Using a mixed-methods approach guided by the socio-ecological framework, non-academic office workers from a professional school in a large public university were recruited. Of 180 eligible office workers, 40 enrolled and completed all assessments. Self-reported and objectively measured SB and activity levels were captured. Focus group discussion (FGD) were conducted to further understand perceptions, barriers, and strategies to reducing workplace SB. Environmental factors were systematically evaluated by trained research staff using an adapted version of the Checklist for Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW). Thematic analysis of FGD was conducted and descriptive analysis of quantitative data was performed. The sample was mostly Chinese (n = 33, 80 %) with a total of 24 (60 %) female participants. Most participants worked five days a week for about 9.5(0.5) hrs/day. Accelerometer data show that participants spend the majority of their days in sedentary activities both on workdays (76.9 %) and non-workdays (69.5 %). Self-report data confirm these findings with median sitting time of 420(180) minutes at work. From qualitative analyses, major barriers to reducing SB emerged, including the following themes: workplace social and cultural norms, personal factors, job scope, and physical building/office infrastructure. CHEW results confirm a lack of support from the physical infrastructure and information environment to reducing SB. There is high SB among office workers in this sample. We

  19. Challenged by cognition: toward optimal measurement and greater understanding of youth cognition in school refusal and cognitive behavioural therapy outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Maric, Marija

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation was to highlight and address seven challenges related to the measurement of youth cognition, understanding the role of cognitive constructs in anxiety and school refusal, and the examination of cognitive mediators of cognitive-behavioural treatment outcomes. The studies presented in this dissertation contributed to the empirically valid assessment of constructs of cognitive processing in youth which were until now only present in cognitive theories of Aro...

  20. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T; More, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners' self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pet owners in total, were conducted. Pet owners often reported a perceived a low level of control over feeding; often undermined by other people feeding of their pet, their pets begging for food, and their pets attitude towards food. Treats were used in the absence of owner control over pet begging and emotional attachment, and to influence pet behaviour. The majority of participants had positive attitudes to pet exercise, which could be related to pet specific requirements, especially differences in cats and dogs. There were some negative experiences of stress associated with dog walking and fears over aggressive confrontations with other dogs. Feeding one's pet is influenced by beliefs about pet specific needs, pet food and pet health, pet owners' perceived control over feeding, and the implications for the pet owner. Pet exercise is influenced by beliefs about pet specific exercise needs, and the implications of exercising one's pet for the pet owner. Understanding owner behaviours on feeding and exercise allows for a more targeted approach to preventing and treating pet obesity.

  1. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: From Face to Face Interaction to a Broader Contextual Understanding of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, A.; Dagnan, D.; Kroese, B. Stenfert; Pert, C.; Trower, P.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is increasingly used to address the emotional and interpersonal problems of people with ID. There is a limited but promising evidence base supporting this activity. However, these individuals face real and continuing challenges in their lives that have implications for their self and interpersonal perceptions.…

  2. Understanding the behaviour of cultural tourists : towards a classification of Dutch cultural tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaac, Rami Khalil Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing recognition of the importance of culture and heritage for tourist motivation behaviour and experiences. Estimates vary ording to definitions, but statistics indicate the potential significance of cultural tourism in the global market. For instance, the World Tourism

  3. Understanding Children's Sedentary Behaviour: A Qualitative Study of the Family Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's…

  4. Understanding the purchasing behaviour of Taiwanese meat consumers in light of rising sustainability concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jen, Meng Yuan; Wang, Shun Mei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to provide an exploratory study of how Taiwanese consumer concerns about sustainability issues relating to pork are linked to their purchasing behaviours, using the case of “warm” meat. Design/methodology/approach-The study is based on qualitative

  5. The Individual-Practice Framework as a design tool to understand consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscicelli, L.; Moreno, Mariale; Cooper, Tim; Fisher, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Design for behaviour change is a growing research field which aims at providing methods and tools to foster pro-environmental and pro-social action through the application of diverse theories, models and approaches from the social sciences. This chapter presents the Individual-Practice Framework,

  6. Promoting Honesty: The Influence of Stories on Children's Lie-Telling Behaviours and Moral Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Yachison, Sarah; Leduc, Karissa

    2016-01-01

    Moral stories are a means of communicating the consequences of our actions and emphasizing virtuous behaviour, such as honesty. However, the effect of these stories on children's lie-telling has yet to be thoroughly explored. The current study investigated the influence of moral stories on children's willingness to lie for another individual.…

  7. Gen Y Recruitment: Understanding Graduate Intentions to Join an Organisation Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Lewis, Ioni; Banks, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) framework, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether the standard TPB constructs explained variance in Generation Y (Gen Y) individuals' intentions to join their ideal organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach was used featuring qualitative and quantitative…

  8. Understanding the tensile behaviour of masonry parallel to the bed joints: A numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenço, P.B.; Rots, J.G.; Pluijm, R. van der

    1999-01-01

    The lack of experimental data for the complete characterisation of the inelastic behaviour of masonry is a key issue in numerical modelling of masonry structures. A solution to obtain the material properties of masonry at the macro-level is to derive them on the basis of the geometrical and material

  9. Develop a quantitative understanding of rockmass behaviour near excavations in deep mines, part 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of the rock mass deformation near deep level stopes and the avoidance of damaging incidents of violent rock failure require a fundamental understanding of rock failure mechanisms. Research work to gain this understanding has been undertaken...

  10. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Zijlstra, B. J. H.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesShow behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  12. Understanding nonlinear vibration behaviours in high-power ultrasonic surgical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Andrew; Cardoni, Andrea; Cerisola, Niccolò; Lucas, Margaret

    2015-04-08

    Ultrasonic surgical devices are increasingly used in oral, craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery to cut mineralized tissue, offering the surgeon high accuracy with minimal risk to nerve and vessel tissue. Power ultrasonic devices operate in resonance, requiring their length to be a half-wavelength or multiple-half-wavelength. For bone surgery, devices based on a half-wavelength have seen considerable success, but longer multiple-half-wavelength endoscopic devices have recently been proposed to widen the range of surgeries. To provide context for these developments, some examples of surgical procedures and the associated designs of ultrasonic cutting tips are presented. However, multiple-half-wavelength components, typical of endoscopic devices, have greater potential to exhibit nonlinear dynamic behaviours that have a highly detrimental effect on device performance. Through experimental characterization of the dynamic behaviour of endoscopic devices, it is demonstrated how geometrical features influence nonlinear dynamic responses. Period doubling, a known route to chaotic behaviour, is shown to be significantly influenced by the cutting tip shape, whereas the cutting tip has only a limited effect on Duffing-like responses, particularly the shape of the hysteresis curve, which is important for device stability. These findings underpin design, aiming to pave the way for a new generation of ultrasonic endoscopic surgical devices.

  13. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A W; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-06-01

    Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and how these responses depend on elements of STPs' implementation. To examine STPs and adolescent smoking, we performed a realist review, which is an explanatory approach that synthesizes existing evidence into a program theory that links elements of STPs' implementation to outcomes by specifying its underlying generative mechanisms. The search was performed in MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase between January 1991 and 2016. Thirty-seven English language articles were identified for inclusion, reporting quantitative and/or qualitative primary evidence on STPs at secondary schools, adolescent smoking behaviour, and mechanisms. From these articles, evidence was extracted about mechanisms that decrease smoking and associated countervailing-mechanisms that reduce, nullify, or revert this positive impact. The program theory showed that STPs may trigger four mechanisms and seven associated countervailing-mechanisms. Adolescents' smoking decreases if STPs make them feel they can get sanctioned, feel less pressure to conform to smokers, internalise anti-smoking beliefs, and find it easier to stick to the decision not to smoke. This positive impact may reduce, nullify, or revert if the implementation of STPs cause adolescents to find alternative places to smoke, develop new social meanings of smoking, want to belong in smoker groups, internalise beliefs that smoking is not bad or that it asserts personal autonomy, or alienate from schools and schools' messages. The program theory, moreover, provided insights on how elements of STPs' implementation trigger mechanisms and avoid the countervailing-mechanisms. STPs' impact can be influenced by adequate implementation and embedding them in

  14. Towards a contemporary approach for understanding consumer behaviour in the context of domestic energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiers, Adam; Cook, Matt; Neame, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Domestic sector energy use is increasing in the UK and currently accounts for 30% of total use. Policies of liberalised energy markets have allowed greater consumer choice but have not sought to reduce carbon emissions. Overall sales of energy efficiency products are rising, but UK housing stock standards are poor and do not facilitate improved efficiency and further, the sales of such products are influenced by their price, thus the higher capital costs of products such as boilers and solar systems make them initially unattractive to consumers. Previous market-based research into the adoption of energy efficiency products has often focused on single factors, for example demographics. This has limited the ability of policy makers to make informed decisions that address a broader range of factors, such as individuals' cognitive abilities, values and attitudes, as well as external factors such as social networks, marketing, and products and services. This paper provides a wider critique of the theoretical base related to consumer behaviour, product attributes and socio-environmental theories that relate to energy use. The aim of the paper is to draw together theories relevant to energy use in order to aid policy making in the broader context and to develop the discussion around integrated theories of consumer behaviour

  15. A Modified Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour Model to Analyze User Intention towards Distance-Based Electronic Toll Collection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chung Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a modified decomposed theory of planned behaviour model (DTPB that integrates satisfaction and trust into the original DTPB model to explore what kind of factors affect the user intention towards distance-based electronic toll collection (ETC services. The proposed model is empirically tested by using data collected from a questionnaire survey with a computer assisted telephone interview system. Empirical analysis is carried out in three stages that combine confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling (SEM, and Bayesian network: (1 examination of reliability and validity of the measurement model; (2 analysis of structural model; (3 prediction of the probability of user intention change based on rigorous framework of SEM. The results confirm that the satisfaction and trust have positive effects on the behaviour intention, also validating that five constructs have indirect effects on the behaviour intention through attitude and perceived behaviour control. Compatibility is the most important influence factor, followed by perceived usefulness, facilitating conditions, self-efficacy, and perceived ease of use. The findings of this study identify potential improvements for ETC operator, such as contributing to the society to enhance the company image and trust of enterprise with charity activities, and simultaneously upgrading the information platform of website, software, and Apps.

  16. Using a "lifestyle" perspective to understand toothbrushing behaviour in Scottish schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Currie, C; McQueen, D

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a wider survey of health related behaviour in 4,935 Lothian schoolchildren, 11, 13, and 15 yr old, this paper analysed toothbrushing frequency and its relation to "lifestyle" factors. Analysis of the results showed that girls brush more frequently than boys and that children...... with higher social class background brushed more frequently than children with low social class background. Further toothbrushing frequency was significantly related to the subjects' health perception, smoking and drinking habits, eating habits, bedtimes, and video-watching. Moreover, all these lifestyle...... factors were inter-related. The paper reinforced the concept of lifestyle as a meaningful descriptive term. The results demonstrated that the bivariate associations are pieces in a more complex mosaic. Toothbrushing thus seems to be an integrated part of a child's lifestyle and should be regarded...

  17. Significance of epigenetics for understanding brain development, brain evolution and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keverne, E B

    2014-04-04

    Two major environmental developments have occurred in mammalian evolution which have impacted on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of brain development. The first of these was viviparity and development of the placenta which placed a considerable burden of time and energy investment on the matriline, and which resulted in essential hypothalamic modifications. Maternal feeding, maternal care, parturition, milk letdown and the suspension of fertility and sexual behaviour are all determined by the maternal hypothalamus and have evolved to meet foetal needs under the influence of placental hormones. Viviparity itself provided a new environmental variable for selection pressures to operate via the co-existence over three generations of matrilineal genomes (mother, developing offspring and developing oocytes) in one individual. Also of importance for the matriline has been the evolution of epigenetic marks (imprint control regions) which are heritable and undergo reprogramming primarily in the oocyte to regulate imprinted gene expression according to parent of origin. Imprinting of autosomal genes has played a significant role in mammalian evolutionary development, particularly that of the hypothalamus and placenta. Indeed, many imprinted genes that are co-expressed in the placenta and hypothalamus play an important role in the co-adapted functioning of these organs. Thus the action and interaction of two genomes (maternal and foetal) have provided a template for transgenerational selection pressures to operate in shaping the mothering capabilities of each subsequent generation. The advanced aspects of neocortical brain evolution in primates have emancipated much of behaviour from the determining effects of hormonal action. Thus in large brain primates, most of the sexual behaviour is not reproductive hormone dependent and maternal care can and does occur outside the context of pregnancy and parturition. The neocortex has evolved to be adaptable and while the adapted

  18. Brain Chemistry and Behaviour: An Update on Neuroscience Research and Its Implications for Understanding Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emma S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction represent one of the biggest challenges to society. This article reviews clinical and basic science research to illustrate how developments in research methodology have enabled neuroscientists to understand more about the brain mechanisms involved in addiction biology. Treating addiction represents a…

  19. Videogame Construction by Engineering Students for Understanding Modelling Processes: The Case of Simulating Water Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretelín-Ricárdez, Angel; Sacristán, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We present some results of an ongoing research project where university engineering students were asked to construct videogames involving the use of physical systems models. The objective is to help them identify and understand the elements and concepts involved in the modelling process. That is, we use game design as a constructionist approach…

  20. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  1. Understanding managerial behaviour during initial steps of a clinical information system adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzebon Marlei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the study of the information technology (IT implementation process and its outcomes has received considerable attention, the examination of pre-adoption and pre-implementation stages of configurable IT uptake appear largely under-investigated. This paper explores managerial behaviour during the periods prior the effective implementation of a clinical information system (CIS by two Canadian university multi-hospital centers. Methods Adopting a structurationist theoretical stance and a case study research design, the processes by which CIS managers' patterns of discourse contribute to the configuration of the new technology in their respective organizational contexts were longitudinally examined over 33 months. Results Although managers seemed to be aware of the risks and organizational impact of the adoption of a new clinical information system, their decisions and actions over the periods examined appeared rather to be driven by financial constraints and power struggles between different groups involved in the process. Furthermore, they largely emphasized technological aspects of the implementation, with organizational dimensions being put aside. In view of these results, the notion of 'rhetorical ambivalence' is proposed. Results are further discussed in relation to the significance of initial decisions and actions for the subsequent implementation phases of the technology being configured. Conclusions Theoretical and empirically grounded, the paper contributes to the underdeveloped body of literature on information system pre-implementation processes by revealing the crucial role played by managers during the initial phases of a CIS adoption.

  2. Understanding managerial behaviour during initial steps of a clinical information system adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Charo; Pozzebon, Marlei

    2011-06-17

    While the study of the information technology (IT) implementation process and its outcomes has received considerable attention, the examination of pre-adoption and pre-implementation stages of configurable IT uptake appear largely under-investigated. This paper explores managerial behaviour during the periods prior the effective implementation of a clinical information system (CIS) by two Canadian university multi-hospital centers. Adopting a structurationist theoretical stance and a case study research design, the processes by which CIS managers' patterns of discourse contribute to the configuration of the new technology in their respective organizational contexts were longitudinally examined over 33 months. Although managers seemed to be aware of the risks and organizational impact of the adoption of a new clinical information system, their decisions and actions over the periods examined appeared rather to be driven by financial constraints and power struggles between different groups involved in the process. Furthermore, they largely emphasized technological aspects of the implementation, with organizational dimensions being put aside. In view of these results, the notion of 'rhetorical ambivalence' is proposed. Results are further discussed in relation to the significance of initial decisions and actions for the subsequent implementation phases of the technology being configured. Theoretical and empirically grounded, the paper contributes to the underdeveloped body of literature on information system pre-implementation processes by revealing the crucial role played by managers during the initial phases of a CIS adoption.

  3. Hormone-Inspired Behaviour Switching for the Control of Collective Robotic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tanev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Swarming and modular robotic locomotion are two disconnected behaviours that a group of small homogeneous robots can be used to achieve. The use of these two behaviours is a popular subject in robotics research involving search, rescue and exploration. However, they are rarely addressed as two behaviours that can coexist within a single robotic system. Here, we present a bio-inspired decision mechanism, which provides a convenient way for evolution to configure the conditions and timing of behaving as a swarm or a modular robot in an exploration scenario. The decision mechanism switches among two behaviours that are previously developed (a pheromone-based swarm control and a sinusoidal rectilinear modular robot movement. We use Genetic Programming (GP to evolve the controller for these decisions, which acts without a centralized mechanism and with limited inter-robot communication. The results show that the proposed bio-inspired decision mechanism provides an evolvable medium for the GP to utilize in evolving an effective decision-making mechanism.

  4. Trustworthiness assessment of cow behaviour data collected in a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, L.; Mol, de R.M.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks can be used for automated cow monitoring, e.g. for behaviour and locomotion monitoring. Sensor data should only be used when they can be trusted. The trustworthiness of sensor data can be assessed in a framework, from the acquisition at the node to their delivery to business

  5. Stakeholders Behaviour towards Clean India Mission's New Municipal Solid Waste Collection System in Chandrapur City, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Kamble

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to analyze behavioural pattern of stakeholders–inhabitants of Chandrapur city as well as employees of Chandrapur Municipal Corporation (CMC–towards the "Clean India Mission" scheme as compared with previous scheme of women’s self help group. For behavioural change analysis field survey was carried out in October 2015 in Chandrapur city. Total 41 respondent including inhabitants and employees of CMC were interviewed. The results of the study shows that, previously municipal solid waste (MSW collection was irregular (41.66% however, since the implementation of this new scheme it has become regular (100%. Enhanced MSW collection frequency was observed (once a day, 83.33% with alternative staff arrangement in case of staff is absent. The work was monitored by officials (79% which were previously not existing. In previous scheme, extra money was charged for collection of MSW, however no such charges are levied in this new scheme. Satisfaction rate of this new scheme was 95.83% among inhabitants. As reported by MSW collection employees, there was awareness among inhabitants about dry and wet waste (41.17%. The employees were satisfied with the scheme (94.11% as there is improved and timely salary with a job guaranty.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2016, page: 32-43

  6. Parents' experiences of being in the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour': an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, L R; Butterworth, R E; Johnson, R; Law, G Urquhart

    2015-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour' (UYCB), can improve child behaviour and parental well-being. However, little is known about parents' in-depth experience of participating in the UYCB programme. This study provides an in-depth qualitative evaluation of UYCB, focussing on possible moderating factors and mechanisms of change that may inform programme development. Ten parents (eight mothers and two fathers), recruited from seven UYCB groups across two locations, were interviewed within 7 weeks of completing the group and again 10 months later. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four themes were identified: 'Two Tiers of Satisfaction', 'Development as a Parent', 'Improved Self-belief' and 'The "Matthew Effect"'. In summary, the majority of parents were immensely satisfied at both completion and follow-up: they valued an experience of containment and social support and perceived improvement in specific child difficulties, their experience of parenting, their confidence and their coping. Most parents appeared to have developed more reflective and empathic parenting styles, with self-reported improved behaviour management. Theoretical material was well received, although some struggled with technical language. Positive outcomes appeared to be maintained, even reinforced, at follow-up, and were associated with having few initial child difficulties, perceiving improvement at completion and persevering with the recommendations. Two participants, whose children had the most severe difficulties, perceived deterioration and felt that the group was insufficient for their level of difficulties. Through in-depth analysis of parental experiences, UYCB appears to achieve its aims and communicate well its theoretical principles, although change may also occur through processes common to other group programmes (e.g. social support). Recommendations, stemming from the

  7. From individual to collective behaviour of coupled velocity jump processes: A locust example

    KAUST Repository

    Erban, Radek

    2012-11-01

    A class of stochastic individual-based models, written in terms of coupled velocity jump processes, is presented and analysed. This modelling approach incorporates recent experimental findings on the behaviour of locusts. It exhibits nontrivial dynamics with a pitchfork bifurcation and recovers the observed group directional switching. Estimates of the expected switching times, in terms of the number of individuals and values of the model coefi-cients, are obtained using the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. In the limit of large populations, a system of two kinetic equations (with nonlocal and nonlinear right hand side) is derived and analyzed. The existence of its solutions is proven and the system\\'s long-time behaviour is investigated. Finally, a first step towards the mean field limit of topological interactions is made by studying the efiect of shrinking the interaction radius in the individual-based model. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  8. Enlarging the collective model of household behaviour: a revealed preference analysis

    OpenAIRE

    d'Aspremont-Lynden, Claude; Dos Santos Ferreira, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    We use a comprehensive model of strategic household behaviour in which the spouses' expenditure on each public good is decomposed into autonomous spending and coordinated spending à la Lindahl. We obtain a continuum of semi-cooperative regimes parameterized by the relative weights put on autonomous spending, by each spouse and for each public good, nesting full cooperative and non-cooperative regimes as limit cases. Testing is approached through revealed preference analysis, by looking for ra...

  9. Efficient constraint-based Sequential Pattern Mining (SPM) algorithm to understand customers’ buying behaviour from time stamp-based sequence dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Niti Ashish Kumar Desai; Amit Ganatra

    2015-01-01

    Business Strategies are formulated based on an understanding of customer needs. This requires development of a strategy to understand customer behaviour and buying patterns, both current and future. This involves understanding, first how an organization currently understands customer needs and second predicting future trends to drive growth. This article focuses on purchase trend of customer, where timing of purchase is more important than association of item to be purchased, and which can be...

  10. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of thermodynamics in the understanding of the physico-chemical behaviour of fuels at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueneau, C.; Chatain, S.; Gosse, S.; Dumas, J.C.; Defoort, F.

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic approach for studying the physico-chemical behaviour of nuclear fuels at high temperature is presented. For instance is shown how the thermodynamic study of the uranium-oxygen-zirconium-iron system has contributed to improve the understanding of the scenario considered in studies on serious accidents for PWR reactors. Concerning the fuels of the future high temperature reactors, has been developed a thermodynamic data base 'fuelbase' (U-Pu-O-C-N-Si-Zr-Ti-Mo-Cr) using the Calphad method in parallel with experimental studies. In the framework of the studies on high temperature reactors, experimental works on the study of the interaction between the uranium dioxide and graphite are presented. This interaction leads to the formation of gaseous CO and CO 2 which can potentially be prejudicial to the thermomechanical resistance of the fuel in reactor. In this framework, the thermodynamic properties of the uranium-oxygen-carbon system are studied. (O.M.)

  12. Behavioural and seminal characteristics of Santa Ines rams subjected to successive semen collections in the Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando S. Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Santa Ines rams subjected to successive semen collections in an Amazonian climate. Four rams were subjected to successive ejaculations during a maximum period of three hours. This procedure was repeated three times at 15-day intervals. Sexual and behavioural (libido and andrological (testicular and seminal assessments were performed. A total of 81 ejaculates were collected. Libido and semen vigour, volume, appearance and concentration decreased as the ejaculation frequency increased (P<0.05 and sperm motility showed a decreasing trend (P=0.06. The seminal pH increased over the sequence of collections (P<0.05. The only significant differences observed between individual rams were the variable scrotal circumference and the percentages of live sperm and sperm abnormalities (P<0.05. All the parameters of the first ejaculation were within the normal range for this species, which suggests that the local climatic conditions (high temperature and humidity did not affect the behavioural, testicular or seminal parameters of experimental rams. Our findings indicate that the reproductive performance of Santa Ines rams could be affected by the intensification of ejaculation frequency; however, individual male variation needs to be taken into consideration.

  13. UNDERSTANDING THE BEHAVIOUR OF CONTAMINATION SPREAD IN NAGARJUNA SAGAR RESERVOIR USING TEMPORAL LANDSAT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tarun Teja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available LANDSAT images are used to identify organic contaminants in water bodies, but, there is no enough evidence in present literature that LANDSAT is also good in identifying a mixture of organic and mineral contaminants such as agricultural waste. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of LANDSAT imagery to identify organic and mineral contamination (OMC and to identify spread extent variations of pollution over the season/year in the Nagarjuna Sagar (NS reservoir using only satellite images. A new band combination is proposed in order to detect OMC, because existing formulae based on band ratio proved to be inadequate in detecting the contamination in NS. Difference in reflectance values of Red and Green channel of an image helps clearly distinguish clear water from OMC water. This procedure was applied over LANDSAT data of the calendar years 2008, 2014 and 2015 to understand the contamination spread pattern through the reservoir. Results show that contamination is following a similar pattern over these calendar years. In January contamination starts at inlets and by May contamination spreads to almost 90% of the reservoir when the total area of water spread is also reduced by half. Contamination spread is low during the monsoonal period of June to September due to heavy inflow and heavy outflow of waters from NS reservoir. Post monsoon NS is contaminated again because of heavy inflow of runoffs from neighboring land use and limited water outflow. This contamination spread pattern matches the agricultural seasons and fertilizer application pattern in this region, indicating that agricultural use of fertilizers could be one of the primary causes of contamination for this waterbody.

  14. Mammalophilic feeding behaviour of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in the cities of Chetumal and Cancun, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Nele; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Díaz González, Esteban Eduardo; Gaytan-Burns, Alejandro; Medina-de la Garza, Carlos E; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa María; Börstler, Jessica; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jöst, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    The studie describes the blood-feeding behaviour of mosquitoes in Mexico, to understand host-vector relationships and dynamics of disease transmission. From September 2012 to November 2012 and in November 2013, 911 blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected with aspirators inside houses in Chetumal and Cancun. Blood meals were analysed by PCR and subsequent Sanger sequencing of the cytochrome b gene. 93.3% of mosquitoes fed on mammals, 6.5% on birds and 0.2% on reptiles. The most frequent vertebrate hosts were humans (65.4%), dogs (23.2%), chicken (5.4%), cattle (2.2%) and cats (1.8%). Cx. quinquefasciatus most frequently fed on humans and dogs in both studied cities, which is in contrast to a previous study that demonstrated lower prevalence of mammalian blood in engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Preliminary Investigation into the Search Behaviour of Users in a Collection of Digitized Broadcast Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Skov, Mette; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of large digitized audio-visual collections within digital humanities have recently been made available for users. Often access to digitized audio-visual collections is hampered by little and inconsistent metadata. This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study of ...

  16. Understanding and Defining sociohydrological spaces and their boundaries: an interdisciplinary perspective from collective fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaux, Jeanne; Leduc, Christian; Ben Aïssa, Nadhira; Burte, Julien; Calvez, Roger; habaieb, Hamadi; Ogilvie, Andrew; Massuel, Sylvain; Rochette, Romain

    2014-05-01

    Focussing on the interactions between water and society, researchers from various scientific disciplines have worked together on a common case study, the Merguellil catchment in Central Tunisia. The aim was to foster interactions between wide-ranging disciplines and their associated approaches, as the segmented analysis of water resources, uses and management is known to limit the comprehensive understanding of water issues. One of the major difficulties in developing a interdisciplinary approach is defining a suitable common observation space or "territory". Research in social sciences notably showed that hydrological catchments, suited to integrated water resource management, are rarely relevant to socio-political issues (water transfers, management of interfluves, etc.). Likewise, hydrological research regularly highlights the mismatch between surface and ground water processes and boundaries. Hydrological, hydrogeological and sociological boundaries also fluctuate when considering different time frames, socio-political organisations and processes. Finally, a suitable observation space must also be coherent to the variety of local stakeholders involved in the research. The present paper addressed the question of what is a common multidisciplinary observation space? What approach can help define and identify boundaries that make sense to hydrologists, agronomists, anthropologists and local stakeholders? How do we reconcile physical limits and territories? In the first instance, we focus on the value and importance of fieldwork, crucial in anthropology, but equally important for hydrologists and agronomists. Through a mutual process of defining the limits and characteristics of our research object, relevant socio-hydrological spaces were able to emerge These were circumscribed through the physical characteristics (based upon hydrological boundaries and processes) and the human particularities (political organisation, productive activities) of the study area. The

  17. A comprehensive action determination model - Toward a broader understanding of ecological behaviour using the example of travel mode choice

    OpenAIRE

    Klöckner, Christian; Blöbaum, Anke

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a first version of a Comprehensive Action Determination Model (CADM) of ecological behaviour that incorporates intentional, normative, situational, and habitual influences on environmentally friendly behaviour. The main assumptions of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the norm-activation model (NAM), the theoretical concept of habit and the ipsative theory of behaviour were integrated into a comprehensive model. The model was tested using a structural equation modelli...

  18. Theoretical-methodological approach to social imaginary and collective representations: Notes for a sociological understanding of image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Martínez Posada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of social imaginaries and collective representations from a sociological perspective involves agencying interpretative exercises of image reconstruction, whether mental or pictorial images. Thus, the theoretical path followed in this text points to the understanding of social imaginaries and collective representations, as knowledge tradition socially constructed, and social images, which become historically symbolic points of reference of social action.

  19. Evidence-based selection of theories for designing behaviour change interventions: using methods based on theoretical construct domains to understand clinicians' blood transfusion behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jill J; Stockton, Charlotte; Eccles, Martin P; Johnston, Marie; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hyde, Chris; Tinmouth, Alan; Stanworth, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    Many theories of behaviour are potentially relevant to predictive and intervention studies but most studies investigate a narrow range of theories. Michie et al. (2005) agreed 12 'theoretical domains' from 33 theories that explain behaviour change. They developed a 'Theoretical Domains Interview' (TDI) for identifying relevant domains for specific clinical behaviours, but the framework has not been used for selecting theories for predictive studies. It was used here to investigate clinicians' transfusion behaviour in intensive care units (ICU). Evidence suggests that red blood cells transfusion could be reduced for some patients without reducing quality of care. (1) To identify the domains relevant to transfusion practice in ICUs and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), using the TDI. (2) To use the identified domains to select appropriate theories for a study predicting transfusion behaviour. An adapted TDI about managing a patient with borderline haemoglobin by watching and waiting instead of transfusing red blood cells was used to conduct semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with 18 intensive care consultants and neonatologists across the UK. Relevant theoretical domains were: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, behavioural regulation. Further analysis at the construct level resulted in selection of seven theoretical approaches relevant to this context: Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Control Theory, Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness and Action Planning Approaches. This study illustrated, the use of the TDI to identify relevant domains in a complex area of inpatient care. This approach is potentially valuable for selecting theories relevant to predictive studies and resulted in greater breadth of potential explanations than would be achieved if a single theoretical model had been adopted.

  20. Spatial-data sharing: Applying social-network analysis to study individual and collective behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omran, E.S.E.; Etten, van J.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial-Data Sharing (SDS) is a crucial aspect of spatial-data infrastructures. This paper introduces Social-Network Analysis to research on SDS. By mapping out relationships among social actors using Social-Network Analysis, the collective properties of SDS in organizations can be investigated.

  1. Understanding drugs and behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parrott, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xi Part I Drugs and Their Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Psychoactive drugs: introduction and overview . . . . . . . . 2 The brain...

  2. Understanding drugs and behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parrott, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 6 LSD and Ecstasy/MDMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 7 Cannabis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 8...

  3. Coordinated Interpersonal Behaviour in Collective Dance Improvisation: The Aesthetics of Kinaesthetic Togetherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Himberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of “togetherness” associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception, and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a ‘rhythm battle’ dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts.

  4. Coordinated Interpersonal Behaviour in Collective Dance Improvisation: The Aesthetics of Kinaesthetic Togetherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Tommi; Laroche, Julien; Bigé, Romain; Buchkowski, Megan; Bachrach, Asaf

    2018-02-09

    Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation) is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of "togetherness" associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception), and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a 'rhythm battle' dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts.

  5. Coordinated Interpersonal Behaviour in Collective Dance Improvisation: The Aesthetics of Kinaesthetic Togetherness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Julien; Buchkowski, Megan; Bachrach, Asaf

    2018-01-01

    Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation) is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of “togetherness” associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception), and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a ‘rhythm battle’ dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts. PMID:29425178

  6. Educators' Understanding of Young Children's Typical and Problematic Sexual Behaviour and Their Training in This Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Lesley-anne; McInnes, Elspeth; Rigney, Lester Irabinna

    2017-01-01

    As part of a wider study, this paper reports on Australian educators' understanding of children's typical and problematic sexual behaviour and their source of training in this area. A sample of 107 educators from government, independent and Catholic primary schools, preschools and care organisations across Australia answered an online…

  7. Have we been here before? Inorganic precursors for collective electronic behaviour of molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The community focused on collective electronic properties of organic and metal-organic molecular crystals sometimes assumes that these are uniquely a consequence of the fact that the lattice is composed of molecular building blocks. However, quantum mechanics has a wider horizon and precursors for some of the phenomena currently occupying our field were observed and investigated a while ago in various inorganic lattices. We recall some of the latter, which serve to highlight what really is unique to the molecular solid state. We also recall a simplified classification scheme to correlate crystal structures and physical properties. Examples from magnetism include one- and two-dimensional ferromagnetism and complex magnetic lattice topologies; from electron transport we mention low-dimensional superconductors incorporating localized magnetic moments

  8. Health system redesign using Collective Impact: implementation of the Behavioural Supports Ontario initiative in Southwest Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmanis, Iris; Speziale, Jennifer; Hillier, Loretta M; van Bussel, Elisabeth; Girard, Julie; Simpson, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes how the Collective Impact framework facilitated the design, implementation and development of a quality improvement initiative aimed at changing the way healthcare is provided to older adults living with mental health, addictions, neurocognitive and behavioral issues in southwestern Ontario. By promoting a common agenda, shared measurement systems, mutually reinforcing activities, continuous communication and with leadership from a backbone organization, system-wide change occurred. Outcomes, operational/strategic, clinical, capacity enhancement and community support structures as well as challenges are discussed. Improved coordination with primary care will further support enhanced clinical activities and capacity development strategies. Large-scale, multisectoral change is possible when aligned with a collaborative, problem-solving framework that promotes the commitment of many service providers/agencies to a common agenda.

  9. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Sonja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family

  10. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, Betty; Groholt, Berit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne

    2010-07-16

    Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family's psychosocial status should be integrated in the overall

  11. Understanding mixed forms of refuse collection, privatisation and its reverse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradus, R.H.J.M.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Wassenaar, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Based on panel data for almost all Dutch municipalities, we analyze changes in the mode of service production for refuse collection between 1998 and 2010. We distinguish execution by private enterprises, municipal enterprises, municipal cooperation, outsourcing to neighboring municipalities, and

  12. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: First 5-Tower Data and Improved Understanding of Ionization Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Catherine N. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with cryogenic particle detectors. These detectors have the ability to discriminate between nuclear recoil candidate and electron recoil background events by collecting both phonon and ionization energy from recoils in the detector crystals. The CDMS-II experiment has completed analysis of the first data runs with 30 semiconductor detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, resulting in a world leading WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section limit for WIMP masses above 44 GeV/c2. As CDMS aims to achieve greater WIMP sensitivity, it is necessary to increase the detector mass and discrimination between signal and background events. Incomplete ionization collection results in the largest background in the CDMS detectors as this causes electron recoil background interactions to appear as false candidate events. Two primary causes of incomplete ionization collection are surface and bulk trapping. Recent work has been focused on reducing surface trapping through the modification of fabrication methods for future detectors. Analyzing data taken with test devices has shown that hydrogen passivation of the amorphous silicon blocking layer worsens surface trapping. Additional data has shown that the iron-ion implantation used to lower the critical temperature of the tungsten transition-edge sensors causes a degradation of the ionization collection. Using selective implantation on future detectors may improve ionization collection for events near the phonon side detector surface. Bulk trapping is minimized by neutralizing ionized lattice impurities. Detector investigations at testing facilities and in situ at the experimental site have provided methods to optimize the neutralization process and monitor running conditions to maintain full ionization collection. This work details my contribution to the 5-tower data taking, monitoring, and analysis effort as

  13. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors

    OpenAIRE

    ROSE, SUSAN; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Bas...

  14. More than A to B: Understanding and managing visitor spatial behaviour in urban forests using public participation GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpilo, Silviya; Virtanen, Tarmo; Saukkonen, Tiina; Lehvävirta, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Planning and management needs up-to-date, easily-obtainable and accurate information on the spatial and social aspects of visitor behaviour in order to balance human use and impacts, and protection of natural resources in public parks. We used a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach to gather citizen data on visitor behaviour in Helsinki's Central Park in order to aid collaborative spatial decision-making. The study combined smartphone GPS tracking, route drawing and a questionnaire to examine differences between user groups in their use of formal trails, off-trail behaviour and the motivations that affect it. In our sample (n = 233), different activity types were associated with distinctive spatial patterns and potential extent of impacts. The density mapping and statistical analyses indicated three types of behaviour: predominantly on or close to formal trails (runners and cyclists), spatially concentrated off-trail behaviour confined to a few informal paths (mountain bikers), and dispersed off-trail use pattern (walkers and dog walkers). Across all user groups, off-trail behaviour was mainly motivated by positive attraction towards the environment such as scenic view, exploration, and viewing flora and fauna. Study findings lead to several management recommendations that were presented to city officials. These include reducing dispersion and the spatial extent of trampling impacts by encouraging use of a limited number of well-established informal paths away from sensitive vegetation and protected habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using theories of behaviour to understand transfusion prescribing in three clinical contexts in two countries: Development work for an implementation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is an essential part of healthcare and can improve patient outcomes. However, like most therapies, it is also associated with significant clinical risks. In addition, there is some evidence of overuse. Understanding the potential barriers and enablers to reduced prescribing of blood products will facilitate the selection of intervention components likely to be effective, thereby reducing the number of costly trials evaluating different implementation strategies. Using a theoretical basis to understand behaviours targeted for change will contribute to a 'basic science' relating to determinants of professional behaviour and how these inform the selection of techniques for changing behaviour. However, it is not clear which theories of behaviour are relevant to clinicians' transfusing behaviour. The aim of this study is to use a theoretical domains framework to identify relevant theories, and to use these theories to identify factors that predict the decision to transfuse. Methods The study involves two steps: interview study and questionnaire study. Using a previously identified framework, we will conduct semi-structured interviews with clinicians to elicit their views about which factors are associated with waiting and further monitoring the patient rather than transfusing red blood cells. Interviews will cover the following theoretical domains: knowledge; skills; social/professional role and identity; beliefs about capabilities; beliefs about consequences; motivation and goals; memory, attention, and decision processes; environmental context and resources; social influences; emotion; behavioural regulation; nature of the behaviour. The interviews will take place independently in Canada and the UK and involve two groups of physicians in each country (UK: adult and neonatal intensive care physicians; Canada: intensive care physicians and orthopaedic surgeons. We will: analyse interview transcript content to

  16. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding (Histologic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater fish, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived at the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), NOAA’s National Ma...

  17. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding.(SETAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine Fisheri...

  18. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding (IMCC09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater fish, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine...

  19. Treasures in Archived Histolopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine Fishe...

  20. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding (ISAAH-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater fish, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine F...

  1. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding (NACSETAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine Fishe...

  2. Contributions of Latin American female academics to understand the collective actions of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Ibarra Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of academic work on the political participation of women in collective action promoted by social organizations, networks, and the movement of women and feminist in Latin America and Colombia, published in the period from 1990 to 2014. This approach gives priority to the analysis of the content of the texts, it focuses on the way as their authors build objects of research, and on the theoretical references and contributions to the knowledge of the relationship gender and collective action. The different national and regional experiences reported by these studies provide a wealth of descriptive and analytical material. However, based on these findings, the article concludes that it is necessary to enlarge the interpretations about the importance that gender changes have in political culture.

  3. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan; Dhandayudham, Arun

    2014-06-01

    Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science - Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA.

  4. Flow cytometric analysis of pollen grains collected from individual bees provides information about pollen load composition and foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Paul; Kwok, Allison; Husband, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the species composition of pollen on pollinators has applications in agriculture, conservation and evolutionary biology. Current identification methods, including morphological analysis, cannot always discriminate taxa at the species level. Recent advances in flow cytometry techniques for pollen grains allow rapid testing of large numbers of pollen grains for DNA content, potentially providing improved species resolution. A test was made as to whether pollen loads from single bees (honey-bees and bumble-bees) could be classified into types based on DNA content, and whether good estimates of proportions of different types could be made. An examination was also made of how readily DNA content can be used to identify specific pollen species. The method allowed DNA contents to be quickly found for between 250 and 9391 pollen grains (750-28 173 nuclei) from individual honey-bees and between 81 and 11 512 pollen grains (243-34 537 nuclei) for bumble-bees. It was possible to identify a minimum number of pollen species on each bee and to assign proportions of each pollen type (based on DNA content) present. The information provided by this technique is promising but is affected by the complexity of the pollination environment (i.e. number of flowering species present and extent of overlap in DNA content). Nevertheless, it provides a new tool for examining pollinator behaviour and between-species or cytotype pollen transfer, particularly when used in combination with other morphological, chemical or genetic techniques.

  5. Context and Communication Strategies in Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention: A Framework for Understanding How Practitioners Facilitate Communication in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy

    2011-01-01

    There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…

  6. Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jo

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…

  7. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, SUSAN; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. Method: The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science – Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. Results: The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Conclusions: Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA. PMID:25215218

  8. Efficient constraint-based Sequential Pattern Mining (SPM algorithm to understand customers’ buying behaviour from time stamp-based sequence dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Ashish Kumar Desai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Strategies are formulated based on an understanding of customer needs. This requires development of a strategy to understand customer behaviour and buying patterns, both current and future. This involves understanding, first how an organization currently understands customer needs and second predicting future trends to drive growth. This article focuses on purchase trend of customer, where timing of purchase is more important than association of item to be purchased, and which can be found out with Sequential Pattern Mining (SPM methods. Conventional SPM algorithms worked purely on frequency identifying patterns that were more frequent but suffering from challenges like generation of huge number of uninteresting patterns, lack of user’s interested patterns, rare item problem, etc. Article attempts a solution through development of a SPM algorithm based on various constraints like Gap, Compactness, Item, Recency, Profitability and Length along with Frequency constraint. Incorporation of six additional constraints is as well to ensure that all patterns are recently active (Recency, active for certain time span (Compactness, profitable and indicative of next timeline for purchase (Length―Item―Gap. The article also attempts to throw light on how proposed Constraint-based Prefix Span algorithm is helpful to understand buying behaviour of customer which is in formative stage.

  9. Using the Web to Collect Data on Sensitive Behaviours: A Study Looking at Mode Effects on the British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Burkill

    Full Text Available Interviewer-administered surveys are an important method of collecting population-level epidemiological data, but suffer from declining response rates and increasing costs. Web surveys offer more rapid data collection and lower costs. There are concerns, however, about data quality from web surveys. Previous research has largely focused on selection biases, and few have explored measurement differences. This paper aims to assess the extent to which mode affects the responses given by the same respondents at two points in time, providing information on potential measurement error if web surveys are used in the future.527 participants from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, which uses computer assisted personal interview (CAPI and self-interview (CASI modes, subsequently responded to identically-worded questions in a web survey. McNemar tests assessed whether within-person differences in responses were at random or indicated a mode effect, i.e. higher reporting of more sensitive responses in one mode. An analysis of pooled responses by generalized estimating equations addressed the impact of gender and question type on change.Only 10% of responses changed between surveys. However mode effects were found for about a third of variables, with higher reporting of sensitive responses more commonly found on the web compared with Natsal-3.The web appears a promising mode for surveys of sensitive behaviours, most likely as part of a mixed-mode design. Our findings suggest that mode effects may vary by question type and content, and by the particular mix of modes used. Mixed-mode surveys need careful development to understand mode effects and how to account for them.

  10. Mapping quorum sensing onto neural networks to understand collective decision making in heterogeneous microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Boedicker, James Q.

    2017-08-01

    Microbial communities frequently communicate via quorum sensing (QS), where cells produce, secrete, and respond to a threshold level of an autoinducer (AI) molecule, thereby modulating gene expression. However, the biology of QS remains incompletely understood in heterogeneous communities, where variant bacterial strains possess distinct QS systems that produce chemically unique AIs. AI molecules bind to ‘cognate’ receptors, but also to ‘non-cognate’ receptors found in other strains, resulting in inter-strain crosstalk. Understanding these interactions is a prerequisite for deciphering the consequences of crosstalk in real ecosystems, where multiple AIs are regularly present in the same environment. As a step towards this goal, we map crosstalk in a heterogeneous community of variant QS strains onto an artificial neural network model. This formulation allows us to systematically analyze how crosstalk regulates the community’s capacity for flexible decision making, as quantified by the Boltzmann entropy of all QS gene expression states of the system. In a mean-field limit of complete cross-inhibition between variant strains, the model is exactly solvable, allowing for an analytical formula for the number of variants that maximize capacity as a function of signal kinetics and activation parameters. An analysis of previous experimental results on the Staphylococcus aureus two-component Agr system indicates that the observed combination of variant numbers, gene expression rates and threshold concentrations lies near this critical regime of parameter space where capacity peaks. The results are suggestive of a potential evolutionary driving force for diversification in certain QS systems.

  11. A review and analysis of the use of ‘habit’ in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘habit’ is widely used to predict and explain behaviour. This paper examines use of the term in the context of health-related behaviour, and explores how the concept might be made more useful. A narrative review is presented, drawing on a scoping review of 136 empirical studies and 8 literature reviews undertaken to document usage of the term ‘habit’, and methods to measure it. A coherent definition of ‘habit’, and proposals for improved methods for studying it, were derived from findings. Definitions of ‘habit’ have varied in ways that are often implicit and not coherently linked with an underlying theory. A definition is proposed whereby habit is a process by which a stimulus generates an impulse to act as a result of a learned stimulus-response association. Habit-generated impulses may compete or combine with impulses and inhibitions arising from other sources, including conscious decision-making, to influence responses, and need not generate behaviour. Most research on habit is based on correlational studies using self-report measures. Adopting a coherent definition of ‘habit’, and a wider range of paradigms, designs and measures to study it, may accelerate progress in habit theory and application. PMID:25207647

  12. Understanding Physical Activity Motivation and Behaviour Through Self-Determination and Servant Leadership Theories in a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Samantha M; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2017-09-27

    Despite its well-established benefits, physical activity (PA) engagement is low in the adult population; evidence suggests that this is especially a concern for women > 60 years. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the feasibility of a six-week randomized control trial of Self-Determination Theory-based dance and walking programs for older women. Primary outcomes were feasibility measures: recruitment, retention, and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included self-reported PA, behavioural regulations, and psychological needs. Thirty-five women completed the study (M = 62.8 ± 4.8 years), representing 39% recruitment and 95% retention rate. Both programs were highly attended. Exploratory effect sizes for secondary measures were promising. Emergent themes highlighted the importance of servant leadership concepts in the group setting for motivating PA. Our findings provide support for expanding this trial to a full-scale study.

  13. Frontiers of the heaviest elements - towards an understanding of the physical and chemical behaviour of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, B.

    2000-01-01

    The description of the chemical behaviour of the heaviest elements has directly to do with a good relativistic description. In the limit of very low charges (at the beginning of the Periodic System) the non-relativistic description looks of course very much like the relativistic description and the problem is that we have learned to think in terms of the solution of the non-relativistic Schroedinger equation. In the first part I will therefore try to discuss the difference between the non-relativistic and the relativistic description. The talk has been structured as follows: first a brief discussion is given for the relativistic effects of 1-electron atoms which then will be extended to many-electron atoms. In the third section relativistic calculations of molecules will be discussed. (author)

  14. Understanding and modelling of the aniso-thermal cyclic mechanical behaviour of the AISI 316LN austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentet, D.

    2009-11-01

    The main subject of this report consists in proposing a mechanical model of the viscoplastic behaviour of an austenitic stainless steel under isothermal and aniso-thermal low cycle fatigue loadings at high temperatures (550-900 K). In this domain, numerous phenomena linked to dynamic strain ageing (DSA) and to dipolar dislocation structure formation may appear. Isothermal and aniso-thermal low cycle fatigue tension-compression tests were performed in order to verify some aspects about the effect of temperature on the mechanical behaviour. The study of the hysteresis loops and the observation of dislocation structures carried on transmission electron microscopy establish two different DSA mechanisms during isothermal tests. The effect of temperature history is shown for for particular temperature sequences. It is demonstrated that the stress amplitude increase when the sample is submitted to cycles at 'high temperature' is linked to the second mechanism of DSA. It comes from the increase of short range interaction between dislocations (chromium segregation), but it is also the consequence of the lack of dipolar structure annihilation at low temperature. From the experimental analysis of DSA mechanisms and dipolar restoration, a macroscopic aniso-thermal model is developed using physical internal variables (densities of dislocations). The equations of a polycrystalline model are rewritten with the aim of getting a simple multi-scale approach which can be used on finite elements analysis software. Between 550 and 873 K, the simulation results are in good accordance with the macroscopic and microscopic observations of low cycle fatigue, relaxation, and 2D-ratchetting tests. (author)

  15. Understanding the cervical screening behaviour of Chinese women: The role of health care system and health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; Chow, Ka Ming; Yang, Shengbo; Luo, Yang; Cheng, Huilin; Wang, Honghong

    2018-02-01

    In China, cervical cancer cases are increasing, making an impact on the worldwide burden of cervical cancer. Despite the initiatives undertaken by the Chinese government, the current coverage of cervical screening in China remains suboptimal. There is an urgent need to identify the facilitators and barriers associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening among the Chinese population. The study aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of cervical cancer screening of mainland Chinese women in relation to their screening behaviour, particularly in the aspects of health care system and health profession roles. A qualitative research was conducted using semi-structured interviews. A total of 27 Chinese women aged 25 to 50 (both screened and non-screened women) completed the interviews. The analysis of the interview data was undertaken inductively using latent content analysis. Results showed that organised health examination programmes provide a good basis for integrating cervical screening into broader checks on the health of women, and utilising different networks of social support facilitate the utilisation of the screening service. However, education on cervical cancer and screening must be made more generally available. More importantly, there is a need for a more participatory and empowering exchange in the encounter between health professions and these women. Appropriate training program is strongly recommended for health professions about communicate skills with patients. Future work should focus on identifying strategies to overcome the barriers to cervical screening related to health care system and medical professions among this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Application of x-ray diffraction techniques to the understanding of the dry sliding wear behaviour of aluminium and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoheir, N.; Ahmet, T.A.; Northwood, D.O.

    1996-01-01

    Dry sliding wear tests were performed on polycrystalline f.c.c. Al and h.c.p. Ti specimens using a block-on-ring type wear machine with a rotating ring made of 52100 bearing steel. The sliding speed was 0.13 m.s sup -l and the applied normal load was 10 N. The wear tests were performed on a single specimen in ambient conditions and the texture was evaluated during wear using an X-ray diffraction inverse pole figure technique at a range of sliding distances. Pole density distributions for the [0001] and [111) poles for of Ti and Al, respectively, were then determined from the inverse pole figures. The texture evolution during sliding wear was subsequently related to the friction and wear behaviour. For the aluminum sample, a (111) texture developed parallel to the worn surface with increasing sliding distance (a 6 fold increase in the (111) pole density as the sliding distance increases from 0 to 2714 m). The titanium sample (normal section) which had a preferred orientation with the basal poles, [0001), parallel to the contact surface prior to testing, an increase in wear, i.e. sliding distance, did not change the texture. However, for the transverse section of titanium, the basal pole, [0001), density parallel to the worn surface increased with increasing sliding distance. The shape of the coefficient of friction versus sliding distance curve is strongly influenced by crystallographic texturing. A drop in the coefficient of friction with the progressive development of the [111) and [0001) texture was observed for both Al and Ti (transverse section) specimens, respectively

  17. Remote sensing of the Ionosphere over the Murchison Radio Observatory, Western Australia, Leading to an Understanding of Fine Scale Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herne, D. E.; Lynch, M. J.; Coster, A. J.; Oberoi, D.; Carrano, C. S.; Williams, J.; Kennewell, J.; Groves, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Murchison Radio Observatory (MRO) is the home of radio astronomy in Australia. Projects currently under development at the MRO include a low-frequency instrument, the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). The MWA is an aperture synthesis, imaging array that when complete will comprise approximately 8,000 dipole antennas operating in the frequency range, 80 to 300 MHz. Signals in this frequency range are subject to distortions caused by the ionosphere. The effects of scintillation and faraday rotation degrade image quality. In order to ‘unwind’ faraday rotation, the distribution of the electron content in the ionosphere must be determined. Knowledge of the absolute total electron content (TEC) provides information about this distribution. This step is necessary in order to study processes in space involving magnetism. Over a period of two years, TEC measurements have been made over the MRO using high-precision, dual-frequency, GPS systems. Continuous measurements were performed for 12 months and campaign-based measurements at other times, due to the remote location of the MRO. The determination of the GPS receiver biases used to calculate TEC were studied with respect to changing temperatures. TEC measurements are compared to the results of modelling conducted previously (Kennewell et. al. 2005) as part of Australia’s bid to host the Square Kilometre Array radio telescope (SKA). Further, due to the fine grained nature of measurements (on the order of 0.01-0.03 TEC units), fine-scale structure can be resolved in the behaviour of the ionosphere in both temporal and spatial domains and is discussed. This work too, is laying a foundation for the accurate characterisation of the ionosphere over the MRO which is also the possible future site of the SKA. Plans to extend this work and the implementation of useful new measurement regimes are discussed, enabled by facilities currently being established as part of Australia’s ongoing commitment to radio astronomy on the

  18. Understanding the importance of therapeutic relationships in the development of self-management behaviours during cancer rehabilitation: a qualitative research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Wendy M; Rance, Jaynie; Fitzsimmons, Deborah

    2017-01-17

    Cancer is a growing health, social and economic problem. 1 in 3 people in the UK will develop cancer in their lifetime. With survival rates rising to over 50%, the long-term needs of cancer survivors are of growing importance. Cancer rehabilitation is tailored to address the physical or psychosocial decline in ability to engage in daily activities. Its use is supported by high-quality international, multicentre research. Incorporating strategies for self-management behaviour development into rehabilitation can prepare individuals for cancer survivorship. However, healthcare professionals will need to adjust their therapeutic interactions accordingly. Research is yet to clarify the impact of the therapeutic relationship on rehabilitation outcomes in cancer. This study aims to explore the impact of therapeutic relationships on self-management behaviours after cancer. This qualitative study aims to understand cancer rehabilitation participants' beliefs regarding the importance of therapeutic relationships in developing self-management behaviours. A sample representative of a local cancer rehabilitation cohort will be asked to complete a semistructured interview to identify their perspectives on the importance of therapeutic relationships in cancer rehabilitation. Data obtained from the interviews will be analysed, coded and entered into a Delphi questionnaire for circulation to a local cancer rehabilitation population to determine if the views expressed by the interviewees are supported by group consensus. This study was approved by Wales Research Ethics Committee 6 (15/WA/0331) in April 2016. Findings will be disseminated through the first author's doctoral thesis; peer-reviewed journals; local, national and international conference presentations; and public events involving research participants and the general public. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Damage assessment in Braunsbach 2016: data collection and analysis for an improved understanding of damaging processes during flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudan, Jonas; Rözer, Viktor; Sieg, Tobias; Vogel, Kristin; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods are caused by intense rainfall events and represent an insufficiently understood phenomenon in Germany. As a result of higher precipitation intensities, flash floods might occur more frequently in future. In combination with changing land use patterns and urbanisation, damage mitigation, insurance and risk management in flash-flood-prone regions are becoming increasingly important. However, a better understanding of damage caused by flash floods requires ex post collection of relevant but yet sparsely available information for research. At the end of May 2016, very high and concentrated rainfall intensities led to severe flash floods in several southern German municipalities. The small town of Braunsbach stood as a prime example of the devastating potential of such events. Eight to ten days after the flash flood event, damage assessment and data collection were conducted in Braunsbach by investigating all affected buildings and their surroundings. To record and store the data on site, the open-source software bundle KoBoCollect was used as an efficient and easy way to gather information. Since the damage driving factors of flash floods are expected to differ from those of riverine flooding, a post-hoc data analysis was performed, aiming to identify the influence of flood processes and building attributes on damage grades, which reflect the extent of structural damage. Data analyses include the application of random forest, a random general linear model and multinomial logistic regression as well as the construction of a local impact map to reveal influences on the damage grades. Further, a Spearman's Rho correlation matrix was calculated. The results reveal that the damage driving factors of flash floods differ from those of riverine floods to a certain extent. The exposition of a building in flow direction shows an especially strong correlation with the damage grade and has a high predictive power within the constructed damage models. Additionally

  20. Female reproductive tract infections: understandings and care seeking behaviour among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinlusi Fatimat M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive tract infections (RTI's are endemic in developing countries and entail a heavy toll on women. If untreated, RTI's can lead to adverse health outcomes such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy and increased vulnerability to transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. It is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While RTI's and its sequelae abound in Nigeria, there is paucity of publications on the subject in the country. This study assessed the understandings and care seeking behavior with regards to RTI's among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria with the aim of improving awareness on the subject. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey of women attending the gynaecological outpatient and family planning clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital was carried out between 1st June 2008 and 31st August 2008 using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analysed using the Epi-Info 3.5 statistical software of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta U.S.A. Results Most of the respondents (77.2% had heard of RTI's. Toilet was the most perceived mode of contracting RTI's (44.6%, followed by sexual intercourse and poor hygiene. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom of RTI's named while inability to get pregnant was the commonest named complication. Majority of the respondent's demonstrated poor overall knowledge of symptoms and complications of RTI"s. 37.4% of the respondents had experienced symptoms of RTI's in the preceding six months. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom reported (21.8% and the majority of those who reported symptoms sought medical treatment. Government health centres were the most visited health facilities for treatment. Conclusion Even though most of the respondents have heard of RTI's and sought treatment when symptomatic, they demonstrated poor overall understanding of the subject. There is need to educate women on preventive

  1. Role of HSAB concept in understanding biosorptive behaviour of various metal ions employing green biosorbent - Dry Cow Dung Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2016-04-01

    Hard & Soft Acid Base concept, HSAB theory given by Pearson, elucidates the crucial role of HSAB characteristics of both pollutants as well as the aqueous milieu. This theory can also explain the biosorptive behaviour of Dry Cow dung Powder, which helps in governing the success of process. The various metal ionic species exhibit a preference for the ligand binding on the biomass based on its chemical coordination characteristics. A comparative batch equilibration biosorptive assay has been carried out employing radiotracer technique for uptake of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Hg(II), Sr(II), Cs(I) and Co(II) at optimum biosorption parameters. To study the effect of interference of different salts on the percentage biosorption of metal ions on DCP, different organic as well as inorganic salts with varying proportion of 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg have been studied. The dynamics of the biosorption in terms of the order of the rate constant was studied applying different kinetic models. The best fitting model was Lagergren pseudo second order model. DCP, an eco-friendly humiresin, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid', Fulvic acid and many naturally present functional group such as carboxyl, phenols, quinols, amide etc. of both hard and soft nature, making it 'combo' in nature sorbs both concerned metal ions as well as ligands present in the system. Thus the ligands which were masking the biosorption process of heavy metal ions in this study were treated by mere increase in the dose of DCP, which successfully solves the problem without affecting efficiency of the process. This is exemplified by three very basic interactions happening in multicomponent system i.e. Synergism: Mutual enhancement; Antagonism: Mutual decrement; Non-interaction: Neutral effect. Thus DCP has a great potential in the field of water decontamination, industrial water treatment and in abatement of water pollution. So

  2. Applying social network analysis to understand the knowledge sharing behaviour of practitioners in a clinical online discussion forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2012-12-04

    Knowledge Translation (KT) plays a vital role in the modern health care community, facilitating the incorporation of new evidence into practice. Web 2.0 tools provide a useful mechanism for establishing an online KT environment in which health practitioners share their practice-related knowledge and experiences with an online community of practice. We have implemented a Web 2.0 based KT environment--an online discussion forum--for pediatric pain practitioners across seven different hospitals in Thailand. The online discussion forum enabled the pediatric pain practitioners to share and translate their experiential knowledge to help improve the management of pediatric pain in hospitals. The goal of this research is to investigate the knowledge sharing dynamics of a community of practice through an online discussion forum. We evaluated the communication patterns of the community members using statistical and social network analysis methods in order to better understand how the online community engages to share experiential knowledge. Statistical analyses and visualizations provide a broad overview of the communication patterns within the discussion forum. Social network analysis provides the tools to delve deeper into the social network, identifying the most active members of the community, reporting the overall health of the social network, isolating the potential core members of the social network, and exploring the inter-group relationships that exist across institutions and professions. The statistical analyses revealed a network dominated by a single institution and a single profession, and found a varied relationship between reading and posting content to the discussion forum. The social network analysis discovered a healthy network with strong communication patterns, while identifying which users are at the center of the community in terms of facilitating communication. The group-level analysis suggests that there is strong interprofessional and interregional

  3. Unsafe occupational health behaviours: Understanding mercury-related environmental health risks to artisanal gold miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental exposure and health outcomes is complex, multidirectional and dynamic. Therefore, we need an understanding of these linkages for effective health risk communication. Despite the severe health hazards, artisanal gold mining is widespread globally, with an estimated 30 million people engaged in it. In this study, the relationships between artisanal gold miners’ knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg and compositional, contextual and occupational factors were assessed using generalized linear models (negative log-log regression. A cross-sectional survey in three urban gold mining hubs in Ghana (Prestea, Tarkwa and Damang, was carried out among 588 (482 male and 106 female artisanal gold miners. The results showed that 89% of artisanal gold miners had very low to low levels of knowledge whereas 11% had moderate to very high levels of knowledge of deleterious health effects of Hg. Also, individuals who perceived their health-related work conditions to be excellent had very low to low levels of knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg. Interestingly, artisanal gold miners who were still working were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who were currently unemployed. Similarly, artisanal gold miners who had attained either primary or secondary education were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who had no formal education. This finding, although counterintuitive, can be understood within the fact that artisanal gold miners in Ghana without formal education tend to have considerably higher number of years of practical experience compared with their counterparts with formal education. Female artisanal gold miners were 68% less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their male counterparts (OR=0.32, p<0.05. Artisanal gold miners who had

  4. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Teresa Łukaszewicz

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L., one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 10(6 mL(-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 10(6 mL(-1 for massage method was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P ≥ 0.05. Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species.

  5. "Crossing the Rubicon": Understanding Chinese EFL Students' Volitional Process Underlying In-Class Participation with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardelli, Davide; Patel, Vijay K.; Martins-Shannon, Janine

    2017-01-01

    An extended model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to study Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) students' in-class participation. The model included the core TPB constructs (behavioural intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control/self-efficacy) and 2 additional constructs (foreign…

  6. A mixed methods approach to assess the likelihood of testing for STI using self-collected samples among behaviourally bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dodge, Brian; Baldwin, Aleta; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Behaviourally bisexual women (women who have sex with women and men (WSWM)) are more likely to report a history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) than women who have sex exclusively with men or exclusively with women. Barriers to care may prohibit WSWM from seeking STI testing. The present study investigated participant willingness to self-collect oral, vaginal and anal samples for STI testing. Eighty WSWM were recruited from two midwestern locations. After completing an online questionnaire, a subset of the participants were interviewed (n=54) and provided the option to self-collect oral, vaginal and/or anal samples to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. Over two-thirds (67.5%, n=54) of the participants completed the baseline scheduled and attended the interview. The majority of these participants provided vaginal (87.0%, n=47), oral (85.2%, n=46) and/or anal (61.1%, n=33) samples. Participants with a history of anal play were significantly more likely to provide an anal sample. C. trachomatis infection was identified in the samples of 6.8% (n=3) of the participants including 4.5% (n=2) of the vaginal samples and 3.3% (n=1) of the anal samples. None of the samples were positive for N. gonorrhoeae or T. vaginalis. Participants who reported a recent history of anal sexual behaviour with a male partner were significantly more likely to self-collect an anal sample. Given the comparatively high STI rates among WSWM, self-sampling in non-traditional settings may present a unique opportunity to provide needed care to this underserved population of women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Right Here Right Now: Developing an understanding of responses to smoking policy developments using online data collection in near to real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Fergie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health policymakers require timely evidence to inform decision-making, however, rapid social change often outpaces the capacity of traditional approaches to research to produce meaningful insights. The pervasion of mobile technologies and internet access offers opportunities for capturing context specific and near real-time data on people’s perceptions, behaviours and everyday experiences that could usefully inform decision-making. The Right Here Right Now pilot study was established to provide insights into public responses to, and lived experiences of, contemporary social and health issues. From May to October 2015, a cohort of 180 adults living in Glasgow were asked weekly questions. These questions were developed with decision-makers working in health and social policy or in response to topical newsworthy public health issues that arose. The questions were delivered through an online system and allowed participants to answer directly by website, SMS or post. Aim: An issue that was of high public health policy interest and debate during this period was the need for further tobacco and nicotine control. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of using an online data collection system with a cohort of Glasgow residents to provide rapid insights into public opinion on such policy developments. Method: Three smoking/vaping related questions were sent out to Right Here Right Now participants over the course of the study. The questions were in four parts, first a multiple choice question and then three qualitative follow-up questions based on participants’ responses to part one. The questions were developed with stakeholders working in health advocacy and policy development. They focused on: perceptions of the pervasion of e-cigarettes; legislation on smoking in cars carrying children; and reflections on ten years of the ‘smoking ban’ in enclosed public places. Results: The response rate ranged from 45% to 55% (65

  8. Physical and biological determinants of collective behavioural dynamics in complex systems: pulling chain formation in the nest-weaving ant Oecophylla smaragdina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bochynek

    Full Text Available The evolution of nest weaving, the inclusion of larval silk in the nest walls, is considered one of the pinnacles of cooperative behaviour in social insects. Within the four ant genera in which this has evolved, Oecophylla are unique in being the only group that precedes the deposition of larval silk by actively manipulating the leaf substrate to form a nest chamber. Here we provide the first descriptions of the manipulation process within a complex-systems framework. Substrate manipulation involves individual ants selecting, grasping and attempting to pull the edge of the substrate. These individuals are then joined by nest mates at the work site, who either select a site beside the first individual or grasp the body of the first or preceding worker to form a chain of pulling ants that together drag and bend the substrate. Site selection by individual workers is not random when confronted with an artificial leaf, with individuals more likely to grasp a substrate at its tip rather than along a more broad edge. The activity of additional individuals is also not random, with their activity being grouped in both space and time. Additional individuals are more likely to join an existing biting individual or pulling group. The positive feedback associated with the early stages of pulling behaviour appears typical for many of the collective actions observed in social insects.

  9. I’m okay, you’re not okay: Constancy of character and Paul’s understanding of change in his own and Peter’s behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Stewart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul argues in Galatians 2:11–14 that Peter was guilty of hypocrisy because he had withdrawn from eating with Gentiles in Antioch. Paul’s argument is best understood through the social and rhetorical conventions related to the encomium. The problem for Paul is that his own behaviour is inconsistent, and the Galatians know of his changed behaviour (Gl 1:13. Paul, then, is at pains to explain how his own changed behaviour, as a result of a commissioning from God, is different from Peter’s changed behaviour, as a result of fear of those from the circumcision. Paul’s concern for explaining his own change in behaviour as positive and Peter’s as negative is related to his overall concern to prevent future changes in the Galatians’ behaviour given that they are, as Paul himself is, commissioned by God for a new freedom.

  10. Brief Report: Understanding Intention to Be Physically Active and Physical Activity Behaviour in Adolescents from a Low Socio-Economic Status Background: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1…

  11. Understanding the Mechanisms of Collective Decision Making in Ecological Restoration: An Agent-Based Model of Actors and Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Cristy Watkins; Dean Massey; Jeremy Brooks; Kristen Ross; Moira L. Zellner

    2013-01-01

    Ecological restoration, particularly in urban contexts, is a complex collective decision-making process that involves a diversity of stakeholders and experts, each with their own perceptions and preferences about what landscapes should and can look like, how to get them to the desired state, and on what timeline. We investigate how structural and behavioral factors may influence collective decision making in the context of ecological restoration, with the purpose of establishing general relat...

  12. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  13. Understanding influences on teachers' uptake and use of behaviour management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Edwards, Vanessa; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Byford, Sarah; Norwich, Brahm; Logan, Stuart; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-02-10

    The 'Supporting Teachers And childRen in Schools' (STARS) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) programme as a public health intervention. TCM is a 6 day training course delivered to groups of 8-12 teachers. The STARS trial will investigate whether TCM can improve children's behaviour, attainment and wellbeing, reduce teachers' stress and improve their self-efficacy. This protocol describes the methodology of the process evaluation embedded within the main trial, which aims to examine the uptake and implementation of TCM strategies within the classroom plus the wider school environment and improve the understanding of outcomes. The STARS trial will work with eighty teachers of children aged 4-9 years from eighty schools. Teachers will be randomised to attend the TCM course (intervention arm) or to "teach as normal" (control arm) and attend the course a year later. The process evaluation will use quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess fidelity to model, as well as explore headteachers' and teachers' experiences of TCM and investigate school factors that influence the translation of skills learnt to practice. Four of the eight groups of teachers (n = 40) will be invited to participate in focus groups within one month of completing the TCM course, and again a year later, while 45 of the 80 headteachers will be invited to take part in telephone interviews. Standardised checklists will be completed by group leaders and each training session will be videotaped to assess fidelity to model. Teachers will also complete standardised session evaluations. This study will provide important information about whether the Teacher Classroom Management course influences child and teacher mental health and well-being in both the short and long term. The process evaluation will provide valuable insights into factors that may facilitate or impede any impact. The trial has been registered with ISCTRN

  14. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  15. The Use of Mobile Devices as Means of Data Collection in Supporting Elementary School Students' Conceptual Understanding about Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Lazaridou, Charalambia; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of mobile learning among young learners. Specifically, we investigated whether the use of mobile devices for data collection during field trips outside the classroom could enhance fourth graders' learning about the parts of the flower and their functions, flower pollinators and the process of…

  16. The use of mobile devices as means of data collection in supporting elementary school students' conceptual understanding about plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Lazaridou, Charalambia; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of mobile learning among young learners. Specifically, we investigated whether the use of mobile devices for data collection during field trips outside the classroom could enhance fourth graders' learning about the parts of the flower and their

  17. Strengthening understanding and perceptions of mineral fertilizer use among smallholder farmers: evidence from collective trials in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.; Tittonell, P.A.; Giller, K.E.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that mineral fertilizers must play an important part in improving agricultural productivity in western Kenyan farming systems. This paper suggests that for this goal to be realized, farmers’ knowledge must be strengthened to improve their understanding of fertilizers and

  18. Understanding the Mechanisms of Collective Decision Making in Ecological Restoration: An Agent-Based Model of Actors and Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristy Watkins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration, particularly in urban contexts, is a complex collective decision-making process that involves a diversity of stakeholders and experts, each with their own perceptions and preferences about what landscapes should and can look like, how to get them to the desired state, and on what timeline. We investigate how structural and behavioral factors may influence collective decision making in the context of ecological restoration, with the purpose of establishing general relationships between management styles (defined by structural and behavioral factors of the organization and decision outcomes. Informed by existing literature on collective decision making and by empirical data from the Chicago Wilderness region, we present a stylized agent-based model that maps out and simulates the processes by which individuals within restoration organizations communicate, discuss, and ultimately make a decision. Our study examines how structural and behavioral characteristics - including: (a the number of actors and groups involved in decision making, (b the frequency and type of interactions among actors, (c the initial setup of positions and respect, (d outside information, and (e entrenchment and cost of dissent - lead to or prohibit group convergence in terms of collective position, variation in position across actors, and final decision strategies. We found that formal meetings and group leaders are important facilitators of convergence, especially when multiple groups are present, new information is introduced in the process, and participants are polarized around an issue. Also, intergroup interactions are particularly important for overall convergence. Position entrenchment slows the convergence process and increases the need for decision strategies involving outside intervention. Cost of dissent can reinforce these effects. Our study formalizes collective decision-making processes within the context of ecological restoration

  19. Developing a framework of behaviours before suicides at railway locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Brendan

    2018-05-01

    Better knowledge of behaviours of people at railway property could help with identifying those at risk of suicide. Literature has been reviewed from a range of disciplines on what is known about studying behaviour in this type of public location. Secondary analysis has been carried out on descriptions of behaviour from structured exercises with experts and other pre-existing sources. A framework has been produced with five main classes (display of emotion, appearance, posture/movements, activities and interactions) and associated sub-classes. Commentary has been provided on factors that influence identification of suspicious behaviours, how to distinguish these from normal behaviours and the circumstances that inhibit timely reactions to the behaviour amidst the complexity of the operational railway. Opportunities to develop and use the framework are discussed, including using this to prompt collection of additional behavioural data from wider resources, enhancing staff training and developing requirements for effective use of surveillance technologies. Practitioner Summary: Many railway suicides could be prevented with better understanding of behaviours before events. Pre-existing data sources have been analysed, producing a framework highlighting five aspects of behaviour. This can prompt the collection of better evidence on pre-suicidal behaviours, with future applications in developing surveillance technologies, training staff and public awareness.

  20. Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape.1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM to examine pathways to rape perpetration.76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped were indicators of socio-economic status (SES, childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance.Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping. Prevention of rape

  1. Contribution to the characterization of 222-radon concentrations variability in water to the understanding of an aquifer behaviour in fractured medium: example of the Ploemeur site, Morbihan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Druillennec, Th.

    2007-06-01

    Heterogeneous fractured aquifers which developed in crystalline rocks, such as schist or granite, supply 20% of tap water production of Brittany. These fractured media present a large range of permeability. In these aquifers, fluid flow and transport of elements dissolved in water are strongly related on the geometry of the fractured network. Increasing the knowledge of the hydrogeological behaviour of the aquifer is fundamental for the management and the protection of the groundwater resources. Radon-222 is a radioactive noble gas produced from radium-226 further to the radioactive decay of uranium-238; it occurs naturally in ground waters and derives primarily from U-rich rocks and minerals that have been in contact with water. Radon-222 concentrations in waters are liable to provide significant and relevant information on both the geometry of a fracture network and the flow distribution. Furthermore, radon may also be used as a tracer in the aquifer of water exchanges between zones of variable permeability. Three main results were obtained in this study: 1. An accurate characterisation of the radon concentrations in water was carried out in the Ploemeur aquifer (Brittany, France). These results highlight the variability in the spatial and vertical distributions of 222 Rn activity in groundwater together with a wide range of concentrations extending from 0 to 1 500 Bq.L -1 . 2. The influence of fracture aperture on radon content in groundwater has been demonstrated with the modelling of radon concentration. Indeed, the satisfactory results obtained with a simple crack model highlight that the geometry of the fracture network controls the radon activity in groundwater. 3. Thus, the results of pumping tests performed in the boreholes improved our understanding of the system. After the pumping test, an increase of the radon content in groundwater occurred and evidenced a contribution of a radon-rich water to supply the flow rate that seems to come from the low

  2. Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. Method 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine pathways to rape perpetration. Results 76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped) were indicators of socio-economic status (SES), childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance). Discussion Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping

  3. Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine pathways to rape perpetration. 76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped) were indicators of socio-economic status (SES), childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance). Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping. Prevention of rape perpetration must

  4. Now You See It… Now You Don’t: Understanding Airborne Mapping LiDAR Collection and Data Product Generation for Archaeological Research in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a description of airborne mapping LiDAR, also known as airborne laser scanning (ALS, technology and its workflow from mission planning to final data product generation, with a specific emphasis on archaeological research. ALS observations are highly customizable, and can be tailored to meet specific research needs. Thus it is important for an archaeologist to fully understand the options available during planning, collection and data product generation before commissioning an ALS survey, to ensure the intended research questions can be answered with the resultant data products. Also this knowledge is of great use for the researcher trying to understand the quality and limitations of existing datasets collected for other purposes. Throughout the paper we use examples from archeological ALS projects to illustrate the key concepts of importance for the archaeology researcher.

  5. Pilot use of a novel smartphone application to track traveller health behaviour and collect infectious disease data during a mass gathering: Hajj pilgrimage 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; BinDhim, Nasser F; Tashani, Mohamed; Willaby, Harold W; Wiley, Kerrie E; Heywood, Anita E; Booy, Robert; Rashid, Harunor

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using a smartphone application (app) to conduct surveys among travellers during the Hajj pilgrimage, where the use of apps has not been evaluated for infectious disease surveillance. A longitudinal study was conducted among pilgrims at the Hajj 2014 using an iPhone app with separate questionnaires for three study phases covering before, during, and after Hajj. Forty-eight pilgrims from 13 countries downloaded the app. Respondents were aged between 21 and 61 (median 36) years and 58.5% (24/41) were male. Of these, 85% (41/48) completed the first phase, 52% (25/41) completed both the second and third phases, and 25 of these reported meningococcal vaccination, with 36% (9/25) receiving other vaccines. All (25) reported hand hygiene use and 64% (16/25) wore a facemask at some point during the pilgrimage. Four (6%) reported close contact with camels. Respiratory symptoms commenced from the 4th day of Hajj, with sore throat (20%) and cough (12%) being the most common. Three participants (12%) reported respiratory symptoms after returning home. Conducting a prospective survey using a smartphone app to collect data on travel-associated infections and traveller compliance to prevention is feasible at mass gatherings and can provide useful data associated with health-related behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 6, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving: Deliverable 6.5: Naturalistic Driving for cross-national monitoring of SPIs and Exposure : an overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, R.W.N. & Bos, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    WP6 of DaCoTA, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving, focuses on the usefulness and feasibility of applying the Naturalistic Driving method for monitoring within the framework of ERSO. The aim is to continuously collect comparable information about the road safety level in EU

  7. Household waste behaviours among a community sample in Iran: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Emamjomeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Asefzadeh, Saeed; Pearson, Heidi

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the factors influencing recycling behaviour can lead to better and more effective recycling programs in a community. The goal of this study was to examine factors associated with household waste behaviours in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) among a community sample of Iranians that included data collection at time 1 and at follow-up one year later at time 2. Study participants were sampled from households under the coverage of eight urban health centers in the city of Qazvin. Of 2000 invited households, 1782 agreed to participate in the study. A self-reported questionnaire was used for assessing socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e. attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention). Furthermore, questions regarding moral obligation, self-identity, action planning, and past recycling behaviour were asked, creating an extended TPB. At time 2, participants were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire on self-reported recycling behaviours. All TPB constructs had positive and significant correlations with each other. Recycling behaviour at time 1 (past behaviour) significantly related to household waste behaviour at time 2. The extended TPB explained 47% of the variance in household waste behaviour at time 2. Attitude, perceived behavioural control, intention, moral obligation, self-identity, action planning, and past recycling behaviour were significant predictors of household waste behaviour at time 2 in all models. The fact that the expanded TPB constructs significantly predicted household waste behaviours holds great promise for developing effective public campaigns and behaviour-changing interventions in a region where overall rates of household waste reduction behaviours are low. Our results indicate that educational materials which target moral obligation and action planning may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Self-Ratings for Health Information Behaviour Skills Requires More Heterogeneous Sample, but Finds that Public Library Print Collections and Health Information Literacy of Librarians Needs Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To understand public library users’ perceptions of ability to locate, evaluate, and use health information; to identify barriers experienced in finding and using health information; and to compare self-ratings of skills to an administered instrument. Design – Mixed methods. Setting – Main library and two branches of one public library system in Florida. Subjects – 20 adult library users purposively selected from 131 voluntary respondents to a previously conducted survey (Yi, 2014 based on age range, ethnicity, gender, and educational level. Of the 20, 13 were female; 11 White, 8 Black, 1 Native American; most had attained college or graduate school education levels (9 each, with 2 having graduated from high school. 15 respondents were aged 45 or older. Methods – Intensive interviews conducted between April and May 2011 used critical incident technique to inquire about a recalled health situation. Participants responded to questions about skill self-appraisal, health situation severity, information seeking and assessment behaviour, use of information, barriers, and outcome. Responses were compared to results of the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA test, administered to participants. Main Results – On a scale of 100, participants’ S-TOFHLA scores measured at high levels of proficiency, with 90% rating 90 points or above. Self-ratings of ability to find health information related to recalled need were ”excellent” (12 participants or “good” (8 participants. Fourteen participants did not seek library assistance; 12 began their search on the Internet, 5 searched the library catalogue, and 3 reported going directly to the collection. Resource preferences were discussed, although no frequency descriptions were provided. 90% of participants self-rated their ability to evaluate the quality of health information as “good” or “excellent.” Participants selected authority

  9. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  10. Empirical study of Kanji as archetypal images: understanding the collective unconscious as part of the Japanese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirova-Kohli, Milena; Rosen, David H; Smith, Steven M; Henderson, Patti; Taki-Reece, Sachiko

    2011-02-01

    Chinese characters originated as a semiotic system independent from spoken language and in the Japanese language they function non-phonetically with speakers exhibiting right-hemispheric advantage in their processing. We tested the hypothesis that Chinese characters are archetypal images and therefore part of our collective unconscious memory. Our study builds on the first empirical study of archetypal memory of Rosen et al. (1991) which demonstrated that archetypal symbols presented matched with their correct meaning were better learned and recalled. In a series of three experiments we used 40 Chinese characters instead of the archetypal symbols used by Rosen, et al. (1991). The results provided empirical evidence that Chinese characters matched with their correct meaning were significantly better recalled than the ones that were mismatched. Thus, we demonstrated that there appears to be unconscious knowledge of the meaning of the Chinese characters which was triggered as a result of priming when the characters were correctly matched with their meaning. On this basis, we suggest that Chinese characters exhibit the same cognitive qualities as archetypal symbols. Thus, in the Japanese language an archetypal image is integrated non-phonetically into the system of language and signifies the concept independent from the phonetic signifier and is equal to it. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Visual Soccer Analytics: Understanding the Characteristics of Collective Team Movement Based on Feature-Driven Analysis and Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Stein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in sensor technologies, large amounts of movement data have become available in many application areas. A novel, promising application is the data-driven analysis of team sport. Specifically, soccer matches comprise rich, multivariate movement data at high temporal and geospatial resolution. Capturing and analyzing complex movement patterns and interdependencies between the players with respect to various characteristics is challenging. So far, soccer experts manually post-analyze game situations and depict certain patterns with respect to their experience. We propose a visual analysis system for interactive identification of soccer patterns and situations being of interest to the analyst. Our approach builds on a preliminary system, which is enhanced by semantic features defined together with a soccer domain expert. The system includes a range of useful visualizations to show the ranking of features over time and plots the change of game play situations, both helping the analyst to interpret complex game situations. A novel workflow includes improving the analysis process by a learning stage, taking into account user feedback. We evaluate our approach by analyzing real-world soccer matches, illustrate several use cases and collect additional expert feedback. The resulting findings are discussed with subject matter experts.

  12. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  13. Understanding behaviours with mixed motives: An application of a modified theory of reasoned action on consumer purchase of organic food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies consumer decision-making in situations where the person knows that both his or her own interests and the interests of others will be signifi-cantly influenced by the behavioural choice. A random sample of individuals responsible household's shopping in Aarhus County, Denmark, (...

  14. Legally Brown: Using Ethnographic Methods to Understand Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviours among Young Australians "I Didn't Mean to Get Burnt--It Just Happened!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potente, Sofia; Coppa, Kay; Williams, Ainslie; Engels, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Sun protection is not commonly perceived as an important issue by adolescents yet this behaviour would, if adopted, confer significant lifelong protection against skin cancer. Despite the world's highest skin cancer rates, Australia remains a culture which values sun seeking, tanning and outdoor activities. This qualitative study used ethnographic…

  15. A Behavioural Approach to Understanding Semi-Subsistence Farmers' Technology Adoption Decisions: The Case of Improved Paddy-Prawn System in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambodo, Leonardo A. A. T.; Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study traced the origins of subsistence Farmers' technology adoption attitudes and extracted the critical elements in their decision making systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The analysis was structured using a model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The role of a "bargaining process" was particularly…

  16. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand the motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescents in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreeyesus Hadera, H.; Boer, Hendrik; Kuiper, Wilmad

    2007-01-01

    Various studies indicate that school- or university-based HIV prevention curricula can reduce the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour among adolescent youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective HIV/AIDS prevention education may be problematic, if the needs of youth are not served adequately. To

  17. Correlates of sexual behaviour of rural college youth in Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ghule, Mohan; Donta, Balaiah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Although premarital sex relationships are widely discouraged in India, some youth do form such relationships. It is important to understand the nature and extent of youth sexual behaviour and examine the relationship between individual characteristics, knowledge and attitude towards reproductive health issues and sexual behaviour. In order to study the sexual behaviour of rural youth, quantitative data have been collected among 1500 students (800 male and 700 female) and qualitative...

  18. Systematic review of acute physically active learning and classroom movement breaks on children's physical activity, cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour: understanding critical design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly-Smith, Andy J; Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Manley, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    To examine the impact of acute classroom movement break (CMB) and physically active learning (PAL) interventions on physical activity (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Systematic review. PubMed, EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, Education Resources Information Center, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, SCOPUS and Web of Science. Studies investigating school-based acute bouts of CMB or PAL on (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. The Downs and Black checklist assessed risk of bias. Ten PAL and eight CMB studies were identified from 2929 potentially relevant articles. Risk of bias scores ranged from 33% to 64.3%. Variation in study designs drove specific, but differing, outcomes. Three studies assessed PA using objective measures. Interventions replaced sedentary time with either light PA or moderate-to-vigorous PA dependent on design characteristics (mode, duration and intensity). Only one study factored individual PA outcomes into analyses. Classroom behaviour improved after longer moderate-to-vigorous (>10 min), or shorter more intense (5 min), CMB/PAL bouts (9 out of 11 interventions). There was no support for enhanced cognition or academic performance due to limited repeated studies. Low-to-medium quality designs predominate in investigations of the acute impacts of CMB and PAL on PA, cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Variable quality in experimental designs, outcome measures and intervention characteristics impact outcomes making conclusions problematic. CMB and PAL increased PA and enhanced time on task. To improve confidence in study outcomes, future investigations should combine examples of good practice observed in current studies. CRD42017070981.

  19. Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: evidences from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (psex-seeking were more likely to engage in casual sex (psex-seeking is operationalised in research is differentially associated with sexual risk. Against this backdrop, the utility of these operational definitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Systematic review of acute physically active learning and classroom movement breaks on children’s physical activity, cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour: understanding critical design features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly-Smith, Andy J; Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Manley, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of acute classroom movement break (CMB) and physically active learning (PAL) interventions on physical activity (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, Education Resources Information Center, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, SCOPUS and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies investigating school-based acute bouts of CMB or PAL on (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. The Downs and Black checklist assessed risk of bias. Results Ten PAL and eight CMB studies were identified from 2929 potentially relevant articles. Risk of bias scores ranged from 33% to 64.3%. Variation in study designs drove specific, but differing, outcomes. Three studies assessed PA using objective measures. Interventions replaced sedentary time with either light PA or moderate-to-vigorous PA dependent on design characteristics (mode, duration and intensity). Only one study factored individual PA outcomes into analyses. Classroom behaviour improved after longer moderate-to-vigorous (>10 min), or shorter more intense (5 min), CMB/PAL bouts (9 out of 11 interventions). There was no support for enhanced cognition or academic performance due to limited repeated studies. Conclusion Low-to-medium quality designs predominate in investigations of the acute impacts of CMB and PAL on PA, cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Variable quality in experimental designs, outcome measures and intervention characteristics impact outcomes making conclusions problematic. CMB and PAL increased PA and enhanced time on task. To improve confidence in study outcomes, future investigations should combine examples of good practice observed in current studies. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017070981. PMID:29629186

  1. Ready, set, go: a cross-sectional survey to understand priorities and preferences for multiple health behaviour change in a highly disadvantaged group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Sanson-Fisher, Robert; Turon, Heidi; Turner, Nicole; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-09-13

    Socially disadvantaged groups, such as Aboriginal Australians, tend to have a high prevalence of multiple lifestyle risk factors, increasing the risk of disease and underscoring the need for services to address multiple health behaviours. The aims of this study were to explore, among a socially disadvantaged group of people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS): a) readiness to change health behaviours; b) acceptability of addressing multiple risk factors sequentially or simultaneously; and c) preferred types of support services. People attending an ACCHS in regional New South Wales (NSW) completed a touchscreen survey while waiting for their appointment. The survey assessed participant health risk status, which health risks they would like to change, whether they preferred multiple health changes to be made together or separately, and the types of support they would use. Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 94 % reported multiple (two or more) health risks. There was a high willingness to change, with 69 % of current smokers wanting to cut down or quit, 51 % of overweight or obese participants wanting to lose weight and 44 % of those using drugs in the last 12 months wanting to stop or cut down. Of participants who wanted to make more than one health change, over half would be willing to make simultaneous or over-lapping health changes. The most popular types of support were help from a doctor or Health Worker and seeing a specialist, with less than a quarter of participants preferring telephone or electronic (internet or smart phone) forms of assistance. The importance of involving family members was also identified. Strategies addressing multiple health behaviour changes are likely to be acceptable for people attending an ACCHS, but may need to allow flexibility in the choice of initial target behaviour, timing of changes, and the format of support provided.

  2. Understanding choice of milk and bread for breakfast among Swedish children aged 11-15 years: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C; Jonsson, I; Conner, M

    2000-02-01

    The present study examined the influences of attitudes, social norms, perceived control and underlying beliefs on 11 to 15-year-olds' breakfast choices of milk with different fat content and high-fibre bread. All pupils in the 5th, 7th and 9th grades in Mölndal community (N=1730), Sweden, were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two weeks later, they were asked to fill in a 7-day record of food consumed for breakfast. Consumption of milk and high-fibre bread was predicted from intentions, and for milk also by perceived behavioural control. Intentions were influenced by attitudes, perceptions of significant others' preferences, and perceived control. In addition, perception of the parents' consumption (descriptive norm) of the specific food played an important role. Attitudes, norms and perceived control predicted intentions to a similar extent in each age group. Attitudes to the consumption of milk and high fibre bread were influenced by beliefs about their sensory and health aspects. Females and the oldest children had greater knowledge about the healthier alternatives and the oldest children had a tendency to choose healthier options. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Understanding the size selectivity in diamond mesh codends based on flume tank experiments and fish morphology: effect of catch size and fish escape behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Junita Diana; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    (Gadus morhua) and Nephrops (N. norvegicus) to simulate potential size selection. By assuming certain patterns of fish escape behaviour in the codend, it was demonstrated that it was possible to replicate results for size selection based on sea trials with similar codends. Results show that L50 can......This study quantifies potential size selection of a fish and a crustacean species in di-amond mesh codends during a fishing process. Changes in mesh geometry along the codends and at different catch weights were recorded in a flume tank and subse-quently used together with the morphology of cod...... happens mostly in the area of catch accu-mulation. In response to questions, it was also noted that FISHSELECT methodology has been used. Mesh penetrations were simulated for each individual. Considering the relationship between catch weight and codend selectivity, studies with lower catches can...

  4. Understanding the medicines information-seeking behaviour and information needs of South African long-term patients with limited literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonal; Dowse, Ros

    2015-10-01

    Although much health information-seeking behaviour (HISB) research has been reported in patients with good literacy skills, little is known about HISB in patients with limited literacy skills served by under-resourced health-care systems. To investigate medicine information-seeking behaviour and information needs in patients with limited literacy. Using a question guide, four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to explore themes related to information needs, information-seeking practices and awareness of and ability to utilize information sources. Twenty-two isiXhosa-speaking long-term patients with limited formal education were recruited from a primary health-care clinic in South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. NVivo(®) was used for initial coding of transcripts. Codes were analysed, and potential themes and subthemes in the entire data set were identified and refined. The results of this study reflect a passive, disempowered patient. Poor awareness of information sources, lack of health-related knowledge and stigma contributed to a lack of information-seeking practice, thus potentially adversely influencing patient-provider interactions. Patients neither asked questions nor were encouraged to ask questions. All expressed an unmet need for information and a desire for receiving the illustrated written medicines-related information displayed in the FGDs. The main sources of information were health-care professionals, followed by family and friends. The significant level of patient disempowerment and passivity reported amongst patients underpinned their inability to actively seek information. Neither sources of information nor types of appropriate medicines information could be identified. Unmet information needs and a desire for information were reported. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Brief Report: Methods for Collecting Sexual Behaviour Information from South African Adolescents--A Comparison of Paper versus Personal Digital Assistant Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspan, Heather B.; Flisher, Alan J.; Myer, Landon; Mathews, Catherine; Seebregts, Chris; Berwick, Jessica R.; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2007-01-01

    Reporting bias in adolescent behavioural research may be overcome with the use of personal digital assistants (PDA) or other computer based technologies. However, there is little insight into the use of these tools among adolescents in low resource settings. We compared self-administered paper questionnaires with PDA questionnaires to collect…

  6. The Behaviour of Small Investors in the Hong Kong Derivatives Markets: A Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuen Hon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviour of small investors in Hong Kong’s derivatives markets. The study period covers the global economic crisis of 2011- 2012, and we focus on small investors’ behaviour during and after the crisis. We attempt to identify and analyse the key factors that capture their behaviour in derivatives markets in Hong Kong. The data were collected from 524 respondents via a questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to analyse the data, and some interesting findings were obtained. Our study enhances our understanding of behavioural finance in the setting of an Asian financial centre, namely Hong Kong.

  7. Methodological challenges in collecting social and behavioural data regarding the HIV epidemic among gay and other men who have sex with men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Frankland, Andrew; Holt, Martin; de Wit, John; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce; Fairley, Christopher; Prestage, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR) or casual partners (UAIC). The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates, but this methodology is complex and logistically demanding

  8. Methodological challenges in collecting social and behavioural data regarding the HIV epidemic among gay and other men who have sex with men in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna B Zablotska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. METHODS: Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR or casual partners (UAIC. The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. CONCLUSION: Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates

  9. Single and combined effects of cadmium and arsenate in Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda): Understanding the links between physiological and behavioural responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinger, Céline, E-mail: celine.vellinger@gmail.com [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Gismondi, Eric, E-mail: gismondi.eric@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie animale et d’Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Chimie, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 15, B-4000 Sart-Tilman, Liège (Belgium); Felten, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.felten@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Rousselle, Philippe, E-mail: rousselle@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Mehennaoui, Kahina, E-mail: meh_kahina@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Parant, Marc, E-mail: parant@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe, E-mail: usseglio-polatera@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Linking physiological to behavioural responses of G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd. •AsV and/or Cd exposure exhibited similar biomarkers responses. •Contamination increases the mobilization of detoxification systems in gammarids. •Both changes in energy reserve use and allocation are involved in gammarid response. •Increased lipid peroxidation could be the cause of increasing gammarid mortality. -- Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the individual and interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) in Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) through the use of several biomarkers. Individuals were exposed for 240 h to two concentrations of AsV or Cd alone, and all the possible binary mixtures of these concentrations of AsV and Cd in a complete factorial design. The pattern of the biomarkers’ responses to Cd and AsV alone or in mixture was similar in Gammarus pulex, even if the response intensity varied depending on the tested conditions. G. pulex responded to contamination with increased mobilization of the detoxification systems [i.e. γ-glutamyl-cystein ligase activity (GCL), reduced glutathione content (GSH) and metallothionein concentrations (MT)]. This response seems to imply changes in energy reserve utilization (total lipids and proteins are used prior to glycogen reserves), but also a possible energy reallocation from locomotion to detoxification processes. The observed increase in lipid peroxidation could be relied to the increasing gammarid mortality, despite the higher mobilization of detoxification systems. Even if the outcome of the complex interactions between AsV and Cd remains difficult to unravel, such studies are critically important for better assessing the effects of stressors on organisms, populations and communities in a multi-contamination context of ecosystems.

  10. Behavioural informatics for improving water hygiene practice based on IoT environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Wu, Wenyan

    2018-02-01

    The development of Internet of Things (IoT) and latest Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have changed the nature of healthcare monitoring and health behaviour intervention in many applications. Water hygiene and water conservation behaviour intervention as important influence factors to human health are gaining much attentions for improving sustained sanitation practice. Based on face-to-face delivery, typical behaviour intervention method is costly and hardly to provide all day access to personalised intervention guidance and feedbacks. In this study, we presented a behavioural information system and water use behaviour model using IoT platform. Using Expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (ETPB) and adopted structure equation model, this study offers a solution for understanding the behaviour intervention mechanism and methodology for developing empirical model. A case study of behaviour intervention model is presented by utilising residential water conservation behaviour data collected in China. Results suggested that cultural differences have significant influences on the understanding of intervention drivers, promoting projects and increasing awareness, which could improve the behaviour intervention efficiency and further facilitate the improvement of water hygiene practice. The performance evaluation of water saving dimension is discussed as well in the paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving access to health information for older migrants by using grounded theory and social network analysis to understand their information behaviour and digital technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, K T; Newman, L A; Ward, P R

    2014-11-01

    Migrant well-being can be strongly influenced by the migration experience and subsequent degree of mainstream language acquisition. There is little research on how older Culturally And Linguistically Diverse (CALD) migrants who have 'aged in place' find health information, and the role which digital technology plays in this. Although the research for this paper was not focused on cancer, we draw out implications for providing cancer-related information to this group. We interviewed 54 participants (14 men and 40 women) aged 63-94 years, who were born in Italy or Greece, and who migrated to Australia mostly as young adults after World War II. Constructivist grounded theory and social network analysis were used for data analysis. Participants identified doctors, adult children, local television, spouse, local newspaper and radio as the most important information sources. They did not generally use computers, the Internet or mobile phones to access information. Literacy in their birth language, and the degree of proficiency in understanding and using English, influenced the range of information sources accessed and the means used. The ways in which older CALD migrants seek and access information has important implications for how professionals and policymakers deliver relevant information to them about cancer prevention, screening, support and treatment, particularly as information and resources are moved online as part of e-health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Collective behaviour of climate indices in the North Pacific air—sea system and its potential relationships with decadal climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Juan; Zhi Rong; He Wen-Ping; Gong Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A climate network of six climate indices of the North Pacific air—sea system is constructed during the period of 1948–2009. In order to find out the inherent relationship between the intrinsic mechanism of climate index network and the important climate shift, the synchronization behaviour and the coupling behaviour of these indices are investigated. Results indicate that climate network synchronization happened around the beginning of the 1960s, in the middle of the 1970s and at the beginnings of the 1990s and the 2000s separately. These synchronization states were always followed by the decrease of the coupling coefficient. Each synchronization of the network was well associated with the abrupt phase or trend changes of annually accumulated abnormal values of North Pacific sea-surface temperature and 500-hPa height, among which the one that happened in the middle of the 1970s is the most noticeable climate shift. We can also obtain this mysterious shift from the first mode of the empirical orthogonal function of six indices. That is to say, abrupt climate shift in North Pacific air—sea system is not only shown by the phase or trend changes of climate indices, but also might be indicated by the synchronizing and the coupling of climate indices. Furthermore, at the turning point of 1975, there are also abrupt correlation changes in the yearly mode of spatial degree distribution of the sea surface temperature and 500-hPa height in the region of the North Pacific, which further proves the probability of climate index synchronization and coupling shift in air—sea systems. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  13. Data collected in the Southern California Bight in order to understand the coastal waters ecological systems, 1977 - 1999 (NODC Accession 0001162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemistry, fish species, atmospheric pollutants, and temperature profile were collected using CTD casts and other collection methods in the Southern California Bight...

  14. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  15. Enterprising behaviour in an integrating competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loredana Orhei; S. Nandram; Marise Born

    2014-01-01

    We present insights from literature on enterprising behaviour and competence followed by an application of the competence perspective. Data collection is based on the critical incident technique among 205 entrepreneurs. The study shows how entrepreneurial behaviour benefits from an integrating

  16. Behavioural Profiles of Brown and Sloth Bears in Captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle Pastorino, Giovanni; Christodoulides, Yiannis; Curone, Giulio; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Faustini, Massimo; Albertini, Mariangela; Preziosi, Richard; Mazzola, Silvia Michela

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal personality research is a growing field, since understanding animal personalities has notable implications in ecology and the evolution of animal behaviours. In the current study, we tested different methods described in the literature to obtain robust individual behavioural profiles. Data collected through behavioral observations were categorised into activity budgets, space usage, and social interactions for each individual. In addition, behavioural profile questionnaires were completed by the three zoo keepers who had regular interactions with the bears. The questionnaires included 22 adjectives, which were rated on a scale of 1–12 depending on how well they described each individual bear. The mean ratings of the keepers were used to create the behavioural profiles by adding the adjectives to the appropriate domains, according to the NEO Five Factor Inventory of personality model (NEO-FFI). The data gathered was used to produce behavioural profiles for all animals, in order to clarify the personality characteristics of each subject. Testing and improving existing methodologies to determine animal personality is important for providing optimal welfare and management of captive animals, since it can help to develop more effective management regimes in zoos by remodelling husbandry according to each animal’s personality type. Abstract Three brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) individuals and two sloth bear (Melursus ursinus inornatus) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress. Behavioural profiles were created using data obtained through behavioural

  17. Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to Understand Physicians' Behaviors and Behavior Change in Using Temporary Work Modifications for Return to Work: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horppu, Ritva; Martimo, K P; MacEachen, E; Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Applying the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to understand physicians' behaviors and behavior change in using temporary work modifications (TWMs) for return to work (RTW). Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 occupational physicians (OPs). Responses were coded using the TDF and the BCW. Results Key behaviors related to applying TWMs were initiating the process with the employee, making recommendations to the workplace, and following up the process. OP behaviors were influenced by several factors related to personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment. Capability comprised relevant knowledge and skills related to applying TWMs, remembering to initiate TWMS and monitor the process, and being accustomed to reflective practice. Opportunity comprised physical resources (e.g., time, predefined procedures, and availability of modified work at companies), and social pressure from stakeholders. Motivation comprised conceptions of a proper OP role, confidence to carry out TWMs, personal RTW-related goals, beliefs about the outcomes of one's actions, feedback received from earlier cases, and feelings related to applying TWMs. OPs' perceived means to target these identified factors were linked to the following BCW intervention functions: education, training, persuasion, environmental restructuring, and enablement. The results suggest that at least these functions should be considered when designing future interventions. Conclusions Our study illustrates how theoretical frameworks TDF and BCW can be utilized in a RTW context to understand which determinants of physicians' behavior need to be targeted, and how, to promote desired behaviors.

  18. Exploring adolescents' perceptions of risky behaviour using the mobile phone / N. Gois De Gouveia.

    OpenAIRE

    De Gouveia, Natalie Gois

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine adolescent perceptions of risky behaviour using a mobile phone. This research may contribute to creating an awareness of risky and healthy adolescent uses of mobile phones. Anonymous sketches were collected from Grade 10 learners depicting their understanding of risky behaviour using the mobile phone. Thereafter, 12 learners agreed, through informed consent, to participate in semi-structured interviews. All participants considered the mobile phone an i...

  19. Particle-hole intruder levels in {sup 67}Cu, collectivity, monopole shifts, and the hockey-stick behaviour of l - 1/2 5/2{sup -} levels in neutron-rich odd-mass Cu nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W B; Chiara, C J, E-mail: wwalters@umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A new sequence of gamma rays with energies of 572, 499, 585, and 674 keV has been identified in {sup 67}Cu populating the 7/2{sup -} level at 2362 keV. Owing to the strong population of the 2362-keV level via an l = 3 proton pickup reaction, that level is assigned to be an f{sub 7/2}{sup -1} 2-particle-1-hole 'intruder' proton configuration, and the new levels are found to form a sequence consistent with intruder sequences in the adjacent odd-mass Cu isotopes and in the odd-mass Sb isotopes. The changing position of the intruder sequence in the odd-mass Cu isotopes is discussed and related to the onset of collectivity associated with the presence of g{sub 9/2} neutrons beyond N = 40. The increase in collectivity is also discussed for a number of isotonic and isotopic chains as more protons or neutrons, respectively, are added beyond an oscillator shell boundary. For most of these systems, the l -1/2 levels show a systematic 'hockey-stick-like' behaviour with a sharp decrease in energy with the addition of the first protons or neutrons, owing to both the added collectivity and the tensor interaction, and then a lower slope when collectivity changes are diminished and only the tensor interaction is influencing the changes in level positions.

  20. Particle-hole intruder levels in 67Cu, collectivity, monopole shifts, and the hockey-stick behaviour of ell - 1/2 5/2- levels in neutron-rich odd-mass Cu nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, W. B.; Chiara, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    A new sequence of gamma rays with energies of 572, 499, 585, and 674 keV has been identified in 67Cu populating the 7/2- level at 2362 keV. Owing to the strong population of the 2362-keV level via an ell = 3 proton pickup reaction, that level is assigned to be an f7/2-1 2-particle-1-hole "intruder" proton configuration, and the new levels are found to form a sequence consistent with intruder sequences in the adjacent odd-mass Cu isotopes and in the odd-mass Sb isotopes. The changing position of the intruder sequence in the odd-mass Cu isotopes is discussed and related to the onset of collectivity associated with the presence of g9/2 neutrons beyond N = 40. The increase in collectivity is also discussed for a number of isotonic and isotopic chains as more protons or neutrons, respectively, are added beyond an oscillator shell boundary. For most of these systems, the ell -1/2 levels show a systematic "hockey-stick-like" behaviour with a sharp decrease in energy with the addition of the first protons or neutrons, owing to both the added collectivity and the tensor interaction, and then a lower slope when collectivity changes are diminished and only the tensor interaction is influencing the changes in level positions.

  1. How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare

  2. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. METHODS: We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions. Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both

  3. Enhancing captive breeding in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): maintaining lactation when cubs are rejected, and understanding variation in milk collection and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongping; Zhang, Guiquan; Yin, Feng; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Dingzhen

    2009-07-01

    From 1997 to 2002, a female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was artificially stimulated and lactation was maintained, after her neonates were removed due to the female's inability to provide maternal care. Milk samples were collected and the amount of milk collected was quantified. The lactation curve of this animal was estimated based on the Gamma function: Y(t)=at(b)e(-ct). The amount of milk collected showed significant, positive relationships with the number of days after parturition both in 1999 and in the whole study period from 1998 to 2002. This female's lactation curves fit the type I pattern of a typical mammalian lactation curve. Daily milk collection (g) during the first 30 days after parturition, and from 31 to 60 days after parturition, showed a consistent pattern with one peak at around 8:00 hr. More milk was collected during the latter period than during the former period. The amount of milk (g) collected on mucus excretion days was significantly less than that on days after mucus excretion had ended, yet no significant difference was found between milk collected one day before mucus days and on mucus days, or between milk collected one day before and one day after mucus days. Mucus excretion from the gastrointestinal tract significantly impacted the amount of milk collected. The results from this study may aid the captive propagation and conservation of giant pandas and other endangered and rare captive mammal species.

  4. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  5. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  6. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  7. Understanding Lateritic Ore Agglomeration Behaviour as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    their processing via conventional beneficiation (e.g. multi-gravity and flotation) and hydrometallurgical routes is intractable as they are predominantly low grade and ... 44% w/w H2SO4) and post-agglomeration treat- ment conditions (e.g., drying) on ..... binder (water/acid ratio: 1.27), 15 wt.% binder con- tent led to insufficient ...

  8. Understanding Lateritic Ore Agglomeration Behaviour as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing such ores through cost-competitive heap (4-10 m high) leaching as an alternative, requires successful agglomeration of the feed into robust and porous granules. To date, produc-ing of granules with desirable attributes poses a major geotechnical challenge to industry. In the present work, we investigate ...

  9. Understanding gaming floor influences on player behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to entice and retain player activity within a casino gaming environment require bringing to bear a range of sensory and physical influences. The challenge is to accomplish the operators’ objectives while at the same time ensuring any potential negative effects on the player are minimised. How casinos keep this in balance is at the heart of how the gaming floor works, and assessing such matters is becoming a necessary part of social responsibility.

  10. Effects of low-powered RF sweep between 0.01-20 GHz on female Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes: A collective behaviour analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Poh

    Full Text Available There are many products claiming to be an electronic solution towards repelling mosquitoes. Several reviews were published in debunking these claims. However, there is a lack of a systematic study on effects of electromagnetic (EM or more specifically, radio frequency (RF waves against mosquitoes due to the conclusions made in those years. Therefore, we attempt to establish a fundamental study on female Aedes Aegypti (Linnaeus mosquitoes by quantifying the collective behavior of the mosquitoes against a continuous stream of low-powered RF signals via a broadband horn antenna using image processing methods. By examining the average lateral and vertical positions of the mosquitoes versus frequency and time, the data shows negligible consistency in the reactions of the mosquitoes toward the different frequencies ranging from 10 to 20,000.00 MHz, with a step of 10 MHz. This was done by examining 33 hours of spatiotemporal data, which was divided into three sessions. All three sessions showed totally different convolutions in the positions in arbitrary units based on the raster scan of the image processing output. Several frequencies apparently showed up to 0.2-70% shift in both lateral and vertical components along the spectrum, without repeatability for all three sessions. This study contributes to the following: A pilot study for establishing the collective effects of RF against mosquitoes, open-source use, and finally a low-cost and easily adaptable platform for the study of EM effects against any insects.

  11. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism should be of interest to investigate. Furthermore, modern brain-imaging studies will reveal the site of action of aggressiveness and impulsivity. Within brain regions of interest, biological studies will promote our knowledge of this deleterious behaviour.

  12. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi; Jaroslav Světlík

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of t...

  13. Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC) Research Agenda: Impacting Education and Changing Lives through Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Lumina Foundation, the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) has launched HACU's Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC). The first major task of this virtual gathering of researchers and practitioners in Hispanic higher education has been to assess the state of our knowledge of the key issues…

  14. Collective stories and well-being: using a dialogical narrative approach to understand peer relationships among combat veterans experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddick, Nick; Phoenix, Cassandra; Smith, Brett

    2015-03-01

    Using a dialogical narrative approach, this original research explored how combat veterans experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder made sense of peer relationships with other veterans and what effects these relationships had on their well-being. Interviews and participant observations were conducted with 15 male combat veterans (aged 27-60 years) and one member of the civilian emergency services, the majority of whom were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder following traumatic exposure in a range of armed conflicts. All participants were part of a surfing charity for veterans experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder. Data were rigorously analysed using a dialogical narrative analysis (DNA). Findings revealed the collective story that veterans used to make sense of peer relationships within the group. This collective story worked for the veterans to shape their experiences of well-being by fostering camaraderie, stimulating deeper connections and countering the negative effects of post-traumatic stress disorder. Potential therapeutic effects of the collective story were also identified. This article extends previous knowledge on combat veterans and social relationships and advances the field of narrative health psychology through the empirical application of a sophisticated dialogical narrative approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  16. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  17. Behaviour Questionnaire

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symptoms signifying a hostile-aggressive dimension, factor 2 an anxious-fearful dimension, and factor 3 emerged as a ... Objective. This paper examines the factor structure of the. Yoruba translation of the Children's Behaviour Questionnaire .... Twitches/mannerisms/tics. Sucks thumb/finger. Bites nails. Often disobedient.

  18. Modifiable characteristics associated with sedentary behaviours among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Wong, Suzy L

    2008-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health issue. A better understanding of factors associated with sedentary behaviours would provide valuable insight for tailoring interventions to prevent or reduce overweight among youth. Data were collected from 25,416 grade 9 to 12 students attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, using the Physical Activity Module of the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES). Sex specific multivariate logistic regression analyses were then used to examine how physical activity, BMI, social influences, and smoking behaviour were associated with screen time, time spent reading, and time spent on homework. The average screen time per day was 2.7 (+/-1.7) hours, yet 48.1% of students reported spending less than one hour reading per week and 30.2% spent less than an hour of time on homework per week. Among males, being underweight ( or = 85% percentile BMI, adjusted for age and sex) was associated with less time spent on homework (OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.65-0.85). Conversely, among females, being at risk of overweight was associated with more screen time (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.41), and time spent reading (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.05-1.35). Aside from BMI, other factors associated with sedentary behaviours included physical activity, parental encouragement and support for physical activity, close friend physical activity behaviour, and smoking status. We found that students are highly involved in screen-based sedentary behaviours, but spend a limited time on more productive sedentary behaviours, like reading and homework. Developing a better understanding of sedentary behaviours is critical for preventing and reducing obesity among youth populations.

  19. Empirical questions for collective-behaviour modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    representation by ODEs straightforward. This kind of model has been successfully fit to animal groups that display strongly ordered motion, including marching locusts [8], floating ducks [9], and schooling fish. [10,11]. But in systems like our midge swarms that are stationary, effective social forces have not been clearly ...

  20. Empirical questions for collective-behaviour modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    suggestions for future research. 2. Empirical measurements of insect swarms. Unlike highly ordered animal aggregations such as bird flocks or fish schools, mating swarms of flying insects present a particular challenge for modelling as there is no simple average state of the swarm that can be used to benchmark a model.

  1. Understanding the Hedonic Consumption of Servicescapes: The Case of LEGOLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar, Muhammad Haider

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on the concept of hedonic consumption and the importance of servicescapes. The study applied a qualitative approach in understanding the hedonic aspects and the experiences with servicescape setting in LEGOLAND, Windsor UK. The data was collected through autoethnography and interviews. The results indicated “Fun for children” and “learning” as the primary factors of motivations for parents. The Role Projection behaviour of kids was also reported on the bases of observatory...

  2. Personal Values and Moral Disengagement Promote Aggressive and Rule-Breaking Behaviours in Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviour Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Marinella; Muratori, Pietro; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Buonanno, Carlo; Capo, Rosario; Lochman, John E; Barcaccia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The pilot study presented in this article investigated the role of moral-cognitive features in understanding aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours in adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). We collected two samples. The community sample was composed of 85 adolescents, whereas the DBD sample was composed of 30 adolescents. Compared with a community sample, adolescents with DBD are more inclined to use moral disengagement (MD) to legitimize their aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours. Moreover, regression models showed that self-enhancement values and MD foster externalizing behaviours taking into account both gender and the group they belonged to, that is, either clinical or community sample. Instead, self-transcendence values could prevent externalizing problems by inhibiting MD. Implications of these findings for assessment and therapeutic interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Gratification Theory Provides a Useful Framework for Understanding the Information Seeking Behaviours and Needs of Distinct Populations. A review of: Chatman, E. A. (1991. Life in a small world: Applicability of gratification theory to information‐seeking behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(6, 438‐449.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Zoellner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Apply gratification theory to the information‐seeking behaviours and use of information by a lower working class population. Design – An ethnographic study framed by social stratification literature was utilized to explore, describe and interpret the everyday information needs, information‐seeking behaviours and views of information held by lower working class individuals.Setting – A major university in the southeast United States, specifically the physical plant facilities including classrooms, bathrooms, janitorial closets, and front steps.Subjects – The participants were 52 lower working class janitorial staff at a major university. The majority of subjects were single black women in their late 30s. The women had children and were the heads of their households. The women had not completed high school and earned minimum wage; they had been at their jobs for an average of seven years. The workers’ supervisors, and others at the physical plant, were also contacted as part of the study.Methods – Ethnographic data was collected over a two‐year period, 1984‐86, through participation in the setting and interviews. A 28‐item interview guide was used to identify participants’ job‐search strategies, use of mass media, television viewing behaviours, and acceptance of information from individuals and believable sources of information.Main results – Chatman confirmed the usefulness of gratification theory as a conceptual framework to identify what defines information problems, motivations, and information seeking behaviours for an impoverished population. The results support the findings of social stratification research on the parallel between impoverished individuals’ social life and their orientation toward gratification. A focus on local present reality due to pressing economic and psychological problems orients lower working class individuals toward immediate gratification. Thus, information sources of value

  4. Aggressive Behaviour and Its Prevalence within Five Typologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…

  5. Relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour among adolescents: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting sexual health among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour were explored. The study collected data from 823 adolescent students at a junior college in Central Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Knowledge Scale, Sexual Attitudes Scale, and Safe Sex Behaviour Questionnaire and the demographic data were collected. The preliminary model fit criteria, overall model fit, and fit of internal structure of model was used to assess the sexual health model fit. Results revealed that sexual knowledge had a negative effect on sex attitudes and had no significant effect on safe sex behaviour. Adolescents with more sexual knowledge had less positive sexual attitudes and did not show increased practices of safe sex behaviour. No significant correlation was found between sexual knowledge and safe sex behaviour of adolescents. Improvements in sexual attitudes were found to be irrelevant to the promotion of safe sex behaviour of adolescents. In order to ensure safe sexual health, it is strongly suggested that adolescents learn to be responsible for their own behaviours and attitudes and obtain correct knowledge about their understandings and evaluations of sexuality.

  6. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links between...... values and specific behaviour, since values may be too abstract to influence behaviour directly. We propose the concept of lifestyle as a mediator between values and behaviour, and present our approach to lifestyle based on principles from cognitive psychology, where we distinguish between values...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....

  7. Mindfulness and eating behaviour styles in morbidly obese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwens, M A; Schiffer, A A; Visser, L I; Raeijmaekers, N J C; Nyklíček, I

    2015-04-01

    Morbid obesity is a highly prevalent condition that is associated with a high risk of various diseases and high health care costs. Understanding determinants of eating behaviours that are characteristic of many morbidly obese persons is important for the development of new interventions aimed at changing eating behaviour after bariatric surgery. Dispositional mindfulness seems promising as one such potential determinant. Therefore, the association between mindfulness and eating behaviour was examined in females and males with morbid obesity. Outpatients with morbid obesity who were candidates for bariatric surgery (N = 335; 78.8% female) completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in addition to the collection of relevant demographic and medical data. Three separate multiple regression analyses with three eating behaviour styles (restrained, emotional, external) as dependent variables showed that mindfulness was positively associated with restrained eating behaviour (Beta = .28, p ≤ .001), and negatively associated with emotional (Beta = -.22, p ≤ .001) and external (Beta = -.32, p ≤ .001) eating behaviours, independent of sex, age, educational level, Body Mass Index and affective symptoms. Dispositional mindfulness was associated with more restrained, and less emotional and external eating behaviour in morbidly obese outpatients, above and beyond affective symptoms. Future studies, establishing the causal direction of the associations, are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relation of social behaviours and challenging behaviours in infants and toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Neal, Daniene; Fodstad, Jill C; Hess, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    Challenging behaviours are a commonly co-occuring problem in children with ASD and are often present during the toddler years. The relationship that these challenging behaviours have with core features of ASD, specifically social behaviours, was examined in this study. This study analysed the relationship between socialization and challenging behaviours among 153 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. Social behaviour was evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition and challenging behaviours were assessed using Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits, Part 3. Lower levels of adult interaction and peer interaction were associated with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour, aggressive/destructive behaviour and to a lesser extent self-injury. The nature of the relationships between socialization and challenging behaviours likely interact in several ways. A better understanding of these relationships is essential to early identification and treatment of children with ASD.

  9. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...

  10. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...... from different sectors of energy efficiency from the following PLEEC partner countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the UK, the Netherlands, Estonia, Bulgaria and Spain. Each case is presented shortly with key details of budget, target group, and methods as well as a short assessment of main success...... factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...

  11. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun R. Katapally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10–14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  12. Why bother about health? A study on the factors that influence health information seeking behaviour among Malaysian healthcare consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Ainin, Sulaiman; Yeong, Mun Wai

    2017-08-01

    The general improvement of socio-economic conditions has resulted in people becoming more educated to make better-informed decisions in health related matters. Individual's perspective on health increases with better understanding of ways to improve lifestyle for better health and living. With the increase in lifestyle related diseases that lead to health problems, there is an increase in the availability of healthcare information. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that influence information seeking behaviour in the area of healthcare and lifestyle. This exploratory study examines the relationship between the factors that affect online health information-seeking behaviour among healthcare product in the capital city of Malaysia. Survey questionnaire was used to collect empirical data. A survey was conducted among 300 healthcare consumers in three main cities in Malaysia where questionnaires were personally distributed through snowball sampling. A total of 271 questionnaire forms were used in the analysis. Health Behaviour of the consumers influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. And this relationship is strongly affected by Gender whereby the affect is strongly among females compared to males. The findings indicate that Health Behaviour influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Marketers can find out which target segment of population to target when devising information channels for consumers, especially through the Internet. However, message that promotes positive health behaviour to a target audience who already has positive Health Behaviour increase the motivation to Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Behavioural inventory of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Peter A; Ciofolo, Isabelle; Ganswindt, André

    2012-11-22

    Numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. In order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Entabeni Game Reserve, South Africa), and in captivity (National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria). The resulting ethogram lists 65 different behavioural patterns, which were described and grouped into seven categories: General activities, Abnormal repetitive behaviours, General interactions, Bull-Cow behaviour, Bull-Bull behaviour, Cow-Bull behaviour, Maternal behaviours, and Interactions by calves. The behaviours were further described regarding a presumed purpose, particularly with respect to social interactions and sexual behaviour. Contradictory descriptions from previous studies were considered and discussed in comparison with our own observations. This ethogram provides a basis for current and future studies by suggesting a terminology which can be used for harmonizing behavioural observations, thus helping to facilitate comparability of future results. Subsequently, a better understanding of the behavioural ecology of giraffes in the wild as well as in captivity could aid future conservation efforts.

  14. Building a Collective Understanding of Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahomov, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    Larissa Pahomov teaches students English and Journalism at Science Leadership Academy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The school opened its doors to students just seven years ago and was designed to encourage both inquiry and critical pedagogy. To those ends, there is a thematic curriculum for each grade level--for sophomores, it's…

  15. A holistic model of behavioural branding: The role of employee behaviours and internal branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive......Understanding employee behaviours is a growing concern in all kinds of companies and across disciplines because such behaviours are critical determinants of organizational success. This paper elaborates on the concept of behavioural branding, which refers to employee behaviours that convey brand...... behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures....

  16. A holistic model of behavioural branding: The role of employee behaviours and internal branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures.......Understanding employee behaviours is a growing concern in all kinds of companies and across disciplines because such behaviours are critical determinants of organizational success. This paper elaborates on the concept of behavioural branding, which refers to employee behaviours that convey brand...... consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive...

  17. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2014-10-10

    Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term "Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia". These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or simple observations suggested that personality could play a role in the occurrence of behavioural symptoms. Finally, performance in social cognition like facial recognition and perspective taking could be linked to certain personality traits and the subsequent risks of behavioural symptoms. We propose to clarify this through a prospective, multicentre, multidisciplinary study. Main Objective: -To assess the effect of personality and life events on the risk of developing behavioural symptoms. Secondary Objectives: -To evaluate, at the time of inclusion, the connection between personality and performance in social cognition tests; -To evaluate the correlation between performance in social cognition at inclusion and the risks of occurrence of behavioural symptoms; -To evaluate the correlation between regional cerebral atrophy, using brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging at baseline, and the risk of behavioural symptoms. Study type and Population: Prospective multicentre cohort study with 252 patients with Alzheimer's disease at prodromal or mild dementia stage. The inclusion period will be of 18 months and the patients will be followed during 18 months. The initial evaluation will include: a clinical and neuropsychological examination, collection of behavioural symptoms data (Neuropsychiatric-Inventory scale) and their risk factors, a personality study using both a dimensional (personality traits) and categorical approach, an inventory of life events, social cognition tests and an Magnetic Resonance

  18. Collective drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Grossa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is referred to the experiences run at Iuav in the framework of the EU-FSE founded Courses of Collaborative Composition. In these courses we built up some work/game thought as meaning of a distance collaborative game. Rally around these games, we delivered specific knowledge and portions of technical knowledge referred to the issue of formal structure, shape grammar, and codify of “behaviours role” for a networked distance collaboration. The subject of this didactic experience is the composition and of a collective figurative opera (an image processed by the whole group of students. The themes of the image have been different in each Course: a figurative opera, a facade of an urban street or a small square. The students shared a repertory of figures coming from the break down of paintings or pictures of palaces and used the repertory as a source in order to compose the final collective opera. On the other side we worked on the shape grammar roles, experimented tools and protocols of communication, analysed the best practice in this field and defined evaluation systems.

  19. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    formation in vegetation, and collective behaviour in animal societies and evolutionary theory. .... able management tools to preserve our ecosystems. Be- low, I provide two examples, one from population biol- .... At smaller scales, behavioural ecologists might look at a flock of starlings to investigate their fascinating group.

  20. The role of behavioural heterogeneity on infection patterns: implications for pathogen transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizney, Laurie; Dearing, M Denise

    2013-11-01

    Animals infected with pathogens often differ in behaviour from their uninfected counterparts, and these differences may be key to understanding zoonotic pathogen transmission. To explore behavioural heterogeneity and its role in pathogen transmission, we studied deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus , under field conditions. Deer mice are the natural host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a zoonotic pathogen with high human mortality. We live-trapped mice in May, July and September of 2009 and 2010, marked captures with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, recorded physical characteristics and collected blood samples for SNV analysis. For 4 nights after each trapping session, we observed behaviour with a novel surveillance system of nine camera stations, each consisting of a foraging tray, infrared camera, PIT antenna and data logger. We found that deer mice infected with SNV (30.0%) engaged more frequently in behaviours that increased the probability of intraspecific encounters and SNV transmission than did uninfected deer mice. When deer mice were categorized as bold (31.7%) or shy (68.3%) based on these behaviours, bold behaviour was predictive of positive SNV status. Bold deer mice were three times more likely to be infected with SNV than were shy deer mice. These results suggest that a small percentage of bold individuals are responsible for a majority of SNV transmission events, and that behavioural phenotype is an important consideration in transmission dynamics of zoonotic diseases.

  1. Creep behaviour of flexible adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Botter, E.; Berg, A. van den; Beers, P. van

    2004-01-01

    Since flexible adhesives are used more and more in structural applications, designers should have a better understanding of its behaviour under various conditions as ultimate load, fatigue load, long-term load and environmental conditions. This paper focuses on long-term load conditions and its

  2. Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian R.; Dickins, Thomas E.; Sear, Rebecca; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Human beings persist in an extraordinary range of ecological settings, in the process exhibiting enormous behavioural diversity, both within and between populations. People vary in their social, mating and parental behaviour and have diverse and elaborate beliefs, traditions, norms and institutions. The aim of this theme issue is to ask whether, and how, evolutionary theory can help us to understand this diversity. In this introductory article, we provide a background to the debate surrounding how best to understand behavioural diversity using evolutionary models of human behaviour. In particular, we examine how diversity has been viewed by the main subdisciplines within the human evolutionary behavioural sciences, focusing in particular on the human behavioural ecology, evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution approaches. In addition to differences in focus and methodology, these subdisciplines have traditionally varied in the emphasis placed on human universals, ecological factors and socially learned behaviour, and on how they have addressed the issue of genetic variation. We reaffirm that evolutionary theory provides an essential framework for understanding behavioural diversity within and between human populations, but argue that greater integration between the subfields is critical to developing a satisfactory understanding of diversity. PMID:21199836

  3. The Limitations of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on two mainstream therapeutic approaches towards persons with borderline personality disorder, in which suicidal behaviour is a prominent feature demanding understanding and active attention. It is argued that dialectical behaviour therapy and psychoanalytically informed therapies are lacking on two ...

  4. Vulnerability to burnout within the nursing workforce-The role of personality and interpersonal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuens, Nina; Van Bogaert, Peter; Franck, Erik

    2017-12-01

    To study the combination of personality and interpersonal behaviour of staff nurses in general hospitals in relation to burnout and its separate dimensions. More research on the individual factors contributing to the development of burnout is needed to improve the risk profile of nursing staff. Therefore, a combination of Leary's interpersonal circumplex model, which depicts the interpersonal behaviour trait domain, and the five-factor model was considered in the study at hand. A cross-sectional research method was applied using self-report questionnaires. A total of 880 Belgian general hospital nurses were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected from November 2012-July 2013. The questionnaire consisted of three validated self-report instruments: the NEO five-factor inventory, the Dutch Interpersonal Behaviour Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Of the 880 nurses invited to participate, 587 (67%) returned the questionnaire. Sex, neuroticism, submissive-friendly behaviour, dominant-friendly behaviour and vector length were found to be predictive factors for emotional exhaustion. For depersonalisation, sex, neuroticism, conscientiousness, friendly behaviour, submissive-friendly behaviour, dominant-hostile behaviour and vector length were predictive factors. Finally, personal accomplishment was determined by neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, and hostile behaviour. This study confirmed the influence of the Big Five personality factors on the separate dimensions of burnout. Interpersonal behaviour made a significant contribution to the predictive capacity of the regression models of all three dimensions of burnout. Additional longitudinal research is required to confirm the causal relationship between these individual factors and burnout. The results of this study can help to achieve a better understanding of which vulnerabilities an individual prevention programme for burnout should target. In addition, hospitals could use assessment

  5. Public understanding of sustainable tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, G; Rathouse, K; Scarles, C; Holmes, K; Tribe, J

    2010-01-01

    If tourism is to become part of a more sustainable lifestyle, changes are needed to the patterns of behaviour adopted by the public. This paper presents the results of research conducted amongst members of the public in England on their understanding of sustainable tourism; their response to four desired tourism behaviour goals, and expectations about the role of government and the tourism industry in encouraging sustainable tourism. The research shows a lack of awareness of tourism’s impact ...

  6. Experimental study of the behavioural mechanisms underlying self-organization in human crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Helbing, Dirk; Garnier, Simon; Johansson, Anders; Combe, Maud; Theraulaz, Guy

    2009-08-07

    In animal societies as well as in human crowds, many observed collective behaviours result from self-organized processes based on local interactions among individuals. However, models of crowd dynamics are still lacking a systematic individual-level experimental verification, and the local mechanisms underlying the formation of collective patterns are not yet known in detail. We have conducted a set of well-controlled experiments with pedestrians performing simple avoidance tasks in order to determine the laws ruling their behaviour during interactions. The analysis of the large trajectory dataset was used to compute a behavioural map that describes the average change of the direction and speed of a pedestrian for various interaction distances and angles. The experimental results reveal features of the decision process when pedestrians choose the side on which they evade, and show a side preference that is amplified by mutual interactions. The predictions of a binary interaction model based on the above findings were then compared with bidirectional flows of people recorded in a crowded street. Simulations generate two asymmetric lanes with opposite directions of motion, in quantitative agreement with our empirical observations. The knowledge of pedestrian behavioural laws is an important step ahead in the understanding of the underlying dynamics of crowd behaviour and allows for reliable predictions of collective pedestrian movements under natural conditions.

  7. The transtheoretical model and strategies of European fitness professionals to support clients in changing health-related behaviour: A survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) is often used to understand and predict changes in health related behaviour, for example exercise behaviour and eating behaviour. Fitness professionals like personal trainers typically service and support clients in improving

  8. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  9. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Health-care-seeking behaviour among university students in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kahi, H A; Abi Rizk, G Y; Hlais, S A; Adib, S M

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the health-care-seeking behaviour, barriers to accessing care and associated factors among a sample of 543 Lebanese students at Saint-Joseph University. Data were collected on health-care-seeking behaviour for health issues in the previous 12 months using an anonymous questionnaire. Health-care-seeking behaviour was categorized as: formal (professional help sought); informal relational (help sought from friends/family); informal personal (self-help). The health issues examined were: physical, psychological, social and relational, sexual, drug, alcohol and smoking. When facing health-related issues, the students tended to seek informal health care. Formal health-care-seeking behaviour was almost non-existent for psychological issues (3.3%), relational and social issues (1.8%), and issues related to substance use (5.1%). The barriers to seeking formal health care fell into 2 categories: accessibility and relational. To encourage young people to access formal health care, specific health services should be provided for them where they are assured of confidentiality and understanding.

  11. Practitioners Recycling Attitude and Behaviour in the Australian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian W. Y. Tam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction waste management and recycling is widely discussed. However, at present there is still a significant amount of waste generated during the construction process. Considering this fact, this research aims to analyse the recycling attitudes and behaviours in the Australian construction industry. This paper investigates attitudes and behaviour towards recycling habits in construction; understands how recycling is viewed and carried out by practitioners in the industry; explains the causes of these states of mind; and formulates techniques that could be utilized to improve waste management and recycling acceptance within the industry and improve its effectiveness. Initially, the required data was collected through a questionnaire survey. Afterwards, a statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software. It was found that the practitioners’ attitude towards recycling habits are positive; however, their behaviour is not as strong as it should be. This means that the industry is aware and concerned about recycling in construction and willing to improve the environment by developing recycling habits. Recommendations to improve attitudes and behaviour towards recycling habits are also suggested, such as legislation and market driven developments, improvements of waste management methods, provisions in work method statements, sharing research and applications in sub-industries and developing communication.

  12. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 6, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving: Deliverable 6.3: Report on small scale naturalistic driving pilot.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgerstorfer, M. Runda, K. Brandstätter, C. Christoph, M. Hakkert, S. Ishaq, R. Toledo, T. & Gatscha, M.

    2012-01-01

    WP6 of DaCoTA, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving, aims to develop an implementation plan for a large scale activity that uses Naturalistic Driving (ND) Observations to continuously monitor relevant road safety data within the framework of the European Road Safety Observatory.

  13. Requisite leader behavioural competencies for sustainable organisational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Grobler

    2016-08-01

    Contribution: Organisations can benefit from an insight into understanding how the identified requisite leader behavioural competencies possibly can impact organisational performance in their respective environments.

  14. Physiological mechanisms underlying animal social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Krause, Jens

    2017-08-19

    Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes. Environmental impacts such as hypoxia can influence maximum group sizes and structure in fish schools by altering access to oxygenated water. The nutritional environment determines group cohesion, and the increase in information collected by the group means that individuals should rely more on social information and form more cohesive groups in uncertain environments. Changing environmental contexts require rapid responses by individuals to maintain group coordination, which are mediated by neuroendocrine signalling systems such as nonapeptides and steroid hormones. Brain processing capacity may constrain social complexity by limiting information processing. Failure to evaluate socially relevant information correctly limits social interactions, which is seen, for example, in autism. Hence, functioning of a group relies to a large extent on the perception and appropriate processing of signals from conspecifics. Many if not all physiological systems are mechanistically linked, and therefore have synergistic effects on social behaviour. A challenge for the future lies in understanding these interactive effects, which will improve understanding of group dynamics, particularly in changing environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Can the collective intentions of individual professionals within healthcare teams predict the team's performance: developing methods and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Marije

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within implementation research, using theory-based approaches to understanding the behaviours of healthcare professionals and the quality of care that they reflect and designing interventions to change them is being promoted. However, such approaches lead to a new range of methodological and theoretical challenges pre-eminent among which are how to appropriately relate predictors of individual's behaviour to measures of the behaviour of healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the theory of planned behaviour proximal predictors of behaviour (intention and perceived behavioural control, or PBC and practice level behaviour. This was done in the context of two clinical behaviours – statin prescription and foot examination – in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus in primary care. Scores for the predictor variables were aggregated over healthcare professionals using four methods: simple mean of all primary care team members' intention scores; highest intention score combined with PBC of the highest intender in the team; highest intention score combined with the highest PBC score in the team; the scores (on both constructs of the team member identified as having primary responsibility for the clinical behaviour. Methods Scores on theory-based cognitive variables were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a sample of primary care doctors and nurses from northeast England and the Netherlands. Data on two clinical behaviours were patient reported, and collected by postal questionnaire survey. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of various aggregations of intention and PBC in explaining variance in the behavioural data. Results Across the two countries and two behaviours, responses were received from 37 to 78% of healthcare professionals in 57 to 93% practices; 51% (UK and 69% (Netherlands of patients surveyed responded. None of the aggregations of

  16. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  17. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain.

  18. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-07-28

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  19. Comparing Millennials With Their Predecessors Regarding Online Travel Behaviours: A Logistical Regression Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Suzanne; Henriques, Carla; Duarte, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Millennials, also known as Generation Y, are characterized by their use of technology, which is an integral part of their lives. Research has shown that they are different from earlier generations regarding their behaviours and attitudes. This article investigates and compares the behavior of Millennials with those of previous generations using data collected among 1,732 Worldwide Internet users. In order to understand what differentiates Millennials, this study considers several characterist...

  20. Improving privacy protection in the area of behavioural targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis discusses how European law could improve privacy protection in the area of behavioural targeting. Behavioural targeting, also referred to as online profiling, involves monitoring people’s online behaviour, and using the collected information to show people individually targeted

  1. Understanding bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa J

    2007-09-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and related eating disorders such as binge eating disorder are common. General practitioners can play a key role in the identification and management of BN and related eating disorders. This article describes the presenting and associated features of BN and overviews evidence based treatment approaches. Key features are recurrent episodes of binge eating, extreme weight control behaviours and over concern about weight and shape issues. By definition people are not underweight. Risk factors include being from a western culture, obesity, exposure to a restrictive dieting environment and low self esteem. People are more likely to present asking for help in weight control or a physical problem secondary to the eating disorder. Evidenced based therapies with good outcomes in current use are cognitive behaviour therapy (in full or guided self help forms), high dose fluoxetine, and interpersonal psychotherapy. It is important to convey optimism about treatment efficacy and outcomes.

  2. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. ► We merge attitude–behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. ► Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. ► Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. ► Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude–behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz’s altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals’ engagement in future policies.

  3. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: a.bortoleto@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  4. Expression of behaviour and psychoactive drugs in the rat EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, Hester van

    2004-01-01

    Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to

  5. Expression of behaviour and psychoactive Drugs in the Rat EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, H. van

    2004-01-01

    Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to

  6. Discourses on Behaviour: A Role for Restorative Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Victoria L.; Corcoran, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The description and management of difficult behaviour in schools has interested educational practitioners and researchers worldwide, including in the UK. Concerns have been raised about the use and implications of more dominant discourses, namely those of behaviourism and zero tolerance, for understanding student behaviour. This article presents…

  7. Gender and Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender ...

  8. Sensing behaviour in healthcare design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Hysse Forchhammer, Birgitte; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    We are entering an era of distributed healthcare that should fit and respond to individual needs, behaviour and lifestyles. Designing such systems is a challenging task that requires continuous information about human behaviour on a large scale, for which pervasive sensing (e.g. using smartphones...... and wearables) presents exciting opportunities. While mobile sensing approaches are fuelling research in many areas, their use in engineering design remains limited. In this work, we present a collection of common behavioural measures from literature that can be used for a broad range of applications. We focus...... specifically on activity and location data that can easily be obtained from smartphones or wearables. We further demonstrate how these are applied in healthcare design using an example from dementia care. Comparing a current and proposed scenario exemplifies how integrating sensor-derived information about...

  9. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...

  10. Spatial behaviour in Dutch dwelling areas : How housing layouts affects the behaviour of its users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.; Rueb, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to show how the spatial layout of neighbourhoods affect the behaviour of its dwellers. An area's social and spatial composition influences anti-social behaviour in built environments. However, social conditions can overrule spatial ones. A more adequate understanding

  11. Antennae hold a key to Varroa-sensitive hygiene behaviour in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, Fanny; Alaux, Cédric; Severac, Dany; Rohmer, Marine; Mercer, Alison R; Le Conte, Yves

    2015-05-22

    In honey bees, Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) behaviour, which involves the detection and removal of brood parasitised by the mite Varroa destructor, can actively participate in the survival of colonies facing Varroa outbreaks. This study investigated the mechanisms of VSH behaviour, by comparing the antennal transcriptomes of bees that do and do not perform VSH behaviour. Results indicate that antennae likely play a key role in the expression of VSH behaviour. Comparisons with the antennal transcriptome of nurse and forager bees suggest that VSH profile is more similar to that of nurse bees than foragers. Enhanced detection of certain odorants in VSH bees may be predicted from transcriptional patterns, as well as a higher metabolism and antennal motor activity. Interestingly, Deformed wing virus/Varroa destructor virus infections were detected in the antennae, with higher level in non-VSH bees; a putative negative impact of viral infection on bees' ability to display VSH behaviour is proposed. These results bring new perspectives to the understanding of VSH behaviour and the evolution of collective defence by focusing attention on the importance of the peripheral nervous system. In addition, such data might be useful for promoting marker-assisted selection of honey bees that can survive Varroa infestations.

  12. Antennae hold a key to Varroa-sensitive hygiene behaviour in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, Fanny; Alaux, Cédric; Severac, Dany; Rohmer, Marine; Mercer, Alison R.; Le Conte, Yves

    2015-01-01

    In honey bees, Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) behaviour, which involves the detection and removal of brood parasitised by the mite Varroa destructor, can actively participate in the survival of colonies facing Varroa outbreaks. This study investigated the mechanisms of VSH behaviour, by comparing the antennal transcriptomes of bees that do and do not perform VSH behaviour. Results indicate that antennae likely play a key role in the expression of VSH behaviour. Comparisons with the antennal transcriptome of nurse and forager bees suggest that VSH profile is more similar to that of nurse bees than foragers. Enhanced detection of certain odorants in VSH bees may be predicted from transcriptional patterns, as well as a higher metabolism and antennal motor activity. Interestingly, Deformed wing virus/Varroa destructor virus infections were detected in the antennae, with higher level in non-VSH bees; a putative negative impact of viral infection on bees’ ability to display VSH behaviour is proposed. These results bring new perspectives to the understanding of VSH behaviour and the evolution of collective defence by focusing attention on the importance of the peripheral nervous system. In addition, such data might be useful for promoting marker-assisted selection of honey bees that can survive Varroa infestations. PMID:26000641

  13. A STUDY OF THE CHANGING CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANISED RETAILING IN LUCKNOW CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Zubair Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    The major factor of consumer behaviour in organised retailing is the changing buying behaviour. Various management thinkers have conducted several studies to understand the relationship of buying behaviour and organised retailing. Consumer behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. (L.G. Schiffman, L.L. Kanuk, 2005). Consumer buying behaviour ...

  14. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  15. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  16. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudet, H; Ardoin, NM; Flora, J; Armel, KC; Desai, M; Robinson, TN

    2014-10-01

    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls' choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining the construct validity of the positive coping behavioural inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Positive coping strengths are important personal resources in helping employees deal constructively with the complex interaction between the individual and the environment. Research purpose: The present study examined the usefulness and validity of the factor structure of the positive coping behavioural inventory (PCBI with the view to further refine the scale and increase its usefulness and application value in the South African workplace.Motivation for the study: Valid and reliable multidimensional measures of positive psychological constructs are considered important in understanding the array of personal resources that help employees cope constructively with work–life stressors in today’s fastpaced and more turbulent work environment.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect primary data from a sample of (N = 525 male and female employees from white and black ethnicity origin in the services industry. The participants’ self-evaluations of their positive coping behaviour were measured by means of the PCBI. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the construct validity of the PCBI.Main findings: The convergent validity and internal consistency reliability of the PCBI as a measure of three higher-order dimensions of positive coping behaviour (inventive, engaging and intentional coping behaviours were demonstrated in this study.Practical and managerial implications: Researchers may confidently use the three-factor solution of the PCBI to measure employees’ self-evaluations of their capacity to demonstrate positive coping behaviour in the workplace.Contribution and value-add: This study contributed to the emerging body of knowledge on the assessment of positive psychology constructs that contribute to employees’ well-being and flourishing in the South African workplace. The results provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of the PCBI as a valid and

  18. Examining the construct validity of the positive coping behavioural inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2017-09-01

      Research purpose: The present study examined the usefulness and validity of the factor structure of the positive coping behavioural inventory (PCBI with the view to further refine the scale and increase its usefulness and application value in the South African workplace. Motivation for the study: Valid and reliable multidimensional measures of positive psychological constructs are considered important in understanding the array of personal resources that help employees cope constructively with work–life stressors in today’s fastpaced and more turbulent work environment. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect primary data from a sample of (N = 525 male and female employees from white and black ethnicity origin in the services industry. The participants’ self-evaluations of their positive coping behaviour were measured by means of the PCBI. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the construct validity of the PCBI. Main findings: The convergent validity and internal consistency reliability of the PCBI as a measure of three higher-order dimensions of positive coping behaviour (inventive, engaging and intentional coping behaviours were demonstrated in this study. Practical and managerial implications: Researchers may confidently use the three-factor solution of the PCBI to measure employees’ self-evaluations of their capacity to demonstrate positive coping behaviour in the workplace. Contribution and value-add: This study contributed to the emerging body of knowledge on the assessment of positive psychology constructs that contribute to employees’ well-being and flourishing in the South African workplace. The results provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of the PCBI as a valid and reliable multidimensional measure that integrates a wide array of positive psychology attributes in a single measure.

  19. Food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Charbonnier, L.; Meer, van der F.; Laan, van der L.N.; Spetter, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The brain governs food intake behaviour by integrating many different internal and external state and trait-related signals. Understanding how the decisions to start and to stop eating are made is crucial to our understanding of (maladaptive patterns of) eating behaviour. Here, we aim to (1) review

  20. Information Need and Seeking Behaviour of Diploma Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding information need and seeking behaviour of information users is very crucial. The nature of information behaviour is vigorous thus, information scientist and librarians need to embark on investigation in order to understand the need of their clientele for service provision and improvement. This paper presented ...

  1. Predictors of Internet Use for the Professional Development of Teachers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Kamile

    2010-01-01

    This study examined teachers' internet use behaviour for professional development using the theory of planned behaviour. Data for this study were collected via a survey of 221 teachers who completed self-reported measures of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention, and behaviour. The planned behaviour model was…

  2. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  3. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  4. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  5. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  6. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  7. Hubs and spokes of the lateral hypothalamus: cell types, circuits and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnavion, Patricia; Mickelsen, Laura E.; Fujita, Akie; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hypothalamus is among the most phylogenetically conserved regions in the vertebrate brain, reflecting its critical role in maintaining physiological and behavioural homeostasis. By integrating signals arising from both the brain and periphery, it governs a litany of behaviourally important functions essential for survival. In particular, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is central to the orchestration of sleep–wake states, feeding, energy balance and motivated behaviour. Underlying these diverse functions is a heterogeneous assembly of cell populations typically defined by neurochemical markers, such as the well‐described neuropeptides hypocretin/orexin and melanin‐concentrating hormone. However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests a rich diversity of other cell populations with complex neurochemical profiles that include neuropeptides, receptors and components of fast neurotransmission. Collectively, the LHA acts as a hub for the integration of diverse central and peripheral signals and, through complex local and long‐range output circuits, coordinates adaptive behavioural responses to the environment. Despite tremendous progress in our understanding of the LHA, defining the identity of functionally discrete LHA cell types, and their roles in driving complex behaviour, remain significant challenges in the field. In this review, we discuss advances in our understanding of the neurochemical and cellular heterogeneity of LHA neurons and the recent application of powerful new techniques, such as opto‐ and chemogenetics, in defining the role of LHA circuits in feeding, reward, arousal and stress. From pioneering work to recent developments, we review how the interrogation of LHA cells and circuits is contributing to a mechanistic understanding of how the LHA coordinates complex behaviour. PMID:27302606

  8. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour—electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls’ choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. - Highlights: • We surveyed 323 fourth and fifth grade Girl Scouts and parents about energy behaviours. • We asked about electricity, transportation and food behaviour and its correlates. • Girls’ electricity behaviours are linked to intrapersonal and interpersonal influences. • Girls’ transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. • Girls’ food behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled

  9. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour....

  10. From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Patricia H.; Tye, Kay M.

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of behaviours requires the study of distinct amygdala circuits. PMID:25592533

  11. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    range of stress and temperature. The application of these maps to particulate compaction is reviewed and recommendations are made for their utilization to assess the long-term mechanical performance of the waste container. To obtain some empirical evidence over very long timescales (measured in millions of years), we have examined the geological literature. This includes specific information on the compaction of quartz sand, together with related data on creep deformation in monolithic quartzite rocks. Based on current understanding of creep mechanisms, availability of experimental measurements and long-term inference from geological phenomena, it would appear that time-dependent compaction of quartz-like particulates at 100 deg C occurs very slowly. Recommendations for quantifying the collective mechanical behaviour of the particulate, and relating this to the expected lifetime of the waste container, are presented. (author)

  12. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    1998-01-01

    and temperature. The application of these maps to particulate compaction is reviewed and recommendations are made for their utilization to assess the long-term mechanical performance of the waste container. To obtain some empirical evidence over very long timescales (measured in millions of years), we have examined the geological literature. This includes specific information on the compaction of quartz sand, together with related data on creep deformation in monolithic quartzite rocks. Based on current understanding of creep mechanisms, availability of experimental measurements and long-term inference from geological phenomena, it would appear that time-dependent compaction of quartz-like particulates at 100 deg C occurs very slowly. Recommendations for quantifying the collective mechanical behaviour of the particulate, and relating this to the expected lifetime of the waste container, are presented. (author)

  13. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  14. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  15. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  16. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  17. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  18. Understanding the Mechanisms behind Changing People’s Recycling Behavior at Work by Applying a Comprehensive Action Determination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Prugsamatz Ofstad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study moves toward a better understanding of the mechanisms behind changing people’s recycling behavior at work by mapping out which pathways and variables change in recycling behavior as triggered by interventions. A questionnaire was designed based on the theory of planned behaviour, the norm-activation model, habits, and a comprehensive action determination model (CADM. The data was collected in two rounds: before the intervention and after a three-month pilot period with implemented interventions using a sample of n = 1269 students and employees. The CADM model appears to be a good fit with the data. The results from the structural equation modelling indicate the pathways to influencing behavioural change. The most important psychological variables accounting for waste separation behaviour are intentions, perceived behavioural control, personal norms, social norms and habits. No difference in waste separation behaviour was observed in the control building. Interventions targeting the increase in waste separation raised participants’ intentions to engage in such behaviour. Results indicate that waste separation at work must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success. Furthermore, understanding human behavior is key in determining the performance and success of an integrated and effective recycling intervention strategy.

  19. "What do You Mean I've Got to Wait for Six Weeks?!" Understanding the Sexual Behaviour of Men and Their Female Partners after Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoesrie Toefy

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in heterosexual men by up to 60%. However, there is an increased risk of transmission of STIs, including HIV, in the immediate post-operative period after receiving VMMC. This study is to understand sexual practices of couples in the post-operative period in a Coloured population in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.Coloured Males who had undergone VMMC in the previous six months in the Cape Town area and their partners participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions. The groups explored why the men decided to undergo VMMC, what kind of counselling they received, and how they experienced the 6-week post-operative period, including sexually.The primary motivation to VMMC uptake included religious injunction and hygiene reasons and protection against sexually transmitted infections not necessarily HIV. There was some exploration of alternative sexual practices. During the period immediately post operation the respondents spoke of pain and fear of any sexual arousal, but towards the end of the six week period, sexual desire returned. Both men and women felt that sex was important to maintain the relationship. Gaps were identified in the pre- and post-MC procedure counselling.There is a real risk that men in this population may begin sex before complete healing has occurred. VMMC counselling to encourage men to stay sexually safe in the wound-healing period, needs to take into account the real-life factors of the circumcised men. It is essential from a public health, and gender perspective that effective counselling strategies for the VMMC post-operative period, and the longer term, are developed and tested.

  20. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  1. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  2. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  3. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  4. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  5. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  6. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  7. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  8. Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  9. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  10. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  12. Behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Piasecki

    2013-01-01

    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  13. Colony-level behavioural variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-11-01

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and has significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behaviour at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behaviour. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioural variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging vs. working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behaviour. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioural variation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Networks and centroid metrics for understanding football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonçalo Dias

    ABSTRACT. This study aimed to verify the network of contacts resulting from the collective behaviour of professional football teams through the centroid method and networks as well, thereby providing detailed information about the match to coaches and sport analysts. For this purpose, 999 collective attacking actions from ...

  15. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Gergely; Mészáros, Boglárka; Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body con...

  16. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  17. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  18. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  19. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume 1 Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology are demanding ever-increasing mastery over the materials being used: the challenge is to gain a better understanding of their behaviour, and more particularly of the relations between their microstructure and their macroscopic properties.   This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour.   As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and the...

  20. Why is changing health-related behaviour so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P; Barker, Mary

    2016-07-01

    To demonstrate that six common errors made in attempts to change behaviour have prevented the implementation of the scientific evidence base derived from psychology and sociology; to suggest a new approach which incorporates recent developments in the behavioural sciences. The role of health behaviours in the origin of the current epidemic of non-communicable disease is observed to have driven attempts to change behaviour. It is noted that most efforts to change health behaviours have had limited success. This paper suggests that in policy-making, discussions about behaviour change are subject to six common errors and that these errors have made the business of health-related behaviour change much more difficult than it needs to be. Overview of policy and practice attempts to change health-related behaviour. The reasons why knowledge and learning about behaviour have made so little progress in alcohol, dietary and physical inactivity-related disease prevention are considered, and an alternative way of thinking about the behaviours involved is suggested. This model harnesses recent developments in the behavioural sciences. It is important to understand the conditions preceding behaviour psychologically and sociologically and to combine psychological ideas about the automatic and reflective systems with sociological ideas about social practice. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Collecting a citizen's digital footprint for health data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Oguzhan; Simila, Heidi; Honko, Harri; Isomursu, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a case study for collecting digital footprint data for the purpose of health data mining. The case study involved 20 subjects residing in Finland who were instructed to collect data from registries which they evaluated to be useful for understanding their health or health behaviour, current or past. 11 subjects were active, sending 100 data requests to 49 distinct organizations in total. Our results indicate that there are still practical challenges in collecting actionable digital footprint data. Our subjects received a total of 75 replies (reply rate of 75.0%) and 61 datasets (reception rate of 61%). Out of the received data, 44 datasets (72.1%) were delivered in paper format, 4 (6.6%) in portable document format and 13 (21.3%) in structured digital form. The time duration between the sending of the information requests and reception of a reply was 26.4 days on the average.

  2. A novel integrative method for analyzing eye and hand behaviour during reaching and grasping in an MRI environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jane M; Abhari, Kamyar; Prime, Steven L; Meek, Benjamin P; Desanghere, Loni; Baugh, Lee A; Marotta, Jonathan J

    2011-06-01

    The development of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, has rapidly advanced our understanding of the neural systems underlying the integration of visual and motor information. However, the fMRI experimental design is restricted by several environmental elements, such as the presence of the magnetic field and the restricted view of the participant, making it difficult to monitor and measure behaviour. The present article describes a novel, specialized software package developed in our laboratory called Biometric Integration Recording and Analysis (BIRA). BIRA integrates video with kinematic data derived from the hand and eye, acquired using MRI-compatible equipment. The present article demonstrates the acquisition and analysis of eye and hand data using BIRA in a mock (0 Tesla) scanner. A method for collecting and integrating gaze and kinematic data in fMRI studies on visuomotor behaviour has several advantages: Specifically, it will allow for more sophisticated, behaviourally driven analyses and eliminate potential confounds of gaze or kinematic data.

  3. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  4. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  5. Reciprocal relationships between behaviour and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Snider, Matthew H

    2016-05-25

    Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioural and life-history variation among hosts. Although it is well known that host behaviour can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behaviour, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behaviour on parasites and parasites on behaviour to understand whether behaviour-parasite feedback could play a role in maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour. Adult male gazelles either defend territories to attract mates or reside in bachelor groups. Territoriality is highly variable both within- and between-individuals, suggesting that territory maintenance is costly. Using a combination of longitudinal and experimental studies, we found that individual males transition frequently between territorial and bachelor reproductive status, and that elevated parasite burdens are a cost of territoriality. Moreover, among territorial males, parasites suppress aspects of behaviour related to territory maintenance and defence. These results suggest that territorial behaviour promotes the accumulation of parasites in males, and these parasites dampen the very behaviours required for territory maintenance. Our findings suggest that reciprocal feedback between host behaviour and parasitism could be a mechanism maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour in the system. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. A STUDY ON IMPULSIVE CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND ITS DETERMINANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. V. Seetha; J. Suganya

    2017-01-01

    Impulse buying is an emerging phenomenon, which has been the focus of the retailers to attract the customers. Impulse behaviour is the outcome of emotional reactions that generate unpredicted urge to buy. Consumer behaviour is nowadays gaining much importance for retailers. Due to expansion of organized retail in India, retailers are trying to understand the behaviour of consumers that what product the consumer seeks for, why they need a particular product, when they need it and how they are...

  7. Workplace Waste Recycling Behaviour: A Meta-Analytical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Adekunle

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase waste recycling, many studies have been conducted to understand factors that may influence waste recycling behaviour. However, these studies have focused on household contexts rather than other waste generation contexts. As a result, this paper seeks to provide a detailed analysis of previous studies on workplace waste recycling behaviour. Drawing from different databases, 51 relevant studies on workplace waste recycling attitudes and behaviour were meta-analysed. Finding...

  8. Does dependency make a difference? The role of convenience, social influence, facilitating condition and self-efficacy on student's purchase behaviour of smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Mathivannan; Mustapa, Azrain Nasyrah; Hasan, Wan Azlina Wan; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik; Alekam, Jamal Mohammed Esmail

    2014-12-01

    It is an undeniable fact that penetration level and usage and sales of Smartphone dramatically increased past few years, whereby; it has increased to almost 60 percent of total population. Despite the high penetration of smartphone, previous studies have exhibited inconsistent findings towards understanding the behavioural intention to use smartphone especially among university students. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine purchasing behaviour of Smartphone among students. From the literature, five antecedents of purchasing behaviour were identified. Each variable is measured using 7-point Likert scale: convenience (10 items), social influence (6 items), self-efficacy (10 items), facilitating condition (11 items), dependency (14 items) and purchasing behaviour (4 items). Using the primary data collection method, 400 questionnaires were distributed to the target respondents of one of the public higher education in the northern region. The responses collected were 350 completed questionnaires representing 87.5 percent response rate. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS. Confirmatory factor analysis of measurement models indicates adequate goodness or fit after few items were eliminated through modification indices verifications. Therefore, goodness of fit for the generated structural model shows the adequate fit. This study has established four direct significant causal effects and two significant mediating effects: (1) convenience and dependency, (2) social influence and dependency, (3) facilitating condition and purchase behaviour, (4), dependency and purchase behaviour. The significant mediating results are: (1). Dependency mediates the relationship between convenience and purchase behaviour; (2) dependency mediates social influence and purchase behaviour. Thus, findings suggested that convenience, social influence and dependency play a role in determining students purchase behaviour of smartphone. The researchers

  9. Philanthropic behaviour and motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hyánek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though philanthropy tends to be considered a sociological theme rather than an economic one, it poses a number of questions that challenge economists as well. We chose to address the following: How can economists contribute to the theories related to philanthropy? We examine some terms that are used in public economics theory and use them to explore the issues of philanthropy like Samaritan’s Dilemma, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, and the Free-Rider Problem, which we consider to be interesting and inspiring (Stone, 2008. We have to find and identify the social values of donors and volunteers rather than their economic values, because economists are not fully able to explain empathy, altruism, and helpful behaviour using traditional economic principles (Rutherford, 2008. The theoretical frame is supported by relevant empirical data. Before starting a large-scale survey, we decided to conduct smaller pre-research probes into people’s attitudes towards altruism, philanthropy, and giving. Even though our sample was not fully representative, the responses that we collected generated interesting findings about people’s views and attitudes. The first wave of data was collected between February and April 2009; the second wave between February and April 2010.Because of this pilot research mission and because of the budget restriction too, the non-representative sample of 823 respondents has been used; students of our Public Economics study programme were used as interviewers. They have also obtained a proper training of the professional sociologist. Students utilized the face to face interviewing method; non-standardized questions were immediately recorded into the reply form. Questions were divided into three groups with typical characteristics. The first one focuses on personal (individual motives for financial donating (only financial gifts for non-profit organizations. Second part examines the attitudes of individual towards the non

  10. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  11. Behavioural Hybrid Process Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in

  12. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  13. Risk Sexual Behaviour?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    lead to an increase in population-wide high-risk sexual behaviour (either because HIV transmission appears to be ... countries reported an increase in high-risk sexual behaviour amongst men who have sex with men ... government and resulted in a fall in the annual number of HIV incidence and a drop in HIV prevalence ...

  14. Image Understanding Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-31

    Numerlues en Sciences Physiques et Economiques , Collection Methode Mathematiques de l’Informatique, Dunod, 1976. 47 26. P. Saint-Pierre, "Etude Theorique et...overlap since adjacent linear features are being presented. References 1. S. Rubin, "The ARGOS Image Understanding System," Ph.D. thesis, Computer Science ...Techniques," TR 480, Computer Science Center, University of Maryland, September i979. 5. Davis, Larry S. and Azriel Rosenfeld, "Hierarchical Relaxation for

  15. Understanding of consumer behaviour as a prerequisite for environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Carl Folke; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    En del af de miljømæssige problemer, som truer vore omgivelser, er mere eller mindre forårsaget af forbrugernes livsstil. En mere miljøbevidst livsstil kan ikke opnås, uden der sker markante ændringer i forbrugernes indstilling og adfærd. For at nå frem til en syntese om, hvad man ved, og hvad de...

  16. Understanding MOOC Students: Motivations and Behaviours Indicative of MOOC Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursel, B. K.; Zhang, L.; Jablokow, K. W.; Choi, G. W.; Velegol, D.

    2016-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) continue to appear across the higher education landscape, originating from many institutions in the USA and around the world. MOOCs typically have low completion rates, at least when compared with traditional courses, as this course delivery model is very different from traditional, fee-based models, such as…

  17. Understanding residential water-use behaviour in urban South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s water supply is under great pressure as demand continues to rise. Demand mitigation strategies implemented by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), water boards and local authorities, and a few water awareness initiatives...

  18. Eliminating the empty bus syndrome by understanding dynamic travel behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter interrogates some empirical data to examine some of the contributory causes of EBS in South Africa, and uses the City of Johannesburg as a case study. The daily travel patterns of car users are analysed within the context of how bus...

  19. Understanding clusters of risk factors across different environmental and social contexts for the prediction of injuries among Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K; Davison, C; King, N; Pike, I; Pickett, W

    2016-05-01

    Among Canadian youth, injury is the most common reason for presentation to the emergency department. Youth who commonly engage in multiple risk-taking behaviours are at greater risk for injury, but is it unknown if this phenomenon is more pronounced in different contexts. We aimed to study relationships between risk-taking behaviours and injury, and variations in such relationships between different environmental and social contexts, among youth in Canada. Risk-taking behaviour and injury outcome data were collected from grade 9 to 10 students using the 2009-2010 (Cycle 6) of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey (n=10,429). Principal components analysis was used to identify clusters of risk-taking behaviours. Within each identified cluster, the degree of risk-taking was categorized into quartiles from lowest to highest engagement in the behaviours. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the association between the risk of any injury and the degree of risk-taking behaviour specific to the cluster. Clusters were then examined across home, school, neighbourhood and sport contexts. Four clusters of risk-taking behaviour were identified which were labelled as "gateway substance use", "hard drugs and weapons", "overt risk-taking", and "physical activity". Each cluster was related to injury occurrence in a graded fashion. Clusters of risk behaviour were most strongly associated with injuries sustained in neighbourhood settings, and expectedly, increasing physical activity behaviours were associated with increased risk of sport injuries and injuries occurring at school. This study furthers understanding of clustered risk-taking phenomena that put youth at increasing levels of injury risk. Higher risks for injury and associated gradients were observed in less structured contexts such as neighbourhoods. In contrast, clustered physical activity behaviours were most related to school injury or sport injury and were more likely to

  20. Collective dynamics of multicellular systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    simple model study reveals that cell–cell communication, system size and intrinsic cellular dynamics can lead to ... population/tissue interact, the ensemble can show a unified collective behaviour, which is not just a 'sum of the ..... Authors thank the anonymous referee for critical comments, and the Department of Science.

  1. Predicting healthy eating intention and adherence to dietary recommendations during pregnancy in Australia using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Lenka; Umberger, Wendy J; Makrides, Maria; ShaoJia, Zhou

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to aid in the development of more effective healthy eating intervention strategies for pregnant women by understanding the relationship between healthy eating intention and actual eating behaviour. Specifically, the study explored whether Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) constructs [attitude, subjective-norm, perceived-behavioural-control (PBC)] and additional psychosocial variables (perceived stress, health value and self-identity as a healthy eater) are useful in explaining variance in women's 1) intentions to consume a healthy diet during pregnancy and 2) food consumption behaviour (e.g. adherence to food group recommendations) during pregnancy. A cross-sectional sample of 455 Australian pregnant women completed a TPB questionnaire as part of a larger comprehensive web-based nutrition questionnaire. Women's perceived stress, health value and self-identity as a healthy eater were also measured. Dietary intake was assessed using six-items based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were estimated (significance level intention scores and 12% of the variance in adherence to food group recommendations. TPB constructs explained 66% of the total variance in healthy eating intention. Significant predictors of stronger healthy eating intention were greater PBC and subjective norm, followed by positive attitude and stronger self-identity as a healthy eater. Conversely, TPB constructs collectively explained only 3.4% of total variance in adherence to food group recommendations. These findings reveal that the TPB framework explains considerable variance in healthy eating intention during pregnancy, but explains little variance in actual food consumption behaviour. Further research is required to understand this weak relationship between healthy eating intention and behaviour during pregnancy. Alternative behavioural frameworks, particularly those that account for the automatic nature of most dietary

  2. Gendered socioeconomic conditions and HIV risk behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite this possibility, there are surprisingly few definitive studies that examine the effects of socioeconomic status on HIV risk and prevention behaviours among youth in South Africa. Using household survey data collected in 2001, this study investigates how socioeconomic disadvantage has influenced the sexual ...

  3. Consumer behaviour in the waiting area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, M.P.

    Objective of the study: To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. Method: The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each

  4. Psychological Determinants of Aggressive Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The instruments for data collection were aggressive behaviour scale (ABAS) and Psychological Assessment Scale (PAQ). The instruments were validated by experts in Educational Psychology, Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained for ABAS while reliability coefficients of 0.74, 0.85 ...

  5. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  6. 6. Sexual Behaviour and Reproductive Health Among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the sexual behaviour and reproductive health amongst female senior secondary school students. Methods: Using cross-sectional descriptive study 374 students were studied. Information was collected on their sexual behaviours, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), prevalence of ...

  7. Mothers and teenage daughters walking to health: using the behaviour change wheel to develop an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, E M; Barnes, A T; McMullen, J; Morgan, P J

    2018-03-12

    The majority of adolescent girls fail to meet public health guidelines for physical activity. Engaging mothers in the promotion of physical activity for their daughters may be an important strategy to facilitate behaviour change. The aim of this study was to use the behaviour change wheel (BCW) framework to design the components of an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity. Cross-sectional study to inform intervention development. The BCW framework was used to (1) understand the behaviour, (2) identify intervention functions and (3) select content and implementation options. A circular development process was undertaken by the research team to collectively design the intervention in accordance with the steps recommended by the BCW. The BCW design process resulted in the selection of six intervention functions (education, persuasion, incentivization, training, modelling, enablement) and 18 behaviour change techniques delivered via group-based, face-to-face mode. Behaviour change technique groupings include: goals and planning; feedback and monitoring; social support; shaping knowledge; natural consequences; comparison of behaviour; associations; comparison of outcomes; reward and threat; identity; and, self-belief. The BCW process allowed an in-depth consideration of the target behaviours and provided a systematic framework for developing the intervention. The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the programme will be examined. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  9. Environmental concern and environmentally responsible behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...

  10. Circadian rhythms: from genes to behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biology—ecological, behavioural, genetic, molecular, cellular, neuroendocrine and physiological, includ- ing studies of phenomena with obvious adaptive value such as photoperiodism, hibernation, and migration. Integrative studies on a few focal organisms provided us with a better understanding of molecular, cellular.

  11. Parental influence on consumer and purchase behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, limited research is available on direct role models' influence on the behaviour of young adults. The goal of this research was to utilise Social Cognitive Theory as a guide to understanding how direct role models, such as those of parents influence the consumer and the purchase behaviour of Generation Y (18-35 ...

  12. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV .... risky sexual behaviour of sex workers, adolescents and patients were ... consequences including loss of confidence in clinical abilities and mental health issues, which could affect patient care.16.

  13. Travel Behaviour of South African Tourism Students | Slabbert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When developing and managing tourism products, understanding the travel behaviour of niche markets, such as students can create a competitive advantage for tourism products. The purpose of this research was to determine the travel behaviour of tourism students in South Africa. Surveys were conducted at eight Tertiary ...

  14. Teachers' Perceptions of Disruptive Behaviour in Schools: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Poppy; Schlösser, Annette; Scarr, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into school teachers' perceptions of disruptive behaviour from a psychological perspective. The inter-disciplinary nature of this research bridges the understanding between educational and psychological perspectives on disruptive behaviour. This article discusses evidence that for the most troubled pupils,…

  15. Behavioural change as the core of warfighting : So now what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duistermaat, M.; Vliet, A.J. van; Boor, R.A.E. van der; Daalen, A.F. van

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on understanding human behaviour by providing an insight into its underlying mechanisms, and aims to widen the view on the military possibilities for achieving mission goals. The article intends to trigger a more behaviour-oriented view on military operations: how military

  16. Do socio-demographic factors influence the travel behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature-based tourism products in Africa, especially South Africa, are playing an important role in attracting visitors. It is therefore essential to understand travel behaviour and the factors influencing the behaviour of visitors, as such knowledge can influence future park visits, park development and target marketing strategies ...

  17. A Q Factor Analysis of College Undergraduate Students' Study Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Bliss, Leonard B.

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to better understand the study behaviours of undergraduate students by categorizing students into distinctive typologies based on their self-reported study behaviours through an exploratory approach--Q factor analysis. A sample of 152 undergraduate students completed a survey instrument, the Study Behavior Inventory. The Q…

  18. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the ...

  19. A process mining approach to analyse user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, Laura; Faber, Niels R.; Jorna, Rene J.; van Haren, Rob J. F.; Cordeiro, J; Filipe, J; Hammoudi, S

    2008-01-01

    Designing and personalising systems for specific user groups encompasses a lot of effort with respect to analysing and understanding user behaviour. The goal of our paper is to provide a new methodology for determining navigational patterns of behaviour of specific user groups. We consider

  20. The need for a behavioural analysis of behavioural addictions

    OpenAIRE

    James, Richard J.E.; Tunney, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript overviews the behavioural (i.e. associative learning, conditioning) research in behavioural addictions, with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual ...

  1. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  2. Attenuated behaviour in Cornelia de Lange and fragile X syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Oliver, C; Wittkowski, A; Moss, J; Hare, D

    2018-03-13

    Catatonia-like presentations in people with autism have been increasingly recognised within research and diagnostic guidelines. The recently developed Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire has identified that attenuated behaviour [autistic catatonia] is very prevalent in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and associated with repetitive behaviour. In the current study, we investigated attenuated behaviour within two genetic syndromes associated with ASD and examined ASD and repetitive behaviour as longitudinal predictors of attenuated behaviour. The Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire was completed by parents/carers of 33 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and 69 with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Information collected from the same informants 4 years previously was utilised to examine ASD and repetitive behaviour as predictors of later attenuated behaviour, controlling for age, gender and ability. Catatonia-like attenuated behaviour was reported for individuals with CdLS (30.3%) and FXS (11.6%). Slowed movement was more prevalent in people with CdLS. No other phenotypic differences were observed. Across the two groups, repetitive behaviour predicted the presence of attenuated behaviour 4 years later, after controlling for age, gender and ability. Attenuated behaviour can be identified in individuals with CdLS and FXS and may have an effect on both adaptive behaviour and quality of life. Repetitive behaviours predicted subsequent risk within both groups and should be assessed by services as part of a pro-active strategy of support. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disibilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Towards an integrated approach of pedestrian behaviour and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for the analysis of pedestrian behaviour and exposure is proposed, allowing to identify and quantify the effect of pedestrian behaviour, road and traffic characteristics on pedestrian risk exposure, for each pedestrian and for populations of pedestrians. The paper builds on existing research on pedestrian exposure, namely the Routledge microscopic indicator, proposes adjustments to take into account road, traffic and human factors and extends the use of this indicator on area-wide level. Moreover, this paper uses integrated choice and latent variables (ICLV) models of pedestrian behaviour, taking into account road, traffic and human factors. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the integrated estimation of pedestrian behaviour and exposure on the basis of road, traffic and human factors. The method is tested with data from a field survey in Athens, Greece, which used pedestrian behaviour observations as well as a questionnaire on human factors of pedestrian behaviour. The data were used (i) to develop ICLV models of pedestrian behaviour and (ii) to estimate the behaviour and exposure of pedestrians for different road, traffic and behavioural scenarios. The results suggest that both pedestrian behaviour and exposure are largely defined by a small number of factors: road type, traffic volume and pedestrian risk-taking. The probability for risk-taking behaviour and the related exposure decrease in less demanding road and traffic environments. A synthesis of the results allows to enhance the understanding of the interactions between behaviour and exposure of pedestrians and to identify conditions of increased risk exposure. These conditions include principal urban arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is low but the related exposure is very high) and minor arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is more frequent, and the related exposure is still high). A "paradox" of increased risk-taking behaviour of pedestrians with low

  4. Investigating behaviour and population dynamics of striped marlin (Kajikia audax from the southwest Pacific Ocean with satellite tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Sippel

    Full Text Available Behaviour and distribution of striped marlin within the southwest Pacific Ocean were investigated using electronic tagging data collected from 2005-2008. A continuous-time correlated random-walk Kalman filter was used to integrate double-tagging data exhibiting variable error structures into movement trajectories composed of regular time-steps. This state-space trajectory integration approach improved longitude and latitude error distributions by 38.5 km and 22.2 km respectively. Using these trajectories as inputs, a behavioural classification model was developed to infer when, and where, 'transiting' and 'area-restricted' (ARB pseudo-behavioural states occurred. ARB tended to occur at shallower depths (108 ± 49 m than did transiting behaviours (127 ± 57 m. A 16 day post-release period of diminished ARB activity suggests that patterns of behaviour were affected by the capture and/or tagging events, implying that tagged animals may exhibit atypical behaviour upon release. The striped marlin in this study dove deeper and spent greater time at ≥ 200 m depth than those in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. As marlin reached tropical latitudes (20-21 °S they consistently reversed directions, increased swimming speed and shifted to transiting behaviour. Reversals in the tropics also coincided with increases in swimming depth, including increased time ≥ 250 m. Our research provides enhanced understanding of the behavioural ecology of striped marlin. This has implications for the effectiveness of spatially explicit population models and we demonstrate the need to consider geographic variation when standardizing CPUE by depth, and provide data to inform natural and recreational fishing mortality parameters.

  5. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  6. Behavioural health analytics using mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wlodarczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics in healthcare has become a very active area of research since it promises to reduce costs and to improve health care quality. Behavioural analytics analyses a patients behavioural patterns with the goal of early detection if a patient becomes symptomatic and triggering treatment even before a disease outbreak happens. Behavioural analytics allows a more precise and personalised treatment and can even monitor whole populations for events such as epidemic outbreaks. With the prevalence of mobile phones, they have been used to monitor the health of patients by analysing their behavioural and movement patterns. Cell phones are always on devices and are usually close to their users. As such they can be used as social sensors to create "automated diaries" of their users. Specialised apps passively collect and analyse user data to detect if a patient shows some deviant behaviour indicating he has become symptomatic. These apps first learn a patients normal daily patterns and alert a health care centre if it detects a deviant behaviour. The health care centre can then call the patient and check on his well-being. These apps use machine learning techniques to for reality mining and predictive analysis. This paper describes some of these techniques that have been adopted recently in eHealth apps.

  7. Conceptualising the policy practice and behavioural research relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeatman Heather

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy is frequently identified in the behavioural nutrition and physical activity research literature as a necessary component of effective research and practice. The purpose of this commentary is to promote a dialogue to contribute towards the further development of conceptual understandings and theories of the relationship between policy practice and behavioural research and how these two activities might work synergistically to improve public health outcomes. Methods Drawing on policy and public health literature, this commentary presents a a conceptual model of the interaction and mediation between nutrition and physical activity-relevant policy and behavioural nutrition and physical activity research, environments, behaviours and public health implications. The selling of food in school canteens in several Australian states is discussed to illustrate components of the relationship and the interactions among its components. Results The model depicts a relationship that is interdependent and cyclic. Policy contributes to the relationship through its role in shaping environmental and personal-cognitive determinants of behaviours and through these determinants it can induce behaviour change. Behavioural research describes behaviours, identifies determinants of behaviour change and therefore helps inform policy development and monitor and evaluate its impact. Conclusion The model has implications for guiding behavioural research and policy practice priorities to promote public health outcomes. In particular, we propose that policy practice and behavioural research activities can be strengthened by applying to each other the theories from the scientific disciplines informing these respective activities. Behavioural science theories can be applied to help understand policy-making and assist with disseminating research into policy and practice. In turn, policy science theories can be applied to support the 'institutionalisation

  8. South African perspective on conservation behaviour - a programme description

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa there is a serious lack of understanding of the relationship between human behaviour and environmental conservation. A multidisciplinary field of study is described dealing with the causes and effects of people's attitudes...

  9. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... (approximately) showed no significant change compared to control or no overall positive findings. We identified 79 eligible studies which described 96 separate interventions to change prescribing behaviour. Of these interventions, 49 (51%, 41%-61%) showed a positive significant change compared to the control...

  10. Disruptive behaviour in the Foundation Phase of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Marais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the passage of legislation banning corporal punishment in South African schools, disruptive behaviour in schools has become an issue of national concern. Against this background a research project was undertaken in which the types and causes of disruptive behaviour occurring most frequently in the Foundation Phase of schooling were identified, with a view to providing strategies for teachers to manage behaviour of this kind. A qualitative research approach was applied. Data collection was done by conducting interviews comprising semistructured questions with Foundation Phase teachers. Strategies purposely devised to deal specifically with the identified types and causes of disruptive behaviour are explained.

  11. Gallium arsenide particle detectors: a study of the active region and charge-collection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berluti, L.; D'Auria, S.; Mattei, G.; Proia, M.; Rinaldi, P.; Zichichi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Gallium arsenide particle detectors made by Alenia SpA have been tested within the context of the RD-8 project and found to have a high charge-collection efficiency (75%). We have analysed the data and found the overall behaviour of these detectors to be coherent and understandable in terms of one function: the local charge-collection efficiency. Two ways have been used to measure the width of the active region and the increase of such a width as a function of bias is found not to be consistent with a simple square-root law. ((orig.))

  12. Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebben van Zyl

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managersThe South African business world is increasingly characterised by unethical behaviour and commercial crimes. Involvement of managers is contributing up to 80% of the total costs of white collar crime. In order to try to understand the situation, the current South African managerial climate is analysed.This analysis clearly indicates that South African managers function in stressful circumstances which can give rise to unethical behaviour. A theoretical model for ethical behaviour is therefore discussed and used as a basis for practical suggestions in order to improve the situation.

  13. Towards improved behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Acclimation and observation times are important factors when designing behavioural tests with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Petit, Marie A; Duvignacq, Marion C; Sumpter, John P

    2017-08-01

    The quality and reproducibility of science has recently come under scrutiny, with criticisms spanning disciplines. In aquatic toxicology, behavioural tests are currently an area of controversy since inconsistent findings have been highlighted and attributed to poor quality science. The problem likely relates to limitations to our understanding of basic behavioural patterns, which can influence our ability to design statistically robust experiments yielding ecologically relevant data. The present study takes a first step towards understanding baseline behaviours in fish, including how basic choices in experimental design might influence behavioural outcomes and interpretations in aquatic toxicology. Specifically, we explored how fish acclimate to behavioural arenas and how different lengths of observation time impact estimates of basic swimming parameters (i.e., average, maximum and angular velocity). We performed a semi-quantitative literature review to place our findings in the context of the published literature describing behavioural tests with fish. Our results demonstrate that fish fundamentally change their swimming behaviour over time, and that acclimation and observational timeframes may therefore have implications for influencing both the ecological relevance and statistical robustness of behavioural toxicity tests. Our review identified 165 studies describing behavioural responses in fish exposed to various stressors, and revealed that the majority of publications documenting fish behavioural responses report extremely brief acclimation times and observational durations, which helps explain inconsistencies identified across studies. We recommend that researchers applying behavioural tests with fish, and other species, apply a similar framework to better understand baseline behaviours and the implications of design choices for influencing study outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioural repertoire of working donkeys and consistency of behaviour over time, as a preliminary step towards identifying pain-related behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran H Regan

    Full Text Available The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram.Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males. Instantaneous (scan and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (P<0.001. Level head carriage, licking/chewing and head-shaking were observed more frequently in female donkeys (P<0.001. Tail position, ear orientation, foot stamping, rolling/lying and head-shaking behaviours were affected by time of day (P<0.001. However, only two variations in ear orientation were found to be significantly different over the two days of observations (P<0.001. Tail swishing, head shaking, foot stamping, and ears held sideways and downwards were significantly correlated (P<0.001 and are assumed to be behaviours to discourage flies.All donkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys.

  15. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals.

  16. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From REM sleep behaviour disorder to status dissociatus: insights into the maze of states of being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Roberto; Montagna, Pasquale

    2011-12-01

    Sleep is a coordinated process involving more or less simultaneous changes in sensory, motor, autonomic, hormonal, and cerebral processes. On the other hand, none of the changes occurring with sleep are invariably coupled to sleep. EEG synchrony, heat loss, sleep-related hormone secretion, and even REM-related motoneuron paralysis may occur independent of the parent state. In REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) the muscle tone of wakefulness intrudes into REM sleep, allowing the release of dream-enacting behaviours. Status dissociatus (SD) is a condition in which brain and mind are in disarray along the boundaries of sleep and wakefulness. The existence of such dissociated behaviours shows that they have separate neuronal control systems and indicates that the whole organization of sleep is an emergent property of the collective neuronal systems to synchronize. Insults to the brain can drastically alter the circuitries responsible for maintaining the integrity of wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. As a consequence, the basic states of existence can become admixed and interchanged with striking disturbances of consciousness, brain electrophysiology, and the behavioural and polygraphic expression of sleep and wakefulness. The evolution of RBD into SD may result from a disarray of (brainstem) structures that orchestrate the whole brain wake-sleep conditions, but with preserved discrete systems and dissociable strategies to still place navigation in wake and sleep. Advances in the fields of genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioural neurology will expand the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the organization of the states of being along with their somatic/behavioural manifestations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    ABSTRACT. Electrochemical behaviour of Aloe secundiflora on carbon steel corrosion control in neutral and aerated soft water solutions have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. The investigation was performed at different inhibitor concentrations under ...

  20. Synchronous behaviour of two interacting oscillatory systems undergoing quasiperiodic route to chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S; Pawar, S A; Sujith, R I

    2017-10-01

    Thermoacoustic instability, caused by a positive feedback between the unsteady heat release and the acoustic field in a combustor, is a major challenge faced in most practical combustors such as those used in rockets and gas turbines. We employ the synchronization theory for understanding the coupling between the unsteady heat release and the acoustic field of a thermoacoustic system. Interactions between coupled subsystems exhibiting different collective dynamics such as periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic oscillations are addressed. Even though synchronization studies have focused on different dynamical states separately, synchronous behaviour of two coupled systems exhibiting a quasiperiodic route to chaos has not been studied. In this study, we report the first experimental observation of different synchronous behaviours between two subsystems of a thermoacoustic system exhibiting such a transition as reported in Kabiraj et al. [Chaos 22, 023129 (2012)]. A rich variety of synchronous behaviours such as phase locking, intermittent phase locking, and phase drifting are observed as the dynamics of such subsystem change. The observed synchronization behaviour is further characterized using phase locking value, correlation coefficient, and relative mean frequency. These measures clearly reveal the boundaries between different states of synchronization.

  1. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  2. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Eirik; Even, Naïla; Radford, Catherine W; Barron, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward) when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  3. Everyday behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Eken Asp, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The absolute majority of dogs are kept as companion animals. Dogs kept as family pets are frequently exposed to noisy and crowded environments, and often have to interact with unfamiliar dogs and humans. In Sweden, we have a long history of recording behaviour in dogs on a large scale. The Swedish Working Dog Association (SBK) has, since 1989, carried out a standardized behavioural test called Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA). Results from the DMA can be condensed into five personality traits: ...

  4. Generative collectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, W.; Avital, M.; Sabherwal, R.; Sumner, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing generative group activities against the backdrop of an increasingly connected world, this theory development paper introduces the concept of "generative collectives" as a new framework for classifying internet-based collectives and a novel theoretical lens for explaining why some

  5. Jay's Collectibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  6. Data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, J.; Epping, Elisabeth; Federkeil, G.; Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Kaiser, Franciscus; Tijssen, R.; van Vught, F.A.; Ziegele, F.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the data collection instruments used in the development of U-Multirank. The first section is an overview of existing databases – mainly on bibliometrics and patents. The second describes the questionnaires and survey tools used for collecting data from the institutions – at

  7. Food retailers' buying behaviour: A sensemaking perspective - Preliminary thoughts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    . It is argued that sensemaking related to retailer buying behaviour can be analysed at several, inter-related levels of analysis. The framework developed draws on discussions of sensemaking within strategic management and organisation science and discusses how concepts such as organisational identity, image......This paper examines the shortcomings of the existing literature on retailer buying behaviour and discusses the potential contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective. A new conceptual framework for understanding retailer buying behaviour is outlined......, noticing, interpretation, action and attribution may be useful for understanding retailer buying behaviour. Some key research questions emanating from this discussion are suggested and a methodology is proposed for studying these research questions. Finally, practical implications and theoretical...

  8. Food retailers' buying behaviour: A sensemaking perspective: Preliminary thoughts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    . It is argued that sensemaking related to retailer buying behaviour can be analysed at several, inter-related levels of analysis. The framework developed draws on discussions of sensemaking within strategic management and organisation science and discusses how concepts such as organisational identity, image......This paper examines the shortcomings of the existing literature on retailer buying behaviour and discusses the potential contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective. A new conceptual framework for understanding retailer buying behaviour is outlined......, noticing, interpretation, action and attribution may be useful for understanding retailer buying behaviour. Some key research questions emanating from this discussion are suggested and a methodology is proposed for studying these research questions. Finally, practical implications and theoretical...

  9. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  10. Using insights from animal behaviour and behavioural ecology to inform marine conservation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rohan M; Feeney, William E; White, James R; Manassa, Rachel P; Johansen, Jacob L; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of human activities on the natural world are becoming increasingly apparent, with rapid development and exploitation occurring at the expense of habitat quality and biodiversity. Declines are especially concerning in the oceans, which hold intrinsic value due to their biological uniqueness as well as their substantial sociological and economic importance. Here, we review the literature and investigate whether incorporation of knowledge from the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology may improve the effectiveness of conservation initiatives in marine systems. In particular, we consider (1) how knowledge of larval behaviour and ecology may be used to inform the design of marine protected areas, (2) how protecting species that hold specific ecological niches may be of particular importance for maximizing the preservation of biodiversity, (3) how current harvesting techniques may be inadvertently skewing the behavioural phenotypes of stock populations and whether changes to current practices may lessen this skew and reinforce population persistence, and (4) how understanding the behavioural and physiological responses of species to a changing environment may provide essential insights into areas of particular vulnerability for prioritized conservation attention. The complex nature of conservation programmes inherently results in interdisciplinary responses, and the incorporation of knowledge from the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology may increase our ability to stem the loss of biodiversity in marine environments.

  11. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broly, Pierre; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-01

    In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus) in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated.

  12. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Broly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated.

  13. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broly, Pierre; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus) in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated. PMID:26067565

  14. Post Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in Malaysia: Tax Agents’ Perceptions on Clients’ Compliance Behaviour and Tax Agents’ Roles in Promoting Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Izlawanie

    2017-01-01

    The Malaysian government introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST) starting from 1 April 2015 to enhance the revenue collections and mitigate the transfer pricing manipulation. Tax agents play a significant role to help businesses to comply with GST law and regulations. After one year of GST implementation, it is vital to understand tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance behaviour and tax agents’ roles in influencing compliance. A total of 30 registered tax agents completed a survey...

  15. Collective identity and resilience in the management of common pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons W. Mosimane

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of common pool resources through collective action is dependent upon the efforts of the resources users to establish an identity that is held collectively. It is widely accepted that the term common pool resources implies a resource that is common to a ‘pool’ of people, the resource users. Their interests in the resource connect users and potential users, and we propose that the more strongly they identify with the resources and commit to act collectively, the stronger the collective action. Achieving sustainable use of common pool resources is thus determined by the interplay between collective identity and collective action. But collective identity as defined by the resource and its users is dynamic, making the identity vulnerable in directing the behaviour of users. In this paper, we draw on collective identity and resilience theories to develop a framework for exploring the role of collective identity in understanding collective action in the management of common pool resources. We suggest that two key attributes of collective identity – identification and affective commitment, provide the premise for interpreting, tracking and directing change in collective identity. We interpret how the interactions between the two attributes contribute to resilience of common pool resources as complex social-ecological systems.

  16. Obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour in Babylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward H; Kinnier Wilson, James V

    2012-02-01

    The history of obsessive compulsive, phobic and psychopathic behaviour can be traced to the 17th century AD. We draw attention to these behaviours in a Babylonian cuneiform medical text known as Shurpu. These three categories were united in the Babylonian mind around the concept of the māmīt 'oath' idea, the behaviour habits being so unbreakable it appeared that the subject had sworn an oath to do or not to do the action involved. The behavioural accounts were entirely objective, including what we would call immature, antisocial and criminal behaviour, and obsessional categories of contamination, aggression, orderliness of objects, sex and religion. They do not include subjective descriptions of obsessional thoughts, ruminations or the subject's attitude to their own behaviour, which are more modern fields of enquiry. The Babylonians had no understanding of brain or psychological function but they were remarkable describers of medical disease and behaviour. Although they had both physical and supernatural theories of many medical disorders and behaviours, they had an open mind on these particular behaviours which they regarded as a 'mystery' yet to be 'resolved'. We are not aware of comparable accounts of these behaviours in ancient Egyptian or classical medicine. These Babylonian descriptions extend the history of these disorders to the first half of the second millennium BC.

  17. Screen-based sedentary behaviours among a nationally representative sample of youth: are Canadian kids couch potatoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, S T; Ahmed, R

    2011-09-01

    To determine the percentage of Canadian youth meeting screen-time guidelines and to identify characteristics associated with different screen-time behaviours. Using nationally representative data collected from the 2008/2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS), we analyzed three screen-time behaviours, cigarette smoking, weekly spending money, self esteem, region and grade by sex, and conducted four logistic regression models to examine factors associated with more than 2 hours a day of sedentary screen time. Of 51 922 Canadian youth in grades 6 to 12, 50.9% spent more than 2 hours per day in screen-based behaviours. The average daily screen time was 7.8 (± 2.3) hours. Males and current smokers were more likely to report over 2 hours per day watching TV and videos or playing video games, whereas students in higher grades and those with weekly spending money were more likely to report playing or surfing on a computer. Youth with higher self-esteem were less likely to report spending over 2 hours per day in each of the three screen-time behaviours examined. Developing a better understanding of the factors associated with more hours of screen time is required to develop and target interventions that reduce screen-time behaviours.

  18. [Nurses' experiences with aggressive behaviour of nursing home residents: a cross sectional study in Swiss nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Adelheid; Needham, Ian; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2013-10-01

    The present exploratory descriptive cross-sectional study with the participation of 814 (51.8%) caregivers in 21 Swiss nursing homes provides insight into caregivers' experiences and handling of residents' aggressive behaviour. Moreover, caregiver burden with regard to resident aggression and the consequences on the caregiver-resident-relationship were investigated. The survey was carried out by means of validated questionnaire. Approximately 38% of participants experienced aggressive incidents during the last seven days prior to data collection. In most cases aggressive behaviour was caused by residents suffering from dementia and/or depression and occurred during nursing interventions involving physical contact. As a trigger for aggressive behaviour participants predominately assumed "non-understanding and excessive demand" of residents. Reassuring conversation and keeping oneself at a distance were most often used to calm the situation. Approximately 40% of participants experienced physical attacks as especially distressing and circa 23% were frightened, particularly when aggressive behaviour occurred without warning. Approximately 4% of caregivers avoided contact with residents after an aggressive incident and 12.3% perceived a disturbed relationship. It can be assumed that caregivers do not adequately perceive emotions possibly underlying aggressive behaviour in the escalation phase and therefore may not identify early signs of beginning aggression.

  19. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  20. The Importance of Indirect Teaching Behaviour and Its Educational Effects in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunwoo; Choi, Euichang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher behaviour has been a subject of study in physical education including physical education teacher education for 30 years. However, the research on teacher behaviour has tended to focus on direct teaching behaviour (DTB) to demonstrate the benefits of effective teaching, centred on a technical understanding of…

  1. Non-condom use behaviour of adolescents in South Africa – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyzes contextual non-condom use behaviour of adolescents in South Africa. To understand individuals within their context, additions to Theory of Planned Behaviour are made and contextual factors are added. The processes related to sexual risk behaviour are analyzed within the family life, education, health ...

  2. Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour : An integrative review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    Environmental quality strongly depends on human behaviour patterns. We review the contribution and the potential of environmental psychology for understanding and promoting pro-environmental behaviour A general framework is proposed, comprising: (1) identification of the behaviour to be changed, (2)

  3. Self-Regulation: Relations with Theory of Mind and Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, Irem; Selcuk, Bilge; Harma, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    It is argued that self-regulation skill is necessary both for displaying constructive behaviour and for controlling negative social behaviour, and self-regulation might affect social behaviours by increasing the ability to understand others' minds. In this research, in order to examine different aspects of self-regulation and their similarities…

  4. HIV health literacy, sexual behaviour and self-reports of having ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The HIV prevalence among young South African adults makes it important to understand their HIV knowledge, sexual behaviour and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) behaviour in this group. This paper presents the demographics, knowledge, sexual behaviour and cues to action as reported by sexually active students' ...

  5. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender and Behaviour: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural ...

  7. Consumer behaviour in the waiting area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobach, Mark P

    2007-02-01

    To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each waiting area (brochures, books, illuminated new trailer, children's play area, etc.). Per patient each activity was registered, and at each pharmacy the behaviour was studied for 2 weeks. Most patients only waited during the waiting time at the studied pharmacies. Few consumers obtained written information during their wait. The waiting area may have latent possibilities to expand the information function of the pharmacy and combine this with other activities that distract the consumer from the wait. Transdisciplinary research, combining knowledge from pharmacy practice research with consumer research, has been a useful approach to add information on queueing behaviour of consumers.

  8. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  9. Psychobiology of partnership behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploog, D

    1975-11-01

    Animal experiments demonstrate that it is not only the quality of transmitted and received social signals that is important, but also their frequency and the timing of the information transmitted. In order for progress to be made in the investigation of human social behaviour and its disorders, methods must be developed which allow the transmission of verbal and non-verbal information to be measured. Experiments carried out with healthy adults and healthy and disturbed children to investigate human eye contact and distance behaviour are reported, along with experiments on the influence of gaze and body posture on spoken communication. Finally, a report on the use of behaviour therapy for an autistic child is outlined in order to explore the psychobiological correlations between social behaviour and language, which concur with extensive experiments on brain stimulation. It is suggested that there is a cerebral representation for species-specific social behaviour and a vocalization system embedded in these brain structures which is a phylogenetically-patterned prerequisite for the development of human language.

  10. Network information analysis reveals risk perception transmission in a behaviour-influenza dynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C-M; You, S-H; Cheng, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Influenza poses a significant public health burden worldwide. Understanding how and to what extent people would change their behaviour in response to influenza outbreaks is critical for formulating public health policies. We incorporated the information-theoretic framework into a behaviour-influenza (BI) transmission dynamics system in order to understand the effects of individual behavioural change on influenza epidemics. We showed that information transmission of risk perception played a crucial role in the spread of health-seeking behaviour throughout influenza epidemics. Here a network BI model provides a new approach for understanding the risk perception spread and human behavioural change during disease outbreaks. Our study allows simultaneous consideration of epidemiological, psychological, and social factors as predictors of individual perception rates in behaviour-disease transmission systems. We suggest that a monitoring system with precise information on risk perception should be constructed to effectively promote health behaviours in preparation for emerging disease outbreaks.

  11. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  12. A sensemaking perspective on retailer buying behaviour: Towards a new conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the shortcomings of the existing literature on retailer buying behaviour and discusses the potential contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective. A new conceptual framework for understanding retailer buying behaviour is outlined....... It is argued that sensemaking related to retailer buying behaviour can be analysed at several, inter-related levels of analysis. The framework developed draws on discussions of sensemaking within strategic management and organisation science and discusses how concepts such as organisational identity, image...

  13. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... (approximately) showed no significant change compared to control or no overall positive findings. We identified 79 eligible studies which described 96 separate interventions to change prescribing behaviour. Of these interventions, 49 (51%, 41%-61%) showed a positive significant change compared to the control...... or inconclusive. Positive studies (+) were those that demonstrated a statistically significant change in the majority of outcomes measured at level of p change in the opposite direction and inconclusive studies...

  14. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrisos, Susan; Eccles, Martin P; Francis, Jill J; Bosch, Marije; Dijkstra, Rob; Johnston, Marie; Grol, Richard; Kaner, Eileen F S; Steen, Ian N

    2009-08-05

    Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team management of chronic disease such as diabetes, however, the application of such models is less well established. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors underlying health professional teams' clinical management of diabetes using a psychological model of human behaviour. A predictive questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) investigated health professionals' (HPs') cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes and intentions) about the provision of two aspects of care for patients with diabetes: prescribing statins and inspecting feet.General practitioners and practice nurses in England and the Netherlands completed parallel questionnaires, cross-validated for equivalence in English and Dutch. Behavioural data were practice-level patient-reported rates of foot examination and use of statin medication. Relationships between the cognitive antecedents of behaviour proposed by the TPB and healthcare teams' clinical behaviour were explored using multiple regression. In both countries, attitude and subjective norm were important predictors of health professionals' intention to inspect feet (Attitude: beta = .40; Subjective Norm: beta = .28; Adjusted R2 = .34, p < 0.01), and their intention to prescribe statins (Attitude: beta = .44; Adjusted R2 = .40, p < 0.01). Individuals' self-reported intention did not predict practice-level performance of either clinical behaviour. Using the TPB, we identified modifiable factors underlying health professionals' intentions to perform two

  15. A Survey of Collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing sophistication and miniaturization of computational components, complex, distributed systems of interacting agents are becoming ubiquitous. Such systems, where each agent aims to optimize its own performance, but where there is a well-defined set of system-level performance criteria, are called collectives. The fundamental problem in analyzing/designing such systems is in determining how the combined actions of self-interested agents leads to 'coordinated' behavior on a iarge scale. Examples of artificial systems which exhibit such behavior include packet routing across a data network, control of an array of communication satellites, coordination of multiple deployables, and dynamic job scheduling across a distributed computer grid. Examples of natural systems include ecosystems, economies, and the organelles within a living cell. No current scientific discipline provides a thorough understanding of the relation between the structure of collectives and how well they meet their overall performance criteria. Although still very young, research on collectives has resulted in successes both in understanding and designing such systems. It is eqected that as it matures and draws upon other disciplines related to collectives, this field will greatly expand the range of computationally addressable tasks. Moreover, in addition to drawing on them, such a fully developed field of collective intelligence may provide insight into already established scientific fields, such as mechanism design, economics, game theory, and population biology. This chapter provides a survey to the emerging science of collectives.

  16. The effect of leadership behaviours on followers’ experiences and expectations in a safety-critical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan G. Joubert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motivation for this study was found in concern expressed by civil aviation organisations that specialists in the air navigation services provider sector require appropriate and beneficial organisational leadership to encourage, enable and manage transformation within this highly structured setting. Also, academic research puts emphasis on a need for investigations of the roles, expectations and requirements of followers in the leadership–followership relationship. Followers’ experiences and expectations of leadership behaviours in an air navigation service provider (ANSP organisation were investigated and served as orientation and setting applicable to this study. Aim: The aim of the research was to identify and understand how follower experiences and expectations of leadership behaviours in a safety-critical commercial environment can affect leadership training and growth. The above-mentioned motivated this investigation of leadership traits and behaviours within an explicit context and from a follower’s viewpoint. Setting: The setting for the study was twenty two Air Traffic and Navigation Services Company sites where followers’ experiences and expectations of leadership behaviours in an air navigation service provider (ANSP organisation were investigated and served as orientation and setting applicable to this study. Methods: An ethnographic case study research style was adopted and followed because it allowed for an all-inclusive, holistic narrative report and interpretation. The samples for the quantitative and qualitative components of this study were parallel and methods employed addressed different aspects of the phenomenon, which allowed for a mixed methods research design. A one-way causality in the research design was observed because traits of followers that might influence leaders’ behaviours were excluded. Data were collected by means of a Leader Trait and Behaviour Questionnaire completed by participants

  17. Modulation of collective cell behaviour by geometrical constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunova, M.; Zablotskyy, V.; Dempsey, N.M.; Devillers, T.; Jirsa, M.; Syková, Eva; Kubinová, Šárka; Lunov, O.; Dejneka, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2016), s. 1099-1110 ISSN 1757-9694 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : mesenchymal stem-cells * biophysical regulation * nuclear-structure Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.252, year: 2016

  18. Measuring collective behaviour of multicellular ensembles: role of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCH U

    Interactions can occur through the response of the individual cells in a population to a concentration of external ... of new gene expression in response to an external signal factor (Fuqua et al 1996; Miller and Bassler 2001; ... Given the multiscale and multilevel nature of biological processes, when a study is focused on a ...

  19. Measuring collective behaviour of multicellular ensembles: role of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Living systems are spectacular examples of spatiotemporally organized structures. During the development of complex organization there is dynamic equilibrium between the local and global processes acting at the intra- and intercellular levels in multiple space and time scales. Although in modelling studies such ...

  20. Measuring collective behaviour of multicellular ensembles: role of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCH U

    their descriptions: continuous time Markov processes, discrete mechanics, continuum mechanics, discrete time processes, etc. (Garcia et al 1999; Shenoy et al 1999; ...... bation in a negatively auto-regulated pathway; Phys. Biol. 4. 48–59. Miller M B and Bassler B L 2001 Quorum sensing in bacteria;. Annu. Rev. Microbiol.

  1. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  2. Understanding emotional problems: the REBT perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2008-01-01

    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is an approach to counselling and psychotherapy rooted in the CBT tradition and one that has a distinctive perspective on emotional problems.\\ud \\ud Understanding Emotional Problems provides an accurate understanding of the REBT perspective on eight major emotional problems for which help is sought: anxiety, depression, shame, guilt, unhealthy anger, hurt, unhealthy jealousy and unhealthy envy.\\ud \\ud Rather than discussing treatment methods, Windy Dr...

  3. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  4. Understanding the Equatorial Ocean: Theoretical and Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabitti, A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of internal waves in fully enclosed domains constitutesone of the big challenges in fluid dynamics, especially because of thenumerous possible applications both in astrophysical and geophysical fluid dynamics.Since analytical solutions for internal waves in arbitrarily

  5. Behavioural Profiles of Brown and Sloth Bears in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Giovanni Quintavalle; Christodoulides, Yiannis; Curone, Giulio; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Faustini, Massimo; Albertini, Mariangela; Preziosi, Richard; Mazzola, Silvia Michela

    2017-05-13

    Three brown bear ( Ursus arctos arctos ) individuals and two sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus inornatus ) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress. Behavioural profiles were created using data obtained through behavioural observations (coding) and keeper questionnaires (rating). The behavioural observations indicated a number of stereotypic behaviours in sloth bears but not in brown bears. The uniformity of zone usage was calculated to investigate if the enclosure size and features were adequate for use, and a social aspect of otherwise solitary animals was also identified. The behavioural profiles generated through coding and rating were compared to determine the reliability between these two methods in Ursids. Profiles were not compared between individuals since this study is not a comparison between different personality types but rather an effort (one of the few ones existing in literature) to select a valid and reproducible methodology capable of assessing personality in bears.

  6. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.

  7. Executable Behaviour and the π-Calculus (extended abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Luttik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Turing machines extend classical Turing machines with a facility to model observable interactive behaviour. We call a behaviour executable if, and only if, it is behaviourally equivalent to the behaviour of a reactive Turing machine. In this paper, we study the relationship between executable behaviour and behaviour that can be specified in the pi-calculus. We establish that all executable behaviour can be specified in the pi-calculus up to divergence-preserving branching bisimilarity. The converse, however, is not true due to (intended limitations of the model of reactive Turing machines. That is, the pi-calculus allows the specification of behaviour that is not executable up to divergence-preserving branching bisimilarity. Motivated by an intuitive understanding of executability, we then consider a restriction on the operational semantics of the pi-calculus that does associate with every pi-term executable behaviour, at least up to the version of branching bisimilarity that does not require the preservation of divergence.

  8. Immoral behaviour in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmon, P; Tabak, N

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize a social phenomenon that exists in Israel: immoral medicine. In recent years, nurses have been exposed to many instances of immoral medicine in hospitals. We want to protest about the demands for money from patients who are waiting for surgical intervention, arouse the medical community's conscience concerning these immoral activities, and improve professional and moral behaviour.

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR AND VOLTAMMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical behaviour of Geshoidin was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode in mixtures of citric acid and di-sodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous buffer system over a wide pH range (pH 2-11) using cyclic voltammetry. Chemically irreversible single oxidation and reduction peaks were obtained in the ...

  10. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... It is a form of therapy where the patient is helped to recognise patterns of ... The article briefly discusses the development of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), and makes mention of the important contri- butions made by South ..... was the displace- ment of aspects of the Newtonian paradigm of physics by.

  11. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions...

  12. Perceptions and behaviours towards online travel reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Romeu; Abrantes, José Luís; Kastenholz, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Online recommendations, comments and reviews are becoming important information sources for tourists, which are increasingly informed and demanding. The credibility and importance given to these reviews has triggered new dynamics in tourism. The main purpose of this research is to explore some of this trends, in order to contribute to a better understanding of consumer behaviour in the online context. This exploratory study follows a quantitative approach, using a web survey targeted to i...

  13. Behaviour in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Paul A; Huisman, Sylvia A; Hennekam, Raoul C; Oliver, Chris; van Balkom, Ingrid D C; Piening, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Careful study and accurate description of behaviour are important to understand developmental challenges for individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Here we present a systematic review of current understanding of behaviour in CdLS. A systematic search was performed for articles published between January 1946 and December 2015 evaluating autism, self-injury, and/or cognition in CdLS. After study-selection, 43 papers were included. The Cochrane quality criteria were adjusted to assign quality scores to the included studies. Participants were mostly categorized in the severe/profound developmental level. Methodology and quality were very heterogeneous, as well as reporting occurrence of autism. Self-injurious behaviour was reported in 15 papers. Physical conditions were reported in 21 studies, mostly related to hearing and vision. Only nine studies mentioned details about medication. Comparison of presented results was hindered by heterogeneous assessment methods. Improving our understanding of behavioural characteristics in CdLS requires more uniform methodology. We propose a criterion standard of instruments that can ideally be used in assessment of behaviour and development. This will improve understanding of behaviour in the context of developmental level and daily functioning. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Using Photovoice as a Community Based Participatory Research Tool for Changing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Behaviours in Usoma, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Bisung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increase in the use of community based participatory research (CBPR tools for understanding environment and health issues and facilitating social action. This paper explores the application and utility of photovoice for understanding water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH behaviours and catalysing community led solutions to change behaviours. Between June and August 2013, photovoice was conducted with eight (8 women in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya with a follow-up community meeting (baraza in May 2014 to discuss findings with the community members and government officials. In the first part of the study, photovoice one-on-one interviews were used to explore local perceptions and practices around water-health linkages and how the ecological and socio-political environment shapes these perceptions and practices. This paper, which is the second component of the study, uses photovoice group discussions to explore participants’ experiences with and (reaction to the photographs and the photovoice project. The findings illustrate that photovoice was an effective CBPR methodology for understanding behaviours, creating awareness, facilitating collective action, and engaging with local government and local health officials at the water-health nexus.

  15. Collective excitations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular, the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of this collective motions is a very good tool to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article is to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. We have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. Understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actuality in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular, the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure of nuclei close to their ground states. Moreover, some collective states appear to be very robust against the onset of chaos. This is the case of the hot giant dipole built on top of a hot nucleus which seems to survive up to rather high temperatures. Their sudden disappearance is still a subject of controversy. It may be that the mean-field and the associated collective states are playing a crucial role also in catastrophic processes such as the phase-transitions. Indeed, when the system is diluted the collective vibrations may become unstable and it seems that these unstable modes provide a natural explanation to the self organization of the system in drops. Finally, considering the diversity of the different structures of exotic nuclei one may expect new vibration types. All these studies are showing the diversity of the collective motions of strongly correlated quantum systems such as the nucleus but many open questions remain to be solved. (authors) 304 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Collective excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of the nucleus cannot be reduced to the properties of its constituents: it is a complex system. The fact that many properties of the nucleus are consequences of the existence of mean-field potential is a manifestation of this complexity. In particular, the nucleons can thus self-organize in collective motions such as giant resonances. Therefore the study of this collective motions is a very good tool to understand the properties of the nucleus itself. The purpose of this article is to stress some aspects of these collective vibrations. We have studied how an ensemble of fermions as the nucleus can self-organize in collective vibrations which are behaving like a gas of bosons in weak interaction. Understanding of these phenomena remains one of the important subjects of actuality in the context of quantal systems in strong interaction. In particular, the study of the states with one or two vibration quanta provides a direct information on the structure of nuclei close to their ground states. Moreover, some collective states appear to be very robust against the onset of chaos. This is the case of the hot giant dipole built on top of a hot nucleus which seems to survive up to rather high temperatures. Their sudden disappearance is still a subject of controversy. It may be that the mean-field and the associated collective states are playing a crucial role also in catastrophic processes such as the phase-transitions. Indeed, when the system is diluted the collective vibrations may become unstable and it seems that these unstable modes provide a natural explanation to the self organization of the system in drops. Finally, considering the diversity of the different structures of exotic nuclei one may expect new vibration types. All these studies are showing the diversity of the collective motions of strongly correlated quantum systems such as the nucleus but many open questions remain to be solved. (authors)

  17. Physiological control of behaviour in tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for a number of observed behaviours such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviour represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviour. Central to our understanding of tephritid behaviour are the multiple and often complex internal factors which are involved, and the path/mechanisms by which external stimuli result in observed behaviour. Tephritid fruit fly physiology is a vastly understudied research area which may provide important information on how peripheral receptors receive information, the transduction and coding of information centrally and how behaviour is regulated biochemically. The integration of physiology disciplines to help explain behaviour is central to the goal of developing new technology which may be useful in fruit fly control. In our laboratory, we have been studying the mechanisms of chemoreception and its link to behaviour in tephritids in such areas as olfaction, feeding, mating and oviposition. Our approach has been that tephritid behaviour can be largely influenced by their peripheral receptors which are responsible for receiving olfactory, gustatory, visual and tactile information inputs and their physiological state which controls internal modulation of behaviour. Thus, differences in behaviour between species might be explained on the basis of differences in their peripheral receptors, and the plasticity in which observed behaviour vary between the same species could very well be attributed to changes in their physiological state that are not readily apparent merely from visual observation. The importance of the physiological state in behavioural

  18. Impact of mobile phone use on car-following behaviour of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuzzaman, Mohammad; Haque, Md Mazharul; Zheng, Zuduo; Washington, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Multitasking, such as the concurrent use of a mobile phone and operating a motor vehicle, is a significant distraction that impairs driving performance and is becoming a leading cause of motor vehicle crashes. This study investigates the impact of mobile phone conversations on car-following behaviour. The CARRS-Q Advanced Driving Simulator was used to test a group of young Australian drivers aged 18-26 years on a car-following task in three randomised phone conditions: baseline (no phone conversation), hands-free and handheld. Repeated measure ANOVA was applied to examine the effect of mobile phone distraction on selected car-following variables such as driving speed, spacing, and time headway. Overall, drivers tended to select slower driving speeds, larger vehicle spacings, and longer time headways when they were engaged in either hands-free or handheld phone conversations, suggesting possible risk compensatory behaviour. In addition, phone conversations while driving influenced car-following behaviour such that variability was increased in driving speeds, vehicle spacings, and acceleration and decelerations. To further investigate car-following behaviour of distracted drivers, driver time headways were modelled using Generalized Estimation Equation (GEE). After controlling for various exogenous factors, the model predicts an increase of 0.33s in time headway when a driver is engaged in hands-free phone conversation and a 0.75s increase for handheld phone conversation. The findings will improve the collective understanding of distraction on driving performance, in particular car following behaviour which is most critical in the determination of rear-end crashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  20. Measuring behaviour in rodents: towards translational neuropsychiatric research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent behavioural tasks are indispensable to advance the understanding of gene x environment interactions in neuropsychiatric disorders and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Yet, the actual translation of rodent data to humans, and thereby the understanding of the pathophysiology of