Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Li, Jin; Zhou, Nan; Yamamoto, Yoko; Leung, Christy Y. Y.
Maternal warmth, the quality of the affectional bond between mothers and their children, has been found to be consistently associated with children's positive developmental outcomes in Western cultures. However, researchers debate the potential differences in the cultural meanings of maternal warmth, particularly between Chinese and European…
Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong
In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…
Smith, Erin Irene
Although beliefs about origins and evolutionary knowledge have been considered independent, research has suggested that both are influenced by cognitive constraints of psychological essentialism and teleology. Most research supporting these claims has been conducted with children from Western cultures; little is known about the psychological processes underpinning beliefs and knowledge about the natural world outside Western contexts or during adolescence. Claims about the universality of beliefs, knowledge, and the possible relationship between should be made after examining samples that differ in theoretically relevant ways from a typical Western sample, such as a Chinese sample in which religious explanations are rare or an adolescent sample in which brain development promotes the coordination of conflicting information. To examine how belief and knowledge are related in Western- and non-Western samples, as well as the factors that predict both independently, 238 Chinese (M = 15.85 years old, SD = .85 years; 36.6% male) and 277 American adolescents (M = 15.80 years, SD = 1.34 years; 51.6% male) were recruited from their high schools to participate. Adolescents completed a survey measuring beliefs about the origin of living and non-living exemplars, evolutionary knowledge, and variables that were likely to influence belief and knowledge such as science preference, epistemology, psychological essentialism, teleological reasoning, and religious beliefs. American adolescents were more creationist than Chinese adolescents. Chinese adolescents displayed more sophisticated evolutionary knowledge than American adolescents although overall performance was low. Finally, there was no relationship between belief and knowledge for American adolescents yet there was a small, positive relationship for Chinese adolescents such that adolescents who believed in creation also tended to demonstrate more evolutionary knowledge. Additional analyses employed mediation techniques to
Zuo, Huifang; Wang, Chuang
This qualitative study explores the sources of the self-efficacy development of five Chinese doctoral students' use of English as a second language in a southeastern university in the United Sates. Although individual differences were reported, common themes were also recognized. Consistent with the self-efficacy theory and previous studies in…
Lv, Nan; Brown, J. Lynne
Objective: To investigate the family food system in first-generation Chinese American families. Design: Qualitative interviews using reciprocal determinism constructs to understand influences on food choices. Setting: Weekend Chinese schools in Pennsylvania. Participants: Twenty couples with at least 1 child aged 5 or older enrolled in a Chinese…
Yao, Esther Lee
American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)
Kim, Su Yeong
“Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua , has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua’s own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:27182075
Kim, Su Yeong
"Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua , has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.
Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C
Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
Lew, Alan A.
Food is a major way that Chinese, and other ethnic groups, engage with their cultural heritage. Behavioral perspectives from tourism studies give insight into the range of food neophyllics (love of new foods) and food neophobics (fear of new foods), as well as the role of authenticity in food experiences. Three general types of Chinese food are identified in the US: Chinese American (restaurant) Food, Real Chinese (restaurant) Food, and American Born Chinese (home) Food. Traditional Chinese A...
As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.
Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang
It is important to understand the acculturation process of ethnic minority youth: To which cultures do they orient, and how do their cultural orientations develop? The present study tests a tridimensional acculturation model in Chinese American families and examines a potential mechanism through which parental cultural orientations may relate to adolescent cultural orientations. Participants were 350 Chinese American adolescents (M age = 17.04, 58 % female) and their parents in Northern California. Results support the tridimensional acculturation model by demonstrating moderate associations among Chinese American orientation, Chinese orientation, and American orientation; our findings also point to a unique effect of parental Chinese American orientation on parental bicultural socialization beliefs. Most importantly, we identified an indirect pathway from parental to adolescents' Chinese American orientation through adolescents' internalization of parental bicultural socialization beliefs.
Kim, Su Yeong
“Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua , has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the be...
Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Zhigang; Sun, Wenjun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun
Metabolomics represent a global understanding of metabolite complement of integrated living systems and dynamic responses to the changes of both endogenous and exogenous factors and has many potential applications and advantages for the research of complex systems. As a systemic approach, metabolomics adopts a "top-down" strategy to reflect the function of organisms from the end products of the metabolic network and to understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in a holistic context. This property agrees with the holistic thinking of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complex medical science, suggesting that metabolomics has the potential to impact our understanding of the theory behind the evidence-based Chinese medicine. Consequently, the development of robust metabolomic platforms will greatly facilitate, for example, the understanding of the action mechanisms of TCM formulae and the analysis of Chinese herbal (CHM) and mineral medicine, acupuncture, and Chinese medicine syndromes. This review summarizes some of the applications of metabolomics in special TCM issues with an emphasis on metabolic biomarker discovery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chao, Ruth K.
Examined effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance for Chinese American and European American high school students. Found positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance for European Americans and to some extent second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. The…
Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald
Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…
Full Text Available As intellectual immigrants, many of the overseas Chinese librarians have a second advanced degree in a subject area and are active in research and scholarly publication. They are in a unique position to promote Chinese culture in a foreign cultural environment and to find their identities through their scholarly activities. The paper is an attempt to showcase some important research outcomes by overseas Chinese librarians. It illustrates how overseas Chinese librarians bring more perspectives in understanding different cultures of East and West. Their achievements in publishing and research have become part of their self-expression as Chinese-Americans.
Lin, Chin-Yau Cindy; Fu, Victoria R.
Investigated differences and similarities in child-rearing practices among three groups of parents. Chinese and immigrant Chinese parents rated higher than Caucasian-American parents on parental control, encouragement of independence, and emphasis on achievement. (PCB)
Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent
This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…
Stevenson, H.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Stigler, J.W.
American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork
Varma, Rohit; Torres, Mina; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Rong, Fen; Hsu, Chunyi; Jiang, Xuejuan
To estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in adult Chinese Americans, and to evaluate factors associated with myopia and high myopia. A population-based, cross-sectional study. Chinese Americans 50 years and older residing in Monterey Park, California, were recruited. Noncycloplegic automated refraction with supplemental subjective refraction was performed. Myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, and high hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent of +0.5 D, and ≥+3.0 D, respectively. Astigmatism and high astigmatism were defined as a cylinder of >0.5 D and >2.25 D, respectively. Risk factor assessment was guided by a conceptual model. Data from 4144 participants were analyzed. The overall prevalence of myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, high hyperopia, astigmatism, and high astigmatism in the right eye was 35.1% (95% confidence interval, 33.6%-36.6%), 7.4% (6.6%-8.3%), 40.2% (38.7%-41.8%), 2.7% (2.2%-3.3%), 45.6% (44.1%-47.2%), and 3.7% (3.1%-4.3%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia was lower among older individuals (P refractive errors (P prevalence of refractive errors, except for a higher prevalence of hyperopia among female subjects (P = .010). Age, acculturation, education, income, marital status, birth country, history of ocular disease, nonocular comorbidities, and recent eye examination were associated with prevalence of myopia. All of these factors, except for acculturation, were also associated with high myopia. Our data present the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of refractive errors among adult Chinese Americans. Compared with whites, Hispanics, and blacks, Chinese Americans have a higher burden of myopia, high myopia, and astigmatism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Varma, Rohit; Torres, Mina; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Rong, Fen; Hsu, Chunyi; Jiang, Xuejuan
Purpose To estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in adult Chinese Americans, and evaluate factors associated with myopia and high myopia. Design A population-based, cross-sectional study. Methods Chinese Americans 50 years and older residing in Monterey Park, California, were recruited. Noncycloplegic automated refraction with supplemental subjective refraction was performed. Myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, and high hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent of +0.5D, and ≥ +3.0D, respectively. Astigmatism and high astigmatism were defined as a cylinder of > 0.5D and > 2.25D, respectively. Risk factor assessment was guided by a conceptual model. Results Data from 4144 participants were analyzed. The overall prevalence of myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, high hyperopia, astigmatism, and high astigmatism was 35.1% (95% confidence interval, 33.6%–36.6%), 7.4% (6.6%–8.3%), 40.2% (38.7%–41.8%), 2.7% (2.2%–3.3%), 45.6% (44.1%–47.2%), and 3.7% (3.1%–4.3%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia was lower among older individuals (Ps refractive errors (Ps prevalence of refractive errors, except for a higher prevalence of hyperopia among females (P = 0.010). Age, acculturation, education, income, marital status, birth country, history of ocular disease, non-ocular comorbidities, and recent eye exam were associated with prevalence of myopia. All of these factors, except for acculturation, were also associated with high myopia. Conclusions Our data present the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of refractive errors among adult Chinese Americans. Compared with whites, Hispanics, and blacks, Chinese Americans have a higher burden of myopia, high myopia, and astigmatism. PMID:27769895
Low physical activity is a major health issue among Chinese Americans. This study explored Chinese–American children's physical activity behaviors and influencing factors. Twenty-five children of Chinese or Taiwanese descent were interviewed to understand their favorite sports or physical activities...
Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles
Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…
WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C
The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.
Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter
This study aims to benchmark Chinese TEFL academics' research productivities to identify and address research productivity issues. Using a literature-based survey, this study examined 182 Chinese TEFL academics' research output, perceptions about research, personal dispositions for conducting research and workplace context for conducting research…
Shelley, Donna; Fahs, Marianne C.; Yerneni, Rajeev; Qu, Jiaojie; Burton, Dee
No population-based data are available on the degree to which Chinese Americans have adopted smoke-free household policies and whether these policies are effective in reducing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The present study examines the prevalence of smoke-free home rules among Chinese Americans living in New York City, describes predictors of adopting full smoking bans in the home, and explores the association between household smoking restrictions and ETS exposure at home. In-...
Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M Brent
Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment among a group of high-achieving adolescents. Drawing on survey data collected on 295 Chinese American and 192 European American 9th graders attending a highly selective magnet school, our findings show that Chinese American adolescents reported significantly lower levels of psychological adjustment (d = -.31), and significantly less family cohesion (d = -.34) and more conflict (d = .56) than their European American peers. Further, the ethnic differences on adjustment disappeared after controlling for perceptions of family cohesion and conflict, indicating that such perceptions may be a key factor in understanding the high academic achievement/low psychological adjustment paradoxical pattern of development among Chinese American adolescents. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
197 American college students going to school in Oklahoma and 91 Chinese college students going to school in China participated. Chinese students from extended families (families with three generations) reported less loneliness than those from nuclear families. In the younger group (aged 18 to 20 yr.), Chinese students scored higher on loneliness than American students as did all freshman compared with all sophomore students. Significant interactions between nation and years in college and between nation and family structure (extended families vs nuclear families) were found within the same age group.
Cai, Jinfa; Ding, Meixia
Researchers have long debated the meaning of mathematical understanding and ways to achieve mathematical understanding. This study investigated experienced Chinese mathematics teachers' views about mathematical understanding. It was found that these mathematics teachers embrace the view that understanding is a web of connections, which is a result…
The primary research question raised in the thesis is how have films been able to construct the identity of ethnic Chinese in the United States? This question is addressed through three sub-questions. First, why is the family narrative so characteristic of films about Chinese Americans in
Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.
Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan
The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, I G; Roberts, R E; Aday, L A
This paper is concerned with whether an instrument developed in the U.S. may identify lower rates of major depression among Chinese, because its content may not cover culture-specific symptoms of depression. Data were obtained from approximately 952 Anglo and Chinese American middle school students, aged 10 to 17 years, in the Teen Life Changes Survey conducted in the spring of 1994. We investigated the hypothesis that rates of missing values would be higher, the mean score for total depression items would be lower, and internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the DSM Scale for Depression (DSD) would be lower for Chinese American adolescents compared with Anglo American adolescents. We also examined whether response functions on the DSD item would differ for these two groups. Only the latter was observed. Five of 26 items in the DSD exhibited differential functioning between Anglo and Chinese students. The results suggest that the lower prevalence of depression was not due to the ethnocentric character of the instrument in the Chinese sample. Stronger immunity to depression or other cultural factors may contribute to the lower rate of depression for the Chinese American adolescents in the Teen Life Changes study.
Liu, Shan; Fu, Mei R; Hu, Sophia H; Wang, Vincent Y; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M; Cleland, Chuck; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail
Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual's perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight-related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC], weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and obesity-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) were assessed. A total of 162 Chinese Americans were recruited. 52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly: 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in the three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047), WC (pobesity management in Chinese Americans should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES. The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education, physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients’ ethnocultural backgrounds.
The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born) and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education), physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends) on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients' ethnocultural backgrounds.
Rosehfeld, Barbara; O'Connor-Petruso, Sharon A.
Mobile phones are used around the world, however, there are no definitive rules regarding their appropriate use. In the absence of such codification, the researchers surveyed 225 American and 115 Chinese college students to understand their perceptions of etiquette and appropriate use of mobile phones both in the classroom and in other public…
North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015
In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…
Full Text Available Cultural industries in China always receive much support from governments and are developing quite fast. This paper will explain the concept of cultural industries in China and show the history of China’s Cultural Industries from the perspective of policy. And there will be a detailed analysis of the situation of this sector by a number of latest figures and data which are from social surveys lasting for 6 months around the nation. Then the paper will discuss the problems and opportunities of Chinese cultural industries.
Varma, Rohit; Kim, Jeniffer S; Burkemper, Bruce S; Wen, Ge; Torres, Mina; Hsu, Chunyi; Choudhury, Farzana; Azen, Stanley P; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta
Visual impairment (VI) and blindness continue to be major public health problems worldwide. Despite previously published studies on VI in Chinese and other racial/ethnic populations, there are no data specific to Chinese American adults. To determine the age- and sex-specific prevalence and causes of VI and blindness in adult Chinese Americans and to compare the prevalence to other racial/ethnic groups. In this population-based, cross-sectional study of 10 US Census tracts in the city of Monterey Park, California, 4582 Chinese American adults 50 years and older underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations, including measurement of presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for distance using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013. Age-specific prevalence and causes of VI and blindness for presenting and BCVA. Of the 5782 eligible adults, 4582 (79.2%) completed an in-clinic eye examination. Of the 4582 participants, most were born in China (3149 [68.7%]), female (2901 [63.3%]), and married (3458 [75.5%]). The mean (SD) age was 61 (9) years. The prevalence of presenting VI was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.5%-3.5%), with 60.0% of this prevalence being attributed to uncorrected refractive error. The overall age-adjusted prevalence for VI (BCVA of ≤20/40 in the better eye) was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9%-1.5%). The overall age-adjusted prevalence of blindness (BCVA of ≤20/200 in the better-seeing eye) was 0.07% (95% CI, 0%-0.2%). The prevalence of VI and blindness was higher in older Chinese Americans compared with younger. The primary causes of VI were cataracts and myopic retinopathy; the primary cause of blindness was myopic retinopathy. The prevalence of VI in Chinese Americans is similar to that of non-Hispanic white and Latino individuals in the United States and similar to or lower than the prevalence previously reported for Chinese adults from non-US studies. The prevalence of blindness is lower than that
Liu, Shan; Sun, Yiyuan; Louie, Wendy
To identify symptom distress related to cancer for a group of Chinese American women in treatment, and to examine their use of various forms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their relationships to specific symptoms they identified. Cross-sectional, correlational. American Cancer Society Asian Initiatives support groups in the state of New York. 97 Chinese American women residing in New York with a mean age of 57 years; the time since diagnosis of cancer ranged from two months to 24 years. The type of diagnosis for the majority of women was breast cancer. A self-reported questionnaire including a demographic data form, a researcher-developed checklist for types of TCM, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) were administered. The MSAS-SF has three subscales: global distress index, psychological symptom distress scale, and physical symptom distress scale. Symptoms, symptom distress, and types of TCM. The descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for data analysis. Chinese American women with cancer in treatment reported multiple symptoms, and the three MSAS-SF distress subscale scores indicated moderate symptom distress. Symptoms were positively associated with the use of TCM. Chinese American women in treatment for cancer reported multiple symptoms and moderate symptom distress. Participants with specific symptoms tended to use specific forms of TCM. High prevalence of psychological symptoms for Chinese American women with cancer suggests that oncology nurses should work with mental health providers for symptom management of this population. Oncology nurses also need to stay informed of the growing body of evidence on the benefits of TCM for patients with cancer. Future studies should include an emphasis on the improvement in methodologic quality for studies that investigate using TCM in participants with cancer.
This study examines the music of Chinese American heritage, as portrayed in American music education from the late 19th century to the present. Specifically, representative music education materials, such as "Music Supervisors Journal," "Music Educators Journal," graded music series textbooks, and other available resource materials, were traced…
A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)
Conclusion: Understanding factors that influence PA among Chinese international students is an important step in the process of promoting their long-term health and wellbeing. Designing program that address the identified key factors may help colleges and universities achieve this goal.
Chao, Ruth K.
Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the U.S. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents’ academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents’ academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by Grade Point Average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English Language Arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment. PMID:24820295
Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae
The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…
Chow, C S
This article explores the relationship between US immigration laws, Chinese immigrants' initial choices of residences and occupations in New York City, and the recent expansion of New York's Chinatown. Data were obtained from a questionnaire administered to 121 Chinese immigrants in New York in 1980. It was hypothesized that a high degree of immigrant concentration in areas such as Chinatown is a result of migration policies that favor chain migration. During the period of time (1943-65) when Chinese immigration was severely restricted by the Chinese Exclusion Act and a quota system, the Chinese population in New York remained small. By 1980, however, the Chinese population in New York City had grown to 124,764 (1.8% of the city's population). This was largely a result of the 1965 Immigration Act, which allows an annual quota of 20,000 immigrants per country and gives preference to family members of American citizens and permanent residents. Support for the hypothesis that the current immigration law encourages chain migration was provided by the finding that the majority of Chinese immigrants surveyed immigrated under the sponsorship of close relatives (53.7%) or as children with parents (13.2%). 53.4% had their initial residence arranged for or provided by relatives, and another 33.1% by friends--a pattern that has contributed to the expansion of Chinatown. To minimize the risk of having their applications for the immigration of family members declined, Chinese in New York refrain from seeking public assistance and take whatever jobs are available. 55% of immigrants surveyed obtained work in restaurants or garment factories in Chinatown, further sustaining a Chinese enclave. It is concluded that a theoretical perspective that emphasizes the link between migration policy and immigrants' choices regarding residence and occupation has more utility than hypotheses that assert a causal relationship between racial discrimination against minorities, nonassimilation of
Fu, Steven S; Ma, Grace X; Tu, Xin M; Siu, Philip T; Metlay, Joshua P
Less acculturated Chinese Americans experience cultural and language barriers. The present study assessed the relationship between linguistic aspects of acculturation and cigarette smoking among Chinese Americans. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was administered to a consecutive sample of 541 Chinese American adults (aged 18 years or older) attending four pediatric, medical, or dental practices located in Philadelphia's Chinatown from November 2000 to February 2001. Linguistic acculturation was measured by adapting a reliable and valid acculturation scale developed for Southeast Asians. English and Chinese language proficiency subscales were utilized to analyze the association between language proficiency and current smoking. Whereas 25% of Chinese American men reported current smoking, only 3% of Chinese American women reported current smoking. Chinese American men with lower English proficiency reported significantly higher rates of current smoking compared with Chinese American men with a higher level of English proficiency (33% vs. 18%, p<.01). Less English-proficient Chinese American male smokers were less likely to have received advice from a physician to quit smoking (50% vs. 85%, p=.01). In multivariate analysis, increased English proficiency was associated with decreased odds of current smoking (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.16-0.89) among Chinese American men after controlling for confounding variables. In conclusion, higher English proficiency was associated with decreased current smoking among Chinese American men. Chinese American men with limited English proficiency should especially be targeted for tobacco control interventions. Further research is needed to assess whether acculturation is associated with smoking among Chinese American women and with use of smoking cessation treatments and services by Chinese American smokers.
This report compares important aspects of American and Chinese dance education through the lens of the "Chinese Leadership in Arts Education" workshops organized by Brigham Young University in response to requests from Chinese arts educators to observe American arts education in practice as a benchmark for assessing the direction of…
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…
Kelley, Michelle L.; Tseng, Hui-Mei
Studies cultural differences in child rearing practices of 38 middle-class Chinese immigrant mothers and 38 middle-class Caucasian-American mothers of 3-8 year olds. Results suggest similarity in child-rearing goals of both groups, although Chinese-American immigrant mothers rely on traditional Chinese methods of socialization to achieve these…
This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...
Juang, Linda P; Syed, Moin; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong
Everyday conflict (studied primarily among European American families) is viewed as an assertion of autonomy from parents that is normative during adolescence. Acculturation-based conflict (studied primarily among Asian- and Latino-heritage families) is viewed as a threat to relatedness with parents rather than the normative assertion of autonomy. Our overarching goal for the chapter is to integrate our knowledge of these two types of family conflict that have been studied separately to arrive at a new understanding of what family conflict means for Chinese American adolescents and their parents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Maxwell, Annette E; Garcia, Gabriel M; Berman, Barbara A
Although lung cancer is the top cancer killer among Filipino American men, data on tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, cessation efforts, and preferences for smoking cessation programs among this population are lacking. We interviewed a community sample of 318 Filipino American men (110 current, 108 former, and 100 never-smokers, all immigrants) aged 40-75 years in Los Angeles County in English and Tagalog, to gain a better understanding of their tobacco use as a first step toward developing a culturally tailored smoking cessation program. In our sample, smokers had lower levels of education and income compared with nonsmokers and were less acculturated based on language use and English fluency. Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to agree that smoking can alleviate stress, depression, and boredom, and that it is part of social interactions, growing up, being a man, and looking mature. These beliefs were summarized in a Smoking Beliefs Scale (Cronbach's alpha = .84), which predicted current smoking in a multivariate analysis, together with perceived risk of getting smoking-related diseases and peer norms. The most preferred smoking cessation intervention formats were educational small group sessions with other Filipino men (32%), followed by one-on-one consultations by a health professional (26%), video (20%), pamphlet (17%), and toll-free telephone number (6%). More than half of the current smokers requested these smoking cessation activities in Tagalog (34%) or a combination of Tagalog and English (24%). Based on these findings, we make specific recommendations for a smoking cessation program for Filipino men.
Rawlings, Melody; Sue, Edna
What Chinese students learn about American culture and the English language in the classrooms of China does not adequately prepare them for the reality of American culture and communication in English. In this study, the constructs of American culture and models of English language taught in Chinese classrooms are compared with the reality of…
Lan, Lan; Kaufman, James C.
This review of the literature explores how Americans and Chinese view creativity and what they expect from creative products. American and Chinese explicit beliefs about creativity (i.e., expert opinions) share many similarities. Implicit beliefs, however, show more divergence: Americans tend to value novelty and more "groundbreaking"…
To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…
Shumacker, H B
A prominent American thoracic surgeon, Leo Eloesser, while serving with UNICEF, contributed significantly to the health care of the Chinese people in the late 1940s, during the final years of the civil war and before the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The concepts he developed, especially concerning rural health service in poor, medically deprived nations, and the factors he felt must be taken into account in developing a health care system in any nation had lasting value. The story of the origin of his plan and his efforts to implement it is briefly related.
Lin, Chin-Yau Cindy; Fu, Victoria R.
Differences and similarities in child rearing practices among Chinese, immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian American parents were investigated. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 138 kindergarteners and first and second graders in Taiwan and the U.S. The child rearing variables of parental control, encouragement of independence, expression of…
Tang, Fengyan; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris; Dong, XinQi
The rapid increase in grandparents caring for grandchildren has received growing attention, but little research has focused on Chinese-American grandparents and their caregiving experiences. Drawing on cross-sectional data from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly-a community-engaged, epidemiological study of Chinese-American adults aged 60 and older, the relationships between caregiving experiences and psychological well-being were examined. Of 2,365 older adults who answered the question about grandparent caregiving, 818 (35%) were designated as caregivers, spending an average of 12 hours a week on childcare. About one in five caregivers reported caregiving burden, pressure, or negative health effect of caregiving. Caregivers had better psychological well-being than noncaregivers, with significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, and loneliness. For caregivers, higher levels of caregiving burden, pressure from adult children, and perceived negative effect were related to greater rates of psychological distress. With a strong cultural expectation of family care, grandparent caregiving is generally associated with positive psychological well-being, but it can also be stressful, especially when older adults feel pressured to provide childcare or that doing so is a burden. The study implies that cultural values and life transitions may shape grandparent caregiving experiences and well-being, indicating the importance of respecting cultural differences in family caregiving. Understanding positive and negative aspects of grandparent caregiving and the underlying mechanisms will help healthcare professionals identify caregivers at risk of psychological distress and provide proper interventions to attenuate negative outcomes while maximizing positive experiences for Chinese-American older adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
This article initiates a dialogue between Chinese "Gu Qin" art and curriculum theory. "Gu Qin" is the ancient Chinese musical instrument which best embodies Chinese aesthetic notions. The ancient Chinese never regarded "Gu Qin" as only an instrument; they thought that performing on it was a process of experiencing…
Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K
Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results
Full Text Available Analyzing human relationship is interesting, yet confusing. A family bound is not a guarantee that the relationships among the family members go well. Amy Tan in The Joy Luck Club serves readers the complexities of relationships between Chinese immigrant mothers and their American-raised daughters. The clashes between two generations and cultures are unavoidable. Having thick Chinese values, these immigrant mothers try to teach and even force their daughters their native culture, something that is difficult to be accepted by their daughters who are being raised in America with America mindset in their minds. Served in four story sections, The Joy Luck Club also allows readers to see how both mothers and daughters struggle to find their identities and life values in acculturation of Chinese and America cultures. Using the theory of socio cultural changes that refers to any significant alteration over time in behaviors patterns and cultural values and norms, this study would like to analyze the identity of the characters being in two different cultures.
This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese-American and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese-American and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. The study findings demonstrated that the survivors' general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors' and family members' general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members' physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person's use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner's QOL. The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese-American and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yang, Jin; Arant, David
This study found that Chinese journalism students and American journalism students are more different than similar in their value systems. Overall, American students give greater weight to social-interaction values and self-improvement values, and Chinese students give greater importance to morality-oriented values and competency-oriented values.…
Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.
This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…
Through scrutinizing three simulated negotiation cases of Chinese MBA students in an American business school, the study illustrates how Chinese face ideology functioned to orient and complicate the students' (pseudo-)business communications with Americans. The students' bone-deep sensitivity to maintaining harmony and interrelationships in the…
Tang, Fengyan; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris; Dong, XinQi
The rapid increase in grandparents caring for grandchildren has received growing attention; however, relatively little research has focused on Chinese American grandparents and their caregiving experiences. Drawing on cross-sectional data from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE) – a community-engaged, epidemiological study of Chinese American adults aged 60 and older, we examined the relationships between caregiving experiences and psychological well-being. Among 2,365 older adults who answered the question about grandparent caregiving, 818 (35%) were designated as caregivers, spending an average of 12 hours a week on childcare. About one in five caregivers reported caregiving burden, pressure, or negative health effect of caregiving. Compared with noncaregivers, caregivers had better psychological well-being, with significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, and loneliness. But increased levels of caregiving burden, pressure from adult children, and perceived negative effect were related to increased rates for psychological distress. With a strong cultural expectation for family care, grandparent caregiving is generally associated with positive psychological well-being; but it is also a stress process, especially when older adults feel pressured and/or burdened to provide childcare. The study implies that cultural values and life transitions may shape grandparent caregiving experiences and well-being, pointing to the importance of respecting cultural differences in family caregiving. Understanding both positive and negative aspects of grandparent caregiving and the underlying mechanisms will help healthcare professionals identify caregivers at risk of psychological distress and provide proper interventions to attenuate negative outcomes while maximizing positive experience in Chinese American older adults. PMID:27641829
Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hu, Angela; Ma, Grace X; Fang, Carolyn Y; Daly, Mary B
The existing knowledge on the survivorship experiences of Chinese American breast cancer survivors (CABCS) has arisen largely from aggregated data across multiethnic or multicancer studies that have focused on quality of life. Little is known about Chinese American perspectives and preferences for survivorship care. To examine the experiences of CABCS to better understand their information and communication needs and their preferences for survivorship care plans (SCPs). 16 CABCS, aged 37-72 years, were recruited through community-based organizations in the Northeast United States to participate in one-on-one telephone interviews about their breast cancer survivorship experience. The semistructured interviews were conducted in Mandarin, Cantonese, or English. Two investigators transcribed and translated the audio recordings into English and analyzed the interview transcripts using established methods of qualitative content analysis. Three main themes were identified through analysis of interview transcripts: the need for evidence-based and culturally and linguistically appropriate health information; the role of language or communication barriers and culture in accessing care and communicating with providers; and preferences for SCP elements and format. The sample may not be representative of the entire population of CABCS. The findings provide insight into the information and communication needs and SCP preferences of CABCS. Understanding the cultural nuances that underlie these needs and preferences is critical for improving CABCS's quality of life after treatment for cancer. SCPs that incorporate Chinese-language resources and address the unique cultural needs of this population should be developed and they should include information about diet and nutrition as well as traditional Chinese medicine.
Mitcham, Carl; Li, Bocong; An, Yanming
This inclusive, cross-cultural study rethinks the nexus between engineering, development, and culture. It offers diverse commentary from a range of disciplinary perspectives on how the philosophies of today’s cultural triumvirate—American, European and Chinese—are shaped and given nuance by the cross-fertilization of engineering and development. Scholars from the humanities and social sciences as well as engineers themselves reflect on key questions that arise in this relational context, such as how international development work affects the professional views, identities, practice and ethics of engineers. The first volume to offer a systematic and collaborative study that cuts across continental boundaries, the book delineates the kinds of skills and competences that tomorrow’s engineering success stories will require, and analyzes fascinating aspects of the interplay between engineering and philosophy, such as how traditionally Chinese ways of thinking can influence modern engineering practice in...
Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan
This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…
Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A.; Jones, Shelby S.
Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/ cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children. PMID:25555536
Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S
Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
“Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and s...
Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Chang, Lei; Zhang, Zengxiu; Yu, Lidong
This paper reports on three studies of shy behavior in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 107, M age = 10.05), a Chinese Shyness Scale (CSS) was developed based on Chinese teachers' open-ended descriptions of children's shy behavior. In Study 2 (N = 388, M age = 10.80) and Study 3 (N = 198, M age = 10.20), the construct validity of the two…
"Chinese migrants are currently the largest group of non-Japanese nationals living in Japan. This growth is largely the result of educational migration, positioning many Chinese in Japan as student-migrants. Based on 20 months' ethnographic fieldwork in Ikebukuro, Tokyo's unofficial Chinatown, this paper explores the ways in which the phenomenology of the city informs the desire for integration amongst young Chinese living in Japan. Discussions of migrant integration and representation often ...
Richard A. Birdsey; Robert Cook; Scott Denning; Peter Griffith; Beverly Law; Jeffrey Masek; Anna Michalak; Stephen Ogle; Dennis Ojima; Yude Pan; Christopher Sabine; Edwin Sheffner; Eric Sundquist
The U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP) sponsored an "all-scientist" meeting to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North American and adjacent oceans, and to chart a course for improved integration across scientifi c disciplines, scales, and Earth system boundaries. The meeting participants also addressed the need for...
James D. Adams
Full Text Available Chinese and Chumash traditional medical approaches are similar in terms of disease causation, use of acupuncture or healing touch, plants, spiritual and philosophical approaches. This article provides a brief comparison and discussion of Chinese and Chumash traditional medical practices. A table of 66 plants is presented along with Chinese and Chumash uses of each plant. These uses are compared and contrasted.
Nguyen, Kate; Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui
The study compared the perceptions of adults from four countries about storytelling. Americans (N = 153), Germans (N = 163), Chinese (N = 324), and Vietnamese (N = 356) completed a survey. Americans' scores on measures of storytelling experiences were the highest overall. Americans and Germans reported having significantly more childhood…
Dan, Yong-jun; She, Xiao-bo; Lan, William
The purpose of this study was to compare the history interests between American and Chinese college students. Research studies have consistently shown that American students have very limited knowledge on their country's history. American college students usually do better than K-12 students, but their scores are still low. To address the issue,…
Cheung, Ruth; Nelson, Warren; Advincula, Luzelle; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl L.
Providing appropriate health care to a client can be accomplished only in an environment that is sensitive to the cultural values and beliefs of the client. As the population of first-and second-generation Chinese immigrants increases in the United States, the need to develop culturally sensitive health care becomes significant. Chinese immigrants…
Stevens, M J; Kwan, K L; Graybill, D
MMPI-2 scores of foreign Chinese students (n = 25) were compared to those of a matched sample of Caucasian students (n = 21) and to normative data on American college students. Although responses for all groups were within normal limits, Chinese men appeared more socially introverted than Caucasian men. Relative to Caucasian women, Chinese women were more defensive, depressed, unaware of somatic and psychosocial problems, and gender astereotypic in interests. These tentative findings are discussed in terms of ethnicity and adjustment.
This article explores the extent to which Chinese school leaders espouse dichotomous or integrated Chinese and Anglo-American leadership and management preferences. Data are drawn from questionnaires completed by school leaders and from semi-structured interviews with individual school leaders from different parts of China. The exploratory study…
Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping
Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…
Li, Sherry F.; Persons, Obeua S.
The authors used a corporate code of ethics to create 18 scenarios for examining cultural effects on ethical decisions of Chinese versus American business students. Four cultural differences were hypothesized to contribute to overall less ethical decisions of Chinese students. The results support the hypothesis and indicate strong cultural effects…
Chun, Kevin M.; Kwan, Christine M. L.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chesla, Catherine A.
The primary goal of this study was to examine effects of bicultural efficacy, or perceived confidence in dealing with bicultural acculturation stressors, on type 2 diabetes management and health for first-generation, Cantonese-speaking, Chinese American immigrants (N=162) recruited for a larger community-based diabetes intervention study (Chesla et al., 2013). The current study also tested whether a new Bicultural Efficacy in Health Management (BEFF-HM) scale is a more robust predictor of diabetes and health outcomes than proxy (years in the U.S.) and general acculturation measures. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that high BEFF-HM was significantly related to positive outcomes on five of six diabetes and health measures as hypothesized after accounting for participant characteristics, proxy and general acculturation measures, and social support. Proxy and general acculturation measures failed to predict any study outcome supporting our secondary hypothesis that BEFF-HM is a better predictor of Chinese American immigrants’ diabetes and health management. An immigrant-focused research approach advances understanding of acculturation and bicultural efficacy effects on health by identifying key acculturation domains for study. PMID:27412776
Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L; Strycker, Lisa A; Chesla, Catherine A
The primary goal of this study was to examine effects of bicultural efficacy, or perceived confidence in dealing with bicultural acculturation stressors, on type 2 diabetes management and health for first-generation, Cantonese-speaking, Chinese American immigrants (N = 162) recruited for a larger community-based diabetes intervention study (Chesla et al. in Res Nurs Health 36(4):359-372, 2013. doi: 10.1002/nur.21543 ). The current study also tested whether a new Bicultural Efficacy in Health Management (BEFF-HM) scale is a more robust predictor of diabetes and health outcomes than proxy (years in the U.S.) and general acculturation measures. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that high BEFF-HM was significantly related to positive outcomes on five of six diabetes and health measures as hypothesized after accounting for participant characteristics, proxy and general acculturation measures, and social support. Proxy and general acculturation measures failed to predict any study outcome supporting our secondary hypothesis that BEFF-HM is a better predictor of Chinese American immigrants' diabetes and health management. An immigrant-focused research approach advances understanding of acculturation and bicultural efficacy effects on health by identifying key acculturation domains for study.
Ho, Grace W K; Gross, Deborah A
The perception and use of physical discipline (PD) is culture-based, and the differentiation between PD and abuse is subjective and complex. The purpose of this study was to understand how Chinese American mothers and one group of mandated reporters of child abuse (i.e. pediatric nurses) differentiate PD from abuse. Using Q-methodology, 3 viewpoints on PD and abuse differentiation were uncovered from a sample of 35 Chinese American mothers and 48 pediatric nurses. Although there was wide consensus on the most acceptable and most unacceptable parent discipline behaviors across the 3 views, the acceptability of punishments differed by their potential to inflict injury, pain, or incite fear and uncertainty. This was the first study to examine PD and abuse differentiation based on 5 definable domains of PD (i.e. specific behavior, intention, delivery, outcome, and pattern of use). Findings point to important nuances in how some mothers and nurses differentiate abuse from acceptable discipline, and the potential for using Q-methodology for exploring PD and abuse differentiations across diverse cultural, social, and professional groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
This study examined whether Chinese American parents’ acculturation and enculturation were related to parenting practices (punitive parenting, democratic child participation, and inductive reasoning) indirectly through the mediation of parents’ bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood. Data came from a two-wave study of Chinese American families in Northern California. Mothers and fathers were assessed when their children were in early adolescence and then again in middle ...
Lee, EH; Zhou, Q; Ly, J; Main, A; Tao, A; Chen, SH
Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and te...
Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei
This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…
Although Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji may have failed to gain entrance for his country into the World Trade Organization during his April visit to the United States, the two countries concluded a series of agreements as part of the Second Session of the 2-year-old U.S.-China Policy Forum on Environment and Development.A memorandum of understanding on a $100 million clean energy program accelerates the export of clean U.S. environmental technologies in the area of energy efficiency renewable energy, and pollution reduction. A statement of intent on the development of a Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions Trading Feasibility Study calls for China to develop a study to test the effectiveness of emissions trading in China as a market-based approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. And a Memorandum of Understanding on a natural gas pipeline project, signed by the Enron Corporation and the China National Petroleum Corporation, opens the way to jointly developing a natural gas pipeline to help offer an alternative to fossil fuels.
Jian-Zhong (Joe Zhou
Full Text Available
Among 150,000 librarians working in the United States, about 5% were Asians and Pacific Islanders (API, who worked mainly in the academic and large public libraries. Most Asian librarians had the unique characters of bilingual and bicultural background. They not only played a key service role to the API communities in the U.S., but also served as a bridge between mainstream American culture and the Asian culture that bound the API community together for generations. The Chinese American librarians have been a major component of API librarians and their association -- Chinese American Librarians Association (CALA is one of the most active ones among U.S. minority librarians associations. Chinese American librarians worked in all areas of library profession, especially in the technical services and Asian Studies libraries. The representation of Chinese American librarians working in the management category has been below the national average, which was a common phenomenon among Asian American educators in general.
Li, Thomas S. C
..., most particularly Chinese herbs. Unfortunately, while there is an incredible wealth of knowledge about Chinese herbs, most of this information has been unavailable to Western society, and even the accessible information has often been in obscure sources. The famous 15th century physician Paracelsus taught that the only difference between a medi...
To save China from the perils she faced in the early twentieth century, the majority of the Chinese seemed to agree that it was necessary to strengthen the country by developing shiye or industry and commerce. For this purpose, they overhauled China's education system and sent a large number of students to study overseas. Many of them enrolled in American colleges, sponsored either by governmental grants or by private funds. As American physics advanced rapidly during the early twentieth century, Chinese physicists studying in top US institutions received first-class professional training. They later went on to become a main driving force in Chinese physics development. The study-in-America programs were apparently more successful than other study-overseas programs. Among other factors, the historical lessons learned from the aborted Chinese Educational Mission in the 1870s, the prevalent and long-time presence of American mission schools in China, and stable public and private funding contributed to their success. American-trained Chinese physicists not only advanced physics study in China but also played leading roles in the development of Chinese science and technology during the twentieth century. This fertile and far-reaching American influence has been embedded in all their accomplishments.
Liu, W; Li, Y-M; Peng, Y
nursing students' mental health literacy levels for a better understanding of their practice readiness in mental health field upon completion of their education. Aim This study was aimed at developing an understanding of American and Chinese nursing students' mental health literacy regarding the effectiveness of specific interventions for managing depression and schizophrenia. Method The "Australian National Mental Health Literacy Survey" was completed by a group of 310 nursing students including 152 Americans and 158 Chinese between April 2016 and April 2017 to compare students' rated intervention options on two provided vignettes. Results The two student groups reached consensus on many intervention options. However, the Chinese students showed more preference to occasional alcohol consumption and specialized therapies and the US students held less skepticism towards traditional practices as treatment options for depression and schizophrenia. Discussion and implications for practice The findings support professional and psychosocial interventions in caring for patients with mental disorders. There is a significant need for specific education on safe alcohol consumption guidelines for Chinese nursing students and clinical practice guidelines for managing mental disorders for American nursing students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gotay, Carolyn C; Reid, Michelle S; Dawson, Marliese Y; Wang, Shouzheng
Many North American immigrants come from China. Given the critical impact of tobacco use on health, it is important to understand rates and correlates of smoking in this population. This systematic review addressed the question: based on current research, what is the association between acculturation and smoking behaviours in Chinese immigrants to North America? The search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Academic Search Complete for papers published from 2005 to 2014. Data were extracted from Canadian and American studies for population characteristics, study design, measures of smoking and acculturation, and findings regarding smoking rates and associations between smoking and acculturation. The literature search identified 147 articles, and 14 met inclusion criteria. Three studies were based on Canadian samples and the remaining 11 were from the United States. Of the 14 papers, 3 reported findings for youth and 11 for adults. Among adults, daily smoking rates were consistently much higher in men than women; for men, rates varied from 9% to 30%. Language use and time in North America were the most common indicators of acculturation. Almost all studies found a relationship between acculturation and smoking, such that more acculturated men smoke less and more acculturated women smoke more. The findings suggest that the association between acculturation and smoking is gender-specific. This correlation is found in youth and adults and in both Canada and the US. Increased acculturation has a protective effect on smoking for Chinese North American men, but a harmful effect for women. Tobacco control interventions need to develop targeted strategies appropriate to these different populations.
Liu, Shan; Qiu, Guang; Louie, Wendy
Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prevalence, frequency, perceived effectiveness, and possible influencing factors of use of meditation in patients with cancer. To examine use of mindfulness sitting medication (MSM) in Chinese American women in treatment of cancer, its relationship to specific symptom distress, and possible influencing factors of MSM. Volunteer participants were recruited through the American Cancer Society support groups. The participants completed a demographic data form, a researcher-developed criteria and checklist for MSM, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form. Eighty-nine Chinese American women with a mean age of 58 years completed the questionnaires. Twenty-one patients (24%) reported the use of MSM during active treatment of cancer. Patients who had higher education, better income, better English proficiency, and health insurance were more likely to use MSM. Patients who had more symptom distress also reported to use more MSM. Most patients (20/21) who used meditation considered it effective. After controlling other variables, better English proficiency, breast cancer, and higher symptom distress predicted the use of MSM in Chinese American women in treatment of cancer. About 24% of Chinese American women used MSM in the treatment of cancer and most of them considered it effective. Symptom distress and English proficiency levels predicted the use of MSM. Given the effectiveness of MSM, oncology nurses could recommend using MSM in Chinese American women in treatment of cancer, especially for patients who had higher symptom distress.
Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao
Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)
Chen, Moon S.
PURPOSE. This paper is based on the author's keynote address given at the Seventh International Conference on the Health Problems of Chinese in North America. METHODS. The author/speaker reviewed the literature related to Chinese American health problems within the context of the broader demographic and aggregated health data reported on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. FINDINGS. In addition to background demographic statistics provided on Chinese Americans, the author/speaker focused on two categories of diseases: (1) communicable diseases; and (2) chronic diseases because of the greater availability of data on these categories. Communicable diseases from which Chinese Americans appear to suffer disproportionally are tuberculosis and hepatitis B. Infection with the hepatitis B virus also makes Chinese Americans much more susceptible to chronic liver diseases including cancer. Chinese also suffer disproportionally more from nasopharyngeal cancer; because of higher than average adult male smoking rates, these men can be expected to suffer disproportionally from a future epidemic of lung cancer cases. Unhealthy acculturation patterns in food consumption point towards changing profiles of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as higher rates of dietary related cancers. OBSERVATIONS. Rather than conclusions, observations of the current health status of Chinese Americans were offered. Four measures that organizations such as the Chinese medical societies and Chinese American health professionals can pursue to advance the health status of Chinese Americans, particularly in the area of heaslth policy, are: (1) voting; (2) collecting data on health status; (3) writing for professional journals; and (4) being active in policy development. KEY WORDS. Chinese Americans; health status; tuberculosis; hepatits B; cancer; diet; acculturation; smoking
Li, Yongshuai; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Liu, Li
Previous research on the relationship between collectivism and corruption has not investigated their co-variation over time. In this study, we use Google Ngram Viewer to track the frequency of words related to collectivism and corruption in American books (1800-2000) and in Chinese Books (1970-2008). The results demonstrate that a positive association between the usage of these terms during the periods in both Chinese and American books, with changes in words related to collectivism preceding changes in words related to corruption in American books. The theoretical and practical implications are also discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Niu, Weihua; Zhou, Zheng; Zhou, Xinlin
Using Amabile's componential theory of creativity as a framework, this paper analyzes how Chinese mathematics teachers achieve creative teaching through acquiring in-depth domain-specific knowledge in mathematics, developing creativity-related skills, as well as stimulating student interest in learning mathematics, through well-crafted,…
Shi, Ning-Zhong; He, Xuming; Tao, Jian
In recent years, statistics education in China has made great strides. However, there still exists a fairly large gap with the advanced levels of statistics education in more developed countries. In this paper, we identify some existing problems in statistics education in Chinese schools and make some proposals as to how they may be overcome. We…
Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien
Chinese people have practiced traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years, but there is a paucity of research regarding TCM use in Chinese older adult immigrants in the United States. This study aims to provide an overall estimate of TCM use for Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics, health measures, and TCM use. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago, a community-based participant research study that surveyed 3,158 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. TCM use was measured using an eight-item scale that examined eight kinds of TCM. Seventy-six percent of participants reported any use of TCM within the past year. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, health status was associated with greater use of acupuncture (odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.68) and massage therapy (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.21-1.93), and quality of life was associated with less use of prescribed herbal products (OR 0.69, 95% CI = 0.55-0.87), tai chi (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.50-0.78), and other traditional medicine (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.40-0.56). These findings call for further investigation of TCM use by Chinese older adults, especially those with poor health and those with better quality of life. In the clinical setting, physicians should have awareness of TCM when treating Chinese older adults and look toward possible integration with Western medicine for more culturally appropriate, patient-centered care. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Gonzalez, Patricia; Nuñez, Alicia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Lim, Jung-Won; Flores, Katrina; Nápoles, Anna María
Objective The present study identified and compared the coping strategies of Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Chinese- (n = 21), Korean- (n = 11), and Mexican-American (n = 9) BCS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated for thematic content analysis of coping experiences and strategies. Results Women reported the use of eight coping strategies (religious/spiritual, benefit finding, fatalism, optimism, fighting spirit, information seeking, denial, and self-distraction). Among Chinese-American BCS, benefit finding was the most referenced coping strategy, whereas religious/spiritual coping was most frequently reported among Korean- and Mexican-American BCS. Denial and self-distraction were the least cited strategies. Conclusions Survivors draw upon new found inner strength to successfully integrate their cancer experience into their lives. Coping models must consider the diversity of cancer survivors and the variability in coping strategies among cultural ethnic minority BCS. PMID:26389720
Louie, Emma Woo
Explores the social history of Chinese surnames in the United States since immigration from China began in the 19th century. Discusses surnames in relation to immigration laws, census records, dialectical differences, and acculturation. (GC)
Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C
We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woo, Benjamin Kp
It is known that Chinese Americans associate dementia with stigma and "loss of face." However, further research is required to provide a more complete picture of the extent and nature of stigma in Chinese Americans with family histories of dementia (FHD). The present study examined whether FHD are associated with quantitative measures of stigma in Chinese Americans. A total of 300 Chinese Americans in two health seminars answered a 15-item, true/false questionnaire to assess their beliefs toward dementia. Two groups were dichotomized and compared based on FHD. Both groups subscribed to moderately stigmatizing views about dementia. Our findings showed that the group with FHD was more likely to disclose having relatives with dementia. However, this group was also more likely to perceive patients with dementia to be incapable of feeling other people's worries or concerns at once. Strategies to decrease stigma toward dementia are required. Cultural interventions must also extend into the Chinese American general public to reduce stigma of dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 122-125. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Pearcey, Sharon M; Zhan, Ginny Q
Previous cross-cultural research has examined college students' food choice decisions in different countries. The current study aimed to add to the literature by examining similarities and differences in motives for food choice between American (N = 328) and Chinese (N = 333) college students. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was used to measure the participants' motives for food choice. Students' perceptions on the importance of diet and on their body satisfaction were also obtained. Results show that, while there are many similarities between the two cultural groups on the FCQ items, there are also significant differences. Specifically, the two groups view sensory appeal, weight, health, mood, and familiarity in a similar way, but the American participants score higher on price and convenience whereas the Chinese score higher on natural content and ethical concerns. We believe contextual cultural factors of each country may be related to these results. Women view sensory appeal and weight as significantly more important than men. Interactions between culture and gender are also found. For example, American women score significantly higher than American men on mood whereas there is no gender difference in the Chinese group; on the other hand, Chinese men score significantly higher on price than Chinese women whereas there is no gender difference in the American group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jinan C. Banna
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding views about what constitutes a healthy diet in diverse populations may inform design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions. The objective of this study was to describe perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. Methods Chinese (n = 55 and American (n = 57 undergraduate students in Changsha, Hunan, China and Honolulu, Hawai’i, U.S.A. composed one- to two-paragraph responses to the following prompt: “What does the phrase ‘a healthy diet’ mean to you?” Researchers used content analysis to identify predominant themes using Dedoose (version 5.2.0, SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, 2015. Three researchers independently coded essays and grouped codes with similar content. The team then identified themes and sorted them in discussion. Two researchers then deductively coded the entire data set using eight codes developed from the initial coding and calculated total code counts for each group of participants. Results Chinese students mentioned physical outcomes, such as maintaining immunity and digestive health. Timing of eating, with regular meals and greater intake during day than night, was emphasized. American students described balancing among food groups and balancing consumption with exercise, with physical activity considered essential. Students also stated that food components such as sugar, salt and fat should be avoided in large quantities. Similarities included principles such as moderation and fruits and vegetables as nutritious, and differences included foods to be restricted and meal timing. While both groups emphasized specific foods and guiding dietary principles, several distinctions in viewpoints emerged. Conclusions The diverse views may reflect food-related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their
Banna, Jinan C; Gilliland, Betsy; Keefe, Margaret; Zheng, Dongping
Understanding views about what constitutes a healthy diet in diverse populations may inform design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions. The objective of this study was to describe perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. Chinese (n = 55) and American (n = 57) undergraduate students in Changsha, Hunan, China and Honolulu, Hawai'i, U.S.A. composed one- to two-paragraph responses to the following prompt: "What does the phrase 'a healthy diet' mean to you?" Researchers used content analysis to identify predominant themes using Dedoose (version 5.2.0, SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, 2015). Three researchers independently coded essays and grouped codes with similar content. The team then identified themes and sorted them in discussion. Two researchers then deductively coded the entire data set using eight codes developed from the initial coding and calculated total code counts for each group of participants. Chinese students mentioned physical outcomes, such as maintaining immunity and digestive health. Timing of eating, with regular meals and greater intake during day than night, was emphasized. American students described balancing among food groups and balancing consumption with exercise, with physical activity considered essential. Students also stated that food components such as sugar, salt and fat should be avoided in large quantities. Similarities included principles such as moderation and fruits and vegetables as nutritious, and differences included foods to be restricted and meal timing. While both groups emphasized specific foods and guiding dietary principles, several distinctions in viewpoints emerged. The diverse views may reflect food-related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their respective countries. Future studies may further examine themes that may
Mei Ching Lee
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore behavioral, normative, and control beliefs in the discussion of advance care planning (ACP among older and younger Chinese Americans. Ethnic minority groups have been identified as less engaged in ACP and this represents an ethnic and cultural gap. Older Chinese American adults often have different beliefs and values compared to the younger generation who are more acculturated to American mainstream culture. These differences may hinder the discussion of ACP with Chinese older adults. A qualitative design was used. The Theory of Planned Behavior guided the development of the interview guide. We recruited 60 Chinese Americans. Prior experience was identified as a theme that influenced attitudes about ACP. We found that older and younger Chinese participants had different beliefs in the norm and control related to ACP discussions, but not in the belief of attitudes about ACP discussions. Both younger and older Chinese American participants believed that ACP was important and necessary. Participants in both clusters expressed that they were ready and willing to engage in ACP discussions with their family members but hesitant to initiate these discussions. The reluctance in discussing ACP with Chinese older adults may be related to the expectations and obligations of Xiao (filial piety in Chinese culture. This study describes the similarities and differences of beliefs in ACP between older and younger Chinese Americans. We identified barriers and facilitators in behavioral, normative, and control beliefs that can be used to promote ACP for Chinese Americans.
Full Text Available Initiated by International Friendships Inc.(IFI in Cincinnati, that is a Christian community organization, the authors participated in a universal education activity, called “History Museum”, organized by the local people in Kentucky State of U.S.A. In the activity, the authors grasped some characteristics of American universal education and reflected some problems of the professional foundation teaching of Chinese postgraduates, especially of Chinese engineering postgraduates. Based on the above thinking, some suggestions of the teaching methods for the professional foundation courses of Chinese postgraduates are proposed. Furthermore, the authors hope the proposed methods would be good for improving the postgraduate education in China.
, American listeners still performed better. Analyses of mistranscribed Mandarin-accented English words revealed different areas of difficulty by listener L1. While front vowels and diphthongs were problematic for all listeners, Chinese listeners found different consonants in different word positions...... accuracy and listener L1 and word familiarity. Participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese & American) as talkers and 64 male and female graduate students (Chinese, Korean, & American) as listeners. In a counter balanced word-recognition-in-noise experiment, listeners were presented with 60...... sentences with 3 to 4 key words each which they were asked to transcribe. Intelligibility was determined by the accuracy of the key word transcriptions. Listeners then rated their familiarity with known key words on an increasing 5-point Likert scale. A series of logistic regression mixed effects models...
Ross, Heidi; Chen, Yajing
Vincent Tinto's theory of academic and social integration provides a framework for investigating perceived problems associated with Chinese international students' engagement at a public research-intensive university in the U.S. Midwest ("Midwest" University). These "problems"--classroom silence, segregation and…
Full Text Available “Film Studies” has become one of the fastest developing disciplines at liberal arts colleges in the United States since the early 1990s. Many factors have contributed to the growth of this new teaching field, among which is the fact that new generations of college students are more accustomed than ever before to visual learning due to the influence of media technology. Also with the growth of global studies, “film” is widely used as “cultural text” through which students learn about other national histories, cultures, and customs in a visualized way that is different from conventional text-reading. Chinese language cinema, with perspectives and content distinctive from Western films, has become an innovative point in the development of Chinese studies curricula. China’s fast-paced economic development and the emergence of the Chinese cinematic movements (so-called “New Waves” of the mid-1980s have also played critical roles in drawing increased attention to Chinese cinema in classrooms in the United States.
This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
"Tiger parenting," as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
“Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:23646228
Full Text Available An increasing body of literature has suggested that the public portrayal of Chinese Americans as a high-achieving, well-adjusting “model minority” might not reflect the entire reality of their mental health conditions. This study examined depression risks and correlates among different generations of Chinese Americans, using non-Hispanic whites as a comparison group. A nationally representative sample of Chinese Americans (n = 600 from the Comprehensive Psychiatric Epidemiological Survey was used. Results of the study indicate that Chinese Americans in general have a lower risk of depression than non-Hispanic whites. Moreover, the prevalence and correlates of depression do not show a linear trend of difference from first to second to third-or-higher generation Chinese Americans, and then to non-Hispanic whites; rather, the risk of depression and its association with social relational factors presents in distinctive patterns for first and second generation Chinese Americans, compared to third-or-higher generation Chinese Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Specifically, friend network and relative group play different roles in influencing depression for different generations of Chinese Americans. The findings contributed to the growing body of literature on acculturation and mental health among immigrants, shedding lights on the complicated sociocultural contexts that could influence the mental well-being of individuals. Mental health service providers need to be aware of the complex and nuanced association between social relational factors and depression in their prevention, management, and treatment efforts.
Yang, Jin; Arant, David
This study compares how American and Chinese journalism students view the importance of various journalistic roles and the difficulties of ethical dilemmas faced by journalists. Chinese students perceive greater difficulty in resolving conflict of interests and making a fair representation of the news while American students find greater…
By taking Hyland and Tse's (2004) interactional metadiscourse model, this study attempts to compare the incidence of the interactional metadiscourse markers in letters to shareholders of American and Chinese companies in the financial industry and their rhetorical functions. This study makes American corpus of 41 letters and Chinese corpus of 37…
Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.
In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…
China is one of the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitters. Chinese students' awareness and understanding about global warming have a significant impact on the future of mankind. This study, as an initial research of this kind in Mainland China, uses clinical interviews to survey 37 grade eight students on their understanding about global…
Jin, Haiyue; Wong, Khoon Yoong
Conceptual understanding is a major aim of mathematics education, and concept map has been used in non-mathematics research to uncover the relations among concepts held by students. This article presents the results of using concept map to assess conceptual understanding of basic algebraic concepts held by a group of 48 grade 8 Chinese students.…
Satia, J A; Patterson, R E; Kristal, A R; Hislop, T G; Yasui, Y; Taylor, V M
To develop simple scales to measure a Chinese immigrant's adoption of Western eating patterns (dietary acculturation). Data are from 244 less-acculturated women of Chinese ethnicity living in Seattle, Wash, and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Interviewers collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation indices, items that reflect Western and Chinese dietary behavior, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fat. Analysis of variance and linear regression analyses examined associations among dietary measures and acculturation variables, controlling for age, education, and city of residence. We developed 2 scales to assess dietary acculturation: the Western Dietary Acculturation Scale and the Chinese Dietary Acculturation Scale, measuring Western and Chinese eating behavior, respectively. Although the population in this study was a less-acculturated sample, most participants reported some Western dietary practices, such as drinking milk (78%), eating cheese (78%), eating at Western fast-food restaurants (56%), and eating between meals (72%). Younger, highly educated women employed outside the home had the highest Western dietary acculturation scores (P < .001). Women with high scores on the Western scale reported higher-fat dietary behaviors and had increased fruit and vegetable intake since immigration compared to those with lower scores (P < .001). There was good agreement between the dietary acculturation scales and traditional acculturation indicators (P < .001). Nutrition programs for immigrant/minority groups may be more effective if they are tailored to level of dietary acculturation. Therefore, the ability to accurately assess dietary acculturation is an important component of nutrition education, interventions, and counseling in these populations.
The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared…
Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Ling, Sun; Chen, Sisi
Data were analyzed from 178 American and 153 Chinese college students who participated in a study examining motivation to attend college. Students in the two countries reported similar motivations for attending college, with career and personal reasons being most important and helping family least important. Also, the study assessed the influence…
Chang, Lucy Y; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Fierman, Arthur H; Au, Loretta Y; Messito, Mary Jo
Parent perception of weight and feeding styles are associated with obesity in other racial groups but have not been explored in-depth in Chinese-American preschoolers. Cross-sectional survey of 253 Chinese-American parents with preschoolers was performed in a community clinic. Regression analysis was used to assess relationships between parental perception of weight and feeding styles. Parent under-perception of weight was common but more likely in boys than girls (χ 2 = 4.91, p = 0.03). Pressuring was also greater in boys [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) 0.24 (0.004, 0.49)]. In girls, pressuring was lower for children perceived as overweight [adjusted mean difference in CFQ scores -0.75 (-1.27, -0.23)]; in boys, pressuring was high regardless of perceived child weight. Weight perceptions and feeding styles related to childhood obesity in other groups were identified in Chinese-American families. Parent under-perception of child weight and pressure to eat were more common in boys. These factors should be addressed in Chinese-American preschooler obesity prevention programs.
Nguyen, William W.
The current study explored the personal and contextual influences that contribute to a Chinese-American undergraduate students' career decision-making process. The goal of the study was to determine if discrimination, personal interests, family conflict, and information seeking behaviors would significantly predict for one's level of career…
Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M; Lam, Shui-Fong
The authors examined cultural differences in parents' responses to their children's performance. In Study 1 (N = 421), Chinese 5th graders reported that their parents de-emphasized their academic success and emphasized their academic failure, whereas their American counterparts reported that their parents did the opposite. This partially accounted for Chinese (vs. American) children responding less positively to success and more negatively to failure. In Study 2 (N = 128), Chinese and American mothers' responses to their 4th and 5th graders' performance were observed in the laboratory. The cultural differences in children's reports of parents' responses documented in Study 1 were replicated; mothers' responses were also associated with children's subsequent performance. In addition, Chinese mothers were more involved than were American mothers, but their affect was similar. Taken together, the results suggest that parents' responses to children's performance may be a channel for cultural transmission and perpetuation of responses to performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Li, Yan; Xie, Hongling; Shi, Junqi
The present study aimed to investigate cultural construction of children's perceptions of popularity determinants using a cross-cultural approach. This study examined 327 Chinese and 312 American fifth-graders' perceptions of what individual characteristics and peer relationships would make a peer popular. Consistent with cultural emphases,…
Sun, Yiyuan; Sarma, Elizabeth A; Moyer, Anne; Messina, Catherine R
This study examined the role of women's perceptions about the relative pros versus cons (decisional balance) of mammography in moderating Chinese American women's responses to gain- and loss-framed messages that promote mammography. One hundred and forty-three Chinese American women who were currently nonadherent to guidelines for receiving annual screening mammograms were randomly assigned to read either a gain- or loss-framed culturally appropriate print brochure about mammography screening. Mammography screening was self-reported at a 2-month follow-up. Although there was not a main effect for message frame, the hypothesized interaction between message frame and decisional balance was significant, indicating that women who received a framed message that matched their decisional balance were significantly more likely to have obtained a mammogram by the follow-up than women who received a mismatched message. Results suggest that decisional balance, and more generally, perceptions about mammography, may be an important moderator of framing effects for mammography among Chinese American women. The match between message frame and decisional balance should be considered when attempting to encourage Chinese American women to receive mammography screening, as a match between the two may be most persuasive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartley, Kylie A.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
The purpose of these exploratory studies was to examine Chinese and American elementary teachers' perceptions of how various classroom activities contribute to student creativity, and how often teachers report engaging their students in these activities. Third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers in the Midwestern United States (N = 51) and in…
A study was undertaken to explore the relationship between ethnic identity and close friendship communication patterns in Chinese-American college students. Specifically, the study investigated intergenerational differences, proximity to Asian or Caucasian groups, frequency of communication, friendship network size, perceived similarity to Asians…
Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra
Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and…
Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H
Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.
Wu, Echo H.
This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…
Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
This study examined whether Chinese American parents' acculturation and enculturation were related to parenting practices (punitive parenting, democratic child participation, and inductive reasoning) indirectly through the mediation of parents' bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood. Data came from a two-wave study of Chinese American families in Northern California. Mothers and fathers were assessed when their children were in early adolescence and then again in middle adolescence (407 mothers and 381 fathers at Wave 1; 308 mothers and 281 fathers at Wave 2). For both waves, we examined cross-sectional models encompassing both direct and indirect links from parental cultural orientations to parenting practices. We also used individual fixed-effects techniques to account for selection bias in testing model relationships at Wave 2. At Wave 1, via bicultural management difficulty and depressive symptoms, American orientation was related to less punitive parenting and more inductive reasoning for both parents, and Chinese orientation was related to more punitive parenting and less inductive reasoning for fathers. The findings indicate that bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood are important mechanisms to be considered when studying the relation between Chinese American parents' acculturation/enculturation and parenting.
Stanley, Nile; Nguyen, Kate; Wilson, Hope; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui
Numerous qualitative studies, mostly with English speaking Westerners, have shown the important role of storytelling and values in promoting resilience. However, this quantitative study helps fill the gaps in the research, by investigating the mediator effects of storytelling on values and resilience of American, German, Chinese, and Vietnamese…
Roy, Shelly R.
This paper discusses the unique barriers and learning difficulties encountered by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean international students when they study at institutions of higher education in the US. These learning difficulties arise because of inability of some American professors to use discourse markers, summarize at the end of lectures, write…
Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen
Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…
Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M.
This research examined the reciprocal pathways between youth's sense of responsibility to parents and disclosure to them during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, 825 American and Chinese youth (M[subscript age] = 12.73 years) reported on their sense of responsibility to parents and…
Xu, Qiong; Mocarski, Richard
This survey of American and Chinese students at a state university in the southern United States measures Social Media (SM) use and attitudes toward SM. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perception and motivation of social media communication and the relationship between student cultural values and their social media…
Kim, Su Yeong; Shen, Yishan; Huang, Xuan; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
This study examined whether Chinese American parents’ acculturation and enculturation were related to parenting practices (punitive parenting, democratic child participation, and inductive reasoning) indirectly through the mediation of parents’ bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood. Data came from a two-wave study of Chinese American families in Northern California. Mothers and fathers were assessed when their children were in early adolescence and then again in middle adolescence (407 mothers and 381 fathers at Wave 1; 308 mothers and 281 fathers at Wave 2). For both waves, we examined cross-sectional models encompassing both direct and indirect links from parental cultural orientations to parenting practices. We also used individual fixed-effects techniques to account for selection bias in testing model relationships at Wave 2. At Wave 1, via bicultural management difficulty and depressive symptoms, American orientation was related to less punitive parenting and more inductive reasoning for both parents, and Chinese orientation was related to more punitive parenting and less inductive reasoning for fathers. The findings indicate that bicultural management difficulty and parental depressed mood are important mechanisms to be considered when studying the relation between Chinese American parents’ acculturation/enculturation and parenting. PMID:25678944
Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a characteristic of business students that has been the subject of significant research. This study was designed to extend that prior research by comparing the EI scores of American business students with those of Chinese business students. The study further focuses on those factors which may be related to ways in…
Bernardo, Aránzazu; Amérigo, María; García, Juan A.
This paper presents a study on the use of learning strategies in foreign languages, and more specifically Spanish. The study was conducted with 376 Chinese and American students who were studying Spanish in their countries of origin. The results obtained from a latent class cluster analysis identified five groups of participants based on the…
Chen, J.; Anderson, C. W.
Previous studies identified a learning progression on the concept of carbon cycling that was typically followed by American students when they progress from elementary to high school. This study examines the validity of this previously identified learning progression for a different group of learners--Chinese students. The results indicate that…
This transcript of and guide to a two-cassette course designed to assist Chinese immigrants in erasure of their foreign accents can be used for either individual or group study. Narrative and taped demonstrations of American English that pinpoint typical phonological barriers and pronunciation difficulties are outlined. The author's own system of…
Zhan, Ginny Q.; Moodie, Douglas R.; Wang, Bailing
The current study examines cultural effects on college professors' teaching styles. Ninety-four Chinese university instructors participated in the study. A 40-item teaching style inventory was used in the study. The responses were compared with American professors' teaching styles reported by Grasha (2006). Results show that the Chinese…
Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing; Chu, Keira; Chen, Stephen H.
This study examined the cross-sectional relations between teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) and math and reading achievement in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N=207). Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions including closeness, conflict,…
Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…
Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.; Yin, Xiaoqin; Chen, William
A cross-sectional survey utilized the Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II to ascertain similarities and differences between American (n=319) and Chinese (n=335) college students and between higher and lower stressed students in both samples. The results suggested the existence of a country difference in…
Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing
For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…
Aghaian, Elsa; Choe, Joyce E; Lin, Shan; Stamper, Robert L
To characterize the central corneal thickness (CCT) of Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients in a multiethnic glaucoma practice. Retrospective study (chart review). Glaucomatous (n = 600) and nonglaucomatous (n = 201) eyes of 801 patients examined in a San Francisco glaucoma clinic from June 2002 to April 2004 who met inclusion criteria were included in the study. The 6 racial (ethnic) groups represented in the study were Caucasian (n = 186, 23.2%), Chinese (n = 157, 19.6%), Japanese (n = 121, 15.1%), Hispanic (n = 116, 14.5%), Filipino (n = 114, 14.2%), and African American (n = 107, 13.4%). Central corneal thickness was measured by means of ultrasound pachymetry in Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American participants with glaucomatous and normal eyes. The relationship between CCT and race was investigated using multivariate regression analyses, controlling for confounders. One eye of each of 801 participants was included for analysis. Correlation of mean CCT with race, glaucoma diagnosis, age, spherical equivalent, gender, and history of ocular surgery. The mean CCT of all participants was 542.9 mum. Central corneal thicknesses of Chinese (555.6 microm), Caucasian (550.4 microm), Filipino (550.6 microm), and Hispanic (548.1 microm) participants did not significantly differ. The CCT of Japanese participants (531.7 microm) was significantly less than that of Caucasians, Chinese, Filipinos, and Hispanics (all, Pvalues of CCT were significantly related to older age (PFilipinos. Caucasians, Chinese, Hispanics, and Filipinos have comparable CCT measurements, whereas the corneas of African Americans are significantly thinner. Additionally, older individuals; glaucoma suspects; and participants with NTG, POAG, PEX, and CACG have thinner corneas. Ocular hypertensives, however, have thicker corneas.
Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping
Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Asian American adolescents are often depicted as academically successful but psychologically distressed, a pattern known as the achievement/adjustment paradox. In a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (54 % females), we identified three distinct patterns of adjustment in early adolescence, middle adolescence, and emerging adulthood: the well-adjusted group, which was the largest, exhibited high achievement and low psychological distress; the poorly-adjusted group exhibited poor achievement and moderate distress; and the paradox group exhibited relatively high achievement and high distress. More than half of the adolescents remained in the same profile over time. Adolescents with supportive parents were more likely to stay well-adjusted, and those with "tiger" parents were more likely to stay in the paradox group over time. The present study focused on the critical role of parenting in early adolescence, highlighting variations in Chinese American adolescents' adjustment in multiple domains over time.
Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.
Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T
Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.
Wang, Bo; Low, Jason; Jing, Zhang; Qinghua, Qu
Mandarin-speaking preschoolers in Mainland China (3- to 4-year-olds; N= 192) were tested for dissociations between anticipatory looking (AL) and verbal judgments on false-belief tasks. The dissociation between the two kinds of understanding was robust despite direct false-belief test questions using a Mandarin specific think-falsely verb and despite participants living in a culture that promotes early self-control. Children showed coherent AL across different belief-formation scenarios. Manipulation of inhibitory demand in the false-belief task did not affect preschoolers' verbal judgments any more than their AL, and yet separate measures executive function correlated only with direct judgments and not looking responses. The findings are discussed in terms of an implicit-explicit cognitive systems account of false-belief understanding. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
Camras, Linda A.; Perlman, Susan B.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer; Pollak, Seth D.
Post-institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European children participated in two emotion understanding tasks. In one task, children selected facial expressions corresponding to four emotion labels (happy, sad, angry, scared). The second task required children to match facial expressions to stories describing situations for these emotions. While…
Lai, Mun Yee; Murray, Sara
In mathematics education, there has been tension between deep learning and repetitive learning. Western educators often emphasize the need for students to construct a conceptual understanding of mathematical symbols and rules before they practise the rules (Li, 2006). On the other hand, Chinese learners tend to be oriented towards rote learning…
Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Ma, Grace X; Fang, Carolyn Y; Oh, Youngsuk; Scully, Lynn
Breast cancer incidence and the number of breast cancer survivors have been rapidly increasing among Chinese and Korean women in the United States. However, few data are available regarding quality of life in Asian American breast cancer survivors. This qualitative study aims to describe Asian American women's perceptions of quality of life and their breast cancer experiences. In-depth interviews with four Chinese and five Korean American breast cancer survivors and three oncologists were conducted in Chinese, Korean, or English. Interviews were recorded and transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative analyses were performed by two independent coders and then discussed and agreed upon by the research team. The respondents reported that the breast cancer experience had affected various domains of quality of life, but women reported having limited resources with which to cope effectively. Depression, anxiety, and stress were commonly reported, but women rarely discussed these issues with family and friends or sought professional help. As immigrants, women's loneliness and a lack of social support and culturally relevant resources seemed to be major barriers to maintaining good quality of life. Women also expressed interest in learning more about alternative therapies and relaxation skills. These findings can be used to help inform the development of a culturally appropriate intervention for Asian American breast cancer survivors. Future programs may provide information in women's native languages to teach skills to cope with stress and anxiety, increase women's self-efficacy within the context of their cultural background, and enhance social support among women from the same ethnic group.
Xu, Xiao-ling; Zhou, Jian-cang; Pan, Kong-han; Zhao, Hong-chen; Ying, Ke-jing
Nutrition therapy is essential for the management of critically ill patients. Some guidelines have been published to standardize and optimize the nutrition therapy. However, there are still many controversies in nutrition practice and there is a gap between guidelines and clinical nutrition therapy for patients in intensive care units (ICUs). This study aimed to assess attitudes and beliefs toward nutrition therapy of Chinese intensive care physicians by using the American guidelines as a surrogate. A questionnaire was sent to 45 adult ICUs in China, in which surveyed physicians were asked to rate their attitudes toward the American guidelines. A total of 162 physicians from 45 ICUs returned the questionnaires. Physicians were categorized into groups according to their professional seniority, hospital levels and whether they were members of Chinese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (CSPEN). Overall, 94% of the respondents thought that nutrition therapy for critically ill patients was very important, and 80% mentioned that they used the American guidelines. There was diversity of opinion on the recommendations pertaining to nutrition assessment, supplemental parenteral nutrition and cutoff values for gastric residual volume, negative or neutral attitudes about these recommendations were 43%, 59% and 41%, respectively. Members of CSPEN were more likely to select a greater strength of recommendation than non-members. In conclusion, the overall attitudes of Chinese intensive care physicians toward the American guidelines were positive. Nevertheless, given the great guideline-practice gap, nutrition-focused education is warranted for many intensive care physicians in China.
Miller, Brittany C; Sarma, Elizabeth A; Sun, Yiyuan; Messina, Catherine R; Moyer, Anne
Chinese American women have lower rates of mammography screening compared with non-Hispanic White women. Although the extent of perceived barriers, as conceptualized by the Health Belief Model, have been shown to distinguish between currently non-adherent Chinese American women who have ever and never had a mammogram, it is less clear which types of perceived barriers differentiate them. One hundred twenty-eight Chinese American women in the New York metropolitan area who had not had a mammogram in the past year completed baseline assessments for a mammography framing intervention study. Demographics, medical access variables, and perceived barriers to mammography (lack of access, lack of need for screening, and modesty) were used to predict mammography history (ever versus never screened). Fifty-five women (43%) reported having been screened at least once. A sequential logistic regression showed that English speaking ability and having health insurance significantly predicted mammography history. However, these control variables became non-significant when the three barrier factors were included in the final model. Women who reported a greater lack of access (OR = 0.36, p American women should identify and target specific perceived barriers with consideration of previous adherence.
Soto, José A; Perez, Christopher R; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Elizabeth A; Minnick, Mark R
The habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy has been consistently linked to adverse outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological functioning. The present study aimed to uncover whether the suppression-health relationship is dependent on cultural context, given differing cultural norms surrounding the value of suppressing emotional displays. We hypothesized that the negative associations between suppression and psychological functioning seen in European Americans would not be seen among members of East Asian cultures, in which emotional restraint is relatively encouraged over emotional expression. To test this hypothesis, we asked 71 European American students and 100 Chinese students from Hong Kong to report on their use of expressive suppression, life satisfaction, and depressed mood. A moderation analysis revealed that expressive suppression was associated with adverse psychological functioning for European Americans, but not for Chinese participants. These findings highlight the importance of context in understanding the suppression-health relationship. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Chen, Justin A; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Parkin, Susannah; Fava, Maurizio; Yeung, Albert S
Underutilization of mental health services in the U.S. is compounded among racial/ethnic minorities, especially Chinese Americans. Culturally based illness beliefs influence help-seeking behavior and may provide insights into strategies for increasing utilization rates among vulnerable populations. This is the first large descriptive study of depressed Chinese American immigrant patients' illness beliefs using a standardized instrument. 190 depressed Chinese immigrants seeking primary care at South Cove Community Health Center completed the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue, which probes different dimensions of illness beliefs: chief complaint, labeling of illness, stigma perception, causal attributions, and help-seeking patterns. Responses were sorted into categories by independent raters and results compared to an earlier study at the same site and using the same instrument. Contrary to prior findings that depressed Chinese individuals tend to present with primarily somatic symptoms, subjects were more likely to report chief complaints and illness labels related to depressed mood than physical symptoms. Nearly half reported they would conceal the name of their problem from others. Mean stigma levels were significantly higher than in the previous study. Most subjects identified psychological stress as the most likely cause of their problem. Chinese immigrants' illness beliefs were notable for psychological explanations regarding their symptoms, possibly reflecting increased acceptance of Western biomedical frameworks, in accordance with recent research. However, reported stigma regarding these symptoms also increased. As Asian American immigrant populations increasingly accept psychological models of depression, stigma may become an increasingly important target for addressing disparities in mental health service utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malespin, Miguel; Sleesman, Brett; Lau, Alan; Wong, Shirley S; Cotler, Scott J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children of Chinese immigrants. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence and is frequently identified in children. High rates of NAFLD were found in adult Chinese immigrants. However, there are limited data regarding NAFLD in Chinese American children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from 407 children, aged 6 to 18 years, who had routine office visits at a Chinatown medical practice. Children were classified as having suspected NAFLD if common causes of liver disease were excluded, alanine aminotransferase levels exceeded established thresholds (>22.1 IU/L for girls and >25.8 IU/L for boys), and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were confirmed by repeat measurement. 6.1% of Chinese American children had suspected NAFLD, including 33% of obese children. Seventeen percent of children were overweight, 14% were obese, and 52% had 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL. In univariable analysis, children with suspected NAFLD were more frequently male, had higher body mass index percentile and lipid levels, and lower vitamin D levels compared with children without evidence of NAFLD. In multivariable analysis, suspected NAFLD was associated with higher BMI percentile and lower vitamin D levels when adjusting for other factors. Chinese American children with obesity are at high risk for NAFLD. They should be screened accordingly, including testing for metabolic disorders and low vitamin D levels. Early identification of NAFLD in childhood will allow for intervention with lifestyle modification, providing a means to reduce the prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults.
Ma, Grace X; Wang, Min Qi; Ma, Xiang S; Kim, Giyeon; Toubbeh, Jamil; Shive, Steven
The purpose of this study was to validate a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model using a structural equation analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependence of model components in relation to health behavior associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Chinese Americans. A cross-sectional design included a sample of 311 Chinese American men and women age 50 and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis which included the following variables: access/satisfaction with health care, enabling, predisposing, cultural, and health belief factors. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted on factors for CRC screening. Education and health insurance status were significantly related to CRC screening. Those with less than a high school education and without health insurance were more likely to be "never screened" for CRC than those having more education and health insurance. The path analysis findings also lend support for components of the Sociocultural Health Belief Model and indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between CRC screening and the enabling factors, between cultural factors and predisposing, enabling, and access/satisfaction with health care factors and between enabling factors and access/satisfaction with health care. The model highlights the significance that sociocultural factors play in relation to CRC screening and reinforced the need to assist Chinese with poor English proficiency in translation and awareness of the importance of CRC screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese to enhance colorectal cancer screening rates.
Sun, Ivan Y; Su, Mingyue; Wu, Yuning
Domestic violence has emerged as a worldwide concern since the 1970s. Although a substantial amount of efforts have been devoted to assessing various aspects of domestic violence, a relatively small number of studies have empirically examined factors that shape public attitudes toward police response to such incidents. Even rarer is investigating the topic from an international, comparative perspective. Based on survey data gathered from approximately 550 college students in China and the United States, this study analyzes the effects of background characteristics, personal and vicarious experiences of crime, and perceptions of gender roles and violence on attitudes toward proactive and traditional police response to domestic violence. Compared to their American counterparts, Chinese students were less likely to favor proactive response and more likely to support traditional response. Chinese and American students' attitudes toward police response to domestic violence were shaped by some different and common factors. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.
Zhu Shi-Zhao; Li Xin-Li; Zhang Wen-Qing; Wang Bing-Hong; Nie Sen; Yu Gao-Feng; Han Xiao-Pu
In order to study the universality of the interactions among different markets, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix of the price of the Chinese and American bank stocks. We then find that the stock prices of the emerging market are more correlated than that of the developed market. Considering that the values of the components for the eigenvector may be positive or negative, we analyze the differences between two markets in combination with the endogenous and exogenous events which influence the financial markets. We find that the sparse pattern of components of eigenvectors out of the threshold value has no change in American bank stocks before and after the subprime crisis. However, it changes from sparse to dense for Chinese bank stocks. By using the threshold value to exclude the external factors, we simulate the interactions in financial markets. (paper)
This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…
Edrington, Janet; Sun, Angela; Wong, Candice; Dodd, Marylin; Padilla, Geraldine; Paul, Steven; Miaskowski, Christine
Barriers to cancer pain management can contribute to the undertreatment of cancer pain. No studies have documented barriers to cancer pain management in Chinese American patients. The purposes of this study in a community sample of Chinese Americans were to: describe their perceived barriers to cancer pain management; examine the relationships between these barriers and patients' ratings of pain intensity, pain interference with function, mood disturbances, education, and acculturation level; and determine which factors predicted barriers to cancer pain management. Fifty Chinese Americans with cancer pain completed the following instruments: Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) Scale, Barriers Questionnaire (BQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA), and a demographic questionnaire. The mean total BQ score was in the moderate range. The individual barriers with the highest scores were: tolerance to pain medicine; time intervals used for dosage of pain medicine; disease progression; and addiction. Significant correlations were found between the tolerance subscale and least pain (r=0.380) and the religious fatalism subscale and average pain (r=0.282). These two subscales were positively correlated with anxiety and depression levels: (tolerance: r=0.282, r=0.284, respectively; religious fatalism: r=0.358, r=0.353, respectively). The tolerance subscale was positively correlated with pain interference (r=0.374). Approximately 21% of the variance in the total BQ score was explained by patients' education level, acculturation score, level of depression, and adequacy of pain treatment. Chinese American cancer patients need to be assessed for pain and perceived barriers to cancer pain management to optimize pain management.
Chun, Kevin M.; Kwan, Christine M. L.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chesla, Catherine A.
The primary goal of this study was to examine effects of bicultural efficacy, or perceived confidence in dealing with bicultural acculturation stressors, on type 2 diabetes management and health for first-generation, Cantonese-speaking, Chinese American immigrants (N=162) recruited for a larger community-based diabetes intervention study (Chesla et al., 2013). The current study also tested whether a new Bicultural Efficacy in Health Management (BEFF-HM) scale is a more robust predictor of dia...
Hei, Ailian; Dong, XinQi
To examine the association between neighborhood cohesion and risk of self-neglect in a community-dwelling Chinese-American older population. Community. Chinese-American older adults aged 60 and older interviewed from 2011 to 2013 (N = 3,159). Data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly, a cross-sectional community-engaged study in the greater Chicago area. Self-neglect was assessed with systematic observations of a participant's personal and home environment. Neighborhood cohesion was measured using six questions. After controlling for potential confounders, greater neighborhood cohesion was significantly associated with lower risk of overall self-neglect (odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.77-0.98) and moderate to severe self-neglect (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.58-0.85) but not significantly associated with mild self-neglect (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.82-1.09). Regarding the phenotypes of self-neglect, greater neighborhood cohesion was significantly associated with lower risk of poor personal hygiene (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.96) and need for home repair (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.60-0.83) but not significantly for hoarding (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.89-1.21), unsanitary conditions (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.76-1.02), and inadequate utilities (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.77-1.31). This study highlights the association between greater neighborhood cohesion and lower risk of overall self-neglect in Chinese-American older adults. Enhancing neighborhood cohesion may enhance elder self-neglect prevention and intervention. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
This study examined the prospective associations between behavior problems and teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N = 258). Externalizing and internalizing problems were assessed using parents' and teachers' ratings. Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions of Warmth and Conflict and children completed a questionnaire measuring Closeness. Path analyses ...
American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) reveals that Mexico did not open its markets without restrictions. NAFTA came into effect in 1994 after Mexico ...the region expanded considerably. The analysis seeks to explain why there was Chinese investment in ports in Ecuador and in Mexico but not in...ports in Ecuador and in Mexico but not in Colombia during this period, a context in which all three countries had broader economic ties to China
Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54% female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (Mage.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection–identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans. PMID:25963446
Xu, Y; Pan, W; Liu, H
We sought to examine the acculturation level and its relationship with diabetes self-management among Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey research study in a convenience sample of 211 Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes. We measured acculturation and diabetes self-management and evaluated the association between acculturation and self-management behaviors after controlling participants' characteristics using structural equation modeling. The majority of the participants was born outside the U.S. and had a low level of acculturation. Women and older individuals were less acculturated, and those who had higher social economic status and lived in the U.S. for a longer period were more acculturated. The results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that acculturation was significantly associated with DM self-management, and more-acculturated individuals were more likely to perform DM self-management than less-acculturated ones after controlling demographic characteristics. The results of this study indicated that Chinese Americans diagnosed with diabetes may benefit from acculturation to mainstream society probably because increased acculturation was associated with increased help seeking behaviors and increased use of professional services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54 % female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (M age.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection-identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans.
Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping
Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performanc...
Kwon, Simona C; Kranick, Julie A; Bougrab, Nassira; Pan, Janet; Williams, Renee; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Chinese American immigrants are at increased risk for Helicobacter pylori infection and stomach cancer. Despite their increased risk, very few prevention strategies exist which target this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to present the stakeholder engaged development, review, assessment, refinement, and finalization of a H. pylori treatment adherence and stomach cancer prevention curriculum specifically designed to engage vulnerable, limited English proficient Chinese Americans in New York City.
Haryu, Etsuko; Zhao, Lihua
Do non-native speakers of the Japanese language understand the symbolic values of Japanese onomatopoeia matching a voiced/unvoiced consonant with a big/small sound made by a big/small object? In three experiments, participants who were native speakers of Japanese, Japanese-learning Chinese, or Chinese without knowledge of the Japanese language were shown two pictures. One picture was of a small object making a small sound, such as a small vase being broken, and the other was of a big object making a big sound, such as a big vase being broken. Participants were presented with two novel onomatopoetic words with voicing contrasts, e.g.,/dachan/vs./tachan/, and were told that each word corresponded to one of the two pictures. They were then asked to match the words to the corresponding pictures. Chinese without knowledge of Japanese performed only at chance level, whereas Japanese and Japanese-learning Chinese successfully matched a voiced/unvoiced consonant with a big/small object respectively. The results suggest that the key to understanding the symbolic values of voicing contrasts in Japanese onomatopoeia is some basic knowledge that is intrinsic to the Japanese language.
This study investigated the intelligibility of Chinese and American graduate students to their Korean and American peers. A psycholinguistic word-recognition-in-noise study investigated the effects on intelligibility of speakers’ L1 and segmental pronunciation accuracy and how this varied...... by listeners’ L1 and word familiarity. Participants included 6 male graduate students (Chinese and American) as speakers and 36 male and female graduate students (Korean and American) as listeners. Since there was no speech corpus publicly available that would help answer the research questions, the researcher...... first compiled the Buckeye GTA Corpus, which includes L1 and L2 speech recordings of Chinese, Indian, Korean, and American university students. A series of logistic regression mixed-effects models revealed that speaker L1, listener L1, and listener word familiarity were significant predictors...
Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Zhou, Nan
How Chinese immigrant mothers perceive “Chinese” and “U.S.” parenting and changes in their parenting postmigration remains unclear, despite recent interest in Chinese parenting particularly in response to A. Chua's (2011) controversial book on “Tiger Mothers”. The present study addressed this issue by examining the parenting beliefs and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers through qualitative interviews. Participants included 50 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers (mean age = 38.39 y...
Objective This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. Results The study findings demonstrated that the survivors’ general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors’ and family members’ general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members’ physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person’s use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner’s QOL. Conclusions The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. PMID:24700695
Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine
Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of social networks in lieu of direct parental involvement: (a) designating a helper in and outside the home for the child, (b) identifying peer models for the child to emulate, and (c) involving extended kin to guide the child jointly. These forms of social capital reflect Chinese cultural values applied to the challenges of immigrant adaptation. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyeyeon; Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon
Asian Americans have disproportionately high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States and yet have low hepatitis B screening and vaccination rates. We developed three photonovels specifically designed for Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans and evaluated their cultural relevance and effectiveness in increasing…
Ma, Grace X; Wang, Min Qi; Ma, Xiang S; Kim, Giyeon; Toubbeh, Jamil; Shive, Steven
Objective The purpose of this study was to validate a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model using a structural equation analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependence of model components in relation to health behavior associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Chinese Americans. Methods A cross-sectional design included a sample of 311 Chinese American men and women age 50 and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis which included the following variables: access/satisfaction with health care, enabling, predisposing, cultural, and health belief factors. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted on factors for CRC screening. Results Education and health insurance status were significantly related to CRC screening. Those with less than a high school education and without health insurance were more likely to be “never screened” for CRC than those having more education and health insurance. The path analysis findings also lend support for components of the Sociocultural Health Belief Model and indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between CRC screening and the enabling factors, between cultural factors and predisposing, enabling, and access/satisfaction with health care factors and between enabling factors and access/satisfaction with health care. Conclusions The model highlights the significance that sociocultural factors play in relation to CRC screening and reinforced the need to assist Chinese with poor English proficiency in translation and awareness of the importance of CRC screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese to enhance colorectal cancer screening rates. PMID:25364475
Zhong, Jie; Wang, Aimin; Qian, Mingyi; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Jun; Yang, Jianxiang; Li, Bo; Chen, Ping
Shame has been observed to play an important role in social anxiety in China [Xu, 1982]. Shame and personality factors, such as neuroticism and introversion-extraversion, are also related to social anxiety symptoms in Chinese college students [Li et al., 2003]. The aim of this study was to explore cross-cultural differences of the effects of shame and personality on social anxiety using the Experience Scale of Shame, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Social Anxiety Inventory. Data were collected from both a Chinese sample (n=211, 66 males and 145 females, average ages 20.12+/-1.56 years) and an American sample (n=211, 66 males and 145 females, average ages 20.22+/-1.90 years) of college students. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed separately for the Chinese and American samples. The SEM results reveal a shame-mediating model, which is adaptive and only in the Chinese sample. This suggests that shame is a mediator between the Chinese personality and social anxiety. The shame factor did not play the same role in the American sample. This empirical study supports the hypothesis that shame has a more important effect on social anxiety in the Chinese culture compared to its effect on Americans. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Liou, Doreen; Bauer, Kathleen; Bai, Yeon
The purpose of this research was to examine the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours related to obesity risk reduction in Chinese Americans. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 300 US-born and foreign-born Chinese Americans residing in the New York metropolitan area, ranging from 18 to 40 years of age. Obesity risk reduction behaviours and psychosocial variables derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model were measured. Acculturation was assessed using a modified Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Frequency distributions were delineated and stepwise regression analyses were analysed for different acculturation groups. 65% of the respondents were female and the mean age of the sample was 26 years. Respondents indicated the most commonly practised behaviour to be eating home-cooked meals instead of restaurant-prepared foods. Perceived barriers to adopting obesity risk-reduction behaviours included convenience of consuming fast foods, cost, lack of time to prepare home-cooked meals, and the physical environment of unhealthy foods. In predicting intention to perform obesity risk-reduction behaviours, attitude was significant for 'western-identified' individuals. In 'Asian-identified' individuals, perceived behavioural control, self-efficacy and perceived benefits were salient. Nutrition educators working with Chinese Americans need to address self-efficacy in preparing plant-based, home-cooked meals and making healthy choices at fast-food restaurants with portion control. Concrete and perceived barriers such as lack of time and convenience need to be addressed in nutrition education interventions. Educators need to identify new channels and media outlets to disseminate practical, easy-to-implement behaviours for obesity risk reduction that are socially acceptable. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.
Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing
The goal of the study was to test the bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and behavior problems in an elementary school age sample of Chinese American immigrant children. A socioeconomically diverse sample (N = 258) of first- and second-generation Chinese American children (M ages = 7.4 and 9.2 years at Wave 1 and Wave 2, respectively; 48% girls) was recruited from schools and communities and followed for 1 to 2 years. Two waves of data on dimensions of teacher-child relationship quality (i.e., warmth, closeness, and conflict) and children's externalizing and internalizing problems were collected through parents', teachers', and children's report. Path analyses were conducted to test the bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and behavior problems, controlling for prior levels, child demographic characteristics, and teacher ethnicity. Transactional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior problems were found for externalizing problems. That is, teacher-rated externalizing problems negatively predicted child-rated closeness, and teacher-rated conflict positively predicted parent-rated externalizing problems. On the other hand, teacher-child relationship quality did not predict subsequent internalizing problems. However, parent-rated internalizing problems negatively predicted teacher-rated warmth, and teacher-rated internalizing problems negatively predicted teacher-rated conflict. Using a multiple informant approach and a diverse sample of Chinese American immigrant children, this study extends our knowledge of the reciprocal associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior problems. Based on the results of this study, the authors provide recommendations for educators and future research with this understudied population.
Kung, Winnie W
The impact of culture and immigration on the experience of Chinese American families with a member having schizophrenia is explored within the frameworks of family systems and stress and coping. This qualitative study was conducted within an intervention study of family psychoeducation using therapists' session notes from 103 family sessions and 13 relatives' group sessions from nine patients and 19 relatives. The high stigma attached to mental illness leading to social isolation, and families' devotion to caregiving exacerbated caregiver burden. Taboo against discussing dating and sexuality and the consideration of arranged marriages caused unique stress. The insecurity as immigrants and shortage of bilingual services were related to greater enmeshment within these families. Implications on research methodology and practice are discussed. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U
The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the authors interviewed were able to understand that television stations broadcast commercials to earn money. Their understanding of the purposes of television commercials and the persuasive intention of television commercials developed with age. The authors examined the influence of gender, level of advertising, and level of television viewing on children's understanding of television advertising by using 3-way factorial models.
Bragg, Marie A; Pageot, Yrvane K; Hernández-Villarreal, Olivia; Kaplan, Sue A; Kwon, Simona C
The current descriptive study aimed to: (i) quantify the number and type of advertisements (ads) located in a Chinese-American neighbourhood in a large, urban city; and (ii) catalogue the targeted marketing themes used in the food/beverage ads. Ten pairs of trained research assistants photographed all outdoor ads in a 0·6 mile2 (1·6 km2) area where more than 60·0 % of residents identify as Chinese American. We used content analysis to assess the marketing themes of ads, including references to: Asian cultures; health; various languages; children; food or beverage type (e.g. sugar-sweetened soda). Lower East Side, a neighbourhood located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA. Ads (n 1366) in the designated neighbourhood. Food/beverage ads were the largest ad category (29·7 %, n 407), followed by services (e.g. mobile phone services; 21·0 %, n 288). Sixty-seven per cent (66·9 %) of beverages featured were sugar-sweetened, and 50·8 % of food ads promoted fast food. Fifty-five per cent (54·9 %) of food/beverage ads targeted Asian Americans through language, ethnicity of person(s) in the ad or inclusion of culturally relevant images. Fifty per cent (50·2 %) of ads were associated with local/small brands. Food/beverage marketing practices are known to promote unhealthy food and beverage products. Research shows that increased exposure leads to excessive short-term consumption among consumers and influences children's food preferences and purchase requests. Given the frequency of racially targeted ads for unhealthy products in the current study and increasing rates of obesity-related diseases among Asian Americans, research and policies should address the implications of food and beverage ads on health.
Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian
Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…
Zhu, Shi-Zhao; Li, Xin-Li; Nie, Sen; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Yu, Gao-Feng; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong
In order to study the universality of the interactions among different markets, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix of the price of the Chinese and American bank stocks. We then find that the stock prices of the emerging market are more correlated than that of the developed market. Considering that the values of the components for the eigenvector may be positive or negative, we analyze the differences between two markets in combination with the endogenous and exogenous events which influence the financial markets. We find that the sparse pattern of components of eigenvectors out of the threshold value has no change in American bank stocks before and after the subprime crisis. However, it changes from sparse to dense for Chinese bank stocks. By using the threshold value to exclude the external factors, we simulate the interactions in financial markets. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275186, 91024026, and FOM2014OF001) and the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology (USST) of Humanities and Social Sciences, China (Grant Nos. USST13XSZ05 and 11YJA790231).
Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L
Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background. This pilot study examined the feasibility and efficacy of providing Qigong treatment in a health center to Chinese Americans with major depressive disorder (MDD. Methods. Fourteen Chinese Americans with MDD were enrolled, and they received a 12-week Qigong intervention. The key outcome measurement was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17; the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S and -Improvement (CGI-I, the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS were also administered. Positive response was defined as a decrease of 50% or more on the HAM-D17, and remission was defined as HAM-D17 ≤ 7. Patients' outcome measurements were compared before and after the Qigong intervention. Results. Participants (N=14 were 64% female, with a mean age of 53 (±14. A 71% of participants completed the intervention. The Qigong intervention resulted in a positive treatment-response rate of 60% and a remission rate of 40% and statistically significant improvement, as measured by the HAM-D17, CGI-S, CGI-I, Q-LES-Q-SF, and the family support subscale of the MSPSS. Conclusions. The Qigong intervention provided at a health care setting for the treatment of primary care patients with MDD is feasible. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.
Full Text Available Some unhappy consumers chose to complain while majority just walk away. Consumer complaining behavior literature has long been examining the root causes for consumer complaining decision. Individuals’ attitudes, which are ultimately affected by society they are living in, are one of the well-accepted and supported reasons behind this decision. Several scholars have successfully used Ajzen and Fishbein’s (1980 ‘theory of reasoned action’ as a base while explaining consumers’ ‘attitudes toward complaining’ in several different cultural settings. Yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural research investigating attitudes towards complaining. China and America are ideal examples of their culture clusters, thus, studying these two cultures may provide very significant implications for both industry practitioners and academics. In this vein, current research aims (i to find possible effects of attitude towards complaining on intentions to remain loyal to hotels and (ii to compare Chinese and American perceptions. To do so, self-administrated questionnaires are collected from 1,822 conveniently selected graduate students in both locations. Results revealed that Chinese respondents tend to forgive and forget failures whereas Americans go to third parties in search of a remedy. Discussion of the findings, implications and limitations are also presented.
Zheng, Xin; Chung, Jamie O P; Woo, Benjamin K P
Chinese Americans, one of the fastest growing ethnic groups among the US elderly population, perceive high levels of dementia stigma. The authors examined the extent of the stigma and explored the impact of media through a culturally tailored short film to modify dementia stigma. Chinese American participants were asked to answer a dementia questionnaire. A short film was then used to address the impact of media on dementia stigma. Among 90 randomly selected participants, 89% (n = 80) found the short film to be a useful way to modify their misconceptions about dementia. In the comparison between the group who felt less influenced by the short film and the group who recognized the short film to be extremely helpful, the latter group had a higher baseline of stigma toward dementia, as well as a shorter duration of residence in the USA. Chinese Americans still perceive severe dementia stigma. Nevertheless, a culturally tailored short film demonstrated promising impact in modifying stigma toward dementia.
Ly, J; Zhou, Q
Copyright © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLCThe goal of the study was to test the bidirectional associations between teacher–child relationship quality and behavior problems in an elementary school age sample of Chinese American immigrant children. A socioeconomically diverse sample (N = 258) of first- and second-generation Chinese American children (M ages = 7.4 and 9.2 years at Wave 1 and Wave 2, respectively; 48% girls) was recruited from schools and communities and followed for 1 to 2 yea...
Cheah, Charissa S L; Leung, Christy Y Y; Zhou, Nan
How Chinese immigrant mothers perceive "Chinese" and "U.S." parenting and changes in their parenting postmigration remains unclear, despite recent interest in Chinese parenting particularly in response to A. Chua's (2011) controversial book on "Tiger Mothers". The present study addressed this issue by examining the parenting beliefs and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers through qualitative interviews. Participants included 50 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers (mean age = 38.39 years; SD = 5.19) with a 3- to 6-year-old child. Mothers had been in the U.S. for an average of 10.20 years and were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the contrasts between typical Chinese and U.S. parenting, the strengths of Chinese and U.S. parenting, and what changes (if any) occurred in their own parenting after they migrated to the U.S. Mothers identified key differences between the parenting in the 2 cultures across 4 themes. Importantly, mothers endorsed different aspects of parenting from both cultures and attempted to achieve a balance between supporting their child's development of autonomy and individuality versus maintaining a sense of relatedness and familism in their parenting, contrary to Chua's (2011) portrayal of rigid "Chinese parenting." With regard to their parenting acculturation, mothers discussed having to be flexible across different areas of their parenting in order to accommodate the cultural values of the larger societal context and promote their child's development in the U.S. These complex dynamics highlighted the challenges that Chinese immigrant mothers face as they adapt and adjust to the new cultural context, and how their parenting beliefs and practices acculturate.
Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark
Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart.
Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L
This study examined gambling behaviors and the relationship between gambling problems and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among Chinese-, Korean-, and White-American college students. Participants were 678 (179 Chinese, 194 Korean, and 305 White; 50% female) 21-26 year-old (M = 22.0 ± 1.36) students attending one university in California. The South Oaks Gambling Screen was administered to assess gambling behavior and the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism was administered to diagnose lifetime AUDs. Chi-squares and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to test our hypotheses. Rates of lifetime ever gambling and weekly gambling were similar across the three ethnic groups, but participation in five types of gambling behavior differed. Chinese had the highest rates of gambling problems followed by Koreans and then Whites. Univariate odds ratios determined being Chinese or Korean, being male, and having an AUD were risk factors for gambling problems. When stratified by gender and ethnicity, having an AUD was not related to gambling problems in women, but was strongly associated with gambling problems in Chinese and White men and modestly associated in Korean men. This was true despite low rates of AUDs in Chinese men. Gambling problems were strongly comorbid with AUDs in Chinese- and White-American men, and moderately comorbid in Korean-American men. No relationship of AUD with gambling problems was found in women. The results highlight the importance of assessing disaggregated Asian-American subgroups with respect to addictive behaviors and their comorbidity. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Larimer, Karen A; Gulanick, Meg; Penckofer, Sue
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Hispanic Americans. Social and physical determinants of health unique to this community must be understood before interventions can be designed and implemented. This article describes a CVD risk assessment conducted in a primarily Mexican American community, using Healthy People 2020 as a model. Social (language, culture, awareness of CVD, and socio-economic status) and physical (presence and use of recreation areas, presence of grocery stores, public transportation, and environmental pollution) determinants of health as well as access to health services were assessed. Fifteen community leaders were interviewed using guided interviews. Database searches and direct observations were conducted. Using these methods provided comprehensive assessment of social and physical determinants of health, and access issues that were unique to the community studied. Findings demonstrated greater awareness of diabetes than CVD as a health problem, with little knowledge of CVD risk factors. Lack of access to health services (lack of insurance, lack of a medical home) and presence of cultural and socioeconomic barriers such as language, unemployment, low income, and lack of insurance were identified. The physical determinants such as environment presented fewer barriers, with adequate access to fruits and vegetables, transportation, and parks. Results revealed target areas for intervention.
Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Zhou, Nan
How Chinese immigrant mothers perceive “Chinese” and “U.S.” parenting and changes in their parenting postmigration remains unclear, despite recent interest in Chinese parenting particularly in response to A. Chua's (2011) controversial book on “Tiger Mothers”. The present study addressed this issue by examining the parenting beliefs and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers through qualitative interviews. Participants included 50 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers (mean age = 38.39 years; SD = 5.19) with a 3- to 6-year-old child. Mothers had been in the U.S. for an average of 10.20 years and were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the contrasts between typical Chinese and U.S. parenting, the strengths of Chinese and U.S. parenting, and what changes (if any) occurred in their own parenting after they migrated to the U.S. Mothers identified key differences between the parenting in the 2 cultures across 4 themes. Importantly, mothers endorsed different aspects of parenting from both cultures and attempted to achieve a balance between supporting their child's development of autonomy and individuality versus maintaining a sense of relatedness and familism in their parenting, contrary to Chua's (2011) portrayal of rigid “Chinese parenting.” With regard to their parenting acculturation, mothers discussed having to be flexible across different areas of their parenting in order to accommodate the cultural values of the larger societal context and promote their child's development in the U.S. These complex dynamics highlighted the challenges that Chinese immigrant mothers face as they adapt and adjust to the new cultural context, and how their parenting beliefs and practices acculturate. PMID:23914284
Crystal, D S; Chen, C; Fuligni, A J; Stevenson, H W; Hsu, C C; Ko, H J; Kitamura, S; Kimura, S
Psychological maladjustment and its relation to academic achievement, parental expectations, and parental satisfaction were studied in a cross-national sample of 1,386 American, 1,633 Chinese, and 1,247 Japanese eleventh-grade students. 5 indices of maladjustment included measures of stress, depressed mood, academic anxiety, aggression, and somatic complaints. Asian students reported higher levels of parental expectation and lower levels of parental satisfaction concerning academic achievement than their American peers. Nevertheless, Japanese students reported less stress, depressed mood, aggression, academic anxiety, and fewer somatic complaints than did American students. Chinese students reported less stress, academic anxiety, and aggressive feelings than their American counterparts, but did report higher frequencies of depressed mood and somatic complaints. High academic achievement as assessed by a test of mathematics was generally not associated with psychological maladjustment. The only exception was in the United States, where high achievers indicated more frequent feelings of stress than did low achievers.
Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu
Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception. © The Author(s) 2016.
Xiao, Hai-Tao; Zhong, Linda; Tsang, Siu-Wai; Lin, Ze-Si; Bian, Zhao-Xiang
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) serves as the most common alternative therapeutic approach for Western medicine and benefits IBS patients globally. Due to the lack of scientific evidence in the past, TCM formulas were not internationally well recognized as promising IBS remedies. In this review, firstly, we present the etiology and therapy of IBS in terms of traditional Chinese medical theory. Secondly, we summarize the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM formulas for IBS patients that are available in the literature (from 1998 to September 2013), in which 14 RCTs conducted of high quality were discussed in detail. Of the 14 selected trials, 12 of those concluded that TCM formulas provided superior improvement in the global symptoms of IBS patients over the placebo or conventional medicines. As well, all 14 RCTs suggested that TCM formulas have good safety and tolerability. Last but not least, we explore the pharmacological mechanisms of the anti-IBS TCM formulas available in the literature (from 1994 to September, 2013). Collectively, in combating IBS symptoms, most TCM formulas exert multi-targeting actions including the regulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the enteric nervous system (ENS), modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, attenuation of intestinal inflammation and restoration of intestinal flora, etc. In conclusion, TCM formulas appear to be promising for IBS treatment. This review provides a useful reference for the public in furthering a better understanding and acceptance of TCM formulas as IBS remedies.
Lau, Anna S
Research on ethnic minority parenting has examined heritage cultural influences and contextual stressors on parenting processes. However, rarely are adaptive cultural processes considered, whereby ethnic minority parents bring their cultural values to bear in adapting to contextual demands in the host society. A survey of 107 Chinese American immigrant parents examined whether use of physical discipline can be predicted by cultural values, contextual stressors, and their interactions. Results indicated that distinct domains of cultural values were related to physical discipline in disparate ways, with some values decreasing risk and others indirectly increasing risk. There was some evidence that cultural values interacted with contextual stress to predict physical discipline. Parent-child acculturation conflicts were only related to physical discipline when parents held strong values about the importance of firm parental control. The findings illustrate how heritage cultural influences and current ecological demands may converge to shape parenting in immigrant families.
Saad, Carmel S; Meyer, Oanh L; Dhindsa, Manveen; Zane, Nolan
We examined whether an individual difference factor, math domain identification, moderated performance following positive stereotype activation. We hypothesized that positive stereotype activation would improve performance for those more math identified (compared to a control condition), but would hinder performance for those less math identified. We examined 116 Chinese American women (mean age = 19 years). Participants were assigned to the positive stereotype activation condition or to the control condition before completing a math test. Positive stereotype activation led more math identified participants to perform significantly better than the control condition, whereas it led less math identified participants to perform significantly worse than the control condition. Domain identification moderates the effect of positive stereotype activation. Educators should consider how testing situations are constructed, especially when test takers do not identify highly with the domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of "Escape from Diab" (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese ...
The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...
An, Song A.; Zhang, Meilan; Tillman, Daniel A.; Robertson, William; Siemssen, Annette; Paez, Carlos R.
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between science lessons taught by Chinese astronauts in a space shuttle and those taught by American astronauts in a space shuttle, both of whom conducted experiments and demonstrations of science activities in a microgravity space environment. The study examined the instructional structure…
Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong
Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between…
Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan
Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…
Cooper, Catherine R.; And Others
Total of 393 American college students of Chinese, Filipino, European, Mexican, and Vietnamese descent rated their families' familistic values and their relationship with their families. Mexican, Vietnamese, and Filipino descent students endorsed most strongly values regarding mutual support among siblings, whereas all groups reported more formal…
Stork, Elizabeth; Hartley, Nell T.
A gender and nationality comparison study of Chinese students in China and American students in the U.S. (N = 405) was conducted to explore perceptions about potentially offensive behaviors of professors in the college classroom using the Student Perceptions of Professors' Classroom Behaviors (SPPCB). Within-country and between-country comparisons…
Mason Wallace Moseley
Full Text Available Why has protest participation seemingly exploded across much of Latin America in recent years? How do individual- and country-level characteristics interact to explain the rise of contentious politics in countries like Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela? I contend that the recent wave of protests in Latin America is the result of trends in community engagement and institutional development across the regionâ€™s young democracies. Specifically, I argue that low-quality institutions in democratic regimes push an increasingly large number of civically active Latin Americans toward more radical modes of political participation, as governmentsâ€™ abilities to deliver on citizensâ€™ expectations fail to match the capacity for mobilization of active democrats. Drawing on cross-national surveys of Latin America, I test this argument, finding that an interactive relationship between community engagement and ineffective political institutions helps explain the recent spike in protest activity in certain cases and the vast differences in protest participation observed throughout the region.
Xu, Ling; Tang, Fengyan; Li, Lydia W; Dong, Xin Qi
Though ample research on grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being outcomes exist in Western literature, little attention has been focused on Chinese American grandparents. Based on role enhancement and role strain theories, this study examined grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being among Chinese American older adults and tested whether caregiving burden or pressure from adult children moderated such association. We used the data from the Population Study of ChINese Elderly in Chicago (PINE), a population-based survey of community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Grandparents with grandchildren younger than 16 years old were selected for present study (N = 2,775). Negative binominal regression and logistic regression models were used to test the relationships of grandparent caregiving time and psychological well-being measured by depressive symptoms and quality of life. Grandparents reported an average of 11.96 hours a week for caring for grandchildren. Caregiving time had a significantly negative association with depressive symptoms, but not with quality of life. The association between grandparent caregiving and depressive symptoms was moderated by the perception of caregiving burden. No moderating effect of caregiving pressure from adult children was found. More time spending on grandparent caregiving is generally beneficial to Chinese American grandparents' psychological well-being, thus supporting role enhancement theory. However, this association depends on whether this experience is a burden to the grandparents, therefore role strain theory is also supported. Policies and programs are discussed to address the grandparenting experience in the Chinese American older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Chuanqiang, Zhou; Xiangxiang, Gong; Jie, Han
This work was done to better understand the microstructures, composition and mechanical properties of Chinese hairy crab shell. For fully revealing its hierarchical microstructure, the crab shell was observed with electron microscope under different magnifications from different facets. XRD, EDS, FTIR and TGA techniques have been used to characterize the untreated and chemically-treated crab shells, which provided enough information to determine the species and relative content of components in this biomaterial. Combined the microstructures with constituents analysis, the structural principles of crab shell was detailedly realized from different structural levels beyond former reports. To explore the relationship between structure and function, the mechanical properties of shell have been measured through performing tensile tests. The contributions of organics and minerals in shell to the mechanical properties were also discussed by measuring the tensile strength of de-calcification samples treated with HCl solution
Chuanqiang, Zhou [Testing Center, Yangzhou University, No. 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou (China); Xiangxiang, Gong [Testing Center, Yangzhou University, No. 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Jie, Han [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China)
This work was done to better understand the microstructures, composition and mechanical properties of Chinese hairy crab shell. For fully revealing its hierarchical microstructure, the crab shell was observed with electron microscope under different magnifications from different facets. XRD, EDS, FTIR and TGA techniques have been used to characterize the untreated and chemically-treated crab shells, which provided enough information to determine the species and relative content of components in this biomaterial. Combined the microstructures with constituents analysis, the structural principles of crab shell was detailedly realized from different structural levels beyond former reports. To explore the relationship between structure and function, the mechanical properties of shell have been measured through performing tensile tests. The contributions of organics and minerals in shell to the mechanical properties were also discussed by measuring the tensile strength of de-calcification samples treated with HCl solution.
Tao, Ying; Colette Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady Jane
Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high, medium and low socio-economic status in Hunan Province, central south China (n = 135) and three schools of similar socio-economic status in Western Australia (n = 120). The students' understanding was assessed by a science quiz, developed from past Trends in Mathematics and Science Study science released items for primary children. In-depth interviews were carried out to further explore children's conceptual understanding of living things, the Earth and floating and sinking. The results revealed that Year 3 children from schools of similar socio-economic status in the two countries had similar conceptual understandings of life science, earth science and physical science. Further, in both countries, the higher the socio-economic status of the school, the better the students performed on the science quiz and in interviews. Some idiosyncratic strengths and weaknesses were observed, for example, Chinese Year 3 children showed relative strength in classification of living things, and Australian Year 3 children demonstrated better understanding of floating and sinking, but children in both countries were weak in applying and reasoning with complex concepts in the domain of earth science. The results raise questions about the value of providing a science curriculum in early childhood if it does not make any difference to students' conceptual understanding of science.
Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…
This study had two purposes: (1) to develop university classes in which students can participate in intercultural dialogue by exchanging letters focusing on a topic about everyday norms implicit in each culture, and (2) to examine how students develop their intercultural understanding through participating in these classes. Twenty-two Japanese and six Chinese university students (each group in their own country) participated in three class sessions. At the beginning of the first class, students were given a dialogue theme that focused on cultural differences. The selected theme was mobile phone use while riding on public transportation, as this practice is prohibited in Tokyo but not in Beijing. Students discussed their opinions in small groups, wrote questions to their counterparts in the other country, and then reflected on and discussed the answers received. Analysis of the Japanese students' written reflections showed that their understanding of different cultural values and beliefs changed from one based only on a Japanese cultural perspective to one that respected the relativity of cultural norms. The results suggested that the arousal of negative emotions when students are exposed to the perspectives of other cultures is closely related to their understanding of cultural relativity.
Li, Zhonghe; Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
Previous studies of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in Chinese Americans describe internal reliability and factor structure. We report CES-D construct validity and diagnostic validity for major depression in a probability sample of 168 community-dwelling Chinese American women. Internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.86). Good construct validity was indicated by significantly higher mean CES-D scores for respondents who reported lower social support, worse self-perceived general health, or stressful life events, including intimate partner violence. Cultural response bias was found, with positively-stated CES-D items (e.g. "I was happy") producing higher depression scores in immigrants and subjects who preferred to speak Chinese. Diagnostic validity for major depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A CES-D cut-off score of 16 had sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 44% to 100%), specificity of 76% (95% CI: 69% to 82%), PPV of 7% (95% CI: 3% to 19%) and NPV of 100% (95% CI: 97% to 100%). Our findings suggest that the CES-D is useful for screening out non-depressed subjects in a first-stage assessment. However, it should be followed by a diagnostic tool in Chinese American women with scores above the cut-off in order to identify those with clinical depression. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The present study examines sociolinguistic features of a particular speech act, paying compliments, by comparing and contrasting native Chinese and native American speakers' performances. By focusing on a relatively understudied speaker group such as the Chinese, typically regarded as having rules of speaking and social norms very different from those of Westerners, this paper aims at illuminating the fact that, in cross-cultural communication, foreign language speakers have to pay close attention to sociolinguistic rules of the target language in addition to structure and discourse rules to meet the needs of linguistic accuracy and fluency. This is due to the fact that such rules play an indispensable role in appropriating the proper use of linguistic forms. The data for this study were collected using ethnographic observation pioneered in this field by Wolfson and Manes (1980). The analysis will first explore both the features of distribution of paying compliments, and the functions they may serve in spoken exchanges for native Chinese and American English speakers. To present a fuller picture of the socio-cultural features this speech act may represent in Chinese and American societies, the analysis will further focus on the issues of topics, the addresser-addressee relationship, and culture-specificity versus universality.
Diep, Cassandra S; Leung, Randall; Thompson, Debbe I; Gor, Beverly J; Baranowski, Tom
To examine Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews using constructs from the proposed model of dietary acculturation. Community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX. Twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years. Diet, favorite restaurants, and parents' cooking and grocery shopping habits. Content analysis and thematic data analysis to identify code categories and themes. Coders also identified patterns based on demographic and acculturation factors. Overall, participants described their diets and associated behaviors as Asian and non-Asian. Key themes included preference for Asian and non-Asian foods; consumption of non-Asian foods for breakfast and lunch, but Asian foods for dinner; infrequent dining at restaurants; grocery shopping at Asian and non-Asian stores; and familial influences on diet. Acculturated children and children of higher socioeconomic status appeared to prefer and consume a more Westernized/non-Asian diet. Results illustrate that Chinese American children in this study practiced both Asian and non-Asian dietary behaviors. Findings corroborated existing acculturation research with parents and caregivers; supported constructs in the model of dietary acculturation; and provide guidance for research and programs related to dietary behaviors, determinants, and culture among this population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Chinese and Japanese university students make an exchanging of opinions regarding the topic "making a mobile phone call in the bus". Both sides of the communication can achieve different changes of cognition through different ways. This paper focuses on Chinese university students, and analyzes their cognition of the traffic etiquette in Japan and China. Unlike Japanese university students' change of cognition, Chinese university students have made more negative evaluation on Japanese traffic etiquette after the communication. However, this does not mean to shield their traffic etiquette. They have the two-way changes of cognition in both social etiquette and personal behavior. These changes may be related to the unbalanced dialogue relationship, as well as the generation of hot issues. How to generate the hot issues, and promote the two-way movement of understanding are the important clues for the design of communication curriculum to enhance the cultural understanding.
This study applies the self-determination theory (SDT) to test the hypothesized relationships among perceived autonomy support from parents, physical education (PE) teachers, and peers, the fulfilment of psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), autonomous motivation, and leisure-time physical activity of Chinese adolescents. There are 255 grade six to eight student participants from four middle schools around Shanghai, China included in this study. An accelerometer was used to measure the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The participants completed the questionnaires regarding SDT variables. The structural equation modelling was applied to examine the hypothesized relationships among the study variables. The model of hypothesized relationships demonstrated a good fit with the data [X 2 = 20.84, df = 9, P = .01; CFI = 0.98; IFI = 0.98; SRMR = 0.04; RMSEA = 0.05]. The findings revealed that autonomy support from parents, PE teachers, and peers foster social conditions in which the three basic psychological needs can be met. In turn, autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with autonomous motivation for MVPA. The autonomous motivation positively relates to the MVPA time of adolescents. The three psychological needs partially mediate the influence of autonomy support from parents (β = 0.18, P < .01; Bootstrap 95% CI = 0.06-0.33) and teachers (β = 0.17, P < .01; Bootstrap 95% CI = 0.03-0.26) in the autonomous motivation. In conclusion, these findings support the applicability of SDT in understanding and promoting physical activity of Chinese adolescents.
Kindergarten is the age at which children's future time perspective emerges. This capacity enables them to form goals based on past and ongoing experiences and project themselves in the future. This development may play an important role in guiding children in self-regulated learning. When faced with the conflict between their need to learn and their desire to play (CLP), children make choices based on their perceptions of CLP. However, their CLP-related perceptions and responses are also influenced by the values their culture upholds. Research shows that Western learning emphasizes more mental activities and positive affect, whereas East Asian learning stresses more social/moral self-perfection. Children's CLP-related perceptions and responses are likely shaped by their respective cultures' values. This study examined kindergartners' emergent perceptions of and responses to CLP. Both commonalities and possible cultural differences were investigated. The sample was 130 middle-class European-American and Chinese kindergartners, balanced for culture and gender. Children each heard a story beginning with a picture of a protagonist who is practicing words at home but hears children playing outside. Children were asked to complete the story and were probed further when they mentioned ideas related to learning and play. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed for coding. Tests were conducted for group differences. Most children from both groups identified CLP and shared similar views about their need to complete schoolwork, benefits of learning, negativity of neglecting learning, and ways to resist temptation to play. However, large cultural differences also emerged. Chinese children showed greater awareness of CLP and expressed more positive regard for learning, learning virtues, and receptivity to adult expectations. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Lu, Qian; Wong, Celia Ching Yee; Gallagher, Matthew W; Tou, Reese Y W; Young, Lucy; Loh, Alice
Despite the significant size of the Asian American population, few studies have been conducted to improve cancer survivorship in this underserved group. Research has demonstrated that expressive writing interventions confer physical and psychological benefits for a variety of populations, including Non-Hispanic White cancer survivors. The study aims to evaluate the health benefits of an expressive writing intervention among Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors in the U.S. It was hypothesized that expressive writing would increase health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Ninety-six Chinese breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 writing conditions: a self-regulation group, an emotional disclosure group, or a cancer-fact group. The self-regulation group wrote about one's deepest feelings and coping efforts in addition to finding benefits from their cancer experience. The emotional disclosure group wrote about one's deepest thoughts and feelings. The cancer-fact group wrote about facts relevant to their cancer experience. HRQOL was assessed by FACT-B at baseline, 1, 3, and 6-month follow-ups. Effect sizes and residual zed change models were used to compare group differences in HRQOL. Contrary to expectations, the cancer-fact group reported the highest level of overall quality of life at the 6-month follow-up. The self-regulation group had higher emotional well-being compared to the emotional disclosure group. The study challenges the implicit assumption that psychosocial interventions validated among Non-Hispanic Whites could be directly generalized to other populations. It suggests that Asians may benefit from writing instructions facilitating more cognitive than emotional processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G. Miguel; Tracey, Terence J. G.
Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of…
Park, Julie J.
Ethnic economies promote interclass contact among East Asian Americans, which facilitates the exchange of information and resources through social capital networks. However, low-income Korean Americans are more likely than low-income Chinese Americans to take SAT prep, although both communities have extensive ethnic economies. In the analysis of a…
Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard
Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of "Escape from Diab" (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9-12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18-54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children.
Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard
Abstract Objective: Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of “Escape from Diab” (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9–12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Results: Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18–54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. Conclusions: The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26382015
Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.
This paper reports on two exploratory studies of situations that elicit shyness in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 100; M[subscript age] = 10.42) interviews with Chinese children identified three kinds of shyness-eliciting situations: social novelty; negative social evaluation; and public attention. In Study 2 (N = 162, M[subscript age]…
Forrester, Gillian; Motteram, Gary; Bangxiang, Liu
The Developing E-learning for Teachers (DEfT) project, a collaborative venture between UK and Chinese universities, has produced e-learning modules for master's level programmes for in-service high school teachers in China. E-learning offers Chinese teachers new and innovative forms of professional development and provides for transformative…
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an 8-week Relaxation Response (RR-based group. Methods: Twenty-two depressed Chinese American immigrants were recruited. Outcomes measures were response and remission rates, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results: Participants (N = 22 were 82% female, mean age was 53 (±12. After intervention, completers (N = 15 showed a 40% response rate and a 27% remission rate, and statistically significant improvement in most outcome measures. Discussion: The RR-based group is feasible and safe in treating Chinese American immigrants with depression.
Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody
Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…
Full Text Available The article explores the demands that the conflictual dimension of globalization poses for a cosmopolitan education. Such an emphasis seems necessary in times where the populations who undertake inter- and intra-national border crossings are increasingly those who are forced to: those trying to escape unbearable poverty, atrocious wars, the disenfranchised and victims of racist, sexist or religious persecution. Reflecting on the experiences articulated in the two graphic novels, Persepolis and American Born Chinese, the dimension of the globalizing world and its impact and demands on its future world citizens which comes to the fore is one that highlights the necessity for learning how to take a critical and political stance rather than the search for how education can facilitate a smooth adaptation to a new mobile order. Stanley Cavell’s examination of the relationship between autobiography, philosophy, and the founding of a self-reliant voice will be reconsidered in light of its contribution to re-thinking the meaning of a cosmopolitan education between critical self-appropriation and developing a transformative political vision of a new societal order.
Hicks, M H; Lam, M S
The goal of this retrospective pilot study was to provide a naturalistic description of the decision-making process regarding dementia, a chronic illness. The hypothesis was that in-depth descriptions by caregivers in a community setting would provide a more comprehensive and realistic representation of decision-making in the case of chronic illness than has been provided by most models. Data were gathered from in-depth, qualitative interviews with seven Chinese-American families living in the Boston area and caring for an elderly family member with dementia. These were supplemented with interviews with medical professionals and ethnography done in the community regarding the care of elders with dementia. Based on the findings, this paper proposes a dynamic, more comprehensive model for the social process of decision-making which is particularly applicable to clinical and life situations of decision-making in the case of chronic illness. The model describes: 1) the decision-maker constellation, including multiple family members, professionals and service systems; 2) relationships between decision-makers as "allies" or "competitors"; 3) variations in the nature of the decision-making process; and 4) the interaction of decision-making with larger social, economic and cultural forces. Decision-making in the case of dementia is placed within the conceptual framework of the "social course" of chronic illness.
Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.; Kwan, Christine M.L.
This study examines how acculturation affects type 2 diabetes management and perceived health for Chinese American immigrants in the U.S. Acculturation experiences or cultural adaptation experiences affecting diabetes management and health were solicited from an informant group of immigrant patients and their spouses (N=40) during group, couple and individual interviews conducted in 2005 to 2008. A separate respondent group of immigrant patients and their spouses (N=19) meeting inclusion crit...
Literature indicates that culture influences consumers' expectations on a product or service, how they perceive performance, handle disconfirmation resulting from the comparison of expectations and perceived product or service performance, as well as their satisfaction. The study compares the confirmation/disconfirmation-paradigm between Chinese and U.S. American consumers. The influence of Hofstede's (2001) cultural dimension on disconfirmation and satisfaction is examined. The results show ...
Coronado, Gloria D; Taylor, Vicky; Acorda, Elizabeth; Hoai Do, H; Thompson, Beti
Chinese Americans are at disproportionately high risk of liver cancer. A major risk factor for liver cancer in Asia is infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV): Approximately 80% of liver cancers are linked to HBV, and chronic carriers of HBV are > 100 times more likely to develop liver cancer compared with noncarriers. However, many adults, particularly those who have immigrated to the U.S., remain untested and therefore unvaccinated or unmonitored for the disease. Chinese Americans are mostly foreign born, and more recent arrivals face multiple social and health challenges. Many require special attention from public health professionals because of low levels of acculturation and difficulties learning English. It has long been established that an English as a Second Language (ESL) curriculum can teach immigrant adults and their family's important life skills, such as job training and citizenship. The authors report on their plans to develop and pilot test a culturally appropriate curriculum that will motivate Chinese ESL students to obtain a blood test for the detection of the HBV. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael Frush
Children's ability to understand speakers with a wide range of dialects and accents is essential for efficient language development and communication in a global society. Here, the impact of regional dialect and foreign-accent variability on children's speech understanding was evaluated in both quiet and noisy conditions. Five- to seven-year-old children ( n = 90) and adults ( n = 96) repeated sentences produced by three speakers with different accents-American English, British English, and Japanese-accented English-in quiet or noisy conditions. Adults had no difficulty understanding any speaker in quiet conditions. Their performance declined for the nonnative speaker with a moderate amount of noise; their performance only substantially declined for the British English speaker (i.e., below 93% correct) when their understanding of the American English speaker was also impeded. In contrast, although children showed accurate word recognition for the American and British English speakers in quiet conditions, they had difficulty understanding the nonnative speaker even under ideal listening conditions. With a moderate amount of noise, their perception of British English speech declined substantially and their ability to understand the nonnative speaker was particularly poor. These results suggest that although school-aged children can understand unfamiliar native dialects under ideal listening conditions, their ability to recognize words in these dialects may be highly susceptible to the influence of environmental degradation. Fully adult-like word identification for speakers with unfamiliar accents and dialects may exhibit a protracted developmental trajectory.
Wang, Greg; Lamond, David; Worm, Verner
Purpose - We examine the indigenous Chinese concept of suzhi (素质) with the aim of furthering the development of Chinese human resource management (HRM) research and practice. Design/methodology/approach - An extensive review of the literature on suzhi, published in the West as well as in China...... and multidimensional frameworks, suzhi criteria may form different gestalts in different organizations and industries. Research limitations/implications - From a sociocultural and historical perspective, HRM research that incorporates a combination of indigenous and indigenized suzhi characteristics may receive better...... acceptance by Chinese individuals, organizations and society. Accordingly, the reconstruction of suzhi into manageable and measurable dimensions can be undertaken for more effective HRM practice in the Chinese context. Originality/value - We advance the extant HRM literature by linking the indigenous suzhi...
, a new methodological framework is created. The design of the framework is based on features from existing methods used for testing language association, and methods for testing the universality of emotions and their expressions. Models for exploring cultural semantics are also used as inspiration......In this thesis I investigate the understanding and use of the English emotion words guilty, ashamed, and proud by Japanese and Chinese speakers of English as a lingua franca. By exploring empirical data I examine (1) how Japanese and Chinese participants understand and use the three stimulus words...... speakers is also investigated. The study is theoretically and conceptually founded in the literature of the interplay between language, culture, and thought, and draws on notions from the fields of cross-cultural semantics and emotions. As existing methods are not adequate for the purpose of the thesis...
Dippel, Elizabeth A; Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle B
Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 16 focus groups with American Indian young people aged 16-24. Results Attitudes towards, perceived impact of, and perception of how others felt about teen pregnancy vary between American Indian parents and non-parents. Particularly, young American Indian parents felt more negatively about teen pregnancy. Participants also perceived a larger impact on female than male teen parents. Conclusions There are differences between American Indian parents and non-parents regarding attitudes towards, the perceived impact of, and how they perceived others felt about teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy prevention programs for American Indian youth should include youth parents in curriculum creation and curriculum that addresses normative beliefs about teen pregnancy and provides education on the ramifications of teen pregnancy to change attitudes.
Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya
Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…
McGaughy, Charis; Hopper-Moore, Greg; Fukuda, Erin; Phillips, Rachel; Rooseboom, Jennifer; Chadwick, Kristine
"Understanding Entry-Level Courses in American Institutions of Higher Education" outlines a study conducted by Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) that empirically identifies the characteristics of work at the college- and career-readiness level in English/language arts, science, and social sciences courses. Using a previously…
Abelmann, Nancy; Kang, Jiyeon
In this article, we analyze the U.S. media discourse on Chinese international undergraduate students, the largest international student group since 2009. The discourse describes a market "exchange", but reveals a struggle between: on the one hand, "a fair exchange"--between excellent Chinese students and world-class American…
This study examines ways in which Chinese immigrant families are involved in their children's mathematics education, particularly focusing on how different types of families utilize different forms of capital to support their children's mathematics education. The theoretical framework defines four types of Chinese immigrant families--working…
Tsai, William; Lu, Qian
Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is the inner conflict of desiring emotion expression and fearing consequence of emotion expression. Few studies to date have examined the effects of AEE within an ethnic group that prioritizes emotional self-control. The present study examined the associations between AEE and well-being (viz., quality of life and depressive symptoms) as a function of acculturation among a sample of Chinese American breast cancer survivors. Ninety-six Chinese breast cancer survivors (M age = 54.64 years old, SD = 7.98) were recruited from Southern California. Participants filled out a paper-pen questionnaire containing the Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Short Form (CESD-10). Acculturation was a statistically significant moderator of the relations between AEE and depressive symptoms, and a statistically marginally significant moderator of the relations between AEE and quality of life. Simple slopes revealed that AEE was negatively associated with quality of life (B = -.45, p .05, for quality of life and depressive symptoms, respectively). These results suggest that less acculturated Chinese breast cancer survivors are protected by Chinese cultural values of emotional self-control and restraint, and thus do not experience the detrimental effects of AEE on their depressive symptoms and quality of life. Implications are discussed.
Nicoletti, Sarah E.
With the demand for monoclonal antibody (mAB) therapeutics continually increasing, the need to better understand what makes a high productivity clone has gained substantial interest. Monoclonal antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with different productivities were provided by a biopharmaceutical company for investigation. Gene copy numbers, mRNA levels, and mAb productivities were previously determined for two low producing clones and their amplified progeny. These results showed an increase in mRNA copy number in amplified clones, which correlated to the observed increases in specific productivity of these clones. The presence of multiple copies of mRNA per one copy of DNA in the higher productivity clones has been coined as transcriptional enhancement. The methylation status of the CMV promoter as well as transcription factor/promoter interactions were evaluated to determine the cause of transcriptional enhancement. Methylation analysis via bisulfite sequencing revealed no significant difference in overall methylation status of the CMV promoter. These data did, however, reveal the possibility of differential interactions of transcription factors between the high and low productivity cell clones. This finding was further supported by chromatin immunoprecipitations previously performed in the lab, as well as literature studies. Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) binding proteins were constructed and utilized to selectively immunoprecipitate the CMV promoter along with its associated transcription factors in the different CHO cell clones. Cells were transfected with the TALE proteins, harvested and subjected to a ChIP-like procedure. Results obtained from the TALE ChIP demonstrated the lack of binding of the protein to the promoter and the need to redesign the TALE. Overall, results obtained from this study were unable to give a clear indication as to the causes of transcriptional enhancement in the amplified CHO cell clones. Further
Chu, Huikuan; Hou, Xiaohua
Background and Aims Although a range of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation has been carried out, there was very little information about the understanding on constipation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the understanding of constipation symptoms and the diagnosis and management of constipation by clinical physicians in China. Methods Participants were physicians and researchers in the field of gastroenterology in China who were scheduled to attend the National Conference on gastrointestinal motility(Constipation). Based on the recommendation of the Rome Foundation Board, the self-reported questionnaire was constructed. Findings Although most of the opinions on symptoms of constipation were consistent, there were still some differences. Opinions on the Bristol stool form during constipation were discordant, 34% of the doctors thought that it was type 1 and type 2, while 46%of the doctors suggested that type 3 should also be considered constipation. There was no significant difference between them(P = 0.05); We investigated the interpretation on the duration of defecation prolonged, 27% of the doctors suggested it should be longer than 10 minutes, 22% of the doctors suggested it should be longer than 20 minutes, and other 22% of the doctors suggested it should be time of defecation became longer compared to previously bowel habits, there was no significant difference among them(P = 0.38).Only 36% of the doctors thought that psychotherapy was most important in the treatment of severe constipation, while 37% of the doctors thought that medication treatment was most important in the treatment of severe constipation, there was no significant difference between them(P = 0.895). Conclusion We were able to obtain valuable information about current views on symptoms of constipation and the diagnosis and treatment of constipation among Chinese doctors. Although most of the opinions were consistent there were still some differences
Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Hu, Jiong; Dickman, Brenda; Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Tong, Meiling; Wu, Guangqiang; Lin, Chia-Der
Cross-language studies, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, have shown the influence of dominant linguistic environments on the encoding of voice pitch at the brainstem level in normal-hearing adults. Research questions that remained unanswered included the characteristics of the FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their immediate postnatal period and the relative contributions of the biological capacities present at birth versus the influence of the listener's postnatal linguistic experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their first few days of life and to examine the relative contributions of the "biological capacity" versus "linguistic experience" influences on pitch processing in the human brainstem. Twelve American neonates (five males, 1-3 days old) and 12 Chinese neonates (seven males, 1-3 days old) were recruited to examine the characteristics of the FFRs during their immediate postnatal days of life. Twelve American adults (three males; age: mean ± SD = 24.6 ± 3.0 yr) and 12 Chinese adults (six males; age: mean ± SD = 25.3 ± 2.6 yr) were also recruited to determine the relative contributions of biological and linguistic influences. A Chinese monosyllable that mimics the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch (117-166 Hz) was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch in all participants. Two-way analysis of variance (i.e., the language [English versus Chinese] and age [neonate versus adult] factors) showed a significant difference in Pitch Strength for language (p = 0.035, F = 4.716). A post hoc Tukey-Kramer analysis further demonstrated that Chinese adults had significantly larger Pitch Strength values than Chinese neonates (p = 0.024). This finding, coupled with the fact that American neonates and American adults had comparable Pitch Strength values, supported the linguistic experience model. On the other hand, Pitch Strength
Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G
Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.
Song, Guang-Ying; Baumrind, Sheldon; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Wu, Wei-Zi; Ren, Chong; Weng, Xuan-Rong; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min
Orthodontics in China has developed rapidly, but there is no standard index of treatment outcomes. We assessed the validity of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS) for the classification of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. We randomly selected 108 patients who completed treatment between July 2005 and September 2008 in 6 orthodontic treatment centers across China. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontists made subjective assessments of the end-of-treatment casts for each patient. Three examiners then used the ABO-OGS to measure the casts. Pearson correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted to evaluate the correspondence between the ABO-OGS cast measurements and the orthodontists' subjective assessments. The average subjective grading scores were highly correlated with the ABO-OGS scores (r = 0.7042). Four of the 7 study cast components of the ABO-OGS score-occlusal relationship, overjet, interproximal contact, and alignment-were statistically significantly correlated with the judges' subjective assessments. Together, these 4 accounted for 58% of the variability in the average subjective grading scores. The ABO-OGS cutoff score for cases that the judges deemed satisfactory was 16 points; the corresponding cutoff score for cases that the judges considered acceptable was 21 points. The ABO-OGS is a valid index for the assessment of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. By comparing the objective scores on this modification of the ABO-OGS with the mean subjective assessment of a panel of highly qualified Chinese orthodontists, a cutoff point for satisfactory treatment outcome was defined as 16 points or fewer, with scores of 16 to 21 points denoting less than satisfactory but still acceptable treatment. Cases that scored greater than 21 points were considered unacceptable. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H
The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wang, Judy H
.... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous finding of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...
Huei-Yu Wang, Judy
.... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...
.... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures are developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...
Wang, Judy H
.... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer Screening in Chinese women...
Full Text Available More than eight decades ago, the distinguished Chinese scholar Hu Shi (1891–1962 wrote an essay titled ‘My Views on Ancient History’, in which he said: My outlook regarding ancient history is, for the present, we should shorten the study of ancient history by two or three thousand years, and start our researches from the Book of Odes. When archaeology has become well developed, then we can slowly extend [our understanding of ancient history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty, using excavated historical evidence. Today, over eighty years later, Chinese history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty has been steadily reconstructed, step by step, from archaeological discoveries, without which, even the well-recognized deserved brilliance of ancient history, since the Eastern Zhou dynasty, would be dimmed.
Syn, Nicholas L X; Lee, Soo-Chin; Brunham, Liam R; Goh, Boon-Cher
Clinical trials of genotype-guided dosing of warfarin have yielded mixed results, which may in part reflect ethnic differences among study participants. However, no previous study has compared genotype-guided versus clinically guided or standard-of-care dosing in a Chinese population, whereas those involving African-Americans were underpowered to detect significant differences. We present a preclinical strategy that integrates pharmacogenetics (PG) and pharmacometrics to predict the outcome or guide the design of dosing strategies for drugs that show large interindividual variability. We use the example of warfarin and focus on two underrepresented groups in warfarin research. We identified the parameters required to simulate a patient population and the outcome of dosing strategies. PG and pharmacogenetic plus loading (PG+L) algorithms that take into account a patient's VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype status were considered and compared against a clinical (CA) algorithm for a simulated Chinese population using a predictive Monte Carlo and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic framework. We also examined a simulated population of African-American ancestry to assess the robustness of the model in relation to real-world clinical trial data. The simulations replicated similar trends observed with clinical data in African-Americans. They further predict that the PG+L regimen is superior to both the CA and the PG regimen in maximizing percentage time in therapeutic range in a Chinese cohort, whereas the CA regimen poses the highest risk of overanticoagulation during warfarin initiation. The findings supplement the literature with an unbiased comparison of warfarin dosing algorithms and highlights interethnic differences in anticoagulation control.
Yeung, Nelson C Y; Ramirez, Jeffrey; Lu, Qian
Previous studies primarily fo c used on how disease- and treatment-related variables affect cancer survivors' sleep quality. Little is known about the impact of the psychosocial factors on their sleep quality. Social constraints are perceived negative social interactions inhibiting one's disclosure. This study examined the association between social constraints and Chinese American breast cancer survivors' (BCS) sleep quality and tested perceived stress as a mediator explaining the association. Chinese American BCS (n = 94) were recruited from Southern California. Participants' social constraints, perceived stress, and sleep quality were measured in a questionnaire package. Social constraints were associated with higher perceived stress (r = 0.32, p = .002) and poorer sleep quality (r = 0.33, p Perceived stress was associated with poorer sleep quality (r = 0.47, p perceived stress was significant (β = 0.20; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.06, 0.40). The path coefficient for direct effect from social constraints to PSQI significantly dropped from β = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.51) to β = 0.13 (95% CI = -0.12, 0.35) after considering perceived stress as a mediator, suggesting a mediation effect. This study implied that social constraints may worsen sleep quality among Chinese American BCS through increasing perceived stress. Interventions to reduce social constraints and perceived stress may improve sleep quality.
Cameron, Nicole Ola; Muldrow, Adrienne Fayola; Stefani, Whitney
Negative attitudes toward being overweight or obese are widespread, and these notions perpetuate into conceptions about one's health. Clinically, being overweight is associated with health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and many other illnesses. African American women, who are generally larger in body size, are a particular target for health interventions. However, these women have resisted the "obesity" label, arguing that dominant measures of health are White norms and oppressive. Through the use of in-depth interviews, this study investigates how African American women understand and experience healthfulness, body image, and barriers to each. Findings show that African American women are ambivalent in their acceptance of dominant markers of health and expressed an almost universal disdain for the thin ideal as a marker of "good" health and a positive body image. Moreover, participants articulated a suspicion of formal medical measurements of obesity.
Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M-Y.
This 1-year longitudinal study examined the extent to which morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness, along with speeded naming, uniquely explained word recognition, dictation (i.e., spelling), and reading comprehension among 171 young Hong Kong Chinese children. With age and vocabulary knowledge statistically…
Lim, Jung-won; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T.
Purpose This study aims to investigate direct and indirect pathways of family flexibility, social support, and family communication on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods A total of 157 Chinese (n = 86)- and Korean-American (n = 71) BCS were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County. The present study was guided by the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation. Results Structural equation modeling demonstrated that (1) family communication was directly associated with HRQOL for both groups; (2) family flexibility was indirectly associated with HRQOL through family communication for Korean-Americans only; (3) social support mediated the relationship between family flexibility and family communication for Chinese-Americans only; and (4) acculturation was directly related to social support for both groups. Multigroup analysis demonstrated that the structural paths were equivalent between Chinese- and Korean-American BCS, although statistical differences in baseline parameters were noted. Conclusions Our findings suggest that family communication impacts HRQOL among Asian-American BCS. Our results show that while there are commonalities in family characteristics among Asian-Americans, specific ethnic variations also exist. Therefore, specific cultural and familial contexts should be assessed to better inform interventions to enhance family communication strategies and improve HRQOL. PMID:22875219
Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E
Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.
This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…
chewing soldiers shooting Iraqis at a wedding in a popular movie.35 These events in Turkey highlight a growing lack of trust and understanding where...political ideologies and interests. Members ranged from communists, to religious clergy both Catholic and Protestant, pacifists, socialists and social...film ever made with an estimated budget of $10 million. The film portrays American soldiers chewing gum and killing innocent people at an Iraqi wedding
Ho, Evelyn Y; Tran, Henrietta; Chesla, Catherine A
Type 2 diabetes affects Chinese Americans at an alarming rate. To address this health disparity, research in the area of cultural sensitivity and health literacy provides useful guidelines for creating culturally appropriate health education. In this article, we use discourse analysis to examine a group of locally available, Chinese- and English-language diabetes print documents from a surface level and deep structure level of culture. First, we compared these documents to research findings about printed health information to determine whether and how these documents apply current best practices for health literacy and culturally appropriate health communication. Second, we examined how diabetes as a disease and diabetes management is being constructed. The printed materials addressed surface level culture through the use of Chinese language, pictures, foods, and exercises. From a deeper cultural level, the materials constructed diabetes management as a matter of measurement and control that contrasted with previous research suggesting an alternative construction of balance. A nuanced assessment of both surface and deeper levels of culture is essential for creating health education materials that are more culturally appropriate and can lead to increased health literacy and improved health outcomes.
Research with ESL students has begun to show that Chinese students experience particular challenges in English academic listening. This study focuses on their challenges as reported by Chinese ESL students in understanding English lectures. Seventy-eight Chinese ESL students at an American university participated in this study. This paper focuses…
Li, Mohan; Sharpley, Richard Anthony john; Gammon, Sean James
The relationship between tourism and photography has long been subject to academic scrutiny. However, the extent research has adopted a primarily Western perspective, exploring the photographic practices of Western tourists. Conversely, more limited academic attention has been paid to the photographic practices of non-Western tourists. In particular, although China is now the largest source of international tourists, few attempts have been made to date to how and why Chinese tourists engage i...
Liew, Sook-Lei; Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa
Human adults typically respond faster to their own face than to the faces of others. However, in Chinese participants, this self-face advantage is lost in the presence of one's supervisor, and they respond faster to their supervisor's face than to their own. While this “boss effect” suggests a strong modulation of self-processing in the presence of influential social superiors, the current study examined whether this effect was true across cultures. Given the wealth of literature on cultural differences between collectivist, interdependent versus individualistic, independent self-construals, we hypothesized that the boss effect might be weaker in independent than interdependent cultures. Twenty European American college students were asked to identify orientations of their own face or their supervisors' face. We found that European Americans, unlike Chinese participants, did not show a “boss effect” and maintained the self-face advantage even in the presence of their supervisor's face. Interestingly, however, their self-face advantage decreased as their ratings of their boss's perceived social status increased, suggesting that self-processing in Americans is influenced more by one's social status than by one's hierarchical position as a social superior. In addition, when their boss's face was presented with a labmate's face, American participants responded faster to the boss's face, indicating that the boss may represent general social dominance rather than a direct negative threat to oneself, in more independent cultures. Altogether, these results demonstrate a strong cultural modulation of self-processing in social contexts and suggest that the very concept of social positions, such as a boss, may hold markedly different meanings to the self across Western and East Asian cultures. PMID:21359209
Liew, Sook-Lei; Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa
Human adults typically respond faster to their own face than to the faces of others. However, in Chinese participants, this self-face advantage is lost in the presence of one's supervisor, and they respond faster to their supervisor's face than to their own. While this "boss effect" suggests a strong modulation of self-processing in the presence of influential social superiors, the current study examined whether this effect was true across cultures. Given the wealth of literature on cultural differences between collectivist, interdependent versus individualistic, independent self-construals, we hypothesized that the boss effect might be weaker in independent than interdependent cultures. Twenty European American college students were asked to identify orientations of their own face or their supervisors' face. We found that European Americans, unlike Chinese participants, did not show a "boss effect" and maintained the self-face advantage even in the presence of their supervisor's face. Interestingly, however, their self-face advantage decreased as their ratings of their boss's perceived social status increased, suggesting that self-processing in Americans is influenced more by one's social status than by one's hierarchical position as a social superior. In addition, when their boss's face was presented with a labmate's face, American participants responded faster to the boss's face, indicating that the boss may represent general social dominance rather than a direct negative threat to oneself, in more independent cultures. Altogether, these results demonstrate a strong cultural modulation of self-processing in social contexts and suggest that the very concept of social positions, such as a boss, may hold markedly different meanings to the self across Western and East Asian cultures.
Wu, Nina H.
Children of immigrants who do translations and who interpret for others using their heritage language and English are known as language brokers. Although prior research suggests that children of immigrants’ perceptions of the language brokering experience vary greatly—from feeling a sense of efficacy to feeling a sense of burden—what remains unanswered in the literature is identification of the antecedents and processes that help to explain the varying psychological experience of language brokers. Using data from a two-wave prospective longitudinal study of 256 Chinese American adolescents, the present study tested potential mechanisms that may be responsible for adolescents’ perceptions of the language brokering experience as a sense or burden or sense of efficacy. The results demonstrate that adolescents’ Chinese orientation sets in motion a family process that is linked to variations in the perceptions of adolescents’ language brokering experience. Adolescents who are more Chinese oriented have a stronger sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to perceive that they matter to their parents. Adolescents’ perceived sense of mattering to parents, in turn, is associated positively with a sense efficacy, and negatively with a sense of burden as language brokers. Those adolescents who are less Chinese oriented have a weaker sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to feel a sense of alienation from their parents. Adolescents’ sense of perceived alienation from parents, in turn, is associated with a sense of burden as language brokers. Implications for developing interventions for children who act as language brokers for their parents are discussed. PMID:19636765
Wu, Nina H; Kim, Su Yeong
Children of immigrants who do translations and who interpret for others using their heritage language and English are known as language brokers. Although prior research suggests that children of immigrants' perceptions of the language brokering experience vary greatly-from feeling a sense of efficacy to feeling a sense of burden-what remains unanswered in the literature is identification of the antecedents and processes that help to explain the varying psychological experience of language brokers. Using data from a two-wave prospective longitudinal study of 256 Chinese American adolescents, the present study tested potential mechanisms that may be responsible for adolescents' perceptions of the language brokering experience as a sense or burden or sense of efficacy. The results demonstrate that adolescents' Chinese orientation sets in motion a family process that is linked to variations in the perceptions of adolescents' language brokering experience. Adolescents who are more Chinese oriented have a stronger sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to perceive that they matter to their parents. Adolescents' perceived sense of mattering to parents, in turn, is associated positively with a sense efficacy, and negatively with a sense of burden as language brokers. Those adolescents who are less Chinese oriented have a weaker sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to feel a sense of alienation from their parents. Adolescents' sense of perceived alienation from parents, in turn, is associated with a sense of burden as language brokers. Implications for developing interventions for children who act as language brokers for their parents are discussed.
This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers…
Lee-Lin, Frances; Pedhiwala, Nisreen; Nguyen, Thuan; Menon, Usha
Chinese American immigrant women, nonadherent with mammography in the past 12 months, (N = 300) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial designed to change knowledge and beliefs and increase mammogram use. This report describes intervention effects on changes in knowledge and beliefs between the control and educational groups over four time points (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months). Variables measured included knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived general barriers to mammography, perceived benefits to mammography, and four cultural barriers to mammography (crisis orientation, modesty, use of Eastern medicine, reliance on others). At all three post-intervention time points, women in the education group had significantly higher knowledge scores than those in the control group, regardless of whether they had completed a mammogram during the study. Women in the education group reported higher perceived susceptibility to breast cancer at 3-month post-intervention. At 3- and 6-month post-intervention, regardless of mammogram screening completion, women reported lower concerns about modesty related to mammography when compared to the control group. By the 12-month post-intervention, women in the education group reported significantly fewer perceived barriers than the control group. A targeted breast health program successfully changed breast health knowledge and beliefs that were sustained for up to 6-12 months. Education targeted to women's knowledge and beliefs has significant potential for decreasing disparity in mammogram use among Chinese American immigrant women.
Gómez, Jennifer M; Smith, Carly P; Gobin, Robyn L; Tang, Shin Shin; Freyd, Jennifer J
The Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015) documented devastating information about the American Psychological Association (APA) and the profession of psychology in the United States, prompting a public apology and a formal commitment by APA to correct its mistakes (APA, 2015). In the current article, we utilize betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1997), including betrayal blindness (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Tang, 2015) and institutional betrayal (Smith & Freyd, 2014b), to understand and learn from APA's behaviors. We further situate this discussion in the context of inequality, both within APA and in American society generally. We detail how the impact of APA's institutional betrayals extended beyond the organization, its members, and the psychology profession, highlighting the potential for disproportionate harm to minorities, including those who were tortured; Muslims, Middle Easterners, Afghans, and non-Americans who were not tortured; and other minority individuals (Gómez, 2015d). Acknowledging, understanding, and addressing its institutional betrayals offers APA the opportunity to take meaningful corrective and preventive measures. We propose several institutional reparations, including making concrete changes with transparency and conducting self-assessments to inform further needed changes (Freyd & Birrell, 2013). By engaging in institutional courage, APA has the potential to grow into an ethical governing body that fulfills its mission to "advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives" (APA, 2016).
Li, Luye; Sun, Ivan Y; Button, Deeanna M
Tolerance for intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important correlate of interpersonal violent behavior. Although a large amount of research on IPV has been conducted in the West and a growing amount of studies on IPV in Chinese societies has been observed in recent years, only a small number of studies have analyzed IPV-related attitudes from an international and comparative perspective. Drawing on survey data collected from 1,178 college students from two Chinese and two U.S. universities, this study empirically compared and contrasted factors influencing students' levels of tolerance for IPV. The results showed that Chinese college students had a higher level of tolerance for IPV than their U.S. counterparts. Regional variation was only detected in China with students in Beijing having a greater tolerance for IPV than students in Hong Kong. Both Chinese and U.S. students' tolerance for IPV was affected primarily by their attitudes toward gender roles and gender-based violence and perceptions of IPV causes.
Recent economic development in China not only has improved the overall living standards of Chinese people, but it has also created a new middle class. Another impact of the economic development is the increasing demand for educated workers. Subsequently, the demand for quality higher education has also increased. With more than 50% of the world's…
Lu, Huaijuan; Kitt-Lewis, Erin
Significant financial resources are invested for Research and Learning Abroad Programs for Chinese nursing educators. These resources provide an opportunity to observe U.S. nursing education and bring "the lessons learned" back to China to create positive change to nursing education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Xia; Sun, Ye; Baroody, Arthur J.; Purpura, David
Recent research has found that linguistic cues may affect children's number word acquisition. Two studies were undertaken to evaluate the use of singular/plural markings and small number words in Chinese and English and its effect on children's number concepts. The first study utilized the CHILDES data and investigated how singular/plural markings…
Zhou, Zheng; Peverly, Stephen T.; Xin, Tao
Guided by Shulman, 1986 and Shulman, 1987 tripartate model of teacher expertise [subject matter knowledge (SMK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and general pedagogical knowledge (GPK)], the present study examined 162 U.S. and Chinese 3rd grade mathematics teachers' expertise in teaching fractions. Results show that U.S. teachers lag…
Ma, Wen; Wang, Chuang
International students in the United States often employ culture-specific learning strategies to help them improve their proficiency in English. This study explored the use of self-regulated strategies by 49 Chinese graduate students from 24 fields of study at three universities in the Northeast. The research used the mixed survey method to…
Pishghadam, Reza; Zarei, Sima
Granted the fact that different cultures have different speaking styles, knowledge of these styles can help people grasp the essence of social cultural knowledge to communicate with others more successfully. In this regard, the present paper aims at comparing the use of speech act of gratitude in Persian and Chinese EFL learners and English native…
Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E
Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Meyers, S. (ed.)
The Symposium was organized by the Energy Research Institute of the State Economic Commission of China, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University from the United States. It was held at the Johns Hopkins University Nanjing Center in late June 1988. It was attended by about 15 Chinese and an equal number of US experts on various topics related to energy demand and supply. Each presenter is one of the best observers of the energy situation in their field. A Chinese and US speaker presented papers on each topic. In all, about 30 papers were presented over a period of two and one half days. Each paper was translated into English and Chinese. The Chinese papers provide an excellent overview of the emerging energy demand and supply situation in China and the obstacles the Chinese planners face in managing the expected increase in demand for energy. These are matched by papers that discuss the energy situation in the US and worldwide, and the implications of the changes in the world energy situation on both countries. The papers in Part 1 provide historical background and discuss future directions. The papers in Part 2 focus on the historical development of energy planning and policy in each country and the methodologies and tools used for projecting energy demand and supply. The papers in Part 3 examine the pattern of energy demand, the forces driving demand, and opportunities for energy conservation in each of the major sectors in China and the US. The papers in Part 4 deal with the outlook for global and Pacific region energy markets and the development of the oil and natural gas sector in China.
Full Text Available We examined age differences in self-perceptions of five dimensions of mastery motivation and also of competence in American, Chinese, and Hungarian children and teens. Participants included 200 Americans, 1,465 Chinese, and 8,175 Hungarians from 7 to 19 years of age. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire provides comparable data across these different cultures as indicated by very similar factor structures and reasonably good internal consistency reliabilities for the scales. Across all three cultures, there was the expected decline from primary to secondary school in total persistence and the four instrumental mastery motivation scales, except for social persistence with adults in the American sample. Mastery pleasure did not decline in the American and Chinese samples but declined in the Hungarian sample. Self-perceived competence did not decline significantly in the American sample or in the Hungarian sample from age 11 to 17; however, competence self-ratings declined in the Chinese sample. The three cultures were compared at 11 and 16. Although there were some significant differences, small effect sizes indicated that the level of motivation was similar for each culture at each age. The other literature provides clues about why the declines occur in all three cultures and why there are some differences among cultures.
Exploring the Relationships Between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing:Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks
Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian
Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the Listening-Reading-Writing Task and how they relate to the outcome of the Independent Listening Task. The performance of 226 native Chinese Secondary Five students on bo...
activities supported and/or sanctioned by local officials who accept their bribes or payoffs, content to persist in a symbiotic relationship of corruption ...geographically, socially, economically, and politically highly conducive for allowing organized crime and the corrupt officials who accept their bribes or...organizations, and corruption within the TBA. Evidence does not implicate the Chinese government in supporting narco-terrorism in the region. However
Witte, Anne E.; Sequeira, Isabelle; Fonteyne, Charlotte
International business programs, universities with international students, and educators who seek to internationalize their teaching need to make informed decisions about teaching, testing, and assessment criteria. The infusion of American business curricula throughout the world as well as the need to train American business students for…
Brenner, Allison B; Clarke, Philippa J
Our understanding of the mechanisms through which racial/ethnic disparities in disability in older adults develop and are maintained is limited. We examined the role of physical impairment, socioeconomic factors and health for racial/ethnic disparities in activities of daily living (ADL), and the modifying role of the indoor home environment. Data come from the National Health and Aging Trends Study ( N = 5,640), and negative binomial regression models were specified separately for men and women. Blacks and Hispanics reported more ADL difficulty than Whites. Living in homes with clutter was associated with higher rates of ADL difficulty, but it was not related to racial/ethnic disparities. Racial/ethnic differences were explained by physical impairment for men, but not for women. Socioeconomic factors and health accounted for remaining disparities for Black, but not for Hispanic women. Attention to individual and environmental factors is necessary to fully understand and address race/ethnic disparities in disability in older Americans.
This paper was aimed to analyze whether the U.S. strict export control to China affects the technological innovation of Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This paper selected the data of technological innovation and the expenditure of high and new technology adoption in China's pharmaceutical industry from 1995 to 2014, created panel regression model to study the impact of export controls on technology spillovers and the impact of technology spillovers on innovation capacity. The results show that US export control has a significant impact on technology spillovers, but foreign technology spillovers have no significant impact on the innovation of Chinese pharmaceutical industry. Although the US export control prevented foreign technology spillovers to China, but indirectly stimulated the domestic technology spillovers to pharmaceutical manufacturing industry in China. Statistical analysis show that the correlation coefficient between innovation capacity and expenditure for high technology adoption is not significant, but the expenditure of purchasing domestic technical is essential to pharmaceutical innovation. This study shows that US export control indirectly, not directly, affected the technological innovation of China's pharmaceutical industry, affected the allocation of innovative resources, but failed to prevent the technological progress and competitiveness improvement of Chinese pharmaceutical industry.
Full Text Available This study examined the metacognitive strategic knowledge possessed by Chinese and Taiwanese ESL learners (N=7 studying at a North American university. Specifically, it sought to discover the factors that influence their decisions about whether or not to use reading strategies. However, instead of analyzing participants’ use of individual strategies, it looked at the common themes which influenced their overall strategy use. In order to do so, participants first filled out a 30-item quantitative survey called the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS (Mokhtari & Sheorey, 2002. They then wrote justifications for their responses to each item. The results showed that time, memory, and text comprehension influenced participants’ strategy selection. In addition, the content of the text and its length and difficulty also influenced strategy use. Finally, learners avoided certain strategies because they simply did not like them. Pedagogical implications for Chinese L1 students planning to study at the university level in the United States or other majority English-speaking countries are discussed, as are areas for future research.
Ibberson, M R; Copier, J P; Llop, E; Navarrete, C; Hill, A V; Cruickshank, J K; So, A K
Interactions involving the T-cell receptor (TCR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are fundamental to the generation of a specific immune response. The study of interpopulation differences in TCR genes may identify those genes which are subject to selection, and also provides useful information for future genetic studies in these populations. In this study we present analysis of five TCRAV polymorphisms, for V5S1, V6S1, V8S1, V17S1, and V21S1 loci in five human populations by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Caucasian, Chinese, Gambian, AfroCaribbean, and South American Indians (Mapuches) showed marked interpopulation variation for both the silent (V5S1, V17S1, and V21S1) and coding (V6S1 and V8S1) polymorphisms. In general the alleles were conserved in the different populations, but new, additional variants were found for V5S1 and V17S1 in Gambians and Caucasians. V6S1 overall showed the highest nucleotide diversity, and V6S1 genotype distributions were skewed away from expected values in Chinese and Mapuches. Analysis of allelic associations showed a general lack of linkage disequilibrium between the loci, which was reflected by the absence of strong population-specific haplotypes.
Fisher, Lawrence; Chesla, Catherine A; Chun, Kevin M; Skaff, Marilyn M; Mullan, Joseph T; Kanter, Richard A; Gardiner, Phillip S
Family context exerts a strong influence on disease management among patients with chronic disease, but it is not clear which aspects of family life are most influential. This study examined the linkages between patient-appraised couple emotion management (conflict resolution, expressiveness, and respect) and disease management (biological, morale/depression, quality of life, and behavioral) among a relatively understudied group, Chinese American patients with type 2 diabetes. Significant main effects were found between patient-appraised couple emotion management, especially conflict resolution, and the morale component of disease management, but not the biological or behavioral components; both diabetes-specific and general relationship qualities (marital satisfaction) were independently linked to disease management. Acculturation did not qualify the findings. Similarities among ethnic groups in family and disease management relationships may be more common than differences.
This study explored how the learners-as-ethnographers (LAE) approach facilitated intercultural learning among American students learning Chinese as a foreign language. Two research questions addressed the effectiveness of the LAE approach and students' learning experiences in a non-immersion context. I designed six ethnographic tasks for the…
Weaver, Scott R.; Kim, Su Yeong
This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent-child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12-15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach,…
Fogarty, Sarah; Harris, David; Zaslawski, Chris; McAinch, Andrew J; Stojanovska, Lily
Eating disorders commonly affect young girls and women. Four eating disorders are analyzed in this study: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and binge eating disorder (BED). Eating disorders are a modern concept and as such there is no critically appraised research on how Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) conceptualizes of or treats eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the TCM patterns relevant to eating disorders based on a systematic evaluation of the results of a self-reported questionnaire. One hundred and ninety-six (196) female participants (142 with a self-reported eating disorder and 54 with no eating disorder) completed an online survey, designed to collect data on their current general health and, where relevant, their eating disorder. The Berle methodology was used to identify TCM patterns involved in eating disorders to tabulate and score the number of signs and symptoms experienced by the participants. For many of the TCM patterns, statistically significant differences were found between presentation severity across the four eating disorders. For the first time, there is evidence-based research to classify the TCM patterns involved in AN, BN, EDNOS, and BED. Evidence is given to support the anecdotal theories of TCM patterns involved in eating disorder presentation. These results have relevance on how eating disorders are treated and viewed by TCM practitioners.
Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe
While honesty is noticeably emphasized in Chinese childrearing practices, deception for the sake of collective good and maintenance of interpersonal relationship is widely endorsed by Chinese culture. This study examines how Chinese mothers negotiate between teaching honesty and helping their young children develop situational-appropriate…
Lu, Qian; Yeung, Nelson; Man, Jenny; Gallagher, Matthew W; Chu, Qiao; Deen, Sidra H
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common among breast cancer survivors. However, the association and the underlying mediating mechanism between psychosocial factors and PTSS were rarely investigated among breast cancer survivors. Previous studies have suggested the importance of emotional expression in cancer survivors' PTSS. This study examined the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE; defined as the conflict between the desire to express feelings and the fear of its consequences) and PTSS, and proposed intrusive thoughts as the mediators in such an association. We tested this proposed mediation model among Chinese breast cancer survivors whose culture discourages emotional expression. Participants were 118 Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors in the USA, who were diagnosed with breast cancer of stages 0-III within the past 5 years. They completed questionnaires measuring their levels of AEE, PTSS, and intrusive thoughts. AEE was positively associated with intrusive thoughts (r = 0.43, p expression tend to have higher PTSS, and this may be partially due to the lack of opportunities to discuss emotional events, thereby increasing the repetitive cancer-related negative thoughts. Intervention for PTSS should consider helping cancer patients to develop adaptive emotional regulation strategies to reduce the detrimental effects of cancer-related intrusive thoughts.
Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise
Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces.
Olson, Andrea M; Swabey, Laurie
Despite federal laws that mandate equal access and communication in all healthcare settings for deaf people, consistent provision of quality interpreting in healthcare settings is still not a reality, as recognized by deaf people and American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreters. The purpose of this study was to better understand the work of ASL interpreters employed in healthcare settings, which can then inform on training and credentialing of interpreters, with the ultimate aim of improving the quality of healthcare and communication access for deaf people. Based on job analysis, researchers designed an online survey with 167 task statements representing 44 categories. American Sign Language interpreters (N = 339) rated the importance of, and frequency with which they performed, each of the 167 tasks. Categories with the highest average importance ratings included language and interpreting, situation assessment, ethical and professional decision making, manage the discourse, monitor, manage and/or coordinate appointments. Categories with the highest average frequency ratings included the following: dress appropriately, adapt to a variety of physical settings and locations, adapt to working with variety of providers in variety of roles, deal with uncertain and unpredictable work situations, and demonstrate cultural adaptability. To achieve health equity for the deaf community, the training and credentialing of interpreters needs to be systematically addressed.
Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie
Perpetual foreigner stereotype and bicultural management difficulty are two understudied acculturative stressors frequently experienced by Asian Americans. This study expanded the family stress model to examine how parental experiences of these two acculturative stressors relate to measures of adolescent adjustment (depressive symptoms, delinquent behaviors, and academic performance) during high school and emerging adulthood through interparental and parent-child relationship processes. Participants were 350 Chinese American adolescents (M age = 17.04, 58 % female) and their parents in Northern California. Path models showed that parental acculturative stressors positively related to parent-child conflict, either directly (for both mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads) or indirectly through interparental conflict (for mother-adolescent dyads only). Subsequently, both interparental and parent-child conflict positively related to a sense of alienation between parents and adolescents, which then related to more depressive symptoms, more delinquent behaviors, and lower academic performance in adolescents, for mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads. These effects persisted from high school to emerging adulthood. The results highlight the indirect effects of maternal and paternal acculturative stressors on adolescent adjustment through family processes involving interparental and parent-child relationships.
Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.
The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.
This paper analyses how people understand civil nuclear risk in the local context in China. The findings of the paper are based on six months of fieldwork research on a potential inland nuclear power project in Dapu townland in 2007 and 2008. Understanding varies greatly depending on local context, with economic, geographic and social factors influencing the way people view risks and benefits. I argue that when local people do not have enough 'scientific knowledge' to understand risk from nuclear power, they can still use their experience of everyday life to reflect rationally on the risks and benefits that they face. I conclude that when local people trust in nuclear technology and 'the government', and are unaware of nuclear risk it is partly because of their over-dependence on institutions and experts. However, despite their lack of agency, local people rationally calculate risk and benefit in accordance with their social identity and geographical location.
Chao, Steven Z.; Lai, Ngan B.; Tse, Marian M.; Ho, Rachel J.; Kong, Joanne P.; Matthews, Brandy R.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.
Purpose: To describe the results of efforts to recruit Asian Americans into longitudinal research on cognitive decline in aging. Design and Methods: Recruitment strategies include clinics for assessment of cognitive impairment at the University of California, San Francisco campus and San Francisco's Chinatown, lectures to local health care…
P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson
We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...
Commander, Nannette; Zhao, Yali; Gallagher, Peggy; You, Yongheng
Universities are seeking techniques that encourage students to become more globalised in their perspectives. One method of fostering globalisation is to incorporate cross-national asynchronous online discussions with students from different countries within courses. The purpose of this study was to explore if participation by American and Chinese…
Zhao, Chunjuan; Mei, Zongxiang
Motivating students has been a key challenge facing instructors in non-face-to-face instructional contexts. Existing researches into motivation in online learning environment have revealed that there are learning motivation differences among students from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to identify whether American and…
Liu, Yanyan; Yuan, Changrong; Wang, Jichuan; Brown, Jeanne Geiger; Zhou, Fen; Zhao, Xiufang; Shen, Min; Hinds, Pamela S
Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric forms measure symptoms and function of pediatric patients experiencing chronic disease by using the same measures. Comparability is one of the most important purposes of the PROMIS initiative. This study aimed to test the factorial structures of four symptom measures (i.e., Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Pain Interference) in the original English and the Chinese versions and examine the measurement invariance of the measures across two cultures. Four PROMIS Pediatric measures were used to assess symptoms, respectively, in Chinese (n = 232) and American (n = 200) children and adolescents (8-17 years old) in treatment for cancer or in survivorship. The categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) model was used to examine factorial structures, and multigroup CCFA was applied to test measurement invariance of these measures between the Chinese and American samples. The CCFA models of the four PROMIS Pediatric symptom measures fit the data well for both the Chinese and American children and adolescents. Minor partial measurement invariance was identified. Factor means and factor variances of the four PROMIS measures were not significantly different between the two populations. Our results provide evidence that the four PROMIS Pediatric symptom measures have valid factorial structures and a statistical property of measurement invariance across American and Chinese children and adolescents with cancer. This means that the items of these measures were interpreted in a conceptually similar manner by two groups. They could be readily used for meaningful cross-cultural comparisons involving pediatric oncology patients in these two countries.
Shih, Kristy Y.; Pyke, Karen
This interview study interrogates how cultural values of filial piety inform Chinese American daughters-in-law's understanding of their relationship and power dynamics with immigrant Chinese American mothers-in-law. Ideals of filial respect accord limited authority to mothers-in-law, who engage other mechanisms of power, such as their domestic…
Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Adams, Inez F; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Allen, Laura; Huang, Ellen; Wang, Yiru; Pasick, Rena J
Cancer-related stress is heavily influenced by culture. This study explored similarities and differences in survivorship care concerns among Chinese American and non-Hispanic White (NHW) breast cancer survivors. A sequential, mixed-method design (inductive/qualitative research-phase I and deductive/quantitative research-phase II) was employed. Eligible women identified from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry were age ≥21, diagnosed with stage 0-IIa breast cancer between 2006 and 2011, and had no recurrence or other cancers. In phase I, we conducted 4 Chinese (n = 19) and 4 NHW (n = 22) focus groups, and 31 individual telephone interviews (18 Chinese immigrants, 7 Chinese US-born, and 6 NHW). Content analysis was conducted to examine qualitative data. In phase II, another 296 survivors (148 NHW age-matched to 148 Chinese cases) completed a cross-sectional survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were conducted to examine quantitative data. Qualitative data revealed "socioeconomic well-being" (SWB) as a dominant survivorship concern, which was operationalized as a cancer survivor's perceived economic and social resources available to access care. Quantitative data showed that low-acculturated Chinese immigrants reported the poorest SWB, controlling for covariates. Highly acculturated Chinese immigrants and the US-born Chinese/NHW group reported similar SWB. Women who had low-income levels or chemotherapy had poorer SWB. SWB emerged as an important aspect of breast cancer survivorship. Immigration stress, cancer care costs, and cultural values all contributed to immigrants' socioeconomic distress. Immigrant and US-born breast cancer survivors experienced different socioeconomic circumstances and well-being following treatment. Our findings warrant further investigation of socioeconomic distress and survivorship outcomes.
Thanh V Tran; Rita Vatcher; Hae Nim Lee; Phu Tai Phan; Thuc-Nhi Nguyen
Objectives; This study aims to examine racial/ethnic differences in vegetable consumption between White and three major groups of Asian Americans. We hypothesize that racial/ethnic differences in frequency of vegetable consumption is significantly related to respondents¡¯ household income. Methods; We used the 2009 California Health Survey Interview (CHIS) data set that has a total sample of 47,167 respondents aged 18 and over. The selected sample used in this study consisted of four racial a...
Fu, Xianjun; Mervin, Lewis H; Li, Xuebo; Yu, Huayun; Li, Jiaoyang; Mohamad Zobir, Siti Zuraidah; Zoufir, Azedine; Zhou, Yang; Song, Yongmei; Wang, Zhenguo; Bender, Andreas
One important, however, poorly understood, concept of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is that of hot, cold, and neutral nature of its bioactive principles. To advance the field, in this study, we analyzed compound-nature pairs from TCM on a large scale (>23 000 structures) via chemical space visualizations to understand its physicochemical domain and in silico target prediction to understand differences related to their modes-of-action (MoA) against proteins. We found that overall TCM natures spread into different subclusters with specific molecular patterns, as opposed to forming coherent global groups. Compounds associated with cold nature had a lower clogP and contain more aliphatic rings than the other groups and were found to control detoxification, heat-clearing, heart development processes, and have sedative function, associated with "Mental and behavioural disorders" diseases. While compounds associated with hot nature were on average of lower molecular weight, have more aromatic ring systems than other groups, frequently seemed to control body temperature, have cardio-protection function, improve fertility and sexual function, and represent excitatory or activating effects, associated with "endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases" and "diseases of the circulatory system". Compounds associated with neutral nature had a higher polar surface area and contain more cyclohexene moieties than other groups and seem to be related to memory function, suggesting that their nature may be a useful guide for their utility in neural degenerative diseases. We were hence able to elucidate the difference between different nature classes in TCM on the molecular level, and on a large data set, for the first time, thereby helping a better understanding of TCM nature theory and bridging the gap between traditional medicine and our current understanding of the human body.
Exploring the Relationships between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing: Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks
Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian
Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the…
Huang, Wen-Hao David; Lin, Meng-Fen Grace; Shen, Wendi
The open educational resource (OER) movement has reached a critical mass due to recent technology advancements. In Taiwan, to overcome the language barrier, the Opensource Opencourse Prototype System (OOPS) plays a significant role in enabling Chinese-speaking users to benefit from this global education movement. However, our understanding about…
Pepin, Birgit; Xu, Binyan; Trouche, Luc; Wang, Chongyang
In order to develop a deeper understanding of mathematics teaching expertise, in this study we use the Documentational Approach to Didactics to explore the resource systems of three Chinese mathematics "expert" teachers. Exploiting the Western and Eastern literature we examine the notion of "mathematics teaching expertise", as…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In acupuncture, deqi is the sensory experience related to clinical efficacy. As the first study taking into account cultural differences on deqi sensation, this pilot survey aims to corroborate the acupuncturists' general experience in clinical practice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI findings. Methods Questionnaires were distributed to acupuncturists of TCM (traditional Chinese medicinehospitals and acupuncturists attending workshops and seminars in the United States and China. Questions covered clinical significance of deqi, patient attitude and the nature of some pain-related sensations elicited by manual needling. Results 47 out of a total of 86 acupuncturists agreed that dull pain was deqi and over half regarded it beneficial, while sharp pain was non-deqi and harmful instead. The patients' attitude toward deqi sensation showed a difference between US and China. There was no other dimension showing a difference. Conclusion Results of this pilot survey indicate that the acupuncturists' perception is consistent with our previous fMRI findings. Results showed almost complete agreement that dull pain is considered deqi and beneficial to treatment, while sharp pain is not deqi and harmful. Particularly, dull pain was deqi and was beneficial to treatment whereas sharp pain was not. Patients in China liked the deqi experience whereas those in the US did not.
Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.
Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are native English speakers from Western cultures. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether Hammer and his colleagues' claims concerning learners' epistemologies could be extended to individuals who lack advanced mathematics and science training, have had different cultural and learning experiences, and have grown up speaking and learning in another language. To this end, we interviewed a participant with these characteristics about her understandings of the concept of speed. Our findings show that previous theoretical frameworks can be used to explain the epistemologies of the individual examined in this study. The case suggests that these theories may be relevant regardless of the learner's mathematics and science background, language, educational experience, and cultural background. In the future, more cases should be examined with learners from different academic backgrounds and cultures to further support this finding.
Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha
The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.
Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H.; Zhang, Xiulan
Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared to Chinese. In this paper, we argue that these cultural differences are due to “ideal affect,” or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in two experience sampling studies conducted in the U.S. and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) television clip in the U.S. and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's mixed affective experience. PMID:26121525
Liu, Lisa L; Lau, Anna S; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T; Kim, Su Yeong
Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between maternal acculturation and adolescents' conduct problems could be explained by differences in mothers' reliance on monitoring and harsh discipline. In addition, guided by segmented assimilation theory, measures of neighborhood disadvantage were expected not only to be related to differences in parenting, but also to moderate the effects of maternal acculturation on parenting. Results indicated that increased maternal acculturation was related to higher levels of maternal monitoring and lower levels of harsh discipline, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of adolescents' conduct problems. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was related to lower levels of maternal monitoring. However, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the link between maternal acculturation and parenting practices.
Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana
Recent applications of Freud's theory examine the social value of the lost love object as a way of understanding the suffering of non-majority groups. Rather than pathologizing the individual suffering the loss, the lens of racial melancholia pathologizes the discourse that constitutes racially marked others as alien to the majority. Through a…
Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is becoming a worldwide health problem. Wendan decoction (WDD)-a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula-has been extensively employed to relieve syndromes related to MS in clinical practice in China. However, its pharmacological mechanisms still remain vague. In this study, a comprehensive approach that integrated chemomics, principal component analysis, molecular docking simulation, and network analysis was established to elucidate the multi-component and multi-target mechanism of action of WDD in treatment of MS. The compounds in WDD were found to possess chemical diversity, complexity and drug-likeness compared to MS drugs. Six nuclear receptors were obtained to have strong binding affinity with 217 compounds of five herbs in WDD. The importance roles of targets and herbs were also identified due to network parameters. Five compounds from Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata can hit all six targets, which can assist in screening new MS drugs. The pathway network analysis demonstrated that the main pharmacological effects of WDD might lie in maintaining lipid and glucose metabolisms and anticancer activities as well as immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects. This study provided a comprehensive system approach for understanding the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway mechanisms of WDD during the treatment of MS.
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is becoming a worldwide health problem. Wendan decoction (WDD—a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula—has been extensively employed to relieve syndromes related to MS in clinical practice in China. However, its pharmacological mechanisms still remain vague. In this study, a comprehensive approach that integrated chemomics, principal component analysis, molecular docking simulation, and network analysis was established to elucidate the multi-component and multi-target mechanism of action of WDD in treatment of MS. The compounds in WDD were found to possess chemical diversity, complexity and drug-likeness compared to MS drugs. Six nuclear receptors were obtained to have strong binding affinity with 217 compounds of five herbs in WDD. The importance roles of targets and herbs were also identified due to network parameters. Five compounds from Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata can hit all six targets, which can assist in screening new MS drugs. The pathway network analysis demonstrated that the main pharmacological effects of WDD might lie in maintaining lipid and glucose metabolisms and anticancer activities as well as immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects. This study provided a comprehensive system approach for understanding the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway mechanisms of WDD during the treatment of MS.
Maibach, Edward W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rosenthal, Seth; Feinberg, Geoff; Leiserowitz, Anthony A
Organization, and their local public health department. Most Americans report a general sense that global warming can be harmful to health, but relatively few understand the types of harm it causes or who is most likely to be affected. Perhaps as a result, there is only moderate support for an expanded public health response. Primary care physicians and public health officials appear well positioned to educate the public about the health relevance of climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peek, Monica E; Lopez, Fanny Y; Williams, H Sharif; Xu, Lucy J; McNulty, Moira C; Acree, M Ellen; Schneider, John A
Enhancing patient-centered care and shared decision making (SDM) has become a national priority as a means of engaging patients in their care, improving treatment adherence, and enhancing health outcomes. Relatively little is known about the healthcare experiences or shared decision making among racial/ethnic minorities who also identify as being LGBT. The purpose of this paper is to understand how race, sexual orientation and gender identity can simultaneously influence SDM among African-American LGBT persons, and to propose a model of SDM between such patients and their healthcare providers. We reviewed key constructs necessary for understanding SDM among African-American LGBT persons, which guided our systematic literature review. Eligible studies for the review included English-language studies of adults (≥ 19 y/o) in North America, with a focus on LGBT persons who were African-American/black (i.e., > 50 % of the study population) or included sub-analyses by sexual orientation/gender identity and race. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases using MESH terms and keywords related to shared decision making, communication quality (e.g., trust, bias), African-Americans, and LGBT persons. Additional references were identified by manual reviews of peer-reviewed journals' tables of contents and key papers' references. We identified 2298 abstracts, three of which met the inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, one was cross-sectional and two were qualitative; one study involved transgender women (91 % minorities, 65 % of whom were African-Americans), and two involved African-American men who have sex with men (MSM). All of the studies focused on HIV infection. Sexual orientation and gender identity were patient-reported factors that negatively impacted patient/provider relationships and SDM. Engaging in SDM helped some patients overcome normative beliefs about clinical encounters. In this paper, we present a
Chun, Kevin M; Chesla, Catherine A; Kwan, Christine M L
This study examines how acculturation affects type 2 diabetes management and perceived health for Chinese American immigrants in the U.S. Acculturation experiences or cultural adaptation experiences affecting diabetes management and health were solicited from an informant group of immigrant patients and their spouses (N = 40) during group, couple and individual interviews conducted from 2005 to 2008. A separate respondent group of immigrant patients and their spouses (N = 19) meeting inclusion criteria reviewed and confirmed themes generated by the informant group. Using interpretive phenomenology, three key themes in patients' and spouses' acculturation experiences were identified: a) utilizing health care, b) maintaining family relations and roles, and c) establishing community ties and groundedness in the U.S. Acculturation experiences reflecting these themes were broad in scope and not fully captured by current self-report and proxy acculturation measures. In the current study, shifting family roles and evaluations of diabetes care and physical environment in the U.S. significantly affected diabetes management and health, yet are overlooked in acculturation and health investigations. Furthermore, the salience and impact of specific acculturation experiences respective to diabetes management and perceived health varied across participants due to individual, family, developmental, and environmental factors. In regards to salience, maintaining filial and interdependent family relations in the U.S. was of particular concern for older participants and coping with inadequate health insurance in the U.S. was especially distressing for self-described lower-middle to middle-class participants. In terms of impact, family separation and relocating to ethnically similar neighborhoods in the U.S. differentially affected diabetes management and health due to participants' varied family relations and pre-migration family support levels and diverse cultural and linguistic
Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.; Kwan, Christine M.L.
This study examines how acculturation affects type 2 diabetes management and perceived health for Chinese American immigrants in the U.S. Acculturation experiences or cultural adaptation experiences affecting diabetes management and health were solicited from an informant group of immigrant patients and their spouses (N=40) during group, couple and individual interviews conducted in 2005 to 2008. A separate respondent group of immigrant patients and their spouses (N=19) meeting inclusion criteria reviewed and confirmed themes generated by the informant group. Using interpretive phenomenology, three key themes in patients’ and spouses’ acculturation experiences were identified: a) utilizing health care, b) maintaining family relations and roles, and c) establishing community ties and groundedness in the U.S. Acculturation experiences reflecting these themes were broad in scope and not fully captured by current self-report and proxy acculturation measures. In the current study, shifting family roles and evaluations of diabetes care and physical environment in the U.S. significantly affected diabetes management and health, yet are overlooked in acculturation and health investigations. Furthermore, the salience and impact of specific acculturation experiences respective to diabetes management and perceived health varied across participants due to individual, family, developmental, and environmental factors. In regards to salience, maintaining filial and interdependent family relations in the U.S. was of particular concern for older participants and coping with inadequate health insurance in the U.S. was especially distressing for self-described lower-middle to middle-class participants. In terms of impact, family separation and relocating to ethnically similar neighborhoods in the U.S. differentially affected diabetes management and health due to participants’ varied family relations and pre-migration family support levels and diverse cultural and linguistic
Turner, William L; Wallace, Beverly R; Anderson, Jared R; Bird, Carolyn
This research is based on in-depth ethnographic interviews and focus groups with 88 African American family caregivers from various regions of the United States during a stressful time in their family development--caregiving at the end-of-life--and the grieving during the aftermath. The study employed a stratified purposeful sampling strategy. Subjects were African Americans from the Northern, Southern, and Midwestern United States. Formal care is complicated by the distrust that many African Americans hold toward the health care system, which has resulted from years of exclusion, racism and discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of hearing from African American families to gain an understanding of what services, including family therapy and other psychotherapy, they will need during this process.
Jana, S.; Rajagopalan, B.; Ray, A. J.
Summer monsoon rains contribute more than half of the total annual rainfall in the semi-arid region of Southwest United States, also providing important input to river systems like the Colorado River. The North American Monsoon region or Southwest United States experiences great climatic variability on a range of spatial and temporal scales. This region has also been experiencing significant climate and hydroclimate changes over the last few years. Understanding the interannual variability of moisture delivery in this region will help in natural resources management such as water resources, ecology, etc.. In this study, we investigate the major sources of moisture and their interannual variability during the monsoon season. To this end we selected eight locations in the region from the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah to cover the monsoon region of U.S and generated backward moisture trajectories for each wet day during the monsoon season (Jun-Sep) over the historical period 1964-2013, using the HYSPLIT model developed by NOAA. The tracks show clear source preferences. Gulf of Mexico is the dominant source for south eastern part of the domain, Gulf of California is dominant for the south western domain, a combination of these for regions in between and the Pacific provides the source for northern part of the domain. Decreasing trends in the frequency of the dominant moisture source events corresponds well with the decreasing trends in the rainfall over the domain. The frequencies when correlated with large scale climate variables indicate coherent patterns in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Furthermore, the population means for each source during El Nino and La Nina years were found to be significantly different. Since the moisture from the dominant sources is also responsible for causing extreme rainfall in this region, these trajectories will provide potential predictability of monsoon rainfall and extremes.
Stringer, Eddy W., III.
Data suggests that a significant loss of African American students from STEM majors occur between their freshmen and sophomore year. This attrition corresponds to the time period when students encounter the calculus sequence. For this reason, calculus persists as a serious barrier preventing African American students from entering STEM fields.…
Costa-Guerra, Leslie; Costa-Guerra, Boris
The Pueblo People of the Southwest face numerous challenges with reference to language issues. A substantial number of Native American students are placed into special education possibly due to different linguistic abilities. The over-identification of Native American students for special education programs may be due to the lack of knowledge as a…
Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza
African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…
Fifty-five Indian students between the ages of 16 and 22 years were selected from the junior and senior English classes at the Fort Sill Indian School to examine the effects of background music in helping lower socio-economic American Indians understand film content and in manipulating their emotions. This study also looked at how cognitive style…
Museus, Samuel D.; Mueller, M. Kalehua.
In this study, we focus on understanding how institutional agents can and do foster success among Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students in higher education. Specifically, qualitative methods were utilized to examine the experiences of 34 SEAA undergraduate students at 5 public 4-year colleges and universities across the United States and…
Despite the importance of understanding children's interpretations of popular culture in the United States, young children's voices have not been sufficiently explored in studies. Moreover, the perspectives of American immigrant children hardly have a presence in studies of popular culture. Thus, this paper explores how young immigrant children…
Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin Tam; Padilla, Geraldine; Tejero, Judith; Kraemer, Janet; Wright, Karen; Coscarelli, Anne; Clayton, Sheila; Williams, Imani; Hills, Dawn
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. We conducted a qualitative study with breast cancer survivors (BCS) of various ethnicities. A total of 102 BCS participated in focus group interviews (24 African Americans, 34 Asians, 26 Latinas and 18 Caucasians); 20 health professionals participated in key informant interviews. Important ethnic differences in type of treatment were noted, Asians and Latinas were more likely to receive mastectomies and African American BCS were least likely to receive adjuvant therapies, including radiation and chemotherapy. These BCS enjoyed a fairly good overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with some persistent concerns. The prevailing concerns among all women included overall health, moderate physical concerns, cancer recurrence or metastases, psychosocial concerns related to worry about children and burdening the family, and body image and sexual health concerns. Additional challenges included: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; medical care issues such as insurance, cost and amount of time spent with physician; cultural sensitivity of providers, language barriers, cultural factors related to beliefs about illness, gender role and family obligations (e.g. self-sacrifice). These BCS, particularly the women of color, voiced that their spiritual beliefs and practices are central to their coping. This study accomplishes two goals; it adds to the sparse literature concerning the psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer among women of color, and it increases our knowledge of specific cultural influences (e.g. dietary practices, coping) and socio-ecological factors on HRQOL. More importantly, the study addressed areas that have not been studied before, specifically, an in-depth study on BCS QOL comparing multiple ethnic groups
Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel
Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cené, Crystal W; Akers, Aletha Y; Lloyd, Stacey W; Albritton, Tashuna; Powell Hammond, Wizdom; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
African Americans (AA) and rural communities often suffer disproportionately from poorer health. Theory-guided research examining how individual- and community-level factors influence health behaviors and contribute to disparities is needed. To understand how a social network model that captures the interplay between individual and community factors might inform community-based interventions to reduce HIV risk in rural AA communities. Qualitative study. Eleven focus groups with 38 AA 16-24 year olds, 42 adults over age 25, and 13 formerly incarcerated individuals held in community settings in two rural, predominantly AA counties in North Carolina. Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with multiethnic key informants. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with open-ended questions assessed a) perceptions of multi-level HIV risk determinants from a social network model (individual, interpersonal, social, economic, political and structural) identified through literature review and b) community needs and assets affecting local HIV rates. Qualitative data was analyzed using directive content analysis guided by a social network model. We identified four themes regarding the interaction between individuals and their communities that mediate HIV risk: interpersonal processes, community structural environment, social disorder, and civic engagement. Communities were characterized as having a high degree of cohesiveness, tension, and HIV-related stigma. The community structural environment-characterized by neighborhood poverty, lack of skilled jobs, segregation, political disenfranchisement and institutional racism-was felt to reduce the availability and accessibility of resources to combat HIV. Adults noted an inability to combat social problems due to social disorder, which fuels HIV risk behaviors. Civic engagement as a means of identifying community concerns and developing solutions is limited by churches' reluctance to address HIV-related issues. To combat HIV
Adamczyk, Amy; Boyd, Katharine A; Hayes, Brittany E
As laws and policies related to homosexuality have evolved, Americans' attitudes have also changed. Race and religion have been established as important indicators of feelings about homosexuality. However, researchers have given almost no attention to how county characteristics shape Americans' attitudes. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling techniques, we examine how personal characteristics and the religious and racial context of a county shape feelings about homosexuality drawing on data from the American National Election Survey and information about where respondents reside. We find that African Americans initially appear less tolerant than other racial groups, until we account for the geographical distribution of attitudes across the nation. Additionally, once we consider religious involvement, strength of belief, and religious affiliation African Americans appear to have warmer feelings about homosexuality than whites. Drawing on the moral communities' hypothesis, we also find that the strength of religiosity amongst county residents heightens the influence of personal religious beliefs on disapproving attitudes. There is also a direct effect of the proportion conservative Protestant, whereby people of all faiths have cooler attitudes towards homosexual individuals when they reside in a county with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants. Finally, we do not find any evidence for an African American cultural influence on attitudes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Li, Xianhong; Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Williams, Ann Bartley
The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used to explain rationales for health risk-taking behaviors. Our qualitative study explored the applicability of the HBM to understand high-risk sexual behavior in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and to elaborate each component of the model. HIV knowledge and perception of HIV prevalence contributed to perceived susceptibility. An attitude of treatment optimism versus hard life in reality affected perceived severity. Perceived barriers included discomfort using condoms and condom availability. Perceived benefits included prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses. Sociocultural cues for Chinese MSM were elaborated according to each component. The results demonstrated that the HBM could be applied to Chinese MSM. When used with this group, it provided information to help develop a population- and disease-specific HBM scale. Results of our study also suggested behavioral interventions that could be used with Chinese MSM to increase condom use. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. All rights reserved.
Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M
Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population.
Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Davies, Benjamin; Schembri, Tamara; Andronos, Fabia; Demuth, Katherine
Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al., 2016, under review). Using the iPad we investigated 3- and 4-year-olds' understanding of the English plural in preschool centers. The primary aim of the study was to provide evidence for the usefulness of the iPad as a language research tool. We evaluated the usefulness of the iPad with second language (L2) learning children who have limited L2 language skills. Studies with school aged Chinese-speaking children show below native performance on English inflectional morphology despite 5-6 years of immersion (Jia, 2003; Jia and Fuse, 2007; Paradis et al., 2016). However, it is unclear whether this is specific only to children who speak Chinese as their first language (L1) or if younger preschoolers will also show similar challenges. We tested three groups of preschoolers with different L1s (English, Chinese, and other languages). L1 Chinese children's performance was below both English monolinguals and children speaking Other L1 languages, providing evidence that English inflections are specifically challenging for Chinese-speaking children. The results provide further evidence to support previous eye-tracking findings with monolinguals and studies with older bilinguals. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of iPads as research tool for studying language acquisition. Implications for future application of the iPad as a teaching and intervention tool, and limitations for the method, are
Sidibe, Turquoise; Turner, Kea; Sparks, Alicia; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lightfoot, Alexandra
African Americans have the highest rate of new HIV infection in the United States. This photovoice study explored the perspectives and experiences of African American female youth and sought to understand how adolescent development impacts HIV risk. This study used the photovoice methodology with seven African American or Biracial female youth, in…
Spurgeon, Shawn L.; Myers, Jane E.
African American males of all ages constitute a population at risk. Most research to date has emphasized the identification and treatment of problem behaviors within this population, and little research on positive behaviors is available. For example, multiple studies reveal a widespread lack of self-esteem in this population across the lifespan.…
HOEFT, Kristin S.; BARKER, Judith C.; MASTERSON, Erin E.
Purpose To investigate caregiver beliefs and behaviors as key issues in the initiation of home oral hygiene routines. Oral hygiene helps reduce the prevalence of early childhood caries, which is disproportionately high among Mexican-American children. Methods Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 48 Mexican-American mothers of young children in a low income, urban neighborhood. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated, transcribed, coded and analyzed using standard qualitative procedures. Results The average age of tooth brushing initiation was 1.8±0.8 years; only a small proportion of parents (13%) initiated oral hygiene in accord with American Dental Association (ADA) recommendations. Mothers initiated 2 forms of oral hygiene: infant oral hygiene and regular tooth brushing. For the 48% of children who participated in infant oral hygiene, mothers were prompted by pediatrician and social service (WIC) professionals. For regular tooth brushing initiation, a set of maternal beliefs exist about when this oral hygiene practice becomes necessary for children. Beliefs are mainly based on a child’s dental maturity, interest, capacity and age/size. Conclusions Most (87%) of the urban Mexican-American mothers in the study do not initiate oral hygiene practices in compliance with ADA recommendations. These findings have implications for educational messages. PMID:19947134
Roush, Daniel R.
This article proposes an answer to the primary question of how the American Sign Language (ASL) community in the United States conceptualizes (im)politeness and its related notions. It begins with a review of evolving theoretical issues in research on (im)politeness and related methodological problems with studying (im)politeness in natural…
Maddamsetti, Jihea; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Rosaen, Cheryl L.
Being a good teacher depends on many cultural and linguistic assumptions. Dominant definitions of a good teacher are often based on these implicit assumptions. Probing notions of a good teacher, we examine the endeavors of a Chinese international pre-service teacher, Ling, to become a "good teacher" through her encounters with…
Drawing on life history research, this study critically examines the transnational experiences of return Chinese immigrants from Canada in Beijing. Through the accounts of their experiences, it explores different integration and reintegration strategies, including self-adjustment, lifelong learning and flexible citizenship. A native concept of…
Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; Chow, Ka Ming; Yang, Shengbo; Luo, Yang; Cheng, Huilin; Wang, Honghong
In China, cervical cancer cases are increasing, making an impact on the worldwide burden of cervical cancer. Despite the initiatives undertaken by the Chinese government, the current coverage of cervical screening in China remains suboptimal. There is an urgent need to identify the facilitators and barriers associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening among the Chinese population. The study aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of cervical cancer screening of mainland Chinese women in relation to their screening behaviour, particularly in the aspects of health care system and health profession roles. A qualitative research was conducted using semi-structured interviews. A total of 27 Chinese women aged 25 to 50 (both screened and non-screened women) completed the interviews. The analysis of the interview data was undertaken inductively using latent content analysis. Results showed that organised health examination programmes provide a good basis for integrating cervical screening into broader checks on the health of women, and utilising different networks of social support facilitate the utilisation of the screening service. However, education on cervical cancer and screening must be made more generally available. More importantly, there is a need for a more participatory and empowering exchange in the encounter between health professions and these women. Appropriate training program is strongly recommended for health professions about communicate skills with patients. Future work should focus on identifying strategies to overcome the barriers to cervical screening related to health care system and medical professions among this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study develops a framework for systematic examination of information and communication technologies (ICTs usage differences within a group. This framework situates the digital divide and digital inequalities model within a broader conceptual model of digital practice, exemplified by how groups of people use ICTs. I use nationally representative data to examine online activities on social networking sites (SNS for African Americans and other ethnoracial groups. The data for this research comes from the Pew Internet and American Life’s “Spring Tracking Survey 2008”. The results from regression analyses support the digital practice framework which moves discussions of ICT usage beyond social and economic advantages or disadvantages, and addresses individual and group needs in using these technologies.
Full Text Available This book is started with the main question, how come some people in the USA believe in an invisible being, that is God. How has belief in God come to influence people’s lives? How has God come to be really present in human life? Almost 100 percent people in the US, believe in God according to a Gallup Poll (Luhrmann, 2012: xi. In addition, religious enthusiasm for American has grown increasingly rapidly. Throughout the 20th century, American churches and congregations have developed remarkably (Luhrmann, 14. Even Luhrmann gives an example about the paradoxical things. Many people thought that the hippie vision would bring radical revolutionaries movement that threated the right wing. As a contrary, Christian Hippies play significant roles in making religion to be able publicly accepted (even though there were on drugs (Luhrmann 16-17
Taylor, Teletia R; Huntley, Edward D; Makambi, Kepher; Sween, Jennifer; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Frederick, Wayne; Mellman, Thomas A
The goals of this study were (i) to report the prevalence and nature of sleep disturbances, as determined by clinically significant insomnia symptoms, in a sample of African-American breast cancer survivors; (ii) to assess the extent to which intrusive thoughts about breast cancer and fear of recurrence contributes to insomnia symptoms; and (iii) to assess the extent to which insomnia symptoms contribute to fatigue. African-American breast cancer survivors completed surveys pertaining to demographics, medical history, insomnia symptoms, and intrusive thoughts about breast cancer, fear of cancer recurrence, and fatigue. Hierarchical regression models were performed to investigate the degree to which intrusive thoughts and concerns of cancer recurrence accounted for the severity of insomnia symptoms and insomnia symptom severity's association with fatigue. Forty-three percent of the sample was classified as having clinically significant sleep disturbances. The most commonly identified sleep complaints among participants were sleep maintenance, dissatisfaction with sleep, difficulty falling asleep, and early morning awakenings. Intrusive thoughts about breast cancer were a significant predictor of insomnia symptoms accounting for 12% of the variance in insomnia symptom severity. After adjusting for covariates, it was found that insomnia symptom severity was independently associated with fatigue accounting for 8% of variance. A moderate proportion of African-American breast cancer survivors reported significant problems with sleep. Sleep disturbance was influenced by intrusive thoughts about breast cancer, and fatigue was associated with the severity of participants' insomnia symptoms. This study provides new information about sleep-related issues in African-American breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bryant-Bedell, Keneshia; Waite, Roberta
This paper is a report of a study of how a cohort of African American men recognized and expressed symptoms of depression, and how depression affected their lives. Major depressive disorder has had global financial consequences in the form of healthcare visits, lost work hours, and disruption of family lives. Early recognition of depression and engagement of depressed individuals to promote management and treatment of this disorder is crucial in controlling its impact. African American men are often not included in research exploring factors that limit their engagement in mental health care. A descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in 2008 with ten African American men between the ages of 40 and 59 years. All participants self-reported a history of depression. Three central themes were identified: life events, the funk, and the breakdown. Life events were identified as stressors which led the men to experience what they described as the funk, which was later identified as depression. Due to lack of resolution of the funk, a breakdown was experienced. Over time study participants became informed about their condition, and their responses to managing depression varied depending on individual and contextual factors. It is important to approach depression diagnoses from a broad perspective rather than as a limited list of symptoms. Healthcare providers would benefit from taking into account cultural factors, gender and age, examining them carefully in relation to the development of depressive symptoms.
Ingman, Kathleen A.
Research has shown that international students studying in the United States report significantly lower levels of social adjustment than American students. Cultural differences may contribute to this problem; however, social relationships between international students and American students lead to greater adjustment for the former group. In spite of this finding, many international students fail to develop significant interpersonal relationships with American students. In this study, self...
Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.
Aoki, Elaine M.
Suggests ways that teachers can use the limited Asian American children's literature to introduce their classes to students who are of Asian heritage or who are Asian immigrants. Lists 10 good Asian American children's books. (FL)
Li, Jessica C M; Yu Yolanda, Mengyan; Wong, Gabriel T W; Ngan, Raymond M H
This study examines the public discourse on financial fraud against older citizens in Chinese society using six focus groups with 45 stakeholders comprising social workers, police officers, caregivers, nurses, community representatives, and insurance and banking personnel. This study uses qualitative data to describe the patterns and social features that facilitate this specific type of crime in Hong Kong. The narratives of the community stakeholders reveal several specific social features of Hong Kong that contribute to financial fraud against older persons, such as traditional Chinese values and ideologies, increasing cross-border activities, the Internet and technological advancements, and unfavourable economic situations. The results of this study support the assumptions of the routine activity approach and have a number of theoretical and practical implications. © The Author(s) 2015.
Megan M McLaughlin
Full Text Available Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants' trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust.We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants' trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients' social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients' trust of their physicians.These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.
Tan, Tony Xing
In this study, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was used to test the hypothesis that major depression was less prevalent in China-to-US immigrants who migrated to the US as adults than in US-born adult Chinese Americans. Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) were extracted for secondary data analyses on the rates of major depression disorder (MDD) and major depressive episode (MDE) in the two groups. Findings showed that for life time MDD, the rates for China-to-US immigrant and US-born Chinese were 5.3% and 7.9% for men and 8.5% and 33.1% for women. For 12-month MDD, the corresponding rates were 2.2% and 3.4% for men, and 4.7% and 12.6% for women. For life time MDE, the corresponding rates were 6.8% and 8.8% for men; for women the rates were 8.5% and 33.1%. For 12-month MDE, the rates were 2.2% and 4.4% for men; the rates were 4.7% and 12.6% for women. Controlling for age, education level, income, BMI, marital status, and income-to-needs ratio, China-to-US immigrant women remained less likely to have life time major depression than US-born Chinese American women. While the study has the strength of utilizing nationally representative datasets, the approach is limited as the data sources lack the capacity to investigate how the strength of connection with the collectivist culture might be related to major depression in the immigrant group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cantrell, Jennifer; Hung, Dorothy; Fahs, Marianne C; Shelley, Donna
Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective policy interventions to reduce tobacco use. Tax avoidance, however, lessens the public health benefits of higher-priced cigarettes. Few studies examine responses to cigarette tax policies, particularly among high-risk minority populations. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of tax avoidance and changes in smoking behaviors among Chinese American smokers in New York City after a large tax increase. We conducted a cross-sectional study with data for 614 male smokers from in-person and telephone interviews using a comprehensive household-based survey of 2,537 adults aged 18-74 years. Interviews were conducted in multiple Chinese dialects. A total of 54.7% of respondents reported engaging in at least one low- or no-tax strategy after the New York City and New York State tax increases. The more common strategies for tax avoidance were purchasing cigarettes from a private supplier/importer and purchasing duty free/overseas. Higher consumption, younger age, and number of years in the U.S. were consistently associated with engaging in tax avoidance. Younger and heavier continuing smokers were less likely to make a change in smoking behavior in response to the tax increase. Despite high levels of tax avoidance and varying prices, nearly half of continuing smokers made a positive change in smoking behavior after the tax increase. Expanded legislation and enforcement must be directed toward minimizing the availability of legal and illegal low- or no-tax cigarette outlets. Public education and cessation assistance customized for the Chinese American community is key to maximizing the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies in this population.
Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O
Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.
Dent, Richard J.
Historical archaeology enables students to confront the mythology of the past with real knowledge about the past and thus provides them with significant insight and understanding. Students are often presented with an ideological past, both in textbooks and museums, that never really existed. For example, people often come away from living…
Fischer Zellers, Darlene
This study examines the organizational and contextual factors associated with faculty mentoring programs in academic medicine within major research institutions in the United States, and explores the usefulness of organizational behavior theory in understanding these relationships. To date, many formal faculty mentoring programs are in operation…
Language Brokering and Adjustment among Chinese and Korean American Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Maternal Sacrifice, Respect for the Mother, and Mother-Child Open Communication.
Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chao, Ruth K
Asian American adolescents often language broker for their immigrant parents. Using a two-wave sample of Chinese American ( n = 237; average age at W1 = 14.65, SD = .68) and Korean American ( n = 262; average age at W1 = 14.72, SD = .69) adolescents, this study examined a culturally relevant conditional mechanism through which language brokering may contribute to lower levels of internalizing/externalizing problems. Results suggested that language brokering for the mother was associated with perceived maternal sacrifice, which was in turn associated with respect for the mother, which was eventually associated with lower levels of externalizing problems (but not internalizing problems) in the adolescents. Moreover, the indirect effect was conditional on the level of mother-child open communication. With a lower level of open communication, the indirect effect of language brokering on externalizing problems became stronger. Results indicate that interventions designed to reduce Asian American adolescent language brokers' externalizing problems may be effective if they target adolescents' perception of parental sacrifice and respect for parents, especially for those adolescents experiencing a low level of parent-child open communication. At the same time, increasing open communication within the family may also ultimately reduce adolescent externalizing problems.
Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe
Recent research suggests that although ethnic discrimination may have negative consequences for psychological well-being among youth of Chinese descent as it does for other ethnic groups, ethnic identity beliefs may buffer against such effects. Data for this study were drawn from the Early Adolescent Cohort Study, an investigation of contextual…
This dissertation evaluates and compares social and environmental records of Chinese national oil companies (NOCs) operating in Latin America from the early 21st century to 2015. Five countries representing the entirety of Chinese NOCs' physical presence are selected: Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela. The project discovers that Chinese NOCs demonstrate the highest level of social responsibility in Peru and the lowest in Venezuela, with the other three countries constituting intermediate observations. The differences in social responsibility records are then causally traced to variances in the host countries' regulatory frameworks and civil society capacities. Chinese NOCs are found to be most willing to commit to social responsibility under an enabling regulatory environment in which the host government facilitates competitiveness and decentralization in its hydrocarbons industry while upholding inclusive policies regarding its civil society. Moreover, these NOCs are most likely to follow through on their CSR commitments when faced with a unified and collaborative civil society. These major findings yield important policy lessons for both the host government and the civil society in developing countries with abundance in energy resources.
Giger, J Newman; Davidhizar, R
Since the attacks in New York and Washington, DC, in September 2001, increased racial and religious animosity has left Arabs, other Middle Easterners, Muslims, and those who bear physical resemblance to members of these groups, fearful. This article provides information about the people of Afghanistan, Afghanistan Americans, and Islamic culture and religion, which can greatly assist the nurse who is confronted with persons from diverse cultures during the provision of care. The Giger & Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model was first published in the International Nursing Review in 1990. This model is now used worldwide and provides an assessment model to assist in understanding cultural phenomena and individuals from different cultures.
Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.; Atchley, A. L.; Hector, B.
Quantifying the available freshwater for human use and ecological function depends on fluxes and stores that are hard to observe. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest terrestrial flux of water behind precipitation but is observed with low spatial density. Likewise, groundwater is the largest freshwater store, yet is equally uncertain. The ability to upscale observations of these variables is an additional complication; point measurements are made at scales orders of magnitude smaller than remote sensing data products. Integrated hydrologic models that simulate continental extents at fine spatial resolution are now becoming an additional tool to constrain fluxes and address interconnections. For example, recent work has shown connections between water table depth and transpiration partitioning, and demonstrated the ability to reconcile point observations and large-scale inferences. Here we explore the dynamics of large hydrologic systems experiencing change and stress across continental North America using integrated model simulations, observations and data products. Simulations of aquifer depletion due to pervasive groundwater pumping diagnose both stream depletion and changes in ET. Simulations of systematic increases in temperature are used to understand the relationship between snowpack dynamics, surface and groundwater flow, ET and a changing climate. Remotely sensed products including the GRACE estimates of total storage change are downscaled using model simulations to better understand human impacts to the hydrologic cycle. These example applications motivate a path forward to better use simulations to understand water availability.
Gurak, Kayla; Weisman de Mamani, Amy
Expressed emotion (EE) is a family environmental construct that assesses how much criticism, hostility, and/or emotional over-involvement a family member expresses about a patient (Hooley, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2007, 3, 329). Having high levels of EE within the family environment has generally been associated with poorer patient outcomes for schizophrenia and a range of other disorders. Paradoxically, for African-American patients, high-EE may be associated with a better symptom course (Rosenfarb, Bellack, & Aziz, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2006, 115, 112). However, this finding is in need of additional support and, if confirmed, clarification. In line with previous research, using a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers, we hypothesized that having a caregiver classified as low-EE would be associated with greater patient symptom severity. We also aimed to better understand why this pattern may exist by examining the content of interviews taken from the Five-Minute Speech Sample. Results supported study hypotheses. In line with Rosenfarb et al. (2006), having a low-EE caregiver was associated with greater symptom severity in African-American patients. A content analysis uncovered some interesting patterns that may help elucidate this finding. Results of this study suggest that attempts to lower high-EE in African Americans may, in fact, be counterproductive. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Nan Xu Rattanasone
Full Text Available Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al., accepted; Davies et al., under review. Using the iPad we investigated 3- and 4-year-olds’ understanding of the English plural in preschool centers. The primary aim of the study was to provide evidence for the usefulness of the iPad as a language research tool. We evaluated the usefulness of the iPad with second language (L2 learning children who have limited L2 language skills. Studies with school aged Chinese-speaking children show below native performance on English inflectional morphology despite 5-6 years of immersion (Jia, 2003; Jia & Fuse, 2007; Paradis et al., 2016. However, it is unclear whether this is specific only to children who speak Chinese as their first language (L1 or if younger preschoolers will also show similar challenges. We tested three groups of preschoolers with different L1s (English, Chinese, and Other languages. L1 Chinese children’s performance was below both English monolinguals and children speaking Other L1 languages, providing evidence that English inflections are specifically challenging for Chinese-speaking children. The results provide further evidence to support previous eye-tracking findings with monolinguals and studies with older bilinguals. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of iPads as research tool for studying language acquisition. Implications for future application of the iPad as a teaching and intervention tool
Miller, Bradley; Brevik, Eric; Fenton, Thomas; Homburg, Jeffrey
The USA has had arguably the strongest and certainly the most extensive soil mapping program in the world. Yet many of the developments in digital soil mapping (DSM) occurred outside the USA from the late 1970s through the 1990s. This presentation attempts to explore why the USA has differed from many of the international trends in DSM. Much of the work on DSM in the USA has focused on the extraction of expert knowledge to formulate spatial prediction models for soil classes. Although DSM approaches are quickly evolving in American academia, the adoption of DSM methods have been slow and cautious in the National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) mapping efforts. The great majority of soil maps available in the USA are digitized maps that were originally produced by traditional methods with some manual updating. Work attempting to implement more DSM techniques in the NCSS has been underway in select areas of California, Minnesota, Utah, Texas, and Wyoming. However, the only official NCSS product considered to be fully DSM-based thus far is in Essex County, Vermont. It is noteworthy that the Essex County Soil Survey map is still heavily dependent upon expert knowledge. Why the attachment to expert knowledge as opposed to data mining techniques for identifying new patterns in soil variability? We argue that this is because of the exceptional soil maps that were produced for the USA using traditional methods. Despite the limitations of traditional methods, it is difficult to improve upon the amount of field investigation and verification done to create the existing NCSS maps. Along with that comes a deep attachment to soil series as map units and all the data associated with those soil series.
Full Text Available Background: Non-marital fertility differs considerably by race, ethnicity, and nativity. These differences arise largely from racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive practices. Empirical work has not assessed the relative importance of the various mechanisms proposed to account for racial, ethnic, and nativity differences in contraceptive behavior among never married women. Objective: Our objective is to describe racial, ethnic, and nativity disparities in contraceptive practices and determine the relative importance of the various mechanisms proposed to explain those disparities among never married, non-cohabiting women. Methods: Pooling data from the 2006‒2010 and 2011‒2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG, we compare the age- and parity-standardized patterns of contraceptive use among never married, non-cohabiting Mexican immigrants, US-born Mexican Americans, Blacks, and Whites. We also examine the extent to which socioeconomic characteristics, access to family planning, and attitudes towards family life give rise to group differences in patterns of contraceptive use. Results: Never married, non-cohabiting Whites are more likely than their minority counterparts to use very effective methods of contraception. Socioeconomic disparities explain some of the group differences in contraceptive practice. Differing levels of access to family planning also explain a significant portion of the difference in contraceptive practice between Whites and Mexican immigrants. Conclusions: Policies aimed at alleviating socioeconomic inequality and differential access to family planning services may be effective at reducing disparities in contraceptive use between White and non-White never married, non-cohabiting women, especially White/Mexican-immigrant differences.
Ekaterina V. Talalakina
Full Text Available Abstract— The importance of cross-cultural understanding is accelerated nowadays by globalization and joint efforts of different countries in the face of global challenges. Countries’ educational systems display attempts to incorporate cross-cultural studies in their curricula across all stages of formal learning. Many higher education institutions offer special courses aimed at promoting cross-cultural studies. One of the tools used to facilitate the process is e-learning. The present article examines the case study of an internet-based collaboration between two higher education institutions – State University Higher School of Economics in Russia and Champlain College in the USA – in fostering cross-cultural understanding. The project is based on the study of individualistic and collectivistic values within the framework of two corresponding courses studied at both institutions. The topicality of the study is determined by the growing importance of the cooperation of two countries on the international affairs arena, on the one hand, and the fundamental differences of the countries’ underlying value system, on the other. In particular, a post-soviet Russia is generally viewed as a developing democracy representing the collectivistic end of the value spectrum, whereas the USA is considered as an extreme case of individualistic value system. The comparison and contrast of the two systems conducted simultaneously by the representatives of both cultures (students of the two universities within a specifically built internet forum comprises the base of the project. The case study covers the project’s objectives, its background, the rationale behind its content choice, the design of the e-learning tool, the profile of the participants of the project, its implementation stages and its outcome. The major findings of the case study deal with the process of building cross-cultural awareness, reinforcing students’ analytical skills and
Full Text Available Morella rubra (Myricaceae, also known as Chinese bayberry, is an economically important, subtropical, evergreen fruit tree. The phylogenetic placement of Myricaceae within Fagales and the origin of Chinese bayberry’s domestication are still unresolved. In this study, we report the chloroplast (cp genome of M. rubra and take advantage of several previously reported chloroplast genomes from related taxa to examine patterns of evolution in Fagales. The cp genomes of three M. rubra individuals were 159,478, 159,568, and 159.586 bp in length, respectively, comprising a pair of inverted repeat (IR regions (26,014–26,069 bp separated by a large single-copy (LSC region (88,683–88,809 bp and a small single-copy (SSC region (18,676–18,767 bp. Each cp genome encodes the same 111 unique genes, consisting of 77 different protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA genes and four ribosomal RNA genes, with 18 duplicated in the IRs. Comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes from four representative Fagales families revealed the loss of infA and the pseudogenization of ycf15 in all analyzed species, and rpl22 has been pseudogenized in M. rubra and Castanea mollissima, but not in Juglans regia or Ostrya rehderiana. The genome size variations are detected mainly due to the length of intergenic spacers rather than gene loss, gene pseudogenization, IR expansion or contraction. The phylogenetic relationships yielded by the complete genome sequences strongly support the placement of Myricaceae as sister to Juglandaceae. Furthermore, seven cpDNA markers (trnH-psbA, psbA-trnK, rps2-rpoC2, ycf4-cemA, petD-rpoA, ndhE-ndhG, and ndhA intron with relatively high levels of variation and variable cpSSR loci were identified within M. rubra, which will be useful in future research characterizing the population genetics of M. rubra and investigating the origin of domesticated Chinese bayberry.
Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali
To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.
Lin, Chu-Sui; Chiu, Chun-Hao
This study was conducted with 171 toddlers aged 1-2 in Taiwan using the Chinese version of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP). A significant difference in the scores for the symbolic subscale was observed between the test subjects in Taiwan and the norm established in the original CSBS-DP in the United States. Furthermore, this difference varied across the three assessment tools of the CSBS-DP: the Infant-Toddler Checklist, the Caregiver Questionnaire, and the Behavior Sample. In the checklist and caregiver questionnaires, the scores in the language comprehension cluster and the object use cluster were significantly lower for Taiwanese toddlers than for their counterparts in the United States. In the behavior samples, however, the toddlers in Taiwan scored significantly higher than their peers in the United States in the object use cluster and lower than their American counterparts in the language comprehension cluster. This discrepancy suggests that cultural factors have a potential impact on performance, and thus such factors need to be considered in future endeavors to improve upon the Chinese version of the CSBS-DP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelly V Ruggles
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.
Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali
Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864
Graham, Richard; And Others
The following lectures are included in this volume: Needed: "Turned on" Teachers; The Most Important Advantage; HILT: High Intensity Language Training; The Education Gap: Why Mexican American Children Fail in School; The Mexican American Heritage; The Invisible Poor: The World of the Migrant; and Emergence of the Mexican American. The…
other satellites in space. Aside from this kinetic ASAT capability, the Chinese have also employed ground based laser ASAT weapons, which would be...able to “ dazzle ” enemy satellites if they desire to do so. 109 With these systems in place, and if air superiority and local control of Taiwan is...technology does not seem to be available. 122 But as Barry Watts notes, speed-of-light, line-of-sight laser weapons will soon begin to “shift the balance
Leone, Frank T; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Folan, Patricia; Latzka, Karen; Munzer, Alfred; Neptune, Enid; Pakhale, Smita; Sachs, David P L; Samet, Jonathan; Upson, Dona; White, Alexander
Since the mid-20th century, the scientific community has substantially improved its understanding of the worldwide tobacco epidemic. Although significant progress has been made, the sheer enormity and scope of the global problem put it on track to take a billion lives this century. Curbing the epidemic will require maximizing the impact of proven tools as well as the development of new, breakthrough methods to help interrupt the spread of nicotine addiction and reduce the downstream morbidity. Members of the Tobacco Action Committee of the American Thoracic Society queried bibliographic databases, including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaborative, to identify primary sources and reviews relevant to the epidemic. Exploded search terms were used to identify evidence, including tobacco, addiction, smoking, cigarettes, nicotine, and smoking cessation. Evidence was consolidated into three thematic areas: (1) determinants of risk, (2) maternal-fetal exposure, and (3) current tobacco users. Expert panel consensus regarding current gaps in understanding and recommendations for future research priorities was generated through iterative discussion. Although much has been accomplished, significant gaps in understanding remain. Implementation often lags well behind insight. This report identifies a number of investigative opportunities for significantly reducing the toll of tobacco use, including: (1) the need for novel, nonlinear models of population-based disease control; (2) refinement of "real-world" models of clinical intervention in trial design; and (3) understanding of mechanisms by which intrauterine smoke exposure may lead to persistent, tobacco-related chronic disease. In the coming era of tobacco research, pooled talent from multiple disciplines will be required to further illuminate the complex social, environmental and biological codeterminants of tobacco dependence.
Prosser, Jodicus Wayne
Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion
Varuolo-Clarke, A. M.; Medeiros, B.; Reed, K. A.
This project examines the influence of topography on the dynamics of the North American monsoon (NAM), including the genesis, peak, and demise of the monsoon. The monsoon season occurs from July to September in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico and is characterized by an increase in rainfall that accounts for 40-80% of the total annual rainfall. We use a simple "monsoon index" and show that simulations with the Community Atmosphere model capture the essential nature of the NAM. Comparing standard low-resolution (1o latitude x 1o longitude) simulations where the topography over North America is either retained or removed we evaluate the models' representations of the NAM. To understand the origin of differences between the simulations we analyze the moist static energy budget in the monsoon region. Our preliminary results from simulations with realistic topography indicate that the simulated NAM is driven by locally-generated convection, with advection processes being secondary; this is consistent with the NAM being a result of the thermal contrast between the hot, summertime continent and relatively cool ocean. When topography is removed the simulated NAM will be relatively weak and be driven primarily by locally-generated convection. A better understanding of the monsoon dynamics and the impact topography has on these dynamics will allow for a more accurate representation of the monsoon in projections of future climate.
Frerichs, Leah; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Young, Tiffany L; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural African American youth perspectives on childhood obesity and enhance their understanding of and support for obesity prevention solutions. The curriculum was designed so it could be integrated with existing positive youth development curricula that help youth advocate for and implement identified solutions. We conducted four workshop sessions with youth that engaged them in systems learning activities such as guided systems diagramming activities. The participants ( n = 21) completed validated surveys presession and postsession that assessed their causal attributions of obesity and support for obesity prevention policies. The youths' perception that environmental factors cause obesity increased ( p < .05), and perceptions that individual behavior and biology cause obesity did not change. Their support for policies that addressed food access and food pricing significantly increased ( p < .05). The youths' system diagrams elucidated links between multilevel factors such as personal attitudes, social influence, and the built environment, which provides important information for designing synergistic solutions. The changes we observed in youths' perceptions of obesity and support for policy changes have important implications for youths' interest and willingness to advocate for social and environmental changes in their community. The strategies have a promising role in supporting community mobilization to address childhood obesity.
Morgado, F N; Schubach, A; Rosalino, C M V; Quintella, L P; Santos, G; Salgueiro, M; Conceição-Silva, F
The study of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) lesions might contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of the infection. To examine the cellular infiltrate of cutaneous ATL lesions and to compare these results with the detection of the parasites and clinical data. Lesions of 19 patients with ATL were evaluated through immunohistochemical analysis. The lesions presented an inflammatory reaction mainly consisting of T cells and macrophages. Analysis of the expression of nitric oxide synthase type 2 (NOS2) showed that its intensity was directly correlated with the number of CD3+ T cells. We also observed an association between high NOS2 expression and low quantity of parasites, highlighting the importance of NOS2 in the elimination of parasites. The present results suggest that (i) the inflammatory process is intense in cutaneous ATL lesions and maintains a similar activity for several months; (ii) the dynamics of cell infiltration change during this period, with a gradual decrease in CD8+ T cells, probably correlated with a reduction in the parasite number; (iii) neutrophils may participate in the inflammatory process even during later stages of infection; (iv) the relative increase in the number of CD4+ T cells associated with the onset of fibrosis may suggest a participation of these cells in the control of the inflammatory process; and (v) late lesions with tendency for healing usually show focal inflammation. The study of healing lesions might contribute to the understanding of the late steps of the control of the inflammatory process in ATL lesions.
Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.
Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m2), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569
Snowden, Lonnie R
Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing African American-White American disparities in mental health treatment access and quality and open the way to unprecedented disparity reduction. These initiatives include institutional commitments to (a) research by the National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities; (b) disparities monitoring by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; (c) new epidemiologic and service delivery information on African American populations from the National Survey of American Life sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health; as well as (d) opportunities inherent in the World Health Organization's interest in disease burden for making it possible to view African Americans' likely greater disease burden from mental illness as a legitimate source of concern. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act affords unprecedented opportunities for increasing African Americans' treatment access and quality of care nationwide. By familiarizing themselves with these initiatives, and taking advantage of possibilities they offer, those committed to reducing African American-White American disparities in mental illness, and treatment access and quality, can make inroads toward improving African Americans' mental health and facilitating their successful functioning in all spheres of community living.
Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Shen, Yuh-Ling; Lee, Sun-A
Self-esteem and depression are fundamental psychological adjustment constructs in the study of adolescent well-being. Most measures of these constructs have been developed and validated using European American samples, and while the correlates and predictors of psychological adjustment have been examined in multiple cultural settings, no existing…
Self-esteem is often cited as an important personal competency for teachers. However, most self-esteem research, particularly within teacher education and music teacher education, is framed exclusively within a European-American context. Since individuals from different cultures may tend to think about themselves in diverse ways, and given the…
Snowden, Lonnie R.
Since publication of the U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), several federal initiatives signal a sustained focus on addressing African American-White American disparities in mental health…
Ma, Yuping; Pan, Suyan
Among discussions on international academic mobility, a persistent challenge is to understand whether education abroad can become a source of brain gain, and whether globalization can offer source countries the hope that they might enjoy the benefits of freer crossborder flows in information and personnel. With reference to China, this article…
[Abstract] As the popularity of Chinese elements in the innovation of the translation part in Chinese CET, we realized that Chinese elements have become a bridge between linguaculture transnational mobility and Chinese-English translation.So, Chinese students translation skills should be critically improved; for example, on their understanding about Chinese culture, especially the meaning of Chinese culture. Five important secrets of skillful translation are ...
Jackson, Lisa D
This article will examine the social implications for African American homosexual males seeking to achieve the American Dream. Invisible Life and Just as I Am-the first two novels in a trilogy by the late E. Lynn Harris writing from a semi-autobiographical perspective in late-twentieth century America-will serve as the texts that drive this research topic. Careful analysis of these works will substantiate the assertion that the American Dream, even on the cusp of the new millennium, is just beyond the grasp of this specific subpopulation.
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At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant proprietors adapted the flavors, ingredients, and cooking methods of Chinese cuisine to the tastes and markets of local American communities. The dynamic interaction between Chinese food and American customers functioned as a complex cultural negotiation. While Chinese restaurants helped shape the American diet, Chinese food was at the same time being shaped and transformed by American popular taste. By appealing to a wide range of American diners, chop suey eventually evolved into a popular American ethnic food and a central component in the culinary identity of Chinese restaurants. Chop suey generated numerous jobs for Chinese immigrants and established a culinary bond between Chinese food and American customers. Also, as an imagined authentic Chinese dish, it represented a type of affordable exoticism in the eyes of American consumers, meeting not only American tastes but also their social expectations of Chinese culture.
This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…
Zhao, Hui; Feng, Yu; Mao, Mingsan
Objective: Explore the application characteristics of proprietary Chinese medicine prescriptions containing toxic herbs in pharmacopoeia. Methods: In this paper, according to the clinical application of pharmacopoeia proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into table agent, Qushu agent, diarrhea agent, heat agent, Wen Li agent, cough and asthma agents, resuscitation agent, Gutian agent, Fuzheng agent, Anshen agent, hemostatic agent, The traditional Chinese medicine prescription and the clinical application of the Chinese herbal medicine containing the toxic Chinese medicine were analyzed and sorted out., Summed up the compatibility of toxic herbs and application characteristics. Results: Toxic Chinese herbal medicine in the cure of traditional Chinese medicine to play a long-standing role, through the overall thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking of toxic Chinese medicine in the analysis of Chinese medicine that , toxic Chinese medicine in the application of proprietary Chinese medicine can not lack. Conclusion: Pharmacopoeia included proprietary Chinese medicine not only in the clinical treatment of good, but also the application of its toxic traditional Chinese medicine and its understanding of the enrichment of the toxic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and treatment-related disease pathology between the points of contact for patients with clinical applications Based on and theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine .
You, Jin; Wang, Carol; Yeung, Nelson; Lu, Qian
Literature has well noted ethnic/racial disparities in cancer survival and cancer care. However, socioeconomic disparities in psychosocial adjustment to breast cancer have garnered little attention. This study addresses the research gap by investigating the associations between socioeconomic indicators (i.e., education, annual personal and household income) and quality of life (QOL) and the mediating roles of social support and social constraints (objective and subjective conditions that constrain individuals from disclosing cancer concerns) in these associations among Chinese American breast cancer survivors (CABCS). 96 CABCS completed questionnaires assessing these variables. After controlling for stage of cancer, annual personal and household income had indirect effects on QOL through social support, and education showed indirect effect on QOL through social support and social constraints. Subscale analyses indicated that controlling for years of immigration, annual personal and household income showed indirect effect on functional well-being through social support. When controlling for stage of cancer and income, education showed indirect effects on physical well-being through social support and social constraints, and showed both direct and indirect effects on breast cancer concerns through social constraints. This study suggested that socioeconomic indicators, education and income could be associated with different aspects of QOL through unique interpersonal mechanisms among CABCS. Our findings implied that increasing social support and reducing social constraints when implementing psychosocial interventions for CABCS may help to address the SES-related health disparities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The need for integrating geospatial information (GI data from various heterogeneous sources has seen increased importance for geographic information system (GIS interoperability. Using domain ontologies to clarify and integrate the semantics of data is considered as a crucial step for successful semantic integration in the GI domain. Nevertheless, mechanisms are still needed to facilitate semantic mapping between GI ontologies described in different natural languages. This research establishes a formal ontology model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping. By first extracting semantic primitives from a free-text definition of categories in two GI classification standards with different natural languages, an ontology-driven approach is used, and a formal ontology model is established to formally represent these semantic primitives into semantic statements, in which the spatial-related properties and relations are considered as crucial statements for the representation and identification of the semantics of the GI categories. Then, an algorithm is proposed to compare these semantic statements in a cross-lingual environment. We further design a similarity calculation algorithm based on the proposed formal ontology model to distance the semantic similarities and identify the mapping relationships between categories. In particular, we work with two GI classification standards for Chinese and American topographic maps. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping.
Hayes, Robert E., III
Globalization of the world economy has confirmed the need for citizens to exemplify competitive capacities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Since the 1970s, American higher education has seen increasing numbers of students entering college but has witnessed a decline in the number of students enrolling in STEM programs. African American men fall behind other students in regards to academic performance, persistence, and success throughout primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling. Accordingly, participation of African American men in STEM disciplines is low in comparison to White males and other race groups. Various factors have been identified as contributing to the academic failures of Black men. Poor academic and social preparedness, racial identity issues, institutional climates, negative stereotypes, and fear of success have been cited as potential contributors to the relative invisibility of African American men in STEM disciplines. This study explores the life stories of five African American male scholars in the college of engineering at a predominantly white university. The goal of the qualitative investigation is to help university faculty and administrators understand the institutional, interpersonal, and collective mechanisms influencing the success identities of African American male undergraduates in STEM academic programs. Understanding the lived experiences of this population may help universities innovate stronger supports for men of color in college and broaden the borders for all students interested in STEM careers.
McMurtrie, Beth; Farrar, Lara
American-style summer programs in China, catering to Chinese-born students, have taken American universities by surprise. They are yet one more player in the complex and often opaque Chinese education industry, an industry in which American colleges are finding themselves increasingly entwined. These programs have become a booming enterprise,…
Voon, Shi Jing; Pearson, Emma
This pilot study was designed to shed light on Malaysian-Chinese parents' beliefs about ethnic identity and cultural maintenance in children's socialisation following migration. Three Malaysian-Chinese families residing in Sydney, Australia, with at least one child within the early childhood age range of 4-8 years, participated in the study.…
Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara
African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…
Zhao, Ning; Zheng, Guang; Li, Jian; Zhao, Hong-Yan; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Chi; Guo, Hong-Tao; Lu, Ai-Ping
To identify the commonalities between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to understand the mechanisms of Chinese medicine (CM) in different diseases with the same treatment. A text mining approach was adopted to analyze the commonalities between RA and DM according to CM and biological elements. The major commonalities were subsequently verifified in RA and DM rat models, in which herbal formula for the treatment of both RA and DM identifified via text mining was used as the intervention. Similarities were identifified between RA and DM regarding the CM approach used for diagnosis and treatment, as well as the networks of biological activities affected by each disease, including the involvement of adhesion molecules, oxidative stress, cytokines, T-lymphocytes, apoptosis, and inflfl ammation. The Ramulus Cinnamomi-Radix Paeoniae Alba-Rhizoma Anemarrhenae is an herbal combination used to treat RA and DM. This formula demonstrated similar effects on oxidative stress and inflfl ammation in rats with collagen-induced arthritis, which supports the text mining results regarding the commonalities between RA and DM. Commonalities between the biological activities involved in RA and DM were identifified through text mining, and both RA and DM might be responsive to the same intervention at a specifific stage.
Savoca, Margaret R; Martine, Tara L; Morton, Tiffany B; Johnson, Lakeisha T; Bell, Nancy M; Aronson, Robert E; Wallace, Debra C
Although young African-American men are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, participation in competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American men. This study explored the activities of young African-American men to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited that included five groups of African-American men aged 15 to 22 years (N=106): high school athletes and nonathletes, college athletes and nonathletes, and nonstudents. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices during the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, nonstudent status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American men that take into consideration how school, athletics, and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharpe, Tanya L
The disproportionate representation of African American survivors of homicide victims places them at greater risk for compromised mental health. However, an examination of factors that influence how this population copes with this traumatic event is absent from the literature. This article elucidates the importance of sociocultural factors that influence coping resources and strategies for African Americans surviving the homicide of a loved one. A socioculturally responsive model of coping is presented that can be utilized in furthering the development of research and practice that is culturally responsive to the needs of African American survivors of homicide victims. © The Author(s) 2013.
Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Barron, John A.; Davies, Sarah J.
Evidence for climatic change across the North American Monsoon (NAM) and adjacent areas is reviewed, drawing on continental and marine records and the application of climate models. Patterns of change at 12,000, 9000, 6000 and 4000 cal yr BP are presented to capture the nature of change from the Younger Dryas (YD) and through the mid-Holocene. At the YD, conditions were cooler overall, wetter in the north and drier in the south, while moving into the Holocene wetter conditions became established in the south and then spread north as the NAM strengthened. Until c. 8000 cal yr BP, the Laurentide Ice Sheet influenced precipitation in the north by pushing the Bermuda High further south. The peak extent of the NAM seems to have occurred around 6000 cal yr BP. 4000 cal yr BP marks the start of important changes across the NAM region, with drying in the north and the establishment of the clear differences between the summer-rain dominated south and central areas and the north, where winter rain is more important. This differentiation between south and north is crucial to understanding many climate responses across the NAM. This increasing variability is coincident with the declining influence of orbital forcing. 4000 cal yr BP also marks the onset of significant anthropogenic activity in many areas. For the last 2000 years, the focus is on higher temporal resolution change, with strong variations across the region. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is characterised by centennial scale ‘megadrought’ across the southwest USA, associated with cooler tropical Pacific SSTs and persistent La Niña type conditions. Proxy data from southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean reveal generally wetter conditions, whereas records from the highlands of central Mexico and much of the Yucatan are typified by long -term drought. The Little Ice Age (LIA), in the north, was characterised by cooler, wetter winter conditions that have been linked with increased
Nomura, Sarah J O; Hwang, Yi-Ting; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Fung, Teresa T; Yeh, Shu-Lan; Dash, Chiranjeev; Allen, Laura; Philips, Serena; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Wang, Judy Huei-Yu
This project was undertaken to examine the association between dietary intake of soy or cruciferous vegetables and breast cancer treatment-related symptoms among Chinese-American (CA) and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) breast cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study included 192 CA and 173 NHW female breast cancer survivors (stages 0-III, diagnosed between 2006 and 2012) recruited from two California cancer registries, who had completed primary treatment. Patient-reported data on treatment-related symptoms and potential covariates were collected via telephone interviews. Dietary data were ascertained by mailed questionnaires. The outcomes evaluated were menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, vaginal discharge), joint problems, fatigue, hair thinning/loss, and memory problems. Associations between soy and cruciferous vegetables and symptoms were assessed using logistic regression. Analyses were further stratified by race/ethnicity and endocrine therapy usage (non-user, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors). Soy food and cruciferous vegetable intake ranged from no intake to 431 and 865 g/day, respectively, and was higher in CA survivors. Higher soy food intake was associated with lower odds of menopausal symptoms (≥ 24.0 vs. 0 g/day, OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.25, 1.03), and fatigue (≥ 24.0 vs. 0 g/day, OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.22, 0.84). However, when stratified by race/ethnicity, associations were statistically significant in NHW survivors only. Compared with low intake, higher cruciferous vegetable intake was associated with lower odds of experiencing menopausal symptoms (≥ 70.8 vs. soy and cruciferous vegetable intake was associated with less treatment-related menopausal symptoms and fatigue.
Noble, Clifford Elliott, II
The problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of three single-task instruments---(a) the Test of English as a Foreign Language, (b) the Aviation Test of Spoken English, and (c) the Single Manual-Tracking Test---and three dual-task instruments---(a) the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, (b) the Certified Flight Instructor's Test, and (c) the Simulation-Based English Test---to predict the language performance of 10 Chinese student pilots speaking English as a second language when operating single-engine and multiengine aircraft within American airspace. Method. This research implemented a correlational design to investigate the ability of the six described instruments to predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation, which was the Examiner's Test. This test assessed the oral communication skill of student pilots on the flight portion of the terminal checkride in the Piper Cadet, Piper Seminole, and Beechcraft King Air airplanes. Results. Data from the Single Manual-Tracking Test, as well as the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, were discarded due to performance ceiling effects. Hypothesis 1, which stated that the average correlation between the mean scores of the dual-task evaluations and that of the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of single-task evaluations, was not supported. Hypothesis 2, which stated that the correlation between the mean scores of the participants on the Simulation-Based English Test and the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of all single- and dual-task evaluations, was also not supported. The findings suggest that single- and dual-task assessments administered after initial flight training are equivalent predictors of language performance when piloting single-engine and multiengine aircraft.
Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased self-esteem and life satisfaction. Additionally, there were significant interactions for ethnicity, gender, and race. Specifically, older Caribbean Black female adolescents exhibited higher depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction in the context of high levels of perceived discrimination compared with older African American male adolescents.
Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.
This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve
In this study, I focused on international Chinese doctoral students and sought to better understand their lived experience in transition to U.S. higher education. I also aimed to explore strategies that can be employed to improve these students' academic and sociocultural experiences on American campuses. Guided by the adult transition theory…
Successful educational outcomes among Asian American college students often obscure the challenges and nuanced educational experiences of Asian immigrant ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the college-going experiences of Chinese and Korean immigrant students by examining the relationship between these…
Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank
Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…
Chino, Michelle; Fullerton-Gleason, Lynne
To examine correlates of suicide attempts among American Indian adolescents living on reservations in New Mexico. Cross-sectional American Indian adolescents attending school in New Mexico, grades 6 to 12. Data from the Search Institute Profiles of Student Life Attitudes and Behaviors survey related to suicide attempts and student assets and risk behaviors. Hypothesized predictor variables derived from 39 survey questions were tested against one outcome variable relating to prior suicide attempts. Of 690 American Indian students included in the study, 24.2% indicated having attempted suicide one or more times in their lives. Salient assets included having neighbors who cared about them, adults who made them feel important, and having friends who did well in school. Notable risk factors were feeling depressed, drug and alcohol use, and having been the victim of violence. Adolescent suicide continues to be a major concern for American Indians. A focus on strengthening parent-child relationships and community support for families may increase resiliency among youth at risk.
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…
Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Tademy, Raymond
Empirical evidence indicates that parental factors may be important protective factors for adolescents. Less is known about the dimensions of parental influence on alcohol use among African American adolescents. The purpose of this investigation was to examine parental influence and its relationship to alcohol refusal efficacy and use among…
Stroud, George H.
Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…
Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Oseguera, Leticia; Vigil, James Diego
This article concentrates on the educational experiences of urban and suburban Mexican American youth, from recent immigrants to those that have been in the United States for generations. The article seeks to unravel the relationship between acculturation and school success by offering a holistic and longitudinal approach of three time periods:…
Pinto, Rogério M.; McKay, Mary M.; Wilson, Marla; Phillips, Daisy; Baptiste, Donna; Bell, Carl C.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Paikoff, Roberta L.
SUMMARY This study examines the relationship between contextual factors and attendance in a family-based HIV prevention program for low-income, urban, African-American women and their children. Participants’ motivations to become involved, their concerns about discussing sex-related issues with their children, recruiters’ perceptions of respondents’ understanding of the program, and environmental stressors were examined. Participants’ level of motivation and recruiters’ success in improving respondents’ understanding of the program were significant correlates of attendance. Stressors experienced by the family and concerns around talking with children about sex were not significantly associated with participation. Recommendations to enhance involvement in family-based HIV prevention programs are made. PMID:20657725
Linda A. Gerdner
Full Text Available Findings from an ethnographic study identified dementia (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease as an important but often overlooked issue within the Hmong American community. Elders with dementia often lived in the home of a married son who had children of his own. Children were reported to have difficulty understanding the memory and behavioral changes associated with the progressive disease. This lack of understanding adversely affected the relationship between the child and elder. A bilingual illustrated children’s book entitled Grandfather’s Story Cloth has been developed to address this issue. General themes from the life experiences of family caregivers were used to provide a culturally meaningful storyline. The book introduces the idea of using a story cloth to stimulate Grandfather’s remote memory thereby enhancing communication and understanding between Grandson and Grandfather. The educational value of the book is augmented with discussion questions and answers that support a family based approach to learning. To promote access, the Extendicare Foundation provided funds for the purchase and distribution of 1000 copies of this book to select organizations that serve the Hmong-American community. Initial feedback regarding the educational value and cultural appropriateness of Grandfather’s Story Cloth by members of the Hmong American community, educators, elementary students, librarians, and health care professionals is presented.
Savas, Lara S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Escoffrey, Cam; Fernandez, Maria E; Jones, Jennifer A; Cavazos, Jazmine; Gutierrez Monroy, Jo Ann A; Kegler, Michelle C
One-third of Mexican-American children, in addition to nonsmoker adults, are exposed to secondhand smoke at home, yet few interventions target Mexican-American households. An effective, brief English language program, tested with United Way 2-1-1 callers in Atlanta, increased home smoking bans (confirmed by air monitors). Two randomized controlled trials in North Carolina and Texas replicated those results. We explored factors determining adoption and enforcement of smoking bans in Mexican-American households to inform program linguistic and cultural adaptation to broaden program reach and relevance. Bilingual interviewers recruited convenience samples of Mexican-American smokers and nonsmokers living with at least one smoker in Houston and San Diego households and asked open-ended questions regarding conditions for implementing home and vehicle smoking bans and conditions for varying acceptance of bans. Investigators independently reviewed English transcripts and completed a descriptive analysis using ATLAS.ti. Participants (n = 43) were predominantly female (n = 31), current smokers (n = 26), interviewed in Spanish (n = 26), had annual household incomes less than $30000 (n = 24), and allowed smoking inside the home (n = 24). Themes related to difficulty creating and enforcing bans included courtesy, respect for guests and heads of household who smoke, and gender imbalances in decision making. Participants viewed protecting children's health as a reason for the ban but not protecting adult nonsmokers' health. A dual-language, culturally adapted intervention targeting multigenerational Mexican-American households should address household differences regarding language and consider influences of cultural values on family dynamics and interactions with guests that may weaken bans. Qualitative interviews suggested cultural and family considerations to address in adapting a brief evidence-based smoke-free homes intervention for Mexican Americans, including traditional
Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.
Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...
... Vietnamese, 46 percent of Chinese, 23 percent of Filipinos and 21 percent of Asian Indians are not fluent in English. In 2015, 75.5 percent of Asian American spoke a language other than English at home. Educational Attainment: According ...
Girardelli, Davide; Patel, Vijay K.; Martins-Shannon, Janine
An extended model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to study Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) students' in-class participation. The model included the core TPB constructs (behavioural intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control/self-efficacy) and 2 additional constructs (foreign…
Mu, Wei; Shang, Hongcai
Objective. To define patient values, identify their manifestations in a randomized clinical trial, and investigate the possible implications for clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. We categorized patient values manifestations into patient choice, preference, compliance, and patient-reported outcomes and summarized the underlying personal values through purposeful electronic searches for relevant reports. By hypothesizing a set of positive versus negative circumstances occurring in the enrollment, intervention allocation, treatment, and the follow-up stage of a trial, it is possible to discuss the potential implications of patient values manifestation on a trial with traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Patient values and its manifestations are ubiquitous in the process of clinical research with traditional Chinese medicine. These values may provide motivation for participation or engender the internal and external validity of the study. Conclusions. Trialists should attach sufficient importance to the needs and concerns of individual participant. To incorporate patient values into the design and conduct of a clinical study with traditional Chinese medicine, researchers are recommended to adopt participant-friendly design and use patient-reported outcomes, take convenience-for-patients measures, and help foster rational beliefs and behaviors of trial participants.
strategic military concept was heavily influenced by Chairman Mao Zedong .5 Mao proclaimed that the only legitimate use of military force was to...strategists Sun-Tzu, Wu -Tzu and Guan-Tzu and has its cultural roots in Chinese ancient statecraft. PLA’s current structure and organization for...
Asamen, Joy K.; Berry, Gordon L.
Examined perceived prejudice, self-concept, and alienation in 63 Japanese-American and 44 Chinese-American college students. Found no significant correlations for Chinese-Americans between perceived prejudice and self-concept; Japanese-Americans showed a significant, negative relationship between prejudice and self-concept. Chinese-Americans had…
Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Franz, T. E.; Anderson, C.
Human impacts on desert ecosystems have wide ranging effects on the hydrologic cycle which, in turn, influence interactions between the critical zone and the atmosphere. In this contribution, we utilize cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors at three human-modified semiarid ecosystems in the North American monsoon region: a buffelgrass pasture in Sonora, Mexico, a woody-plant encroached savanna ecosystem in Arizona, and a woody-plant encroached shrubland ecosystem in New Mexico. In each case, landscape heterogeneity in the form of bare soil and vegetation patches of different types leads to a complex mosaic of soil moisture and land-atmosphere interactions. Historically, the measurement of spatially-averaged soil moisture at the ecosystem scale (on the order of several hundred square meters) has been problematic. Thus, new advances in measuring cosmogenically-produced neutrons present an opportunity for observational and modeling studies in these ecosystems. We discuss the calibration of the cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors at each site, present comparisons to a distributed network of in-situ measurements, and verify the spatially-aggregated observations using the watershed water balance method at two sites. We focus our efforts on the summer season 2013 and its rainfall period during the North American monsoon. To compare neutron counts to the ground sensors, we utilized an aspect-elevation weighting algorithm to compute an appropriate spatial average for the in-situ measurements. Similarly, the water balance approach utilizes precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration measurements in the footprint of the cosmic-ray sensors to estimate a spatially-averaged soil moisture field. Based on these complementary approaches, we empirically determined a relationship between cosmogenically-produced neutrons and the spatially-aggregated soil moisture. This approach may improve upon existing methods used to calculate soil moisture from neutron counts that typically suffer from
Harvey, Stephen; Cushion, Christopher J.; Wegis, Heidi M.; Massa-Gonzalez, Ada N.
Background: Previous research examining the effectiveness of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach has been equivocal. This has been hampered by a dependence on a comparative (i.e., "which method is best?") theoretical framework. An alternative "practice-referenced" framework has the potential to examine the effectiveness of TGfU…
Hall, J Camille
This article examines how skin color stratification, termed "colorism," affects the psychological well-being of African American women. Previous research has shown that the experience of colorism is pervasive within the black community and that black women have been culturally or personally affected by intraracial discrimination. This article describes a qualitative study that used focus groups to investigate the experiences of black women that were categorized according to their self-ascribed skin tone group. The findings indicated that women of different hues have distinctive experiences based on their skin tone, and that these experiences influence how they felt about themselves and interact with others. The article concludes with a discussion of practice, research, and policy implications. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...and expanding scope of the U.S.-Japan alliance 27 5. The perceived emerging strategic partnership between the U.S., Japan, India, and Australia ...large by global standards. In 2013, 84 Chinese companies (excluding Hong Kong firms) made Fortune Magazines Global 500 list of the world’s largest
Sheats, Jylana L; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ona, Fernando F; Juarez, Paul D; Kolbe, Lloyd J
Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Marion County, Indiana. African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P eat (r = 0.23, P eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ritter, Zachary S.
International students bring racial attitudes and group preferences that affect campus climates. Forty-seven Chinese, Japanese, and Korean college international students were interviewed, regarding their perceptions of race/ethnicity and nationality, when it comes to dating and romantic relationships on college campuses. Thirty-five out of…
Joshua W. Lobe; Mac A. Callaham Jr.; Paul F. Hendrix; James L Hanula
This study investigated the possibility of a facilitative relationship between Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) and exotic earthworms, in the southeastern region of the USA. Earthworms and selected soil properties were sampled five years after experimental removal of privet from flood plain forests of the Georgia Piedmont region. The earthworm...
Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Schwartz, Marc D.; Luta, George; Maxwell, Annette E.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.
This study utilized data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial to compare a culturally tailored video promoting positive attitudes toward mammography among Chinese immigrant women to a linguistically appropriate generic video and print media. Intervention development was guided by the Health Belief Model. Five hundred and ninety-two…
Economic evaluations are increasingly common in the critical care literature, although approaches to their conduct are not standardized. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop to address methodologic and reporting issues for economic analyses in critical care and to determine how guidelines from the U.S. Public Health Service Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine (PCEHM) were applicable to critical care. We identified several issues that hamper cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) in the critically ill. Data on the effectiveness of intensive care unit (ICU) interventions are often lacking; ICU patients are complex, with multiple concurrent problems and interventions; most ICU therapies are only supportive, and therefore may not individually result in improved outcome; accurate cost data are not commonly available and are difficult to obtain; there is no standardized approach for measuring or valuing costs across countries; typical outcomes in ICU studies (e.g., short-term mortality) are not ideal for CEAs while preferred outcomes for CEAs (e.g., long-term quality-adjusted survival) are rarely collected; valuing the importance of appropriate end-of-life care, an important aspect of ICU care, is difficult, and the burden of critical illness on family members is not easily captured in a CEA. Nevertheless, many of these problems are not unique to critical care, and we believe the PCEHM guidelines can be adapted to the critical care setting. We recommend all CEAs in the critically ill include a PCEHM reference case, where the cost-effectiveness ratio is calculated by adopting a societal perspective, estimating long-term costs and quality of life after ICU care, applying a 3% annual discount rate to costs and effects, and conducting multiway sensitivity analyses. Because elements of the reference case, such as long-term costs and quality of life, may only be estimated using modeling and assumptions, we also recommend inclusion of a "data-rich" case
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Leung, Wing-Cheong
This study examines risk factors of intimate partner violence against women in a cohort of Chinese women drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. Data from a cross-section of 1,870 women are analyzed. Prevalence rates of women's self-reports of violence by their intimate partners and conflict with in-laws are computed and compared in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The results show that in-law conflict was the characteristic most significantly associated with women's reports of violent victimization. This suggests that in-law conflict should be included in the screening and assessment of risk for intimate partner violence.
of Czechoslovakia in 1968, and the announcement of the Brezhnev doctrine, which led Mao Zedong to initiate a small military skirmish as a...both originating in the mind of Mao Zedong in 1930s and 1940s.21 In those years, the Chinese Communist Party faced much stronger adversaries in Japan...one China and one Taiwan’” 11/6‒7 Vice President WU XUEQIAN meets Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF) delegation in Beijing, calls for talks 12/11
Marchica, Loredana; Zhao, Yaxi; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Ivoska, William
Fantasy sports is a growing industry with a reported 56.8 million individuals participating in the United States and Canada alone in 2015. Whereas this activity has attracted considerable public attention, little research has examined its impact on adolescents in spite of their high rates of gambling. The current study examined the relationship between regular participation (more than once a month) in sport-relevant gambling activities among adolescents and those identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem. Questionnaire responses were collected from high school students (N = 6818; 49 % male) in Wood County, Ohio, United States. Statistical analyses revealed that regular involvement in sports betting, fantasy sports betting, and daily fantasy sports betting among adolescents was associated with a higher risk of gambling problems. Further, although males participate more frequently in these activities, females who participate have a stronger likelihood of being at-risk. Students aged 16-19 years old are at a higher risk for developing a gambling problem compared to younger adolescents when regularly engaging in sports-related gambling. Moreover, regularly participating in daily fantasy sports is the strongest predictor of at-risk gambling behavior in 13-15 year old students. A hierarchical logistic regression supports that controlling for gender and age, all forms of sport-relevant gambling activities are significant predictors of at-risk gambling. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of sports betting and fantasy sports on adolescents and establishes an initial step for future studies to further investigate these relationships.
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Feb 19,2018 What do your ... this chart: English | Spanish | Traditional Chinese Enter Your Blood Pressure Systolic mm Hg (upper #) Diastolic mm Hg (lower #) ...
Shelton, Rachel C; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S; Erwin, Deborah O
Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This article seeks to address this gap by describing the characteristics and capacity of a sample of 76 female African American LHAs from a nationally disseminated evidence-based LHA program for breast and cervical cancer screening (The National Witness Project), as well as potential differences between cancer survivors and nonsurvivors who serve as LHAs. A conceptual model for understanding LHA capacity and contributions in underserved communities at the individual, social, and organizational levels is presented. We describe LHA experiences and characteristics (e.g., experiences of mistrust and discrimination, racial pride, sociodemographics), capacity at the individual level (e.g., psychological and physical health, health behaviors), capacity at the social level (e.g., social networks, social support), and capacity at the organizational level (e.g., role-related competencies, self-efficacy, leadership, role benefits/challenges). Data were obtained through interview-administered telephone surveys between 2010 and 2011. Findings highlight the critical capacity that LHAs bring to their communities and the importance of supporting LHAs to sustain these programs and to address racial/ethnic health disparities.
Wells, Ray E.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Niem, Alan; Niem, Wendy; Ma, Lina; Madin, Ian; Evarts, Russell C.
A geologic map of the greater Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area is planned that will document the region’s complex geology (currently in review: “Geologic map of the greater Portland metropolitan area and surrounding region, Oregon and Washington,” by Wells, R.E., Haugerud, R.A., Niem, A., Niem, W., Ma, L., Evarts, R., Madin, I., and others). The map, which is planned to be published as a U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map, will consist of 51 7.5′ quadrangles covering more than 2,500 square miles, and it will represent more than 100 person-years of geologic mapping and studies. The region was mapped at the relatively detailed scale of 1:24,000 to improve understanding of its geology and its earthquake hazards. More than 100 geologic map units will record the 50-million-year history of volcanism, sedimentation, folding, and faulting above the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The geology contributes to the varied terroir of four American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) in the northwestern Willamette Valley: the Yamhill-Carlton, Dundee Hills, Chehalem Mountains, and Ribbon Ridge AVAs. Terroir is defined as the environmental conditions, especially climate and soils, that influence the quality and character of a region’s crops—in this case, grapes for wine.On this new poster (“New geologic mapping of the northwestern Willamette Valley, Oregon, and its American Viticultural Areas (AVAs)—A foundation for understanding their terroir”), we present the geologic map at a reduced scale (about 1:175,000) to show the general distribution of geologic map units, and we highlight, discuss, and illustrate six major geologic events that helped shape the region and form its terrior. We also discuss the geologic elements that contribute to the character of each of the four AVAs in the northwestern Willamette Valley.
Sino-American cultural differences. The first is that Chinese culture traditionally shuns legal considerations and instead stresses ethical and...failure to show, legal vs. ethical and moral 80 principles, 20-23 Empathy, 75-76 role in negotiations, 20-23 Ethical /moral principles, 20 Cultural...roots in anthropology, psy- chology, and psychoanalysis , as well as political science, Professor Pye has compared the political behavior and political
Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang
Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.
Chang, S C H; Woo, J S T; Yau, V; Gorzalka, B B; Brotto, L A
Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health
Tsai, William; Lu, Qian
The present study examined perceived social support as a mediator of the longitudinal link between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and quality of life among a sample of Chinese breast cancer survivors. Ninety-six Chinese breast cancer survivors recruited from Southern California completed four surveys in total: (1) a baseline survey (T1), 1-month follow-up (T2), 3-month follow-up (T3), and 6-month follow-up (T4). Participants filled out a paper-pen questionnaire containing the Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS). Higher T1 AEE was associated with lower T1 social support (B = -0.01, SE = 0.004, p < 0.01) which in turn was associated with lower quality of life at T2 (B = 2.98, SE = 0.64, p < 0.01), T3 (B = 2.14, SE = 0.54, p < 0.01), and T4 (B = 2.08, SE = 0.68, p < 0.01). These results suggest that the harmful effect of AEE on quality of life is explained by reduced social support. Given the detrimental effects of AEE on social support and quality of life, future research on interventions that facilitate emotional disclosure is needed. Implications for the effects of Chinese culture on AEE are discussed.
Lei, Yuan-Yuan; Ho, Suzanne C; Cheng, Ashley; Kwok, Carol; Lee, Chi-Kiu Iris; Cheung, Ka Li; Lee, Roselle; Loong, Herbert H F; He, Yi-Qian; Yeo, Winnie
Background: The 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guideline provides recommendations for cancer prevention among cancer survivors. Limited data have examined whether guideline adherence is related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods: An ongoing prospective cohort study involving 1,462 Chinese women with early-stage breast cancer assessed exercise, diet, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and at 18-months follow-up after diagnosis. Each assessment recorded patient habits within the previous 12 months. HRQoL was evaluated by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). We first compared the level of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations before and after cancer diagnosis. We then examined whether adherence to these recommendations after diagnosis was associated with HRQoL at 18 months. Results: The mean adherence score significantly increased from baseline (3.2; SD, 1.1) to 18-month follow-up (3.9; SD, 1.1; P <.001). Overall, increasing adherence to the WCRF/AICR guideline was associated with higher scores of global health status/quality of life (QoL; P trend =.011), physical ( P trend <.001) and role functioning ( P trend =.024), and lower scores for fatigue ( P trend =.016), nausea and vomiting ( P trend <.001), pain ( P trend =.004), dyspnea ( P trend =.030), loss of appetite ( P trend =.007), and diarrhea ( P trend =.020). Patients with cancer who met the BMI recommendation had higher scores for physical functioning ( P =.001) and lower scores for fatigue ( P =.024), pain ( P <.001), and dyspnea ( P =.045). Adherence to physical activity recommendation was associated with better scores of global health status/QoL ( P <.001), physical functioning ( P =.003), fatigue ( P =.002), pain ( P =.018), and dyspnea ( P =.021). Higher adherence to diet recommendation was associated with lower scores of nausea and vomiting ( P trend =.005), loss of
Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly
This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…
Dervin, Fred; Gao, Minghui
"Happy Chinese" or kuaile hanyu is an educational melodrama produced by the Chinese TV channel CCTV in 2009. Aiming to improve foreign learners' Chinese language skills, the plot revolves around Susan, an American, staying with her former Chinese classmate's family. "Happy Chinese" proposes both language and cultural learning.…
This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…
Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron; Xiang, Ping
In this study we examined Chinese physical educators' attitudes toward teaching physical activity and fitness. We then compared the Chinese teacher attitudes to their American counterparts. Participants were 330 Chinese elementary, middle and high school physical educators. The Teachers' Attitudes Toward Curriculum in Physical Education (TATCPE)…
Ursula Loret de Mola
Full Text Available Latin American (LA megacities are facing enormous challenges to provide welfare to millions of people who live in them. High rates of urbanization and limited administrative capacity of LA cities to plan and control urban growth have led to a critical deficit of urban green space, and therefore, to sub-optimal outcomes in terms of urban sustainability. This study seeks to assess the possibility of using real estate prices to provide an estimate of the monetary value of the ecosystem services provided by urban green space across five Latin American megacities: Bogota, Buenos Aires, Lima, Mexico City and Santiago de Chile. Using Google Earth images to quantify urban green space and multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of urban green space, crime rates, business density and population density on real estate prices across the five mentioned megacities. In addition, for a subset of the data (Lima and Buenos Aires we analyzed the effects of landscape ecology variables (green space patch size, connectivity, etc. on real estate prices to provide a first insight into how the ecological attributes of urban green space can determine the level of ecosystem service provision in different urban contexts in Latin America. The results show a strong positive relationship between the presence of urban green space and real estate prices. Green space explains 52% of the variability in real estate prices across the five studied megacities. Population density, business density and crime had only minor impacts on real estate prices. Our analysis of the landscape ecology variables in Lima and Buenos Aires also show that the relationship between green space and price is context-specific, which indicates that further research is needed to better understand when and where ecological attributes of green space affect real estate prices so that managers of urban green space in LA cities can optimize ecological configuration to maximize ecosystem service
Mary E. Northridge
Full Text Available IntroductionWhile the US health care system has the capability to provide amazing treatment of a wide array of conditions, this care is not uniformly available to all population groups. Oral health care is one of the dimensions of the US health care delivery system in which striking disparities exist. More than half of the population does not visit a dentist each year. Improving access to oral health care is a critical and necessary first step to improving oral health outcomes and reducing disparities. Fluoride has contributed profoundly to the improved dental health of populations worldwide and is needed regularly throughout the life course to protect teeth against dental caries. To ensure additional gains in oral health, fluoride toothpaste should be used routinely at all ages. Evidence-based guidelines for annual dental visits and brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste form the basis of this implementation science project that is intended to bridge the care gap for underserved Asian American populations by improving access to quality oral health care and enhancing effective oral health promotion strategies. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide information for the design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a participatory, multi-level, partnered (i.e., with community stakeholders intervention to improve the oral and general health of low-income Chinese American adults.MethodsThis study will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a partnered intervention using remote data entry into an electronic health record (EHR to improve access to oral health care and promote oral health. The research staff will survey a sample of Chinese American patients (planned n = 90 screened at three outreach centers about their satisfaction with the partnered intervention. Providers (dentists and community health workers, research staff, administrators, site directors, and community advisory board members will
Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S; Yi, Stella; Zhang, Qiuyi; Gu, Xiaoxi; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
While the US health care system has the capability to provide amazing treatment of a wide array of conditions, this care is not uniformly available to all population groups. Oral health care is one of the dimensions of the US health care delivery system in which striking disparities exist. More than half of the population does not visit a dentist each year. Improving access to oral health care is a critical and necessary first step to improving oral health outcomes and reducing disparities. Fluoride has contributed profoundly to the improved dental health of populations worldwide and is needed regularly throughout the life course to protect teeth against dental caries. To ensure additional gains in oral health, fluoride toothpaste should be used routinely at all ages. Evidence-based guidelines for annual dental visits and brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste form the basis of this implementation science project that is intended to bridge the care gap for underserved Asian American populations by improving access to quality oral health care and enhancing effective oral health promotion strategies. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide information for the design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a participatory, multi-level, partnered (i.e., with community stakeholders) intervention to improve the oral and general health of low-income Chinese American adults. This study will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a partnered intervention using remote data entry into an electronic health record (EHR) to improve access to oral health care and promote oral health. The research staff will survey a sample of Chinese American patients (planned n = 90) screened at three outreach centers about their satisfaction with the partnered intervention. Providers (dentists and community health workers), research staff, administrators, site directors, and community advisory board members will participate in structured interviews
Sun, C. H. J.
Record high temperatures in 2012 pushed the start date of the Maine lobster fishing season three weeks earlier than normal. High landings during a compressed time period more than doubled the volume experienced in June and July. As supply outpaced demand, an average 40% decrease in ex-vessel price significantly reduced fishermen's profitability. This study examined how the timing and location of lobster landings is affected by ocean temperatures, number of trips, distance fished from shore, price, and seasonality. Weekly lobster landings and the number of fishing trips in eastern, central, and western Maine from 2008 to 2014 were combined with NERACOOS buoy temperatures to model the change in productivity. The model shows warming leads to significant increases in landings. We also used monthly landings, prices, and trade of live and processed lobster between the U.S. and Canada from 1990 to 2014 to specify a system of equations that captures how both markets are integrated and how they respond to changing market conditions. The model shows that an increase in landings in both areas leads to an increase in lobster trade and then to an increase in US imports of frozen lobster meat. Furthermore, lobster exports to the emerging Chinese market started to expand after 2012 and grew to account for 21% and 11% of the exports value from U.S. and Canada, respectively. From 2010 to 2014, a sub-system model is specified to address how increasing demand in the Chinese market for hard-shell lobster could create incentives to delay production and increase the supply of hard-shell live lobster. The full model was then used to explore ways in which this coastal social-ecological system can adapt to increasing ocean temperature and how the integrated global market might alter the economic implications of the next ocean heatwave.
Ma, H M; Wang, L; Shi, J F; Ying, J M; Zhu, J; Chen, L L; Yue, X P; Gong, J Y; Li, X; Wang, J L; Dai, M
Objective: To systematically review the worldwide simulation model studies on the natural history of breast cancer and to summarize related parameters. Methods: A structured literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library to identify articles during 1980-2015. Articles were screened independently by two researchers. Health states in the natural history and relevant parameters were extracted. Results: A total of 36 studies were included for analysis, within the earliest one was published in 1990. Most studies were from Europe and America countries, and 2 studies from China. Markov model was mostly applied to evaluating breast cancer screening programs ( n =32). Reported health status included "healthy" ( n =36), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, n =17), invasive breast cancer (IBC, n =36), and death ( n =27). There were two definite classifications for IBC, tumor size ( n =9) and TNM staging ( n =9, 3 studies reported transition rates). The median (range) of annual transition rates from DCIS to stage-Ⅰ IBC, Ⅰ to Ⅱ, Ⅱ to Ⅲ, Ⅲ to Ⅳ were 0.279 (0.259-0.299), 0.150 (0.069-0.430), 0.100 (0.060-0.128) and 0.210 (0.010-0.625), respectively. A total of 15 studies reported the mean duration from predinical to clinical stage for IBC was 1.95-4.70 years, which gradually increased with age, and 7 studies reported that for DCIS. Conclusions: Despite closer attention was paid to breast cancer natural history models, in recent years atypical hyperplasia has been neglected. Data on the mean duration of DCIS requires reasonable conversion. Various classifications for IBC exist whereas transition rates are limited. Current findings would be valuable references but challenging for the Chinese-population specific natural history model, development.
Zhao, Liyun; Li, Lingzhi
Since the reform and opening up of Chinese tourism industry, the scale has been continuously expanded and the income from tourism has been continuously increasing. Chinese tourism industry has become one of the most potential industries in the service industry. By analyzing the development environment and development trend of Chinese tourism industry from 2000 to 2016, we can understand the current situation of Chinese tourism development and provide suggestions for better development of Chinese tourism industry.
The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress
Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn
A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination–psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic and national identifications. A sample of 259 Asian American students completed measures of perceived discrimination, group identifications (specific ethnic identification stated by respondents and national or “mainstream American” identification), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression symptoms). Regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction of perceived discrimination, ethnic identification, and national identification on psychological distress. Simple-slope analyses indicated that dual identification (strong ethnic and national identifications) was linked to a weaker relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress compared with other group identification configurations. These findings underscore the need to consider the interconnections between ethnic and national identifications to better understand the circumstances under which group identifications are likely to buffer individuals against the adverse effects of racial discrimination. PMID:25258674
Social changes in diasporic Chinese communities in the 21st century calls for a new approach to understand new dynamics, resources and opportunities to bring together all stakeholders, both Chinese and non-Chinese, toward mutual trust, effective communication and collaboration in host countries (Wu, 2010; 2011). For this purpose, this paper aims to develop a framework for the process of diasporic Chinese community building (CCB) in general and for the local engagement of Chinese international...
Eisenberg, David M; Harris, Eric S J; Littlefield, Bruce A; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E; Clardy, Jon
While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka "ethnomedicines") have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as "detanninized" extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2-3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity
Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon
While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological
Full Text Available In 1953, Chiang Yee, a Chinese American travel writer and artist, began to write and exchange Chinese-language dayou poems with Yang Lien-sheng, a Harvard professor. These poems, seemingly casual, unrestrained, humorous, and sometimes emotional, reflected the sentiments of diaspora poets, their feelings about displacement, profession, language, and home. This article is a study of the cultural and literary significance of these dayou poems. Written during the Cold War era by Chinese scholars, they stand in sharp contrast with mainstream publications in both China and America. They are not merely an instance of Chinese poetic form being practiced overseas; when examined against their sociocultural context, these verses raise significant issues concerning displacement and homeland, career and cultural identity, and “mother tongue” and public expression. They reveal an ethos that diaspora poets have never publicly manifested in their English-language writings. Thus, a study of these dayou poems may deepen our understanding about Asian American literature, lead to a better appreciation of writing in languages other than English, and open up a new, exciting topic within Asian American Studies.
Lim, Jung-won; Gonzalez, Patricia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming F; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T
The purpose of this study was to (1) describe health behaviors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Latina and Asian-American breast cancer survivors (BCS), (2) estimate possible culturally driven predictors of health behaviors and HRQOL, and (3) compare pathways for predicting health behaviors and HRQOL between the two groups. Secondary data were used to investigate health behaviors and HRQOL among 183 Latina and 206 Asian Americans diagnosed with breast cancer. The study methodology was guided by the health belief model and the contextual model of HRQOL. Structural equation modeling was used to test cultural predictors on health behaviors of BCS. Asian Americans reported higher emotional and physical well-being scores than Latina-Americans. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the adequacy of the two-factor model ("powerful others" and "sociocultural factors") in the cultural health belief construct for Latina and Asian-American BCS. In the structural model, Latinas and Asian Americans showed different pathways in the predicted relationships among the variables. For Latina-Americans, doctor-patient relationship was positively related to exercise, and in turn, influenced physical and emotional well-being. For Asian Americans, treatment decisions and the "sociocultural factor" were significantly related to stress management. This study adds to the existing literature in that no study has focused on cultural health beliefs and health behaviors between Latina and Asian-American BCS. Evidence that Latinas and Asian Americans varied in the patterns of cultural factors influencing health behaviors and HRQOL might lead to the development of culturally sensitive breast cancer interventions for promoting positive health behavior and ultimately increasing HRQOL.
The New Unified International Diabetes Federation/American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Metabolic Syndrome definition: does it correlate better with C-reactive protein in Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes?
Lu, B; Zhang, S; Wen, J; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Zhang, Z; Wang, X; Hu, R
This study evaluated the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and metabolic syndrome, defined by the definition proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), American Heart Association (AHA) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) versus the older IDF definition, in 506 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were compared and analysed using multivariate linear regression models. Serum hsCRP was higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with those without metabolic syndrome for both definitions and increased as the number of components of metabolic syndrome increased (after adjusting for age, gender and smoking). Patients with metabolic syndrome according to the IDF/AHA/NHLBI but not the IDF definition had significantly higher hsCRP levels than those not meeting either definition and similar hsCRP levels to those meeting both definitions. Serum hsCRP levels were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome according to the IDF definition after adjusting for age, gender and smoking. Adding metabolic syndrome status according to the IDF/AHA/NHLBI definition significantly increased the fit of the multivariate linear regression model. The new IDF/AHA/NHLBI definition of metabolic syndrome may have a stronger relationship with serum hsCRP than the IDF definition.
Teaching Chinese cultural perspectives in CFL instruction is more challenging than teaching about Chinese cultural products and behavior. It is challenging because most textbooks do not orient their approach to it, because native-Chinese-speaking teachers tend to overlook it as it is so much a part of them that it presents no peculiarities, and because it is believed cultural understanding comes naturally once language is learned. Studies on cross-cultural communication demonstrate that cultu...
Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.
When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…
Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.
Chan, Michael; Guo, Jing
This comparative study of young adults in an established democracy (America) and transitional democracy (Hong Kong) analyzed the impact of political efficacy on the relationship between Internet/Facebook use on political and civic participation. Regression analyses in both samples showed that Facebook use consistently predicted both types of participation. Moreover, there were significant negative interaction effects of political efficacy and Facebook use on participation, such that the relationship between Facebook use and participation was stronger for those with lower levels of political efficacy. The findings provide cross-cultural support for the argument that social media use among youth can facilitate greater political and civic engagement, particularly for those who perceive that they have limited ability to participate and understand political affairs.
Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Scrimgeour, Andrew; Chen, Toni
This paper investigates the intertextual practices developed for writing in Chinese of high school students in Taiwan. On the basis of texts written by Chinese high school students, we investigate these practices within their own cultural context to develop an understanding of intertextual practices into which Chinese learners are socialised. We…
St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K
Given the cultural and developmental relevance of family members and peers in the lives of African-American adolescents, the present study used a bioecological framework to qualitatively explore the parenting context as well as specific family factors (support, rules, monitoring) and peer factors (support) related to weight status, physical activity (PA), and healthy eating in low-income African-American boys versus girls. Qualitative data were obtained from African-American adolescents through focus groups. Adolescents (n = 45, 100% African American, 51% girls, 12.6 ± 1.2 years, 51% overweight/obese) were from two underserved communities in South Carolina (median income ≈$17,000-$22,000, high crime levels). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent pairs of raters (r = 0.75). QSR NVivo 8 was used to analyze data, and themes were categorized separately for boys and girls. Adolescents reported themes of family warmth and control practices consistent with an authoritative style of parenting. Although adolescents wanted increased autonomy, they viewed parental monitoring as a favorable part of their relationship. Boys reported receiving more constructive feedback from parents about weight status and greater overall support for PA and diet than did girls. Girls reported more honest feedback from peers about weight status than did boys. Overall, adolescents acknowledged the unique opportunities of parents and peers in improving their health behaviors. Findings suggest parents and peers interact in different ways with African-American boys and girls regarding their weight status and health behaviors. Future obesity prevention efforts in minority youth may need to target parenting skills that provide greater support to African-American girls. In addition, given peers influence PA and diet differently in boys and girls, interventions should strategically include parenting strategies that involve monitoring peer-adolescent interactions.
James L. Chamberlain; Stephen Prisley; Michael McGuffin
The roots of American ginseng have been harvested from the hardwood forests of eastern United States, along-side timber, since the mid-1700s. Very little is known about this non-timber commodity relative to timber, although significant volumes of ginseng root have been harvested from the same forests along with timber. The harvest of ginseng correlated positively and...
Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.
This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…
McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda L.; Lashley, Maudry-Beverley; Marshall, Vanessa J.
Background: Young African American women are disproportionately affected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintentional pregnancies. Despite adequate knowledge, assertiveness, and negotiation skills, consistent condom use remains low. Aims: We sought to assess the role of pregnancy and STI risk perception in condom decision making…
Full Text Available the author raises the problem of the construction of ecological civilization in China in terms of the definition of «ecological civilization» in the context of traditional Chinese culture in its relationship with the traditional and the modern understanding of harmony and harmonious society, and the development of regulation in the sphere of environmental protection. In the article the analysis of philosophical aspects of this problem is given. The author demonstrates the approach developed by the Chinese scholars to understanding of the ecological civilization as a new stage in the human society’s development coming after industrial society. In conclusion the author proposes to consider this approach a necessary civilizational choice that is to be made by the Chinese society.
Outline of drawing tools ansd methods in architecture. Case studies of types and subjects. Research into contemporary practice......Outline of drawing tools ansd methods in architecture. Case studies of types and subjects. Research into contemporary practice...
In this paper, I critique the convergence thesis proposed by S. Pope and J. W. Meyer who envisage the rise of a universalistic corporate organization that tends to supersede national business contexts or at least renders the national institutional environment as less consequential. My counterargu.......e., Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, and Mohism. I posit, the actually management practices in China can be understood as diverse configurations of the four basic mode of management, i.e., autocracy, bureaucracy, chrismacracy, and democracy (ABCD for short)....
enjoins U.S. intervention if Japan is attacked while defending the islands.136 The U.S. reiterated this stance in 2012 and 2014.137 The American backing...finding live sharks , giant clams, and corals, and moved to arrest the fishermen on charges of poaching. Two Chinese surveillance vessels belonging to the...surveillance vessels to the shoal.189 Throughout April, a series of cyber- attacks were allegedly conducted, targeting university websites on both sides and
Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...
Full Text Available In this essay I offer an alternative perspective on how to organize class material for courses in Chinese philosophy for predominately American students. Instead of selecting topics taken from common themes in Western discourses, I suggest a variety of organizational strategies based on themes from the Chinese texts themselves, such as tradition, ritual, family, and guanxi (關係, which are rooted in the Chinese tradition but flexible enough to organize a broad range of philosophical material.
Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan
The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
El neoconstitucionalismo y el nuevo constitucionalismo latinoamericano: ¿dos corrientes llamadas a entenderse? || Neoconstitutionalism And The "New" Latin American Constitutionalism: Two Current Calls To Understand?
Nuria Belloso Martin
Full Text Available Resumen: Entre las corrientes del neoconstitucionalismo y del nuevo constitucionalismo latinoamericano hay aspectos que las diferencian pero también un sustrato común, lo que permite sostener la posibilidad de un diálogo fructífero entre ambas corrientes. Lo “nuevo” del nuevo constitucionalismo latinoamericano no es lo nuevo del movimiento constitucional de Latinoamérica. Se analizarán los presupuestos, las líneas de análisis y las posiciones doctrinales sobre el nuevo constitucionalismo latinoamericano, a la vez que se destacarán las peculiaridades que lo caracterizan. Se identificarán los rasgos principales que caracterizan a una y otra corriente, tales como la omnipresencia de la Constitución, el protagonismo de los principios y el renovado papel asignado al Poder Judicial. Abstract: Among neoconstitutionalism currents and the new Latin American constitutionalism are aspects that differentiate but also a common substrate, allowing the possibility to hold a fruitful dialogue between the two currents. The main features that characterize and over current, such as the omnipresence of the Constitution, the role of the principles and the new role assigned to the judiciary be identified. The 'new' Latin American constitutionalism is not new constitutional movement in Latin America. Budgets, the lines of analysis and doctrinal positions on the new Latin American constitutionalism is analyzed, as well as the peculiarities that characterize it will be highlighted. Finally, it asks whether there is anything really "new" in the new Latin American constitutionalism.
Wong, Betty Siu Junn
Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of…
Petersen, Anne Ring
The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....
Lee, Jong Hyun; Jeong, Yeong Ran; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Gyun Min
To understand the effects of hyperosmolality on protein glycosylation, recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells producing the Fc-fusion protein were cultivated in hyperosmolar medium resulting from adding NaCl (415 mOsm/kg). The hyperosmotic culture showed increased specific Fc-fusion protein productivity (q Fc ) but a decreased proportion of acidic isoforms and sialic acid content of the Fc-fusion protein. The intracellular and extracellular sialidase activities in the hyperosmotic cultures were similar to those in the control culture (314 mOsm/kg), indicating that reduced sialylation of Fc-fusion protein at hyperosmolality was not due to elevated sialidase activity. Expression of 52 N-glycosylation-related genes was assessed by the NanoString nCounter system, which provides a direct digital readout using custom-designed color-coded probes. After 3 days of hyperosmotic culture, nine genes (ugp, slc35a3, slc35d2, gcs1, manea, mgat2, mgat5b, b4galt3, and b4galt4) were differentially expressed over 1.5-fold of the control, and all these genes were down-regulated. N-linked glycan analysis by anion exchange and hydrophilic interaction HPLC showed that the proportion of highly sialylated (di-, tri-, tetra-) and tetra-antennary N-linked glycans was significantly decreased upon hyperosmotic culture. Addition of betaine, an osmoprotectant, to the hyperosmotic culture significantly increased the proportion of highly sialylated and tetra-antennary N-linked glycans (P ≤ 0.05), while it increased the expression of the N-glycan branching/antennary genes (mgat2 and mgat4b). Thus, decreased expression of the genes with roles in the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway correlated with reduced sialic acid content of Fc-fusion protein caused by hyperosmolar conditions. Taken together, the results obtained in this study provide a better understanding of the detrimental effects of hyperosmolality on N-glycosylation, especially sialylation, in rCHO cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng
This dissertation describes the teaching methods and educational philosophies of natural philosophy instructors at several of the colleges in colonial and early national North America. It finds two distinct approaches: the demonstrative, in which the instructor centers the course on visually engaging lecture-demonstrations, and the catechetical, in which the course objective is to master a set of facts and definitions through memorization and repetition. The roots of the demonstrative approach lay in the culture of public lecture-demonstrations that emerged in western Europe during the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. The catechism, while having a much longer history as a religious teaching tool, gained new currency in the period through the concern for moral education. Ultimately, both approaches were intimately tied to European Enlightenment ideas about the place of science in the public sphere and the means by which the human mind learns new information. Individual schools, and even individual instructors, had great discretion in choosing which approach, or combination of approaches, to use. Instructors could present lecture-demonstrations as part of the social training of students, who as citizens would be expected to attend lectures and participate in scientifically-informed discussion. Catechetical lessons, however, would be more useful to instructors who favored keeping natural philosophy similar in appearance to other subjects. The catechism, with its systematic presentation and familiar format, was more readily adapted to examinations. Two instructors in particular---William Smith and John Ewing, both at the University of Pennsylvania---serve as exemplars of the demonstrative and catechetical methods, respectively. The recognition of these two approaches, and the larger recognition of the prominence of natural philosophy in the North American curriculum, has implications for the received narratives of both early American science and early American