WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding children electronic

  1. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  2. The Efficacy of Electronic Books in Fostering Kindergarten Children's Emergent Story Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maria T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2004-01-01

    A counterbalanced, within-subjects design was carried out to study the efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children's emergent story understanding. The study compared effects of children's independent reading of stories electronically with effects of printed books read aloud by adults. Participants were 18 four- to five-year-old…

  3. Electronic Paint: Understanding Children's Representation through Their Interactions with Digital Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Seow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates very young children's use of a stylus-driven, electronic painting and drawing on the tablet PC. The authors compare their development in the use of this device with their use of other mark-making media, including those which derive from pencil and paper technologies and also with mouse-driven electronic paintbox programs.…

  4. Understand electrical and electronics maths

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    1993-01-01

    Understand Electrical and Electronics Maths covers elementary maths and the aspects of electronics. The book discusses basic maths including quotients, algebraic fractions, logarithms, types of equations and balancing of equations. The text also describes the main features and functions of graphs and the solutions to simpler types of electronics problems. The book then tackles the applications of polar coordinates in electronics, limits, differentiation and integration, and the applications of maths of rates of change in electronics. The activities of an electronic circuit; techniques of math

  5. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  6. Young Children's Understanding of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six children in…

  7. When Do Children Understand "Opposite"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine I; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the present research were to determine (a) the age at which children with typical development understand the concept of opposite, (b) whether this is related to other cognitive abilities or experiences, and (c) whether there is early implicit understanding of the concept. Children (N = 204) between 3 and 5 years of age were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions in a novel opposite task. Children's language and working memory skills were assessed, and parents provided information about children's access to learning materials about opposites. In the opposite task, 4- and 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, demonstrated acquisition of the concept of opposite. Children demonstrated this understanding only when asked for the "opposite" one, suggesting that antonymy was not made salient by stimulus properties alone. Children's accuracy was not significantly related to their language or working memory skills, to their child care experience, or to whether parents reported having books or games about opposites or playing opposite word games with children. Eye gaze analyses provided no evidence for early implicit understanding of the concept of opposite. Children with typical development have a concept of opposite by 4 years of age.

  8. Filipino children's understanding of peace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.; Kuipers, I.

    2003-01-01

    This study reports on 10-year-old Filipino children's understanding of peace, war, and strategies to attain peace. In total, 56 children were presented with a semistructured interview consisting of free associations to peace and questions pertaining to the definitions of peace and war and strategies

  9. Do Children Understand Fraction Addition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, in press) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments…

  10. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  11. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

  12. Children's Understanding of the Ulysses Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Katherine S.; Keil, Frank C.; Bloom, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Two studies explored children's understanding of how the presence of conflicting mental states in a single mind can lead people to act so as to subvert their own desires. Study 1 analyzed explanations by children (4-7 years) and adults of behaviors arising from this sort of "Ulysses conflict" and compared them with their understanding of…

  13. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim...... of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...... (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also...

  14. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  15. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  16. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…

  17. Understanding Peer Influence in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…

  18. Young children's grief: parents' understanding and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Kari E; Darbyshire, Philip; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Helseth, Solvi

    2014-01-01

    The grief experiences of young children and the interactional dynamics between parents and children leading to healthy grieving remain comparatively under researched. This article reports a qualitative evaluation of a Norwegian Bereavement Support Program where 8 parents described their young child's grief reactions and coping and how these intersected with their own grief. Successful parental coping with their child's grief involves understanding the child's genuine concerns following the death and an intricately holistic balance between shielding and including, between informing and frightening, and between creating a new life while cherishing the old.

  19. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  20. Emotion Understanding in Deaf Children with a Cochlear Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiefferink, Carin H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion…

  1. E-learning support for student's understanding of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Sendrup, Linda; Sparsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    To enhance active learning and understanding of analogue and digital electronics the use of e-learning techniques will be investigated. In a redesigned course combining introductory analogue and digital electronics, students will be motivated to prepare for lectures and exercises by providing...

  2. Understanding bruxism in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulue, Paul; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Laluque, Jean-François; d'Incau, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Screening for the various forms of bruxism in children and adolescents requires a sound knowledge of the physiopathology of this parafunction in addition to the etiologic and associated factors and comorbidities. The international literature contains various suggestions for suitable treatment. The optimal therapeutic approach often involves multidisciplinary management of these young patients. Sleep bruxism (SB) is a common sleep disorder which can cause serious problems to the stomatognathic system such as damaged teeth, headaches, muscle pain and TMD. Dental professionals are responsible for the detection and prevention of these harmful impacts on the patient's oral health. However, SB is much more than a question of worn teeth. Patients with SB consult for other medical comorbidities such as nighttime breathing problems, insomnia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, moodiness and gastroesophogeal reflux before any course of treatment is initiated. If a comorbidity is diagnosed, the treatment approach will be aimed in the first instance at the medical disorder, while concurrently managing the repercussions of SB. On the other hand, in as far as the majority of young bruxers cease to grind their teeth before adolescence or adulthood, it is feasible to adopt wait-and-see and non-interventionist strategies for young children. However, it is preferable to have a better understanding of SB, notably on account of its potential association with psychological disorders during childhood. Daytime bruxism is characterized by teeth clenching (TC). First-line treatment involves encouraging patients to monitor their harmful parafunctional behavior and, consequently, change and cease it. This protocol is not always easy to apply, particularly in younger children. In such cases, cognitive-behavioral treatments and biofeedback techniques can also be used in daytime bruxism.

  3. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December 2015 There is a great ... the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and troubling issue needs to be ...

  4. Understanding Greek Primary School Children's Comprehension of Sun Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Papadimitriou, Vasiliki; Piperakis, Michael M.; Zisis, Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Assesses Greek primary school children's understanding of sun exposure during summer vacation. Results indicate that children know the damaging effects of long time exposure and the precautions that should be taken during summer bathing. (Author/SOE)

  5. Understanding electron magnetic circular dichroism in a transition potential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, J.; Mayer, J.; Rusz, J.; Ho, P.-L.; Zhong, X. Y.; Lentzen, M.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Urban, K. W.; Brown, H. G.; Findlay, S. D.; Allen, L. J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces an approach based on transition potentials for inelastic scattering to understand the underlying physics of electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). The transition potentials are sufficiently localized to permit atomic-scale EMCD. Two-beam and three-beam systematic row cases are discussed in detail in terms of transition potentials for conventional transmission electron microscopy, and the basic symmetries which arise in the three-beam case are confirmed experimentally. Atomic-scale EMCD in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), using both a standard STEM probe and vortex beams, is discussed.

  6. Understanding the structure and electronic properties of N-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Understanding the structure and electronic properties of N-doped graphene nanoribbons upon hydrogen saturation. MICHAEL MANANGHAYA. Department of Chemical Engineering, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, Manila 1004 Philippines e-mail: mikemananghaya@gmail.com. MS received 31 May ...

  7. Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion…

  8. A guide to help children understand cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from outside sources like school, TV, and the Internet How to talk to children ages 7 to 12 years: Explain cancer cells ... from outside sources like school, TV, and the Internet How to talk to children ages 12 years and older: Explain cancer as ...

  9. Understanding Children with Asthma: Trouble and Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JungHa; Wood, Beatrice L.; Cheah, PoAnn

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common illnesses of childhood; in the United States, nearly 9% of children have the condition (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2006). Among children with chronic illnesses, asthma is the most common cause for school absence and hospitalization (Akinbami, 2006). Asthma is a chronic disorder of the…

  10. Enabling Conditions and Children's Understanding of Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether preschoolers' difficulties on tasks that required relating pretending and knowledge (e.g., Lillard, A. S. (1993a). "Young children's conceptualization of pretense: Action or mental representational state?" "Child Development, 64," 372-386) were due to children's inability to appreciate the causal mechanism behind…

  11. Understanding Violence Against Children in Rwanda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Violence against children in all its forms (physical, emotional, and sexual) is a profound violation of human rights and has devastating short- and long-term mental and physical effects (UN Secretary-General's Study on Violence against Children).This violence is a concern in sub-Saharan Africa. And while there have been ...

  12. False Belief and Emotion Understanding in Post-Institutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2007-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition may impair the ability to negotiate social transactions and relationships and contribute to socio emotional difficulties experienced by some post-institutionalized children. We examined false belief and emotion understanding in 40 institutional care-adopted children, 40 foster care-adopted children and 40 birth…

  13. Understanding of Epilepsy by Children and Young People with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    There is a striking dearth of studies focusing sensitively and in depth on the mainstream educational experiences of children with epilepsy, as viewed by those children themselves. The one-year project (2006-7) reported here addresses that gap. Children's perceptions about mainstream teachers' understanding of epilepsy and school-based needs are…

  14. Children's Understandings of Emotions and Self: Are There Gender Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2007-01-01

    This study explored gendered relations between children's self-perceptions and emotion understanding. Ninety-one children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years) completed self-report self-perception measures and participated in individual interviews to assess three dimensions of self-understanding (continuity, agency, distinctiveness) and emotion…

  15. Forces and Motion: How Young Children Understand Causal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksun, Tilbe; George, Nathan R.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2013-01-01

    How do children evaluate complex causal events? This study investigates preschoolers' representation of "force dynamics" in causal scenes, asking whether (a) children understand how single and dual forces impact an object's movement and (b) this understanding varies across cause types (Cause, Enable, Prevent). Three-and-a half- to…

  16. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  17. Being Adopted: Books to Help Children Understand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Paulette Bochnig

    1993-01-01

    Annotated bibliography covers children's and adolescent fiction and nonfiction on the topic of adoption published since 1988. Brief content descriptions and indications of age appropriateness are given for 35 books. Books dealing with transracial adoption are starred. (KRN)

  18. The Grieving Process in Children: Strategies for Understanding, Educating, and Reconciling Children's Perceptions of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Clarissa A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of how young children understand death, and offers concrete strategies for talking to children about death and suggestions for teachers about how to help children of various ages through grief and mourning. Highlights developmental differences in four components of children's understanding of death: irreversibility, finality,…

  19. Understanding Violence Against Children in Rwanda | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And while there have been many initiatives to address it, studies evaluating the situation remain limited. There is a clear need for evidence to support advocacy, inform national planning and budgeting, and monitor impact. Violence against children is preventable. Developing and implementing effective prevention strategies ...

  20. Remote Control and Children's Understanding of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanader, Mark C.; Saylor, Megan M.; Levin, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    Children use goal-directed motion to classify agents as living things from early in infancy. In the current study, we asked whether preschoolers are flexible in their application of this criterion by introducing them to robots that engaged in goal-directed motion. In one case the robot appeared to move fully autonomously, and in the other case it…

  1. Understanding Death in Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Elizabeth J; Camfield, Peter; Brooks, Linda; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Camfield, Carol; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Wirrell, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Death in children with epilepsy is profoundly disturbing, with lasting effects on the family, community, and health care providers. The overall risk of death for children with epilepsy is about ten times that of the general population. However, the risk of premature death for children without associated neurological comorbidities is similar to that of the general population, and most deaths are related to the cause of the epilepsy or associated neurological disability, not seizures. The most common cause of seizure-related death in children with epilepsy is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP is relatively uncommon in childhood, but the risk increases if epilepsy persists into adulthood. Although the direct cause of SUDEP remains unknown, most often death follows a generalized convulsive seizure and the risk of SUDEP is strongly related to drug-resistant epilepsy and frequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The most effective SUDEP prevention strategy is to reduce the frequency of seizures, although a number of seizure detection devices are under development and in the future may prove to be useful for seizure detection for those at particularly high risk. There are distinct benefits for health care professionals to discuss mortality with the family soon after the diagnosis of epilepsy. An individual approach is appropriate. When a child with epilepsy dies, particularly if the death was unexpected, family grief may be profound. Physicians and other health care professionals have a critical role in supporting families that lose a child to epilepsy. This review will provide health care providers with information needed to discuss the risk of death in children with epilepsy and support families following a loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  3. Children's understanding of advertisers' persuasive tactics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate children’s understanding of six popular tactics used by advertisers to elicit certain advertising effects, including ad repetition, product demonstration, peer popularity appeal, humour, celebrity endorsement and premiums. We first asked 34 advertisers of

  4. Effect of electronic media on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

    2010-07-01

    Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive.

  5. Becoming Characters: Deepening Young Children's Literary Understanding through Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomat, Donna Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Learning through drama and other art forms enriches children's learning by expanding the possibilities for how children create and express meaning (Adomat, 2009; Berghoff, Egawa, & Harste, 2000). The arts are rarely suggested as a way of opening up broader understandings for young readers; yet drama has been shown to be beneficial in myriad ways…

  6. Sources of Individual Differences in Children's Understanding of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Jordan, Nancy C.; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal associations of domain-general and numerical competencies with individual differences in children's understanding of fractions were investigated. Children (n = 163) were assessed at 6 years of age on domain-general (nonverbal reasoning, language, attentive behavior, executive control, visual-spatial memory) and numerical (number…

  7. Developing Primary School Children's Understanding of Energy Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Colin; Summers, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Studies 34 elementary school children's understanding of five aspects of energy waste and the ways in which these conceptions develop following teaching. Concludes that the children had good prior awareness of some behaviors that save energy, but their reasons for thinking this were based largely on everyday intuitive ideas that involved…

  8. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  9. Understanding Death and Grief for Children Three and Younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris-Shortle, Carole; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Notes that children aged three years and younger have emotional responses to death of someone they have known. Cites theories and research indicating that children's individual characteristics, developmental stage, and environmental/familial experiences must be considered to understand their grief. Addresses possibilities for age-appropriate,…

  10. Language understanding and vocabulary of early cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L; Busch, GW; Sandahl, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level.......The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....

  11. Children's Perspectives as "Touch Downs" in Time: Assessing and Developing Children's Understanding Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Pramling, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    In this article, getting access to children's perspectives is presented as a prerequisite for assessing as well as developing children's understanding. Children's perspectives are analysed through examples taken from three domains of knowledge: music, mathematics and nature. The issues of assessing and developing children's knowledge are discussed…

  12. Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension...

  13. Statistical Learning as a Basis for Social Understanding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…

  14. Illness understanding in children and adolescents with heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Veldtman, G; Matley, S; Kendall, L; Quirk, J; Gibbs, J; Parsons, J; Hewison, J

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate illness knowledge and understanding in children and adolescents with congenital and acquired heart disease, and whether the degree of understanding is related to age, sex, or complexity of the heart disease.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study.
SETTING—Tertiary paediatric cardiac centre.
METHODS—Patients' understanding of their congenital heart disease was assessed in a representative sample of volunteers aged between 7-18 years using semistructured interviews based upon Leventha...

  15. Illness understanding in children and adolescents with heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Veldtman, G R; Matley, S L; Kendall, L; Quirk, J; Gibbs, J L; Parsons, J M; Hewison, J

    2001-01-01

    Aims To evaluate illness knowledge and understanding in children and adolescents with congenital and acquired heart disease and to assess whether the degree of understanding is related to age, sex, or complexity of the heart disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary pediatric cardiac center. Methods Patients' understanding of their congenital heart disease was assessed in a representative sample of volunteers aged between 7 and 18 years using semistructured interviews based o...

  16. Towards Evidence-Based Understanding of Electronic Data Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lianping; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zhang, He

    2010-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from various Electronic Data Sources (EDS) is one of the key activities of conducting these kinds of studies. Hence, the selection of EDS for searching the potentially relevant papers is an important decision, which can affect a study’s coverage of relevant papers....... Researchers usually select EDS mainly based on personal knowledge, experience, and preferences and/or recommendations by other researchers. We believe that building an evidence-based understanding of EDS can enable researchers to make more informed decisions about the selection of EDS. This paper reports our...... initial effort towards this end. We propose an initial set of metrics for characterizing the EDS from the perspective of the needs of secondary studies. We explain the usage and benefits of the proposed metrics using the data gathered from two secondary studies. We also tried to synthesize the data from...

  17. Understanding oxide interfaces: From microscopic imaging to electronic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Shahal

    2014-03-01

    In the last decade, the advent of complex oxide interfaces has unleashed a wealth of new possibilities to create materials with unexpected functionalities. A notable example is the two-dimensional electron system formed at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (LAO/STO), which exhibits ferromagnetism, superconductivity, and a wide range of unique magneto-transport properties. A key challenge is to find the microscopic mechanisms that underlie these emergent phenomena. While there is a growing understanding that these phenomena might reflect rich structures at the micro-scale, experimental progress toward microscopic imaging of this system has been so far rather limited due to the buried nature of its interface. In this talk I will discuss our experiments that study this system on microscopic and macroscopic scales. Using a newly-developed nanotube-based scanning electrometer we image on the nanoscale the electrostatics and mechanics of this buried interface. We reveal the dynamics of structural domains in STO, their role in generating the contested anomalous piezoelectricity of this substrate, and their direct effects on the physics of the interface electrons. Using macroscopic magneto-transport experiments we demonstrate that a universal Lifshitz transition between the population of d-orbitals with different symmetries underlies many of the transport phenomena observed to date. We further show that the interactions between the itinerant electrons and localized spins leads to an unusual, gate-tunable magnetic phase diagram. These measurements highlight the unique physical settings that can be realized within this new class of low dimensional systems.

  18. Young children's understanding of stages of human development

    OpenAIRE

    濱田, 祥子; 杉村, 伸一郎

    2010-01-01

    The self-concept is composed through the interaction with others (Mead,1934). As selfconceptual study in early childhood, most targets the same age others. However, it is thought that the existence of the others at other stages of development brings the influence to the self-concept if the self-concept is composed by the interaction with others. The present study aimed to search for children's understanding of stages of human development and children's self-concept by the comparisons between ...

  19. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  20. Do Children Understand That People Selectively Conceal or Express Emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hajimu; Shiomi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders, 80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative feelings because of the behavior of the other…

  1. Drama's Potential for Deepening Young Children's Understandings of Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomat, Donna Sayers

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of drama have been reported extensively in educational research literature; however, few studies provide an in-depth analysis of how drama is used in early childhood classroom instruction for readers who struggle with comprehension. The focus of this study is: How do young children build literary understanding through drama? This…

  2. Children's Understanding of Display Rules for Expressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Examined how children come to understand that internally experienced affect need not be behaviorally expressed and that the emotion that is expressed is not necessarily what is being felt internally. Sixty elementary school students were interviewed about four interpersonal conflict situations presented in comic strip style but using photographs…

  3. Children's developing understanding of what and how they learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M; Letourneau, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    What do children know about learning? Children between 4 and 10 years of age were asked what they thought the word learning meant and then engaged in a structured interview about what kinds of things they learned and how they learned those things. Most of the 4- and 5-year-olds' responses to these questions indicated a lack of awareness about the nature of learning or how learning occurs. In contrast, the 8- to 10-year-olds showed a strong understanding of learning as a process and could often generate explicit metacognitive responses indicating that they understood under what circumstances learning would occur. The 6- and 7-year-olds were in a transitional stage between these two levels of understanding. We discuss the implications of this development with children's theory-of-mind development more generally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's religious knowledge: implications for understanding satanic ritual abuse allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, G S; Quas, J A; Bottoms, B L; Qin, J; Shaver, P R; Orcutt, H; Shapiro, C

    1997-11-01

    The goals of the present study were to examine the extent of children's religious, especially satanic, knowledge and to understand the influence of children's age, religious training, family, and media exposure on that knowledge. Using a structured interview, 48 3- to 16-year-old children were questioned about their knowledge of: (a) religion and religious worship; (b) religion-related symbols and pictures; and (c) movies, music, and television shows with religious and horror themes. Although few children evinced direct knowledge of ritual abuse, many revealed general knowledge of satanism and satanic worship. With age, children's religious knowledge increased and became more sophisticated. Increased exposure to nonsatanic horror media was associated with more nonreligious knowledge that could be considered precursory to satanic knowledge, and increased exposure to satanic media was associated with more knowledge related to satanism. Our results suggest that children do not generally possess sufficient knowledge of satanic ritual abuse to make up false allegations on their own. However, many children have knowledge of satanism as well as nonreligious knowledge of violence, death, and illegal activities. It is possible that such knowledge could prompt an investigation of satanic ritual abuse or possibly serve as a starting point from which an allegation is erected.

  5. Children's empathy responses and their understanding of mother's emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Erin C; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Garcia, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated children's empathic responses to their mother's distress to provide insight about child factors that contribute to parental socialisation of emotions. Four- to six-year-old children (N = 82) observed their mother's sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's facial negative affect was rated and their heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded during the conversation, and their emotion understanding of the conversation was measured through their use of negative emotion words and perspective-taking themes (i.e., discussing the causes or resolution of mother's emotions) in narrative accounts of the conversation. There were positive quadratic relationships between HRV and ratings of facial affect, narrative references to mother's negative emotions and perspective-taking themes. High and low HRV was associated with high facial negative affect, suggesting well-regulated sympathy and poorly regulated personal distress empathic responses, respectively. Moderate HRV was associated with low facial negative affect, suggesting minimal empathic engagement. High and low HRV were associated with the highest probabilities of both emotion understanding indicators, suggesting both sympathy and personal distress responses to mother's distress facilitate understanding of mother's emotions. Personal distress may motivate attempts to understand mother's emotions as a self-soothing strategy, whereas sympathy-related attempts to understand may be motivated by altruism.

  6. Do we understand children's restlessness? Constructing ecologically valid understandings through reflexive cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Helle-Valle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most widely used children's mental health diagnosis today, but the validity of the diagnosis is controversial, for instance, because it might conceal relational and ecological dimensions of restlessness. We invited parents and professionals from one local community in western Norway to participate in cooperative group discussions on how to conceptualize and understand children's restlessness. We carried out a thematic and reflexive analysis of the cooperative group discussions on ADHD and children's restlessness, and present findings related to three ecological levels inspired by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems model. At the level of the individual, restlessness was discussed as individual trait, as the expectation to be seen and heard, and as a result of traumatization. At the level of dyad, group or family, restlessness was discussed as a relational phenomenon and as parents' problems. At the level of community, restlessness was discussed as lack of cooperation and lack of structures or resources. Our findings show how contextualized and cooperative reflexivity can contribute to more valid understandings of children's restlessness, and how cooperative inquiry can stimulate reflections about solidarity and sustainability in relation to adult's actions.

  7. Understanding psychological implications affecting children of differing Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Clare Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This thesis aims to further our understanding in relation to childhood obesity and associated psychological difficulties. Design: The systematic review aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood psychological functioning in overweight and obese children and parental mental health difficulties. The empirical study aimed to examine possible relationships between Body Mass Index (BMI), self-esteem, quality of life and resilience, in order to determine any ...

  8. Understanding Transportation Choice of Families with Small Children in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Scott Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study took place in the Oslo area and focused on the transportation mode choices of parents with children in day care. Understanding why parents choose a certain mode of transport was the main objective of this research. Answers to the question of why were looked at in the context of theories stemming from urban planning, sociology, psychology amongst others. The findings show that while geographical distances did have the largest impact on how people travelled around work h...

  9. Children's understanding of and motivations for toothbrushing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, P; Stewart, K; Chetcuti, D; Chestnutt, I G

    2011-02-01

    To explore children's understanding of why they do or do not brush their teeth and their motivations for toothbrushing. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 66 children aged 6-7 years and 10-11 years in four purposively selected primary schools in Cardiff, UK. Data were analysed using a constructive process of Thematic Content Analysis and techniques of open and selective coding. While a routine activity, toothbrushing was prompted rather than monitored by parents and easily fell by the wayside because of tiredness, excitement or distraction. Rationalizations for toothbrushing were poorly formed in the children's accounts and related to 'doom scenarios' such as teeth falling out, or to issues of personal grooming and cleanliness rather than caries prevention. Electric (powered) toothbrushes were popular and had engaged the children's interest. Social and domestic circumstances, such as when children stayed with different parents at different times, impacted on toothbrushing routines. This study has revealed information that is of value in directing oral health education messages, oral health promotion programmes and has identified issues that potentially affect compliance with toothbrushing that merit further investigation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Children's Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children.

  11. Spanish Parents' Emotion Talk and their Children's Understanding of Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eAznar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children’s emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86 and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91 children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences. Children’s emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons, Harris, & de Rosnay, 2004, once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again six months later. Mothers’ use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children’s emotion understanding after controlling for children’s previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers’ use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children’s emotion understanding, it did not predict children’s emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children’s socioemotional development are discussed.  

  12. Understanding the structure and electronic properties of N-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Structures and electronic properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with pyridine (3NVZGNR) functionalized by Scandium (Sc) at the edge were studied through quantum chemical calculations in the formalism of density-functional theory (DFT). Pyridine-like nitrogen defects is very crucial for ...

  13. Understanding conjugation and hyperconjugation from electronic delocalization measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feixas, Ferran; Matito, Eduard; Poater, Jordi; Solà, Miquel

    2011-11-17

    The concepts of conjugation and hyperconjugation play an important role to provide an explanation for several fundamental phenomena observed in organic chemistry. Because these effects cannot be directly measured experimentally, their assessment became a primary concern for chemists from the very beginning. In general, the stabilization produced by both phenomena has been studied by means of isodesmic reactions and energy based analysis such as the energy decomposition analysis. In recent years, electronic delocalization measures have been successfully applied to elucidate the nature of chemical bonding and the aromatic character of all kind of molecules. Because conjugation and hyperconjugation stabilizations are strongly linked to the concept of electron delocalization, this paper will give an account of both effects from the point of view of electronic delocalization measures calculated within the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. In particular, we focus our attention in the controversial case of the stabilization by conjugation in 1,3-butadiyne and 1,3-butadiene. Unexpectedly, theoretical calculations based on the scheme proposed by Kistiakowsky to quantify the extent of stabilization due to conjugation predicted that the conjugation of 1,3-butadiyne was zero. Subsequent energetic analyses contradicted this observation. These studies pointed out the presence of hyperconjugation stabilization in the hydrogenated product of 1,3-butadiyne and 1,3-butadiene that were used as reference systems in the Kistiakowsky's scheme. Consequently, the extra stabilization of 1-butyne due to hyperconjugation hides the stabilization by conjugation of 1,3-butadiyne. Our results based on electron delocalization measures confirm both the presence of conjugation in 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-butadiyne and hyperconjugation stabilization in their respective hydrogenated products, 1-butene and 1-butyne.

  14. Developing Primary School Children's Understanding of Energy Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Colin; Summers, Mike

    2000-01-01

    This was an interview study of 34 primary school children's understanding of five aspects of energy waste, and the ways in which these conceptions develop following teaching. The aspects covered were: (i) saving energy by `using less'; (ii) saving energy by using `just enough'; (iii) energy waste through unintended transfers; (iv) energy waste in a household device; and (v) the meaning of the term `efficiency'. It was found that this group of primary school children had good prior awareness of some behaviours which save (or conserve) energy, but their reasons for thinking this were based largely on intuitive `everyday' ideas which involved human-centred notions of energy in the particular contexts presented or the movement of `heat' or `cold'. Notions of waste due to unintended outcomes were seen in only a few pupils initially but after teaching became far more prevalent. The study showed that basic ideas about energy waste which underpin energy conservation (using less energy) and the critically important scientific concept of efficiency were made accessible to an `average' group of primary school children. Moreover, this was done by ordinary practitioners who are not specialist teachers of science but who have had their subject and teaching knowledge enhanced by appropriate training.

  15. Understanding Children's Sedentary Behaviour: A Qualitative Study of the Family Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Electronic media (EM) (television, electronic games and computer) use has been associated with overweight and obesity among children. Little is known about the time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) among children within the family context. The aim of this study was to explore how the family home environment may influence children's…

  16. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  17. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics Through a Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-05-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not completely resolve these misconceptions. Mazur and Knight,2 in particular, separately note that such misconceptions include the notion that electric current on either side of a light bulb in a circuit can be different. Other difficulties and confusions involve understanding why the current in a parallel circuit exceeds the current in a series circuit with the same components, and include the role of the battery (where students may assume wrongly that a dry cell battery is a fixed-current rather than a fixed-voltage device). A simple classroom activity that students can play as a game can resolve these misconceptions, providing an intellectual as well as a hands-on understanding. This paper describes the "Electron Runaround," first developed by the author to teach extremely bright 8-year-old home-schooled children the basics of electric circuits and subsequently altered (according to the required level of instruction) and used for various college physics courses.

  18. Social-cognitive correlates of children's understanding of displaced aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P H; DeMarie-Dreblow, D

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this research was (1) to provide a detailed description of developmental differences in the understanding of displaced aggression during the grade school years and (2) to identify social-cognitive correlates of this development. Seventy-two children aged 5, 7, and 9 viewed, and answered questions about, four videotaped stories involving displaced aggression. In another session they were given three tests of social cognition. One was a person perception task which tapped the tendency to refer to physical or psychological attributes. A second was a recursive thinking task which assessed their awareness that people can think about each other. Third, Selman's puppy story was used to assess their awareness that words or facial expressions do not always reflect the way a person feels, and that a person may not always know what he or someone else really feels. The understanding of displaced aggression increased significantly with increasing age. This understanding was significantly related to the person perception task for 5-year-olds, and to the Selman task for 7- and 9-year-olds. The results were discussed in terms of a developing awareness of possible discrepancies between feelings and physical behavior, facial expressions, or words.

  19. Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Susan; Bernier, Sandrine; Blanchet, Aymeric; Derkenne, Chantal; Clement, Florence; Petitjean, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study analyzes the production, circulation and reception of messages on climate change in secondary schools in France. The objective is to understand how political and educational policy initiatives influence the ways in which schools contribute to creating youngsters' perceptions and opinions about climate change. In order to study the conditions of production and reception of information about climate change, a survey was conducted in four French secondary schools, in the 'Bas Rhin' and 'Nord' departments, and local political actors in each department were interviewed. The cross disciplinary analytical and methodological approach uses the tools of sociological inquiry, information science, and political science: questionnaires and interviews were conducted with members of the educational and governmental communities of each school and department, semiotic and discursive analyses of corpuses of documents were carried out, in order to characterize documents used by students and teachers at school or in more informal contexts; the nature and extent of the relations between the political contexts and school directives and programs were also discussed. This interdisciplinary approach, combining sociological, communicational, and political methods, was chosen in response to the hypothesis that three types of variables (social, communicational and political) contribute to the structuring and production of messages about climate change in schools. This report offers a contextualized overview of activities developed within the four secondary schools to help sensitize children to the risks associated with climate change. A study of the networks of individuals (teachers, staff, members of associations, etc.) created in and around the school environment is presented. The degree of involvement of these actors in climate change programs is analyzed, as it is related to their motives and objectives, to the school discipline taught, and to the position

  20. Classical understanding of electron vortex beams in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yeong Deok [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Woosuk University, Wanju, Cheonbuk, 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Taeseung, E-mail: tschoi@swu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Food System, College of Natural Science, Seoul Women' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-25

    Recently, interesting observations on electron vortex beams have been made. We propose a classical model that shows vortex-like motion due to suitably-synchronized motion of each electron's cyclotron motion in a uniform magnetic field. It is shown that some basic features of electron vortex beams in a uniform magnetic field, such as azimuthal currents, the relation between energy and kinetic angular momentum, and the parallel-axis theorem are understandable by using this classical model. We also show that the time-dependence of kinetic angular momentum of electron vortex beams could be understood as an effect of a specific nonuniform distribution of classical electrons. - Highlights: • A classical model for electron vortex beams is proposed. • The basic features of azimuthal currents could be understood by using this model. • The kinetic angular momentum of electron vortex beams is intuitively understandable.

  1. Children's understanding of area concepts: development, curriculum and educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Trevor G; Parkinson, Kellie

    2010-01-01

    As one part of a series of studies undertaken to investigate the contribution of developmental attributes of learners to school learning, a representative sample of forty-two students (age from 5 years and 3 months to 13 years and 1 month) was randomly selected from a total student population of 142 students at a small private primary school in northern Australia. Those children's understandings of area concepts taught during the primary school years were assessed by their performance in two testing situations. The first consisted of a written classroom test of ability to solve area problems with items drawn directly from school texts, school examinations and other relevant curriculum documents. The second, which focused more directly on each child's cognitive development, was an individual interview for each child in which four "area" tasks such as the Meadows and Farmhouse Experiment taken from Chapter 11 of The Child's Conception of Geometry (Piaget, Inhelder and Szeminska, 1960, pp. 261-301) were administered. Analysis using the Rasch Partial Credit Model provided a finely detailed quantitative description of the developmental and learning progressions revealed in the data. It is evident that the school mathematics curriculum does not satisfactorily match the learner's developmental sequence at some key points. Moreover, the children's ability to conserve area on the Piagetian tasks, rather than other learner characteristics, such as age and school grade seems to be a precursor for complete success on the mathematical test of area. The discussion focuses on the assessment of developmental (and other) characteristics of school-aged learners and suggests how curriculum and school organization might better capitalize on such information in the design and sequencing of learning experiences for school children. Some features unique to the Rasch family of measurement models are held to have special significance in elucidating the development/attainment nexus.

  2. Children's emotion understanding in relation to attachment to mother and father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogiou, Lamprini; Nath, Selina; Kallitsoglou, Angeliki; Dimatis, Konstantinos; Parry, Elizabeth; Russell, Abigail Emma; Yilmaz, Merve; Kuyken, Willem; Moberly, Nicholas J

    2018-03-02

    Although attachment plays a key role in children's socio-emotional development, little attention has been paid to the role of children's attachment to their father. This study examined whether insecure attachment to each parent was associated with reduced emotion understanding in children and whether children showed consistent attachments to their mother and father. We measured children's attachment to each parent using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task and child emotion understanding using the Test of Emotion Comprehension (children's M age  = 5.64 years, SD = 0.84). The results indicated that insecure father-child attachment and insecure mother-child attachment were each associated with lower emotion understanding in children after controlling for parent's depressive symptoms and children's age. There was significant concordance of child attachment to mother and father. The findings provide support for convergence of children's attachment across parents and suggest that father-child attachment is an important factor to consider when examining children's emotion understanding. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Secure mother-child attachment is positively associated with children's emotional competence. Children form similar representations of attachment to their mother and father. What the present study adds Both mother-child and father-child attachment are associated with children's emotion understanding. The study's findings highlight the importance of father-child attachment in their children's emotion understanding. The study provides support for concordance of children's attachment across parents. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Homeless, Not Hopeless: Understanding Children Who Live in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerindyke, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the legislative struggle surrounding the educational rights of children and their families who are homeless. Discusses the educational needs of homeless children. Maintains that educators can take a proactive stance to aid these children and their families, and to raise social awareness among all children and families in…

  4. Neglected Children: Understanding, Identifying and Working with Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Bruce

    Children who experience neglect require immediate help because severe deprivation can affect all aspects of children's development. Parental behaviors indicative of child neglect include failure to (1) feed children adequately, (2) insure adequate medical care, (3) maintain good personal hygiene, (4) clothe children appropriately, (5) supervise…

  5. Emotion Understanding in Preschool Children with Mild-to-Severe Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing school-aged children are at risk for delayed development of emotion understanding; however, little is known about this during the preschool years. We compared the level of emotion understanding in a group of 35 4-5-year-old children who use hearing aids to that of 130 children with typical hearing. Moreover, we…

  6. Monsters, Bananas and Seaweed: Active Participation and Young Children's Understanding of False Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowicz, Diane Louise

    This study investigated the effect of active participation in a story reading on children's understanding of false belief. Children, ages 38-63 months, were assigned to a participation or non-participation group. Participating children engaged in a book-reading process using puppets to respond to the story. Non-participating children were read the…

  7. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  8. Children's Religious Knowledge: Implications for Understanding Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gail S.; Quas, Jodi A.; Bottoms, Bette L.; Qin, Jianjian; Shaver, Phillip R.

    1997-01-01

    Using a structured interview, 48 3- to 16-year-old children were questioned about their knowledge of religious and satanic concepts. Although few children evinced direct knowledge of ritual abuse, many revealed general knowledge of satanism and satanic worship. Results suggest that most children probably do not generally possess sufficient…

  9. Children's understanding of mental states and causes of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Cowan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Theory of mind studies of emotion usually focus on children's ability to predict other people's feelings. This study examined children's spontaneous references to mental states in explaining others' emotions. Children (4-, 6- and 10-year-olds, n=122) were told stories and asked to explain both

  10. Advanced understanding on electronic structure of molecular semiconductors and their interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Kouki

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the electronic structure of organic semiconductors and their interfaces is critical to optimizing functionalities for electronics applications, by rational chemical design and appropriate combination of device constituents. The unique electronic structure of a molecular solid is characterized as (i) anisotropic electrostatic fields that originate from molecular quadrupoles, (ii) interfacial energy-level lineup governed by simple electrostatics, and (iii) weak intermolecular interactions that make not only structural order but also energy distributions of the frontier orbitals sensitive to atmosphere and interface growth. This article shows an overview on these features with reference to the improved understanding of the orientation-dependent electronic structure, comprehensive mechanisms of molecular doping, and energy-level alignment. Furthermore, the engineering of ionization energy by the control of the electrostatic fields and work function of practical electrodes by contact-induced doping is briefly described for the purpose of highlighting how the electronic structure impacts the performance of organic devices.

  11. Understanding the Structure of Children's Emotion-Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callear, Angela; Harvey, Shane Trevor; Bimler, David

    2017-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a central feature in human emotional development. However, measures based on children's observable emotion regulation behaviors are largely absent. An inventory of children's emotion regulation strategies was developed from current measures and four focus group discussions with experts in child behavior and emotion. From…

  12. Promoting Greater Understanding in Peers of Children Who Stammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Children who stammer are often negatively stereotyped by other children and by teachers. They can also be easily identified as targets for teasing and bullying by peers. This may adversely affect their interaction levels in school and lower their self-esteem. This article suggests an approach aimed at reducing the development of adverse attitudes…

  13. Children's Understanding of Their Emotionally Disturbed Peers: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the early importance of peer relations, virtually no systematic information exists on the way in which normal children view their emotionally disturbed peers. This research reports a replication of recent findings on children's use of the concept of emotional disturbance. (Editor/RK)

  14. Understanding and Facilitating Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.

    This digest discusses factors associated with the acceptance and rejection of preschool children by their peers and offers a number of strategies that teachers and other adults can use in their attempts to help children achieve social acceptance. Behaviors and characteristics associated with peer rejection include aggression and misinterpretation…

  15. Understanding War, Visualizing Peace: Children Draw What They Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kathleen; Myers-Bowman, Karen S.; Myers-Walls, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    The current study focuses on data collected from children in the United States shortly after the Yugoslavia-NATO conflict. Fifty-six children in two Midwestern states were asked to draw a picture of peace and a picture of war. Two major themes, peace as interpersonal interactions and peace as negative peace, emerged from the qualitative analysis…

  16. Children's Behavior toward and Understanding of Robotic and Living Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, Gail F.; Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Beck, Alan; Friedman, Batya; Roberts, Trace; Garrett, Erik; Gill, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated children's reasoning about and behavioral interactions with a computationally sophisticated robotic dog (Sony's AIBO) compared to a live dog (an Australian Shepherd). Seventy-two children from three age groups (7-9 years, 10-12 years, and 13-15 years) participated in this study. Results showed that more children…

  17. Understanding Communities through the Eyes and Voices of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaca, Betül; Rocca, Claudia; Maggi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The present study, guided by a child rights framework, aimed to gain insight into young children's perspectives of their communities and to explore the effectiveness of PhotoVoice methodology during this process. Thirty-two children aged three to five years from a childcare centre and a kindergarten classroom from an urban neighbourhood captured…

  18. Towards a Sociocultural Understanding of Children's Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybin, Janet

    2013-01-01

    While "voice" is frequently invoked in discussions of pupils' agency and empowerment, less attention has been paid to the dialogic dynamics of children's voices and the sociocultural features shaping their emergence. Drawing on linguistic ethnographic research involving recent recordings of 10- and 11-year-old children's…

  19. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  20. Understanding Children's Self-Regulation within Different Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Kristy; Pelletier, Janette; Corter, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In this study, children's self-regulation was observed, along with other social and academic activities in kindergarten classrooms during whole group, small group, transition and play contexts. We examined how children's self-regulation and engagement differed among classroom grouping, play and transition contexts. Results showed that students…

  1. Evaluation of the influence of parental anxiety on children's behavior and understanding children's dental anxiety after sequential dental visits

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnali Dilip Shinde; Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying anxiety levels of parents accompanying their children can help the clinician in designing the behavior management strategies for the child. In addition, continued dental experience can improve the child's response, indicating desensitization to dental stress. Aims: To evaluate the influence of parental anxiety on children's behavior and understanding children's dental anxiety after sequential dental visits. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 children of age 6–12 yea...

  2. Understanding the nurse's role in identifying children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Lauren

    2017-07-10

    The early diagnosis of children who have intellectual disability (ID) is crucial to ensuring the varied and complex needs of these people and their families are met in a timely and appropriate way. The ability to easily identify all children who should be assessed for ID would increase the chances of children with ID being diagnosed early on in life. This article describes ID, the kind of support children with ID need, and how nursing staff might use the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q) to help identify children who should be formally assessed for ID. Nurses who would benefit from a greater ability to identify ID include health visitors, school nurses, practice nurses, and nurses working in paediatric clinics.

  3. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children.

  4. Post-Institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European Children: Heterogeneity in the Development of Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.; Perlman, Susan B.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer; Pollak, Seth D.

    2006-01-01

    Post-institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European children participated in two emotion understanding tasks. In one task, children selected facial expressions corresponding to four emotion labels (happy, sad, angry, scared). The second task required children to match facial expressions to stories describing situations for these emotions. While…

  5. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  6. Understanding the Learning Style of Pre-School Children Learning the Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper understanding of how small children learn an instrument in the presence of their parents. It is qualitative in nature and concerned six pre-school children (five years old) who were learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. All the children's homes were visited…

  7. Connected Kids? K-2 Children's Use and Understanding of the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Autumn M.; Husain, Nahid; Duke, Nell K.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report on our own inquiry, and others', into young children's use of, understanding of, and skills related to the Internet. We found that the overwhelming majority of children at this age are already using the Internet, mostly for playing games, and already showing substantial gaps in Internet skill level. Most children we…

  8. Lessons from Using iPads to Understand Young Children's Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Lorna; Grogan, Deirdre; Duncan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the use of iPads as part of a child-centred data collection approach to understand young children's creativity. Evidence is presented from a small study of three- to five-year-old children's creative play. Analysis of the children's engagement with iPad video diaries and free-to-use tablet applications was logged across two…

  9. Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

  10. Physically Fit or Physically Literate? How Children with Special Educational Needs Understand Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Janine

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical literacy within physical education (PE) has become a widely debated topic in recent years. Its role in educating children about physicality through embodiment, skill acquisition and reading the environment is argued to be of great benefit to children. However, whether children understand the role of PE in the development of…

  11. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  12. Social-Cognitive Correlates of Children's Understanding of Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patricia H.; DeMarie-Dreblow, Darlene

    1990-01-01

    This study aimed to describe developmental differences in five-, seven-, and nine-year-olds' understanding of displaced aggression and to identify social and cognitive correlates of these differences. Understanding of displaced aggression increased significantly with age. (RH)

  13. What do children know and understand about universal gravitation? Structural and developmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frappart, S.; Raijmakers, M.; Frède, V.

    2014-01-01

    Children's understanding of universal gravitation starts at an early age but changes until adulthood, which makes it an interesting topic for studying the development and structure of knowledge. Children's understanding of gravitation was tested for a variety of contexts and across a wide age range

  14. Limited Knowledge and Limited Resources: Children's and Adolescents' Understanding of the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is a highly complex and newly emerged artifact. Building upon and going beyond two previous studies [Yan, Z. (2005). Age differences in children's understanding of complexity of the Internet. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 385-396.; Yan, Z. (2006). What influences children's and adolescents' understanding of the…

  15. Bernoulli's Principle: The Effects of Instruction on Young Children's Understanding of Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleege, Pamela O.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of hands-on instruction on young children's understanding of an aspect of flight, specifically Bernoulli's principle. First, 137 public school children, ages 5 through 8 years, were interviewed about their understanding of how an airplane flies. Two weeks later, the subjects participated in two hands-on…

  16. Scientific Thinking in Elementary School: Children's Social Cognition and Their Epistemological Understanding Promote Experimentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding…

  17. A Cultural-Historical Model to Understand and Facilitate Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui Ling

    2015-01-01

    Parents and educators strive to help their children to develop optimally. Given the diversity of values and practices among dynamic modern populations it is important to understand all the dimensions that affect the development of children in their communities. A cultural-historical lens facilitates such a holistic understanding. Taking this lens,…

  18. Mother-Child Conversation and Children's Social Understanding During Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, RaeAnne M; Pillow, Bradford H

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between mother-child conversation and children's social understanding during middle childhood. Thirty-eight mother-child pairs participated, including a younger group (5-7 years old) and an older group (8-10 years old). Children completed 2 measures of social understanding and mothers and children discussed 4 stories involving social dilemmas. Results indicated that compared to the younger group, the older group (a) performed better on both measures of social understanding and (b) produced more basic mental talk (i.e., talk about beliefs, emotions, personality traits, and desires), and more advanced mental talk (i.e., talk about contrasting perspectives, recursion and relationship between mental states, and advanced emotions). Mothers of older children also produced more basic and advanced mental talk. Mothers' advanced mental talk predicted both children's social understanding and children's advanced mental talk.

  19. Understanding Grandfamilies: Characteristics of Grandparents, Nonresident Parents, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Dunifon, Rachel E

    2016-06-01

    Using data from the Year 9 Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N~3,182), we investigated the characteristics grandfamilies (grandparents raising their grandchildren with no parent present, N = 84) and compared them to other key groups, including children's nonresident parents and other economically disadvantaged families with children. Results show that grandparents raising their grandchildren were generally better off in terms of educational attainment, marital status, and economic well-being than the child's parents. Grandparents raising their grandchildren also had very similar characteristics to other disadvantaged mothers. Academic and socioemotional well-being was poorer among children in grandfamilies compared with those living with their mothers, but parenting practices were very similar. These findings suggest that although children in grandfamilies may be at a disadvantage academically and socioemotionally, grandparent caregivers are in many ways similar to other fragile-family mothers. Overall, this study enhances our knowledge of an important, yet understudied family type.

  20. Moving Away or Fitting in?: Understanding Shyness in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Chang, Lei; Zhang, Zengxiu; Yu, Lidong

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on three studies of shy behavior in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 107, M age = 10.05), a Chinese Shyness Scale (CSS) was developed based on Chinese teachers' open-ended descriptions of children's shy behavior. In Study 2 (N = 388, M age = 10.80) and Study 3 (N = 198, M age = 10.20), the construct validity of the two…

  1. Analogical processes in children's understanding of spatial representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Uttal, David; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-06-01

    We propose that map reading can be construed as a form of analogical mapping. We tested 2 predictions that follow from this claim: First, young children's patterns of performance in map reading tasks should parallel those found in analogical mapping tasks; and, second, children will benefit from guided alignment instructions that help them see the relational correspondences between the map and the space. In 4 experiments, 3-year-olds completed a map reading task in which they were asked to find hidden objects in a miniature room, using a corresponding map. We manipulated the availability of guided alignment (showing children the analogical mapping between maps and spaces; Experiments 1, 2, and 3a), the format of guided alignment (gesture or relational language; Experiment 2), and the iconicity of maps (Experiments 3a and 3b). We found that (a) young children's difficulties in map reading follow from known patterns of analogical development-for example, focusing on object similarity over relational similarity; and (b) guided alignment based on analogical reasoning led to substantially better performance. Results also indicated that children's map reading performance was affected by the format of guided alignment, the iconicity of the maps, and the order of tasks. The results bear on the developmental mechanisms underlying young children's learning of spatial representations and also suggest ways to support this learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Children's attitudes towards Electronic Gambling Machines: an exploratory qualitative study of children who attend community clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestman, Amy; Thomas, Samantha; Randle, Melanie; Pitt, Hannah

    2017-05-08

    This research sought to explore whether children's visual and auditory exposure to Electronic Gambling Machines (EGMs) in community clubs contributed to shaping their attitudes towards these types of potentially harmful gambling products. This research also examined children's knowledge of EGM behaviours in adults within their social networks. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 45 children in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. All children had attended a club that contained gambling products in the previous 12 months. Face to face, semi-structured interviews explored a range of themes including recall of and attitudes towards EGMs. Data were analysed using thematic techniques. Four social learning theory concepts-attentional, retention, reinforcement and reproduction-were used to explore the range of processes that influenced children's attitudes towards EGMs. In relation to attentional factors, children recalled having seen EGMs in clubs, including where they were located, auditory stimuli and the physical appearance of EGMs. Children also retained information about the behaviours associated with gambling on EGMs, most prominently why adults gamble on these machines. Attitudes towards EGMs were reinforced by the child's knowledge of adults EGM behaviours. Some older children's attitudes were positively reinforced by the perception that profits from the machines would go back to their local sporting teams. Finally, while some children expressed a desire to reproduce EGM behaviours when they were older, others were concerned about the negative consequences of engaging in this type of gambling. Despite policies that try to prevent children's exposure to EGMs in community venues, children have peripheral exposure to EGMs within these environments. This exposure and children's awareness of gambling behaviours of adults appear to play a role in shaping their attitudes towards EGMs. While further research should explore the

  3. Understanding externalizing behavior from children's personality and parenting characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramura, Hidetoshi; Uji, Masayo; Shikai, Noriko; Chen, Zi; Matsuoka, Nao; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2010-01-30

    A total of 946 Japanese children in the 5th to 9th grades and their parents were studied in order to investigate the extent to which parenting characteristics (measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument) and the personality of the child (measured by the junior version of the Temperament and Character Inventory) would be associated with the two aspects of the externalizing problems--aggression and delinquency--of the child (measured by the Child Behavior Checklist). A series of regression analyses demonstrated that (1) aggressive children were higher in Novelty Seeking, and delinquent children were higher in Novelty Seeking and lower in Harm Avoidance, and (2) both aggressive and delinquent children were characterised by low maternal care, paternal over-protection, and low maternal overprotection. A structural equation model confirmed these findings except for the link between the two externalizing behaviour scores and the maternal care. Moreover, it was suggested that Novelty seeking of the child would be predicted by low parental care and low paternal and high maternal overprotection. The children's aggression and delinquency could, to some extent, be explainable by their temperament patterns and parental characteristics.

  4. Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.

  5. Understanding the Reading Habits of Children in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Majid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Leisure reading contributes significantly to improving language competencies of children. This study investigates the reading habits and preferences of children, motivations behind reading, and their attitudes towards reading. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for collecting data and 440 upper primary students participated in the study. The findings suggest that a majority of the participating students were motivated to read for academically-related reasons, such as to improve language skills and to obtain better grades in examinations. Reading was the third most preferred leisure activity after hobbies and playing on computer or the Internet. It was also found that girls were generally more avid readers than boys. This paper offers certain suggestions for promoting reading habits among children.

  6. Molecular Understanding of Fullerene - Electron Donor Interactions in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-09-13

    Organic solar cells hold promise of providing low-cost, renewable power generation, with current devices providing up to 13% power conversion efficiency. The rational design of more performant systems requires an in-depth understanding of the interactions between the electron donating and electron accepting materials within the active layers of these devices. Here, we explore works that give insight into the intermolecular interactions between electron donors and electron acceptors, and the impact of molecular orientations and environment on these interactions. We highlight, from a theoretical standpoint, the effects of intermolecular interactions on the stability of charge carriers at the donor/acceptor interface and in the bulk and how these interactions influence the nature of the charge transfer states as wells as the charge separation and charge transport processes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Understanding Virtual Epidemics: Children's Folk Conceptions of a Computer Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2008-01-01

    Our work investigates the annual outbreak of Whypox, a virtual epidemic in Whyville.net, a virtual world with over 1.2 million registered players ages 8-16. We examined online and classroom participants' understanding of a computer virus using surveys and design activities. Our analyses reveal that students have a mostly naive understanding of a…

  8. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  9. Understanding the Driver of Energetic Electron Precipitation Using Coordinated Multi-Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Electron precipitation into the upper atmosphere is one of the important loss mechanisms in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. Various magnetospheric plasma waves (i.e., chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, etc.) play an important role in scattering energetic electrons into the loss cone, thus enhance ionization in the upper atmosphere and affect ring current and radiation belt dynamics. The present study evaluates conjunction events where low-earth-orbiting satellites (twin AeroCube-6) and near-equatorial satellites (twin Van Allen Probes) are located roughly along the same magnetic field line. By analyzing electron flux variation at various energies (> 35 keV) measured by AeroCube-6 and wave and electron measurements by Van Allen Probes, together with quasilinear diffusion theory and modeling, we determine the physical process of driving the observed energetic electron precipitation for the identified electron precipitation events. Moreover, the twin AeroCube-6 also helps us understand the spatiotemporal effect and constrain the coherent size of each electron precipitation event.

  10. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  11. Children's Home Environments: Understanding the Role of Family Structure Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…

  12. Understanding Families with Children with Special Needs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing dialogues and exchanges for special education programs between China and the rest of the world as the development continues in China. Policy makers, administrators, and educators need to keep in mind the historical and cultural backgrounds when working with families with children with special needs in China. Together, this…

  13. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Method: Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms.…

  14. KAPEAN: Understanding Affective States of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Barraza, Claudia; González, Nimrod; González, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing seeks to create computational systems that adapt content and resources according to the affective states of the users. However, the detection of the user's affection such as motivation and emotion is challenging especially when an attention problem is present. An approach to convey learning resources to children with learning…

  15. Understanding Children's Science Identity through Classroom Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that various stereotypes about science and science learning, such as science being filled with hard and dry content, laboratory experiments, and male-dominated work environments, have resulted in feelings of distance from science in students' minds. This study explores children's experiences of science learning and science identity.…

  16. Children's Understanding of Human and Super-Natural Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Barrett, Richert, and Driesenga [Barrett, J. L., Richert, R. A., & Driesenga, A. (2001). "God's beliefs versus mother's: The development of nonhuman agents concepts." "Child Development," 72(1), 50-65] have suggested that children are able to conceptualize the representational properties held by certain super-natural entities, such as God, before…

  17. From Global Sustainability to Inclusive Education: Understanding urban children's ideas about the food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Koch, Pamela D.; Contento, Isobel R.; Hagiwara, Sumi

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report our findings from a qualitative study intended to develop our understandings of: what high-poverty urban children understand and believe about food and food systems; and how such children transform and use that knowledge in their everyday lives (i.e. how do they express their scientific literacies including content understandings, process understandings, habits of mind in these content areas). This qualitative study is part of a larger study focused on understanding and developing science and nutritional literacies among high-poverty urban fourth-grade through sixth-grade students and their teachers and caregivers.

  18. Analogy for Drude’s free electron model to promote students’ understanding of electric circuits in lower secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José BM de Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at a deep understanding of some basic concepts of electric circuits in lower secondary schools, this work introduces an analogy between the behavior of children playing in a school yard with a central lake, subject to different conditions, rules, and stimuli, and Drude’s free electron model of metals. Using this analogy from the first school contacts with electric phenomena, one can promote students’ understanding of concepts such as electric current, the role of generators, potential difference effects, energy transfer, open and closed circuits, resistances, and their combinations in series and parallel. One believes that through this analogy well-known previous misconceptions of young students about electric circuit behaviors can be overcome. Furthermore, students’ understanding will enable them to predict, and justify with self-constructed arguments, the behavior of different elementary circuits. The students’ predictions can be verified—as a challenge of self-produced understanding schemes—using laboratory experiments. At a preliminary stage, our previsions were confirmed through a pilot study with three classrooms of 9th level Portuguese students.

  19. The use of dialogic electronic journal writing to develop students' understanding of chemical bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sarah Collard

    The intent of this study is to examine how the implementation of a dialogic electronic journal writing environment continues the development of students' understanding of chemistry, specifically chemical bonding, through written communication between the individual students and their chemistry teacher. This study is framed within a constructivist theoretical context where students' understanding is constructed through written discussions with the educator, the students' interaction with the classroom environment, and his/her interaction with the computer environment. The research design of collective case study was employed to allow multiple perspectives and processes conveyed by the participants to be examined in the context in which they occurred while considering multiple sources of information. Data sources included electronic journal entries, classroom artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, which involved coding, categorizing, and interpreting for patterns and relationships. Four cases were reported in detail. This study found that the dialogic electronic journal-writing environment was an effective venue in revealing previously undiscovered students' alternative conceptions of chemical bonding. Opportunities to actively confront and reconcile such conceptions were afforded through educator/student dialogic written interaction. The dialogic electronic journal-writing environment was also critical in the identification of gaps in students' conceptual understanding linked to improper sequencing of chemistry content. This study also found that the on-line environment provided the educator the opportunity to scaffold chemical bonding concepts to meet the needs of the students involved in the study. This study concluded that the dialogic electronic journal-writing environment positively contributed to the development of student understanding. These findings may have practical implications for teachers in

  20. Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

  1. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  2. Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colson, Steven D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Laufer, Allan H [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences; Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-06-10

    On September 26–28, 2002, a workshop entitled “Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry” was held to assess new research opportunities in electron-driven processes and radical chemistry in aqueous systems. Of particular interest was the unique and complex role that the structure of water plays in influencing these processes. Novel experimental and theoretical approaches to solving long-standing problems in the field were explored. A broad selection of participants from universities and the national laboratories contributed to the workshop, which included scientific and technical presentations and parallel sessions for discussions and report writing.

  3. Characteristics of the Understanding and Expression of Emotional Prosody among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshimatsu, Yasufumi; Umino, Ayumi; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    In verbal communication with others, children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience difficulties with understanding jokes, irony, and other pragmatic aspects of communication. Difficulties with the understanding and expression of prosody may be one reason. In this study an understanding...... of prosody test and an expression of prosody test were constructed and applied to a group of children with ASD (average 9.7 years of age) and three control groups of typical children (3, 4 and 5 years of age, respectively). Overall results showed that the ASD group had lower scores in both prosody tests...

  4. Silent suffering: understanding and treating children with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina

    2009-02-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) restrict speech in some social environments, often resulting in substantial academic and social impairment. Although SM is considered rare, one or more children with SM can be found in most elementary schools. Assessment is performed to confirm the diagnosis, rule out psychological and medical factors that may account for the mutism, ascertain comorbid and exacerbating conditions needing treatment, and develop an intervention plan. Interventions are often multidisciplinary and focus on decreasing anxiety, increasing social speech and ameliorating SM-related impairment. Research is limited, but symptomatic improvement has been demonstrated with behavioral interventions and multimodal treatments that include school and family participation, as well as behavioral methods. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, especially fluoxetine, have also been found to be efficacious and merit consideration in severe cases. Persistence of some SM or anxiety symptoms despite treatment is common. Further development of treatments targeting specific etiological factors, comparative treatment studies and determination of optimal involvement of families and schools in treatment are needed to improve outcomes for children with SM.

  5. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  6. Linking electronic health records with community-level data to understand childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, E J; Flood, T L; Tandias, A; Hanrahan, L P

    2015-12-01

    Environmental and socioeconomic factors should be considered along with individual characteristics when determining risk for childhood obesity. To assess relationships and interactions among the economic hardship index (EHI) and race/ethnicity, age and sex in regard to childhood obesity rates in Wisconsin children using an electronic health record dataset. Data were collected using the University of Wisconsin (UW) Public Health Information Exchange database, which links electronic health records with census-derived community-level data. Records from 53,775 children seen at UW clinics from 2007 to 2012 were included. Mixed-effects modelling was used to determine obesity rates and the interaction of EHI with covariates (race/ethnicity, age, sex). When significant interactions were determined, linear regression analyses were performed for each subgroup (e.g. by age groups). The overall obesity rate was 11.7% and significant racial/ethnic disparities were detected. Childhood obesity was significantly associated with EHI at the community level (r = 0.62, P childhood obesity risk in some, but not all, races and ethnicities. Furthermore, the impact of EHI on obesity may be compounded over time. Our findings demonstrate the utility of linking electronic health information with census data to rapidly identify community-specific risk factors in a cost-effective manner. © 2014 World Obesity.

  7. Influence of hearing age and understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing age is defined as a period of using any amplification. Most researches indicate that hearing age influences the developmental rate of auditory and speech-language abilities in deaf children, especially when cochlear implantation was performed before the age of three. This research is aimed at analyzing the influence of hearing age on understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants. The sample consists of 23 children with cochlear implants and 21 children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 10. Hearing age of children with cochlear implants was between 2 and 7 years. Token Test with toys, adapted for children with hearing impairments, was used to analyze understanding verbal instructions. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 7, on all subtests and the total score regardless of the hearing age (sub1 p<0.001, sub2 p<0.000, sub3 p<0.001, total score p<0.000. No statistically significant differences were determined on any of the subtests in children aged between 7.1 and 10, regardless of the hearing age. Comparative results analysis within the experimental group of children with different hearing age indicates that the difference in understanding verbal instructions between these two groups is not statistically significant.

  8. How early do children understand gesture-speech combinations with iconic gestures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Carmen; Williamson, Rebecca; Ozçalişkan, Seyda

    2014-03-01

    Children understand gesture+speech combinations in which a deictic gesture adds new information to the accompanying speech by age 1;6 (Morford & Goldin-Meadow, 1992; 'push'+point at ball). This study explores how early children understand gesture+speech combinations in which an iconic gesture conveys additional information not found in the accompanying speech (e.g., 'read'+BOOK gesture). Our analysis of two- to four-year-old children's responses in a gesture+speech comprehension task showed that children grasp the meaning of iconic co-speech gestures by age three and continue to improve their understanding with age. Overall, our study highlights the important role gesture plays in language comprehension as children learn to unpack increasingly complex communications addressed to them at the early ages.

  9. Immune system of Chernobyl children: Developments in understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, K.; Chernyshov, V.P.; Vychovanets, E.V.; Antipkin, Y.G.; Klimenko, E.P.; Vasyuk, A.N.; Slukvin, I.I.

    1997-01-01

    It is generally recognized that explosive increase thyroid malignancy rate among individuals who were children at the time of Chernobyl accident can be directly linked to the released radiation, especially to iodine isotopes. Radioactive iodine comprise a major component of total body radiation received following exposure to fallout from nuclear plant accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes of iodine is known to cause thyroid dysfunction. It was demonstrated that exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine following treatment of hyperthyroidism or after exposure to fallout from hydrogen bomb explosion can induce hypothyroidism in human. 15 refs, 7 tabs

  10. On Children, on Theatre, on Non-Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Thies Lehmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This text combines theoretical-theatrical reflections ranging from Aristotle to post-dramatic theatre, including Brecht and Schiller. It deals with the pedagogical concerns about the meaning and paths that current youth and children’s theatre could and should take. It also discusses this kind of theatre, from the standpoint of the transformations that theatrical works undertook in their aesthetics and in their very concept over the twentieth century. We propose to abandon the alleged educational function that has traditionally been attributed to children and youth theatre.

  11. Fraction Development in Children: Importance of Building Numerical Magnitude Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Carrique, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Resnick, Ilyse

    2016-01-01

    This chapter situates fraction learning within the integrated theory of numerical development. We argue that the understanding of numerical magnitudes for whole numbers as well as for fractions is critical to fraction learning in particular and mathematics achievement more generally. Results from the Delaware Longitudinal Study, which examined…

  12. Emilia Ferreiro: Searching for Children's Understanding about Literacy as Cultural Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Yetta; Reyes, Iliana; McArthur, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    The work and contributions of Emilia, a professor at the Center of Research and Advanced Studies are discussed. A glimpse into Emilia Ferreiro's life and her unique contribution provides an insight to the understandings of children's intellectual literacy histories.

  13. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  14. Children's Understanding of Advertising: An Investigation Using Verbal and Pictorially Cued Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Laura; Auty, Susan; Lewis, Charlie; Berridge, Damon

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting results on children's understanding of advertising may stem from differences in research methods. Most studies are conducted using interviewing techniques, employing only verbal questioning. In the present study, 136 children of two age groups (7 and 10 years) were first asked what advertising was for and, after responding, shown…

  15. The Development of Children's Moral Sensibility: Individual Differences and Emotion Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Developmental changes and individual differences in children's conceptions of transgression were studied in 46 children from preschool through 1st grade. Differences in response to moral transgressions in kindergarten were related to mothers' control management and to siblings' friendly behavior in the preschool period, early understanding of…

  16. Children's Understanding of Indebtedness as a Feature of Reciprocal Help Exchanges between Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cooke, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    Studied 120 children's understanding of indebtedness. Fifth graders reported a diminished obligation to reciprocate help that was given at a low cost to the helper; the obligation remained high for first and third graders. All children reported more obligation to reciprocate help from acquaintances than help from friends. (LB)

  17. Imaginary Companions, Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Pons, Francisco; Bender, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions (ICs) has received little attention in developmental psychology, even though it can be observed in approximately 25% of preschool-aged children. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of ICs on children's theory of mind and emotion understanding, and the results are partial or inconsistent. This…

  18. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  19. Mapping Cultural Diversity through Children's Voices: From Confusion to Clear Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Karousiou, Christiana; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    This research examines children's conceptualisations of cultural diversity. In particular, this project examines the following two research questions: how do children define and understand the concept of cultural diversity; and what do they perceive as the implications of cultural diversity on their daily lives? To this end, interviews were…

  20. Theory of Mind at Home: Linking Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Styles to Children's Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.

    2014-01-01

    Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their children's development of…

  1. A Design Study to Develop Young Children's Understanding of Multiplication and Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung

    2016-01-01

    This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in…

  2. Imaginary companions, theory of mind and emotion understanding in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Pons, Francisco; Bender, Patrick Karl

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions (ICs) has received little attention in developmental psychology, even though it can be observed in approximately 25% of preschool-aged children. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of ICs on children's theory of mind and emotion understanding, an...

  3. Early Childhood Spirituality in Education: Towards an Understanding of the Distinctive Features of Young Children's Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kate; Bull, Rebecca; Maynes, Mary-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Early years education is a holistic endeavour, with some education policies including spiritual development as part of that approach. However, studies exploring the spirituality of young children are scarce, which limits understanding of the phenomenon and its full application in educational settings. Furthermore, nurturing children's spiritual…

  4. Predictors of Children's Prosocial Lie-Telling: Motivation, Socialization Variables, and Moral Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial…

  5. Children's Understanding of Aggression and Withdrawal as Social Stigmas: An Attributional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Hoehn, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Three studies examined children's ability to differentiate aggression and social withdrawal using attributional constructs. Found that even very young children understand the meaning of responsibility and are capable of using it to act as intuitive judges, weighing the evidence to make inferences about responsibility and then meting out judgments…

  6. Children's and Adolescents' Thoughts on Pollution: Cognitive Abilities Required to Understand Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel; Kohen, Raquel; Delval, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Pollution phenomena are complex systems in which different parts are integrated by means of causal and temporal relationships. To understand pollution, children must develop some cognitive abilities related to system thinking and temporal and causal inferential reasoning. These cognitive abilities constrain and guide how children understand…

  7. Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A multiple comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Colette Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady Jane

    2012-04-01

    Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high, medium and low socio-economic status in Hunan Province, central south China (n = 135) and three schools of similar socio-economic status in Western Australia (n = 120). The students' understanding was assessed by a science quiz, developed from past Trends in Mathematics and Science Study science released items for primary children. In-depth interviews were carried out to further explore children's conceptual understanding of living things, the Earth and floating and sinking. The results revealed that Year 3 children from schools of similar socio-economic status in the two countries had similar conceptual understandings of life science, earth science and physical science. Further, in both countries, the higher the socio-economic status of the school, the better the students performed on the science quiz and in interviews. Some idiosyncratic strengths and weaknesses were observed, for example, Chinese Year 3 children showed relative strength in classification of living things, and Australian Year 3 children demonstrated better understanding of floating and sinking, but children in both countries were weak in applying and reasoning with complex concepts in the domain of earth science. The results raise questions about the value of providing a science curriculum in early childhood if it does not make any difference to students' conceptual understanding of science.

  8. Understanding the structure of nanocatalysts with high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, L D; Rivas, J; José-Yacamán, M

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials including nanoparticles, nanowires and nanotubes play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis. Thanks to the rapid improvement of the electron microscopic techniques and with the advent of aberration corrected electron microscopy as well as theoretical methodologies, the potential effects induced by nanocatalysts are better understood than before by unravelling their atomic structure. A brief introduction to advanced electron microscopic techniques namely aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM) is presented and subsequently two examples of nanocatalysts are considered in the present review. The first example will focus on the study of bimetallic/core-shell nanoalloys. In heterogeneous catalysis, catalysts containing two or more metals might show significantly different catalytic properties compared to the parent metals and thus are widely utilized in several catalytic reactions. Atom-by-atom insights of the nanoalloy based catalysts ex: Au-Pd will be described in the present review using a combination of advanced electron microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. A related example on the understanding of bimetallic clusters by HAADF-STEM will also be presented in addition to nanoparticles. In the second case understanding the structure of transition metal chalcogenide based nanocatalysts by HRTEM and aberration corrected STEM, for the case of MoS 2 will be discussed. MoS 2 -based catalysts serve as model catalysts and are employed in the hydrodesulphurisations (HDS) reactions in the removal of sulphur from gasoline and related petrochemical products. They have been studied in various forms including nanowires, nanotubes and nanoplates. Their structure, atomic insights and as a consequence elucidation of their corresponding catalytic activity are thus important

  9. Shhh… I Need Quiet! Children's Understanding of American, British, and Japanese-accented English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2018-02-01

    Children's ability to understand speakers with a wide range of dialects and accents is essential for efficient language development and communication in a global society. Here, the impact of regional dialect and foreign-accent variability on children's speech understanding was evaluated in both quiet and noisy conditions. Five- to seven-year-old children ( n = 90) and adults ( n = 96) repeated sentences produced by three speakers with different accents-American English, British English, and Japanese-accented English-in quiet or noisy conditions. Adults had no difficulty understanding any speaker in quiet conditions. Their performance declined for the nonnative speaker with a moderate amount of noise; their performance only substantially declined for the British English speaker (i.e., below 93% correct) when their understanding of the American English speaker was also impeded. In contrast, although children showed accurate word recognition for the American and British English speakers in quiet conditions, they had difficulty understanding the nonnative speaker even under ideal listening conditions. With a moderate amount of noise, their perception of British English speech declined substantially and their ability to understand the nonnative speaker was particularly poor. These results suggest that although school-aged children can understand unfamiliar native dialects under ideal listening conditions, their ability to recognize words in these dialects may be highly susceptible to the influence of environmental degradation. Fully adult-like word identification for speakers with unfamiliar accents and dialects may exhibit a protracted developmental trajectory.

  10. Scientific thinking in elementary school: Children's social cognition and their epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-03-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in

  11. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  12. Black South African children's understanding of health and illness: colds, chicken pox, broken arms and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Promtussananon, S

    2003-09-01

    To examine the understanding of both health and illness (colds, broken arms, chicken pox, AIDS) in the same black South African children The sample included 60 children (30 were 5-year-olds and 30 were 9-year-olds) selected by simple random sampling from a rural primary school. They were interviewed, using a semi-structured interview schedule, about their understanding of health issues and their exposure to learning about health or sickness. Differences across age in children's expressed understanding of health and illnesses were found. The 9-year-olds were more likely to give objective signs of chicken pox and AIDS than the 5-year-olds. They also knew more about objective symptoms of colds, chicken pox and AIDS, and were more likely to mention non-observable signs of colds and broken arms. Although there were no differences between the two age groups regarding 'knowing' strategies for avoiding illnesses, the older children had a more accurate knowledge about preventive measures than the younger children. The understanding of AIDS followed the same developmental sequence reported for children's understanding of general physical illness. The results have implications for the creation of developmentally appropriate and effective health and AIDS education curricula for primary and elementary grades.

  13. Theory of Mind and Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional…

  14. Children's Aural and Kinesthetic Understanding of Rhythm: Developing an Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of aural and kinesthetic rhythm skill development in elementary school-age children. In this study, I examined my curriculum model for rhythm understanding, which included creating and implementing assessments of movement skills in meter and rhythm. The research questions were: 1.…

  15. Bullying, Empathic Concern, and Internalization of Rules among Preschool Children: The Role of Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Marina; Coppola, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether bullying, defending, and outsider behaviors in preschool children were associated with two conscience aspects (empathic concern and internalization of rules) and with emotion understanding. We also investigated whether emotion understanding moderated the relationship between these dimensions and bullying roles.…

  16. A Socio-Cognitive Approach to How Children with Deafblindness Understand Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Children with congenital deafblindness are a population of learners who may need intervention in order to develop symbolic understanding. They experience a combination of vision and hearing impairments that can affect how they make sense of the world, develop relationships, and understand symbols. In this article, the author reviewed a…

  17. Two Mentalizing Capacities and the Understanding of Two Types of Lie Telling in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yik Kwan; Cheung, Him

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among second-order belief, interpretive theory of mind, inhibitory control, and the understanding of strategic versus white lies in 54 children approximately 5 years 7 months old. Results showed that second-order belief was associated with strategic-lie understanding, whereas interpretive theory of mind…

  18. Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Carol L; Lofton, Kristi L; Yadrick, Kathy; Rehner, Timothy A

    2005-07-01

    An understanding of the experience of food insecurity by children is essential for better measurement and assessment of its effect on children's nutritional, physical, and mental health. Our qualitative study explored children's perceptions of household food insecurity to identify these perceptions and to use them to establish components of children's food insecurity experience. Children (n = 32; 11-16 y old) from after school programs and a middle school in low-income areas participated in individual semistructured in-depth interviews. Children as young as 11 y could describe behaviors associated with food insecurity if they had experienced it directly or indirectly. Using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis, children's descriptions of behaviors associated with food insecurity were categorized into components of quantity of food, quality of food, psychological aspects, and social aspects described in the household food insecurity literature. Aspects of quantity included eating less than usual and eating more or eating fast when food was available. Aspects of quality included use of a few kinds of low-cost foods. Psychological aspects included worry/anxiety/sadness about the family food supply, feelings of having no choice in the foods eaten, shame/fear of being labeled as poor, and attempts to shield children. Social aspects of food insecurity centered on using social networks to acquire food or money and social exclusion. These results provide valuable information in understanding the effect of food insecurity on children's well-being especially relative to the social and emotional aspects of well-being.

  19. Using digital multimedia to improve parents' and children's understanding of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alan R; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Levine, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Data show that many research subjects have difficulty understanding study information using traditional paper consent documents. This study, therefore, was designed to evaluate the effect of an interactive multimedia program on improving parents' and children's understanding of clinical trial concepts and participation. Parents (n=148) and children (n=135) were each randomised to receive information regarding clinical trials using either a traditional paper format (TF) or an interactive iPad program (IP) with inline exercises. Participants' understanding of the information was assessed using semistructured interviews prior to (pretest) and after (post-test) receiving the information. Participants also completed a short survey to assess their perceptions of information delivery and satisfaction with the process. Regardless of the mode of information delivery, all participants demonstrated improved pretest to post-test understanding. While there were no statistical differences in parents' post-test understanding between the TF and IP groups, children in the IP group had significantly greater post-test understanding compared with children in the TF group (11.65 (4.1) vs 8.85 (4.1) (2.8, 1.4, 4.2) 0-18 scale where 18=complete understanding). Furthermore, the IP was found to be significantly 'easier to follow' and 'more effective' in presenting information compared with the TF. Results demonstrated the importance of providing information regarding clinical trial concepts to parents and children. Importantly, the ability of interactive multimedia to improve understanding of clinical trial concepts and satisfaction with information delivery, particularly among children, supports this approach as a novel and effective vehicle for enhancing the informed consent process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. INTRAFAMILY VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: UNDERSTANDING OF COMMUNITY HEALTH AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisama Nascimento Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrafamily violence against children and adolescents constitutes a public health problem and can present itself in various forms. The professionals who compose the family health team, among them the community health agent (ACS, are in a strategic position to identify risks and potential victims of family violence against children and adolescents. This study has as objective: identify the understanding of ACS about domestic violence against children and adolescents. Descriptive study, with a qualitative nature, which had as scenario two Family Health Units in the city of Jequié/BA, and as subjects nine ACS of these units. Data were analyzed according to content analysis. From empirical data Violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes emerged three categories: understanding of intrafamily violence, understanding of intrafamily violence against children and adolescents and types of intrafamily violence against children and adolescents. The results revealed that the ACS have a broad understanding in violence, which enable them to identify cases more easily. In this context, we emphasize that effective coping of violence against children and adolescents can only be done ifsociety gather multiple efforts, congregating areas and creating attention networks, especially at the local level.

  1. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Feasibility of using a handheld electronic device for the collection of patient reported outcomes data from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinney, Lisa A; Grade, John D; Connor, Nadine P

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which a communication disorder affects health-related quality of life (QOL) in children is not known. Unfortunately, collection of quality of life data via traditional paper measures is labor intensive and has several other limitations, which hinder the investigation of pediatric quality of life in children. Currently, there is not sufficient research regarding the use of electronic devices to collect pediatric patient reported outcomes in order to address such limitations. Thus, we used a cross-over design to compare responses to a pediatric health quality of life instrument (PedsQL 4.0) delivered using a handheld electronic device to those from a traditional paper form. Respondents were children with (n=9) and without (n=10) a speech or voice disorder. For paper versus the electronic format, we examined time to completion, number of incomplete or inaccurate question responses, intra-rater reliability, ease of use, and child and parent preference. There were no significant differences between children's scores, time to complete the measure, or ratings related to ease of answering questions. The percentage of children who made answering errors or omissions with paper and pencil was significantly greater than the percentage of children who made such errors using the device. This preliminary study demonstrated that use of an electronic device to collect QOL or patient-reported outcomes (PRO) data from children is more efficient than and just as feasible, reliable, and acceptable as using paper forms. The development of hardware and software applications for the collection of QOL and/or PRO data in children with speech disorders is likely warranted. The reader will be able to understand: (1) The potential benefits of using electronic data capture via handheld devices for collecting pediatric patient reported outcomes; (2) The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 is a measure of the perception of general health quality that has distinguished between

  3. IMPORTANCE OF FULL COULOMB INTERACTIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF DELTA-Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, E; Kolorenc, J; Wehling, T; Hafermann, H; Lichtenstein, A I; Shick, A B; Rubtsov, A N; Katsnelson, M I; Landa, A; McMahan, A K

    2010-04-01

    The solid-state properties of most elements are now well understood on the basis of quantum physics - with few exceptions, notably the element number 94, plutonium. Plutonium has six crystalline phases at ambient pressure, some of which are separated by unusual phase transitions with large discontinuities in volume, exhibit negative thermal expansion coefficients, or form exotic low-symmetry structures. The main challenge to explain these anomalous properties is that the characteristic ingredient of actinides, the 5f electronic states, are in the cross-over regime between the localized and delocalized (itinerant) behaviour in Pu. The early part of the actinide series with the 5f states being itinerant, i.e. part of the metallic bond, culminates with Pu; starting with Am (Z = 95), the 5f states are localized, nonbonding, and resemble the 4f states in lanthanides. Both itinerant and localized regimes are well covered by existing theories, but they cannot be simply interpolated due to the importance of dynamical electron-electron correlations. Here we present accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations achieving previously inaccessible resolution. Obtained results demonstrate that interplay of the full Coulomb interaction vertex with spin-orbital coupling is crucial for understanding the experimentally observed spectral properties of plutonium near the Fermi level.

  4. Increasing the Understanding and Demonstration of Appropriate Affection in Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sofronoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability. It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study.

  5. Increasing the Understanding and Demonstration of Appropriate Affection in Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Eloff, Johann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Attwood, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability). It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study. PMID:22937243

  6. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  7. Emotion Understanding, Social Competence and School Achievement in Children from Primary School in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Maria da Glória; Beja, Maria J.; Candeias, Adelinda; Santos, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the...

  8. Children's understanding of television advertising: a revisit in the Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the authors interviewed were able to understand that television stations broadcast commercials to earn money. Their understanding of the purposes of television commercials and the persuasive intention of television commercials developed with age. The authors examined the influence of gender, level of advertising, and level of television viewing on children's understanding of television advertising by using 3-way factorial models.

  9. Complexities in Understanding Attentional Functioning among Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental reports of attention problems and clinical symptomatology of ADHD among children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorder (FASD were assessed in relation to performance on standardized subtests of attantional control/shifting and selective attention from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch; Manly et al., 1998. The participants included 14 children with FASD with a mean CA of 11.7 years and a mean MA of 9.7 years, and 14 typically developing (TD children with no reported history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or attention problems with a mean CA of 8.4 years and a mean MA of 9.6 years. The children with FASD were rated by their caregivers as having clinically significant attention difficulties for their developmental age. The reported symptomatology for the majority of the children with FASD were consistent with a diagnosis of ADHD, combined type, and only one child had a score within the average range. These reports are consistent with the finding here that the children with FASD demonstrated difficulties on the Creature Counting subtest of attentional control/shifting, but inconsistent with the finding that they outperformed the TD children on the Map Mission subtest of selective attention. These findings are considered within the context of the complexity in understanding attentional functioning among children with FASD and discrepancies across sources of information and components of attention.

  10. Developing a Measure to Understand Young Children's Internet Cognition and Cyber-Safety Awareness: A Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan; Nolan, Andrea; Henderson, Michael; Skouteris, Helen; Mantilla, Ana; Lambert, Pamela; Bird, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in technology have increased preschool children's access to the Internet. Very little research has been conducted to identify pre-school-aged children's understandings of the Internet and ramifications of being "online." Without an understanding of children's thinking about the Internet, it is difficult to provide age- and…

  11. Children's conceptions of physical events: explicit and tacit understanding of horizontal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Taylor Tavares, Joana; Devine, Amy

    2014-06-01

    The conceptual understanding that children display when predicting physical events has been shown to be inferior to the understanding they display when recognizing whether events proceed naturally. This has often been attributed to differences between the explicit engagement with conceptual knowledge required for prediction and the tacit engagement that suffices for recognition, and contrasting theories have been formulated to characterize the differences. Focusing on a theory that emphasizes omission at the explicit level of conceptual elements that are tacitly understood, the paper reports two studies that attempt clarification. The studies are concerned with 6- to 10-year-old children's understanding of, respectively, the direction (141 children) and speed (132 children) of motion in a horizontal direction. Using computer-presented billiards scenarios, the children predicted how balls would move (prediction task) and judged whether or not simulated motion was correct (recognition task). Results indicate that the conceptions underpinning prediction are sometimes interpretable as partial versions of the conceptions underpinning recognition, as the omission hypothesis would imply. However, there are also qualitative differences, which suggest partial dissociation between explicit and tacit understanding. It is suggested that a theoretical perspective that acknowledges this dissociation would provide the optimal framework for future research. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Understanding low uptake of mass treatment for intestinal schistosomiasis among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    -effects of praziquantel, especially when the drug is taken on an empty stomach. The institutional, policy and community factors include inadequate preparation and facilitation of teachers and the school feeding policy, which requires parents to take responsibility for providing their children with food while at school...... for children, but also the economic and political aspects of drug distribution, including the school feeding policy.......Despite attempts to control intestinal schistosomiasis through school-based mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel using school teachers in Uganda, less than 30% of the school children take the treatment in some areas. The aim of the study was to understand why the uptake of praziquantel...

  13. Through the eyes of children: Drawings as an evaluation tool for children's understanding about endangered Mexican primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquesa-Soler, Montserrat; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2017-12-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions and knowledge of endangered Mexican primates. The black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) is a charismatic species endemic to Southern Mexico, Northern Belize, and Guatemala and is a symbol of the region that fosters a sense of local pride. Therefore, it can be considered a flagship species for the forests of Southern Mexico. We evaluated the perception and knowledge that 297 Mexican elementary school children (8-10 years old) have about black howler monkeys. Specifically, we analyzed and categorized drawings made by these children based on gender, geographic context (rural or urban), and residence within or outside of Protected Areas (PAs). Student drawings were categorized into three levels of knowledge (no familiarity, basic knowledge, and sophisticated knowledge). Common misconceptions and important landscape elements for black howler conservation were gathered from these visual representations. Children were largely unfamiliar with black howlers, despite sharing the same geographical location. Knowledge was affected by context and residence, with students living within PAs more aware of black howlers than students living outside of PAs. However, overall the children showed a deep understanding of the current forest conservation situation in Southern Mexico; meaning they could be presenting a shifting baseline syndrome. The study highlights the value of assessing children's drawings as a tool that can be used to help policy makers and educational practitioners in fine-tuning educational, environmental, and marketing programs. More importantly, it is a methodology that can be applied in future research for understanding children's perceptions and knowledge about endangered species and environmental change in deciding how to improve the effectiveness of conservation messaging. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Daisy J. H.; van Dijken, Marianne J.; Bus, Adriana G

    2012-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two

  15. Predictors of children's prosocial lie-telling: Motivation, socialization variables, and moral understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-11-01

    Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial behaviors. These were explored in two studies. In Study 1, 72 children (36 second graders and 36 fourth graders) participated in a disappointing gift paradigm in either a high-cost condition (lost a good gift for a disappointing one) or a low-cost condition (received a disappointing gift). More children lied in the low-cost condition (94%) than in the high-cost condition (72%), with no age difference. In Study 2, 117 children (42 preschoolers, 41 early elementary school age, and 34 late elementary school age) participated in either a high- or low-cost disappointing gift paradigm and responded to prosocial vignette scenarios. Parents reported on their parenting practices and family emotional expressivity. Again, more children lied in the low-cost condition (68%) than in the high-cost condition (40%); however, there was an age effect among children in the high-cost condition. Preschoolers were less likely than older children to lie when there was a high personal cost. In addition, compared with truth-tellers, prosocial liars had parents who were more authoritative but expressed less positive emotion within the family. Finally, there was an interaction between children's prosocial lie-telling behavior and their evaluations of the protagonist's and recipient's feelings. Findings contribute to understanding the trajectory of children's prosocial lie-telling, their reasons for telling such lies, and their knowledge about interpersonal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Children's understanding of cancer and views on health-related behaviour: a 'draw and write' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, K; Rowa-Dewar, N; Malcolm, C; Kearney, N; Gibson, F

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored young children's understanding of cancer and health-related behaviours yet this is essential to develop health promotion initiatives that build on young children's current knowledge levels and awareness. An exploratory descriptive design using the 'draw and write' technique was used to investigate children's views of cancer and health behaviours. The sample included 195 children aged eight to 11 years from five schools in deprived, affluent and rural locations in Scotland. When asked about cancer children demonstrated a good level of awareness by responding with text and drawings about the what they understood cancer to be; types of cancer; causes of cancer; what happens to people who have cancer; their personal experience of cancer and the emotions they associated with cancer. Older children, and children attending affluent schools, have more defined ideas about the causes of cancer and awareness of broader issues such as the risk of passive smoking or the potential impact on the family. Factors such as alcohol and illegal drugs were only reported by children attending schools in deprived locations. Children demonstrated considerable knowledge about healthy and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours; however, it is not clear whether this knowledge translates into their behaviours or the choices offered within their home environment. Children view cancer in a negative way from an early age, even without personal experience. There is a need to demystify cancer in terms of its causes, how to recognize it, how it is treated and to publicize improved survival rates. There is a need for targeted and developmentally appropriate approaches to be taken to health education in schools, with an awareness of the influence of the media on children's information. Strategies should take into consideration the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lives which influence their choices and behaviours. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Beyond Sally's missing marble: further development in children's understanding of mind and emotion in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Kramer, Hannah J; Kennedy, Katie; Hjortsvang, Karen; Goldfarb, Deborah; Tashjian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Research on the development of theory of mind (ToM), the understanding of people in relation to mental states and emotions, has been a vibrant area of cognitive development research. Because the dominant focus has been addressing when children acquire a ToM, researchers have concentrated their efforts on studying the emergence of psychological understanding during infancy and early childhood. Here, the benchmark test has been the false-belief task, the awareness that the mind can misrepresent reality. While understanding false belief is a critical milestone achieved by the age of 4 or 5, children make further advances in their knowledge about mental states and emotions during middle childhood and beyond. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of children's sociocognitive abilities in older age groups is necessary to understand more fully the course of ToM development. The aim of this review is to outline continued development in ToM during middle childhood. In particular, we focus on children's understanding of interpretation-that different minds can construct different interpretations of the same reality. Additionally, we consider children's growing understanding of how mental states (thoughts, emotions, decisions) derive from personal experiences, cohere across time, and interconnect (e.g., thoughts shape emotions). We close with a discussion of the surprising paucity of studies investigating individual differences in ToM beyond age 6. Our hope is that this chapter will invigorate empirical interest in moving the pendulum toward the opposite research direction-toward exploring strengths, limitations, variability, and persistent errors in developing theories of mind across the life span. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory using origami molecular models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endah Saraswati, Teguh; Saputro, Sulistyo; Ramli, Murni; Praseptiangga, Danar; Khasanah, Nurul; Marwati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is conventionally used to predict molecular geometry. However, it is difficult to explore the full implications of this theory by simply drawing chemical structures. Here, we introduce origami modelling as a more accessible approach for exploration of the VSEPR theory. Our technique is simple, readily accessible and inexpensive compared with other sophisticated methods such as computer simulation or commercial three-dimensional modelling kits. This method can be implemented in chemistry education at both the high school and university levels. We discuss the example of a simple molecular structure prediction for ammonia (NH3). Using the origami model, both molecular shape and the scientific justification can be visualized easily. This ‘hands-on’ approach to building molecules will help promote understanding of VSEPR theory.

  19. A Way to Understand Inpatients Based on the Electronic Medical Records in the Big Data Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, information technology in healthcare, such as Electronic Medical Record (EMR system, is potential to improve service quality and cost efficiency of the hospital. The continuous use of EMR systems has generated a great amount of data. However, hospitals tend to use these data to report their operational efficiency rather than to understand their patients. Base on a dataset of inpatients’ medical records from a Chinese general public hospital, this study applies a configuration analysis from a managerial perspective and explains inpatients management in a different way. Four inpatient configurations (valued patients, managed patients, normal patients, and potential patients are identified by the measure of the length of stay and the total hospital cost. The implications of the finding are discussed.

  20. A Way to Understand Inpatients Based on the Electronic Medical Records in the Big Data Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, information technology in healthcare, such as Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system, is potential to improve service quality and cost efficiency of the hospital. The continuous use of EMR systems has generated a great amount of data. However, hospitals tend to use these data to report their operational efficiency rather than to understand their patients. Base on a dataset of inpatients' medical records from a Chinese general public hospital, this study applies a configuration analysis from a managerial perspective and explains inpatients management in a different way. Four inpatient configurations (valued patients, managed patients, normal patients, and potential patients) are identified by the measure of the length of stay and the total hospital cost. The implications of the finding are discussed. PMID:28280506

  1. A low cost model to facilitate students’ understanding of electron transfer chain in toxicology lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pourahmad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial respiration is a complex process which its biochemistry is often poorly understood by undergraduate students when explained in toxicology lectures. The use of experiments to reinforce their knowledge is important, but not always possible because of low teaching budgets. Therefore, a low cost model, made using water, oil, styrofoam and modeling clay, is presented here to simulate the transduction membrane, and the complexes embedded in it. Using this model, students can represent and understand electron flow and proton translocation, the chemiosmotic hypothesis and the effects of inhibitors and uncouplers. Students that have used this model enjoyed studying mitochondrial respiration and learned and understood the biochemistry of transduction membranes as well as lipid and protein interactions, and were well motivated to study the phenomenon in depth by themselves.

  2. Understanding valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory using origami molecular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswati, Teguh Endah; Saputro, Sulistyo; Ramli, Murni; Praseptiangga, Danar; Khasanah, Nurul; Marwati, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is conventionally used to predict molecular geometry. However, it is difficult to explore the full implications of this theory by simply drawing chemical structures. Here, we introduce origami modelling as a more accessible approach for exploration of the VSEPR theory. Our technique is simple, readily accessible and inexpensive compared with other sophisticated methods such as computer simulation or commercial three-dimensional modelling kits. This method can be implemented in chemistry education at both the high school and university levels. We discuss the example of a simple molecular structure prediction for ammonia (NH_3). Using the origami model, both molecular shape and the scientific justification can be visualized easily. This ‘hands-on’ approach to building molecules will help promote understanding of VSEPR theory. (paper)

  3. Understanding the management of electronic test result notifications in the outpatient setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Hardeep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notifying clinicians about abnormal test results through electronic health record (EHR -based "alert" notifications may not always lead to timely follow-up of patients. We sought to understand barriers, facilitators, and potential interventions for safe and effective management of abnormal test result delivery via electronic alerts. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of six 6-8 member focus groups (N = 44 at two large, geographically dispersed Veterans Affairs facilities. Participants included full-time primary care providers, and personnel representing diagnostic services (radiology, laboratory and information technology. We asked participants to discuss barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving timely management and follow-up of abnormal test result notifications and encouraged them to consider technological issues, as well as broader, human-factor-related aspects of EHR use such as organizational, personnel, and workflow. Results Providers reported receiving a large number of alerts containing information unrelated to abnormal test results, many of which were believed to be unnecessary. Some providers also reported lacking proficiency in use of certain EHR features that would enable them to manage alerts more efficiently. Suggestions for improvement included improving display and tracking processes for critical alerts in the EHR, redesigning clinical workflow, and streamlining policies and procedures related to test result notification. Conclusion Providers perceive several challenges for fail-safe electronic communication and tracking of abnormal test results. A multi-dimensional approach that addresses technology as well as the many non-technological factors we elicited is essential to design interventions to reduce missed test results in EHRs.

  4. Understanding the effects of electronic polarization and delocalization on charge-transport levels in oligoacene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sutton, Christopher

    2017-06-13

    Electronic polarization and charge delocalization are important aspects that affect the charge-transport levels in organic materials. Here, using a quantum mechanical/ embedded-charge (QM/EC) approach based on a combination of the long-range corrected omega B97X-D exchange-correlation functional (QM) and charge model 5 (CM5) point-charge model (EC), we evaluate the vertical detachment energies and polarization energies of various sizes of crystalline and amorphous anionic oligoacene clusters. Our results indicate that QM/EC calculations yield vertical detachment energies and polarization energies that compare well with the experimental values obtained from ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements. In order to understand the effect of charge delocalization on the transport levels, we considered crystalline naphthalene systems with QM regions including one or five-molecules. The results for these systems show that the delocalization and polarization effects are additive; therefore, allowing for electron delocalization by increasing the size of the QM region leads to the additional stabilization of the transport levels. Published by AIP Publishing.

  5. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Bernard

    Full Text Available Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  6. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  7. Understanding Treatment Adherence With the Health Belief Model in Children With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Nicole R; Wildman, Beth G; Masterson, Tracy L; Omlor, Gregory J

    2017-10-01

    Children's health beliefs are significantly related to their adherence; however, pediatric literature has rarely tested health-related theories as a whole. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the use of the health belief model (HBM) in understanding children's adherence, both globally and to individual treatment components. Thirty-three patient-parent dyads completed questionnaires regarding health beliefs and adherence to medical regimens. Multiple linear regressions found a significant relationship among the HBM variables and reports of global adherence for children and parents. For children, the HBM variables were significantly related to adherence to aerosol medications, aerosol antibiotics, metered dose inhalers, and vitamins. For parents, the HBM variables were significantly related to children's adherence to airway clearance, oral antibiotics, and vitamins. Paired sample t tests found children and parents had significantly discrepant heath beliefs. These findings provide further support for the HBM in evaluating pediatric adherence, with evidence that barriers and cues to action may be targets for early intervention. Future research using this model to identify a comprehensive way to assess, understand, and elicit change in the adherence to medical regimens for youth with chronic illness would be beneficial.

  8. Understanding and Preventing Acts of Aggression and Violence in School-Age Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for preventing aggression and violence in children and youth, including understanding and applying appropriate interventions for escalating levels of aggression and violence, classroom preventative and planning measures, and systemwide policies and procedures. A student crisis plan sheet is provided as a tool for…

  9. Pedagogical Cues to an Artist's Intention in Young Children's Understanding of Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsa, Analía M.; Vivaldi, Romina A.

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the effects of pedagogical cues to an artist's referential intention on 2- and 2.5-year-old children's understanding of drawings in a matching task without verbal labels support. Results showed that pedagogical cues, the combination of the artist's eye gaze while she was creating the drawings (nonlinguistic cues), and…

  10. "Girls Can Like Boy Toys": Junior Primary School Children's Understandings of Feminist Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined children's understandings of feminist picture books, and thus their potential usefulness for disrupting dominant discourses and providing alternate storylines. This article draws on research conducted in Australia with a class of 6- and 7-year-olds, examining students' responses to four feminist picture books. The…

  11. Understandings of how Professional Practice and Problem Definitions Influence the Possibilities of Children's Conduct of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    of defining “special needs” also depends on the way different professional’s cooperation is organized. The understanding of children’s difficulties and the implications of the understanding must be seen in relation to the bureaucratic structures and professional practices, that the children’s difficulties...... and the production of the “child as a case”. I intend to explore the connections between bureaucratic, interdisciplinary and professional practices that are organised to support children, including the bureaucratic process of defining children’s “special needs”. In the process different professionals understand...

  12. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Jan P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins. Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects

  13. Cultural Artifact and Children's Understanding of the Shape of the Earth: The Case of Moroccan Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troadec, Bertrand; Zarhbouch, Benaissa; Frede, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    The non-computational brand of cognitivism is based on the premise that performances, including those of children, are generated by mental models or representations, i.e., "internal" resources. The sociocultural approach, on the other hand, regards context, i.e., an "external" resource, as the chief means of elaborating…

  14. Enhancing social cognition by training children in emotion understanding: a primary school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani, Ilaria

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether training school-age children in emotion understanding had a significant effect on their social cognition. Participants were 110 children (mean age=7 years 3 months) assigned to training and control conditions. Over a 2-month intervention program, after the reading of illustrated scenarios based on emotional scripts, the training group was engaged in conversations on emotion understanding, whereas the control group was simply asked to produce a drawing about the story. The training group outperformed the control group on emotion comprehension, theory of mind, and empathy, and the positive training outcomes for emotion understanding remained stable over 6 months. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Belief Reasoning and Emotion Understanding in Balanced Bilingual and Language-Dominant Mexican American Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.

  16. Asymmetric Dynamic Attunement of Speech and Gestures in the Construction of Children's Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge-Hoekstra, Lisette; Van der Steen, Steffie; Van Geert, Paul; Cox, Ralf F A

    2016-01-01

    As children learn they use their speech to express words and their hands to gesture. This study investigates the interplay between real-time gestures and speech as children construct cognitive understanding during a hands-on science task. 12 children (M = 6, F = 6) from Kindergarten (n = 5) and first grade (n = 7) participated in this study. Each verbal utterance and gesture during the task were coded, on a complexity scale derived from dynamic skill theory. To explore the interplay between speech and gestures, we applied a cross recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) to the two coupled time series of the skill levels of verbalizations and gestures. The analysis focused on (1) the temporal relation between gestures and speech, (2) the relative strength and direction of the interaction between gestures and speech, (3) the relative strength and direction between gestures and speech for different levels of understanding, and (4) relations between CRQA measures and other child characteristics. The results show that older and younger children differ in the (temporal) asymmetry in the gestures-speech interaction. For younger children, the balance leans more toward gestures leading speech in time, while the balance leans more toward speech leading gestures for older children. Secondly, at the group level, speech attracts gestures in a more dynamically stable fashion than vice versa, and this asymmetry in gestures and speech extends to lower and higher understanding levels. Yet, for older children, the mutual coupling between gestures and speech is more dynamically stable regarding the higher understanding levels. Gestures and speech are more synchronized in time as children are older. A higher score on schools' language tests is related to speech attracting gestures more rigidly and more asymmetry between gestures and speech, only for the less difficult understanding levels. A higher score on math or past science tasks is related to less asymmetry between gestures and

  17. Direct observation of children's preferences and activity levels during interactive and online electronic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cindy H P; Lam, Jessica W K; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2010-07-01

    Interactive electronic games have recently been popularized and are believed to help promote children's physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to examine preferences and PA levels during interactive and online electronic games among overweight and nonoverweight boys and girls. Using a modification of the SOFIT, we systematically observed 70 Hong Kong Chinese children (35 boys, 35 girls; 50 nonoverweight, 20 overweight), age 9 to 12 years, during 2 60-minute recreation sessions and recorded their game mode choices and PA levels. During Session One children could play either an interactive or an online electronic bowling game and during Session Two they could play an interactive or an online electronic running game. Children chose to play the games during 94% of session time and split this time between interactive (52%) and online (48%) versions. They engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during interactive games than their online electronic versions (70% vs. 2% of game time). Boys and nonoverweight children expended relatively more energy during the interactive games than girls and overweight children, respectively. New-generation interactive games can facilitate physical activity in children, and given the opportunity children may select them over sedentary versions.

  18. Children's understanding of the selling versus persuasive intent of junk food advertising: implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of electronic assessment of adherence in the education and counseling of children taking growth hormone: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Fritz; Norgren, Svante; Horne, Rob; Gasteyger, Christoph

    There are numerous issues surrounding adherence in children taking recombinant human growth hormone (rh-GH). New technologies capable of accurately recording/monitoring may highlight some of these issues, and have value in optimizing adherence levels through education and counseling. The intention of this review is to guide healthcare professionals (HCPs). PubMed, Google Scholar and citations in published papers were used to substantiate the views expressed by the authors. Both perceptional and practical factors influence the adherence levels of children taking rh-GH. Understanding such factors may help to identify the characteristics of ideal rh-GH devices and their potential impact on adherence. New technologies, such as electronic monitors, may facilitate patient-provider discussions on adherence, and help identify barriers that are amenable to change. Monitoring adherence may also help differentiate nonadherence from biological low response to rh-GH therapy. However, the medical, psychological, social and ethical aspects of electronic assessment require further investigation.

  20. Emotional availability, understanding emotions, and recognition of facial emotions in obese mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sarah; von Klitzing, Kai; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Herpertz, Sarah; Schütz, Astrid; Klein, Annette M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has identified mother-child relationships of low quality as possible risk factors for childhood obesity. However, it remains open how mothers' own obesity influences the quality of mother-child interaction, and particularly emotional availability (EA). Also unclear is the influence of maternal emotional competencies, i.e. understanding emotions and recognizing facial emotions. This study aimed to (1) investigate differences between obese and normal-weight mothers regarding mother-child EA, maternal understanding emotions and recognition of facial emotions, and (2) explore how maternal emotional competencies and maternal weight interact with each other in predicting EA. A better understanding of these associations could inform strategies of obesity prevention especially in children at risk. We assessed EA, understanding emotions and recognition of facial emotions in 73 obese versus 73 normal-weight mothers, and their children aged 6 to 47 months (Mchild age=24.49, 80 females). Obese mothers showed lower EA and understanding emotions. Mothers' normal weight and their ability to understand emotions were positively associated with EA. The ability to recognize facial emotions was positively associated with EA in obese but not in normal-weight mothers. Maternal weight status indirectly influenced EA through its effect on understanding emotions. Maternal emotional competencies may play an important role for establishing high EA in interaction with the child. Children of obese mothers experience lower EA, which may contribute to overweight development. We suggest including elements that aim to improve maternal emotional competencies and mother-child EA in prevention or intervention programmes targeting childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Do iPads promote symbolic understanding and word learning in children with autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L; Hartley, Calum; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word-referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently colored, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalization compared to the use of a single exemplar. Sixteen minimally verbal children with ASD were taught a new word in four within-subjects conditions, which varied by media (iPad vs. book) and content (single vs. multiple exemplar presentation). Children were then tested on the ability to symbolically relate the word to a 3-D referent (real-life depicted object) and generalize it to a differently colored category member (another similarly shaped object). The extent of symbolic understanding did not differ between the two media, and levels of generalization did not differ across conditions. However, presentation of multiple exemplars increased the rate that children with ASD extended labels from pictures to depicted objects. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of content to picture-based learning and the potential benefits and challenges of using the Apple iPad as an educational resource for children with ASD.

  2. Do iPads promote symbolic understanding and word learning in children with autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eAllen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Here we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word-referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently-coloured, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalisation compared to the use of a single exemplar. Sixteen minimally-verbal children with ASD were taught a new word in 4 within-subjects conditions, which varied by media (iPad vs. book and content (single vs. multiple exemplar presentation. Children were then tested on the ability to symbolically relate the word to a 3-D referent (real-life depicted object and generalise it to a differently-coloured category member (another similarly-shaped object. The extent of symbolic understanding did not differ between the two media, and levels of generalisation did not differ across conditions. However, presentation of multiple exemplars increased the rate that children with ASD extended labels from pictures to depicted objects. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of content to picture-based learning and the potential benefits and challenges of using the Apple iPad as an educational resource for children with ASD.

  3. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  4. Stability and Variability in Young Children's Understanding of Floating and Sinking during One Single-Task Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindertsma, Heidi B.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Intraindividual variability is a key component in explaining children's development and learning. Studying this type of variability on the micro-timescale can help us understand real-time constructive processes and the subsequent long-term development. The aim of this article is to study the process of children's understanding of…

  5. Can Children Construct Inverse Relations in Arithmetic? Evidence for Individual Differences in the Development of Conceptual Understanding and Computational Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla K.; Bryant, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Understanding conceptual relationships is an important aspect of learning arithmetic. Most studies of arithmetic, however, do not distinguish between children's understanding of a concept and their ability to identify situations in which it might be relevant. We compared 8- to 9-year-old children's use of a computational shortcut based on the…

  6. Recent Understanding on Diagnosis and Management of Central Nervous System Vasculitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Iannetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system vasculitides in children may develop as a primary condition or secondary to an underlying systemic disease. Many vasculitides affect both adults and children, while some others occur almost exclusively in childhood. Patients usually present with systemic symptoms with single or multiorgan dysfunction. The involvement of central nervous system in childhood is not frequent and it occurs more often as a feature of subtypes like childhood polyarteritis nodosa, Kawasaki disease, Henoch Schönlein purpura, and Bechet disease. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system of childhood is a reversible cause of severe neurological impairment, including acute ischemic stroke, intractable seizures, and cognitive decline. The first line therapy of CNS vasculitides is mainly based on corticosteroids and immunosuppressor drugs. Other strategies include plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, and biologic drugs. This paper discusses on current understanding of most frequent primary and secondary central nervous system vasculitides in children including a tailored-diagnostic approach and new evidence regarding treatment.

  7. Recent Understanding on Diagnosis and Management of Central Nervous System Vasculitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Ludovico; Zito, Roberta; Bruschi, Simone; Papetti, Laura; Ulgiati, Fiorenza; Nicita, Francesco; Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system vasculitides in children may develop as a primary condition or secondary to an underlying systemic disease. Many vasculitides affect both adults and children, while some others occur almost exclusively in childhood. Patients usually present with systemic symptoms with single or multiorgan dysfunction. The involvement of central nervous system in childhood is not frequent and it occurs more often as a feature of subtypes like childhood polyarteritis nodosa, Kawasaki disease, Henoch Schönlein purpura, and Bechet disease. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system of childhood is a reversible cause of severe neurological impairment, including acute ischemic stroke, intractable seizures, and cognitive decline. The first line therapy of CNS vasculitides is mainly based on corticosteroids and immunosuppressor drugs. Other strategies include plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, and biologic drugs. This paper discusses on current understanding of most frequent primary and secondary central nervous system vasculitides in children including a tailored-diagnostic approach and new evidence regarding treatment. PMID:23008735

  8. What enhances the development of emotion understanding in young children? A longitudinal study of interpersonal predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårstad, Silja B; Wichstrøm, Lars; Reinfjell, Trude; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid S

    2015-09-01

    We studied potential determinants of the development of children's emotion understanding (EU) from age 4 to 6 in a Norwegian community sample (N = 974) using the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Interpersonal predictors included the accuracy of parental mentalization, parental emotional availability, and teacher-reported child social skills. Intrapersonal child factors were child gender and verbal skills. Overall, children's EU increased significantly over time. After adjusting for child gender, age-4 EU, and parental socio-economic status, greater child verbal and social skills and greater parental mentalization each uniquely predicted growth in EU. Results are discussed in terms of theory and research on children's EU and parents' emotion socialization. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. The Placement History Chart: A Tool for Understanding the Longitudinal Pattern of Foster Children's Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-08-01

    Despite growing concerns about foster placement instability, little information is available regarding the longitudinal patterns of placement histories among foster children. The purpose of the present study was to develop a charting system using child welfare records to facilitate a better understanding of longitudinal patterns of placement history for 117 foster children. The resulting Placement History Chart included all placements that occurred during the observed time period and accounted for various dimensions: number, length, type, and sequence of placements; timing of transitions; and total time in out-of-home care. The Placement History Chart is an effective tool for placing foster care experiences within a broader developmental context. As such, the Placement History Chart can be a valuable research tool for understanding various dimensions and variations of placement transitions among foster children by capturing sequences and cumulative risks over time. Furthermore, this chart can facilitate the development of intervention programs that are developmentally sensitive and effectively address particularly vulnerable subpopulations of foster children.

  10. When Injury Clouds Understanding of Others: Theory of Mind after Mild TBI in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellerose, Jenny; Bernier, Annie; Beaudoin, Cindy; Gravel, Jocelyn; Beauchamp, Miriam H

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence to suggest that social skills, such as the ability to understand the perspective of others (theory of mind), may be affected by childhood traumatic brain injuries; however, studies to date have only considered moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed to assess theory of mind after early, mild TBI (mTBI). Fifty-one children who sustained mTBI between 18 and 60 months were evaluated 6 months post-injury on emotion and desires reasoning and false-belief understanding tasks. Their results were compared to that of 50 typically developing children. The two groups did not differ on baseline characteristics, except for pre- and post-injury externalizing behavior. The mTBI group obtained poorer scores relative to controls on both the emotion and desires task and the false-belief understanding task, even after controlling for pre-injury externalizing behavior. No correlations were found between TBI injury characteristics and theory of mind. This is the first evidence that mTBI in preschool children is associated with theory of mind difficulties. Reduced perspective taking abilities could be linked with the social impairments that have been shown to arise following TBI.

  11. 75 FR 3154 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Commission received seven comments from consumer groups, electronics associations, companies, and individuals... that use solar power or other power sources), such as music players, headphones, some toys and games... electronics devices would be banned if they were intended primarily for children. The likely substitute for...

  12. An Analysis of Electronic Media to Prepare Children for Safe and Ethical Practices in Digital Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.; Desai, Shreya; Falls, Donald; Fenaughty, John

    2008-01-01

    A range of electronic resources, including video-based instruction, are used to promote cybersafety to young people at school. This evaluation analyzed seven distinct programs that use electronic media in Internet safety initiatives in schools. The findings highlight emerging evidence on successful approaches to engage children in assessing risky…

  13. Electronic screens in children's bedrooms and adiposity, physical activity and sleep: do the number and type of electronic devices matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-07-11

    To examine whether the number and type of electronic screens available in children's bedrooms matter in their relationship to adiposity, physical activity and sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 502 children aged 9-11 years from Ottawa, Ontario. The presence (yes/no) of a television (TV), computer or video game system in the child's bedroom was reported by the parents. Percentage body fat was measured using bioelectrical impedance. An accelerometer was worn over seven days to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Screen time was self-reported by the child. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, annual household income and highest level of parental education, children with 2-3 screens in their bedroom had a significantly higher percentage of body fat than children with no screen in their bedroom. However, while children with 2-3 screens in their bedroom engaged in more screen time overall than those with no screen, total sedentary time and MVPA were not significantly different. Sleep duration was not related to the number of screens in the bedroom, but sleep efficiency was significantly lower in children with at least 2 screens in the bedroom. Finally, children having only a TV in their bedroom had significantly higher adiposity than those having no screen at all. In contrast, the presence of a computer in children's bedrooms was not associated with higher adiposity than that of children with no screen. A higher number of screens in a child's bedroom was associated with higher adiposity, more total screen time and lower sleep efficiency. Having a TV in the bedroom appears to be the type of screen presence associated with higher levels of adiposity. Given the popularity of screens among children, these findings are increasingly relevant to health promotion strategies.

  14. Understanding key factors affecting electronic medical record implementation: a sociotechnical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciniello, Maria; Lapsley, Irvine; Nasi, Greta; Pagliari, Claudia

    2015-07-17

    Recent health care policies have supported the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) but examples of failed ICT projects in this sector have highlighted the need for a greater understanding of the processes used to implement such innovations in complex organizations. This study examined the interaction of sociological and technological factors in the implementation of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system by a major national hospital. It aimed to obtain insights for managers planning such projects in the future and to examine the usefulness of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as a research tool in this context. Case study using documentary analysis, interviews and observations. Qualitative thematic analysis drawing on ANT. Qualitative analyses revealed a complex network of interactions between organizational stakeholders and technology that helped to shape the system and influence its acceptance and adoption. The EMR clearly emerged as a central 'actor' within this network. The results illustrate how important it is to plan innovative and complex information systems with reference to (i) the expressed needs and involvement of different actors, starting from the initial introductory phase; (ii) promoting commitment to the system and adopting a participative approach; (iii) defining and resourcing new roles within the organization capable of supporting and sustaining the change and (iv) assessing system impacts in order to mobilize the network around a common goal. The paper highlights the organizational, cultural, technological, and financial considerations that should be taken into account when planning strategies for the implementation of EMR systems in hospital settings. It also demonstrates how ANT may be usefully deployed in evaluating such projects.

  15. Beyond the focus group: understanding physicians' barriers to electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Helen; Gardner, Rebekah; Baier, Rosa

    2012-04-01

    Although electronic medical records (EMRs) have potential to improve quality of care, physician adoption remains low. Rhode Island physicians' perceptions of barriers to EMRs and the association between these barriers and physician characteristics were examined. It was hypothesized that physicians with and without EMRs would differ in the types and magnitude of barriers identified. Data were drawn from the Rhode Island Department of Health's mandatory 2009 Physician Health Information Technology (HIT) survey of physicians licensed and in active practice in Rhode Island or an adjacent state. Some 1,888 (58.1% of the target population of 3,248 physicians) responded. Respondents, who were invited to provide open-ended comments, were asked to consider 11 issues as barriers to EMR use: Access to technical support, lack of computer skills, availability of a computer in the appropriate location, impact of a computer on doctor-patient interaction, lack of interoperability, privacy or security concerns, start-up financial costs, ongoing financial costs, technic limitations of systems, training and productivity impact, and lack of uniform industry standards. Respondents with EMRs consistently perceived significantly fewer barriers than those without them (p < .0001). For example, 78.9% of physicians without EMRs viewed start-up financial costs as a major barrier versus only 45.8% of physicians with EMRs. An understanding of physicians' reluctance to use EMRs is critical for developing adoption strategies. Policies to increase EMR adoption should be tailored to different physician groups to achieve maximum effectiveness. Further research into the differences between current EMR users' and nonusers' perceptions of barriers may help elucidate how to facilitate subsequent adoption.

  16. The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control (NCC)--no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)--teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)--teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)--teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions.

  17. Emotion Understanding, Social Competence and School Achievement in Children from Primary School in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Franco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence. Age appear as an explanatory factor of the differences found, the mother’s educational level only predicts significantly social emotional competence, fluid intelligence is a predictor of emotion understanding, school achievement and social emotional competence. Regarding the influence of sex, emotional understanding does not emerge as a significant predictor of social emotional competence in girls or boys. Multiple relationships between the various factors associated with school achievement and social emotional competence are discussed as well as their implications in promoting child development and school success.

  18. Emotion Understanding, Social Competence and School Achievement in Children from Primary School in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Maria da Glória; Beja, Maria J.; Candeias, Adelinda; Santos, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence. Age appear as an explanatory factor of the differences found, the mother’s educational level only predicts significantly social emotional competence, fluid intelligence is a predictor of emotion understanding, school achievement and social emotional competence. Regarding the influence of sex, emotional understanding does not emerge as a significant predictor of social emotional competence in girls or boys. Multiple relationships between the various factors associated with school achievement and social emotional competence are discussed as well as their implications in promoting child development and school success. PMID:28861014

  19. Emotion Understanding, Social Competence and School Achievement in Children from Primary School in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Maria da Glória; Beja, Maria J; Candeias, Adelinda; Santos, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother's educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence. Age appear as an explanatory factor of the differences found, the mother's educational level only predicts significantly social emotional competence, fluid intelligence is a predictor of emotion understanding, school achievement and social emotional competence. Regarding the influence of sex, emotional understanding does not emerge as a significant predictor of social emotional competence in girls or boys. Multiple relationships between the various factors associated with school achievement and social emotional competence are discussed as well as their implications in promoting child development and school success.

  20. Understanding the properties of inorganic benzenes based on π-electron densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Li, Xiaoyan; Meng, Lingpeng; Zheng, Shijun; Zeng, Yanli

    2015-03-12

    The properties of inorganic benzenes have been investigated by means of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) studies. In this work, the σ- and π-electron densities were separated from the total electron densities, and it was therefore possible to evaluate the contributions of σ and π electrons to the chemical bonds and properties of inorganic benzenes. The following conclusions are given: (1) The π-attractors' positions correlate to their respective atomic radii. With increasing atomic number in the same period, the attractor of π-electron densities becomes closer to its respective nucleus. With increasing atomic number in the main group, the position of the π attractor becomes farther from its respective nucleus. (2) The strength of the chemical bonds of the inorganic benzene rings is determined by σ-electron densities, not π-electron densities; their bonding character is mainly determined by the σ-electron density; however, the role of the π-electron density cannot be neglected. (3) For the inorganic benzenes studied, the electron localization function for π (ELFπ) values are related to the differences of the electronegativity between the neighboring atoms of the inorganic benzene rings, Δχ(X,Y). The smaller the difference of Δχ(X,Y), the higher the value of ELFπ, resulting in more aromatic properties of the inorganic benzenes.

  1. I Listen and I Believe, I See and I Understand: A Collective Reflection Approach to Understanding Children's Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The project on which this report is based set out to establish how exploring children's musicality might encourage adults to consider their engagement with the musical play and learning of children under the age of five. Through reflection and evaluation the participants became aware that they were challenging their own teaching style in response…

  2. Understanding electronic market usage : a revised model based on planned behaviour and innovation diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Hans

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the identification of determinants that influence the use ofbusiness-to-consumer electronic markets. Since the widespread adoption of the Internet, these electronic markets are now commonplace and it becomesincreasingly relevant to identify the factors that influence

  3. Authentic Assessment Tool for the Measurement of Students' Understanding of the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttisela, Karntarat

    2017-01-01

    There are various types of instructional media related to Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) but there is a lack of diversity of resources devoted to assessment. This research presents an assessment and comparison of students' understanding of VSEPR theory before and after tuition involving the use of the foam molecule model (FMM) and…

  4. The contributions of mental state understanding and executive functioning to preschool-aged children's lie-telling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Karissa; Williams, Shanna; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria

    2017-06-01

    In this study, preschool-aged children's lie-telling behaviour was examined in relation to mental state understanding and executive functioning. Sixty-seven children aged between 25 and 43 months (M age in months  = 34.80, SD = 4.39) participated in a temptation resistance paradigm (TRP). Children completed emerging ToM tasks measuring the following mental states: (1) diverse beliefs, (2) diverse desires, and (3) knowledge access. Children also completed measures of inhibitory control and working memory. In total, 63 of the 67 children peeked at the toy during the TRP, and a total of 26 of those children denied their transgression to the research assistant. Inhibitory control and understanding of knowledge access predicted lie-telling behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to a developmental model of children's lie-telling behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The relationship between lie-telling, executive functioning, and ToM has been established in older children (aged 4 and above). Inhibitory control plays a role in young children's lie-telling (aged 2-4). Children above 3 years of age have some understanding of mental states. What does this study add? Very young children (2-3-year-olds) also possess an understanding of mental states. Mental state understanding is related to 2-3-year-old children's lie-telling behaviours and may be more predictive than inhibitory control. While the results were not significant, this study is the first to look at the unique role of working memory in very young children's lie-telling. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Strong and strategic conformity understanding by 3- and 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonier, Laurent; Nettles, Theresa; Rochat, Philippe

    2017-12-18

    'Strong conformity' corresponds to the public endorsement of majority opinions that are in blatant contradiction to one's own correct perceptual judgements of the situation. We tested strong conformity inference by 3- and 5-year-old children using a third-person perspective paradigm. Results show that at neither age, children spontaneously expect that an ostracized third-party individual who wants to affiliate with the majority group will show strong conformity. However, when questioned as to what the ostracized individual should do to befriend others, from 5 years of age children explicitly demonstrate that they construe strong conformity as a strategic means of social affiliation. Additional data suggest that strong and strategic conformity understanding from an observer's third-person perspective is linked to the passing of the language-mediated false belief theory of mind task, an index of children's emerging 'meta' ability to construe the mental state of others. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? 'Strong conformity' corresponds to the public endorsement of majority opinions that are in blatant contradiction to one's own correct perceptual judgements of the situation. Asch's (1956, Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 70, 1) classic demonstration of strong conformity with adults has been replicated with preschool children: 3- to 4-year-olds manifest signs of strong conformity by reversing about thirty to forty per cent of the time their correct perceptual judgements to fit with contradictory statements held unanimously by other individuals (Corriveau & Harris, 2010, Developmental Psychology, 46, 437; Corriveau et al., 2013, Journal of Cognition and Culture, 13, 367; Haun & Tomasello, 2011, Child Development, 82, 1759). As for adults, strong conformity does not obliterate children's own private, accurate knowledge of the situation. It is in essence a public expression to fit the group and alleviate social dissonance

  6. A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

    2012-02-01

    Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research.

  7. [Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Rayla Amaral; Veríssimo, Maria de La Ó Ramallo

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension), minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  8. Theory of mind "beliefs", developmental characteristics and social understanding in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Françoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). Echelles Différentielles d'Efficiences Intellectuelles. Forme Révisée (EDEI-R). Paris: Editions et Applications Psychologiques.] was used to match participants and to assess social understanding. ECOSSE [Lecocq P. (1996). L'E.CO.S.SE. Une épreuve de compréhension syntaxico-sémantique. Paris: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.] assessed the level of syntactic and semantic comprehension of French speaking, to ensure a good comprehension of the questions in false belief tasks. Five tasks assessed the ability in visual perspective taking and in understanding of false belief. A difference in the global ToM ability was found between both groups (difference hypothesis in ID participants). Specific abilities in different ToM tasks showed developmental patterns partially different and partially similar, between ID and TD groups. The interest to assess the understanding of belief by means of several tasks is confirmed. Positive links between cognition, language and ToM abilities were found in both groups, but the impact of cognition and language on abilities in each ToM task is different in both groups. Finally, the specific impact of social understanding and of chronological age on abilities in false belief in ID group is discussed.

  9. “Listen, do, repeat, understand and remember”: Teaching English to very young children in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qismullah Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigated the methods used in teaching English vocabulary to very young children (i.e. toddlers at a bilingual school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Not much research has been published on teaching English to toddlers in the EFL context; therefore, this research is important as the results can become additional input to L2 teachers who teach very young children because by understanding their conditions of learners, teachers can help them reach their full potential as language learners. An observation sheet and a set of interview questions were used to collect data from an English teacher. There was only one teacher who became the participant because the school under study is thus far the only school that provides an English learning environment for children as young as toddlers in the city of Banda Aceh. The class was observed for three class meetings. The results showed that of the four teaching methods observed, the most commonly employed method was Total Physical Response (TPR, followed by Natural Approach (NA, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT and Suggestopedia (SG as the least. Furthermore, based on the interview with the teacher, it was indicated that TPR and NA were more appropriate for teaching the toddlers English vocabulary. Through TPR, the very young children demonstrated their understanding of commands by responding with simple answers or gestures. In NA, they were situated in a natural environment and not prompted to speak until they felt ready to do so. Additionally, the teacher used no specific textbooks because music, pictures, and authentic materials procured an immense role in supporting the activities in the classroom.

  10. Children and Electronic Games in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Bermann, Julie N.; Buchman, Debra D.

    1997-01-01

    Reports video game playing demographics. Reviews the literature on video game health hazards and positive health applications; cutting-edge applications in education and controversies about learning; and effects on personality. Discusses laboratory and survey research on the effects of video games violence. Considers whether some children may be…

  11. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  13. The influence of language and socioeconomic status on children's understanding of false belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Marilyn; Diesendruck, Gil; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse; Akar, Didar

    2003-07-01

    Study 1 investigated whether differences in the lexical explicitness with which languages express false belief influence children's performance on standard false belief tasks. Preschoolers speaking languages with explicit terms (Turkish and Puerto Rican Spanish) were compared with preschoolers speaking languages without explicit terms (Brazilian Portuguese and English) on questions assessing false belief understanding either specifically (the think question) or more generally (the look for question). Lexical explicitness influenced responses to the think question only. Study 2 replicated Study 1 with groups of both speakers differing in socioeconomic status (SES). A local effect of explicitness was found again as well as a more general influence of SES. The findings are discussed with regard to possible relations among language, SES, and understanding of mind.

  14. Removing obstacles for African American English-speaking children through greater understanding of language difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E

    2013-01-01

    Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.

  15. Health workers' use of electronic information concerning children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These health workers also have access to and are active users of computers and the Internet. They may therefore benefit from receiving relevant and up-to-date electronic information. The study aimed to assess how these groups of health workers use computers and the Internet, as well as to determine their needs for ...

  16. Processes of enhanced self-understanding during a counselling programme for parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Bukholm, Ida Rashida Khan; Haugli, Liv; Hallberg, Ulrika

    2013-03-01

    The stress and burden on parents of children with disabilities are well documented, and the parents' way of handling the situation is crucial to the health and well-being of all family members, including the child with special needs. We conducted a group-based counselling programme for parents, based mainly on Gestalt education and personal construct theories, aiming at increasing the parents' ability to handle the situation. To explore the parents' experiences from processes of change after the counselling programme. METHOD DESIGN: This qualitative study is based on modified grounded theory. The study conducted in Norway examines the experiences of 67 parents (of whom 29 fathers) of children with disabilities. Information was collected through focus group discussions after finishing their sessions of the counselling programme. From the parents' experiences, the following categories were developed: feeling motivated to communicate, describing oneself in new words, being inspired to experience one's own emotions, being more present and in charge and making a difference by taking new steps. The core category in our analysis turned out to be Improved handling of the situation by enhanced self-understanding. The parents seemed to redevelop their self-understanding through new experiences of themselves. They emphasized the importance of a secure setting of peers with similar experiences and skilled counsellors to feel free to explore one's own emotions with connecting thoughts and bodily reactions. Discussion of existential issues as one's own values also contributed to enhanced self-understanding, which strengthened the parents to find new possibilities and priorities in handling the situation. The parents described subjective processes of awareness and self-reflection as important for being able to start a process towards enhanced self-understanding, which helped to detect one's own values and new ways of acting. These experiences may be relevant for the parents and

  17. Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

  18. Affective Education in Greece: The Self Understanding of Pre-school Children, as Projected with Puppets. A Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoyianni, Alkistis

    1997-01-01

    Based on their expression with puppets, examined how Greek preschool children perceive their personal identity and self understanding, and if these features are physical, active, social, or psychological. Found concurrence with previous research indicating that children identify themselves in all the above ways, but that identification with…

  19. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  20. Making the Familiar Strange and Making the Strange Familiar: Understanding Korean Children's Experiences of Living with an Autistic Sibling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Se Kwang; Charnley, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the findings of a small-scale study using visual ethnographic techniques with nine South Korean children, this article explores the role of culture in understanding autism. While autism is embedded within the "strange" and "unfamiliar", linked to exclusion and discrimination in Korean society, the children focussed on…

  1. Knowledge-Based Functional-Symbol Understanding In Electronic Circuit Diagram Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Tou, J. T.

    1986-03-01

    The AUTORED system is a computer-based system for automatic reading of electronic circuit diagrams, which was developed several years ago. This paper presents some of our new results in AUTORED research. The design of AUTORED consists of two major components: automatic interpretation of electronic diagrams, and organization of interpretation results into a knowledge base for CAD applications. An electronic circuit diagram may be segmented into three parts which are the graphical functional symbols, the connection line segments, and the denotations. New techniques for extracting symbols and denotations from the circuit diagram are presented in this paper. These techniques are designed for junction and corner extraction, line segment tracing and linking, line segment classification, connection-line segment removal and blocking, symbol locating and denotation character grouping. A knowledge base is developed to facilitate the tracing, template-matching, and categorization processes.

  2. Towards understanding the influence of electron-gas interactions on imaging in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Boothroyd, Chris; Beleggia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    improved the point resolution to the sub-Ångström level [1] and reduced image delocalization, allowing images of surface and interface structures to be interpreted more directly [2]. However, when gas is present in the microscope the path of electrons along the column is modified due to gas......-electron scattering [3]. In general there are two approaches for performing TEM experiments in the presence of gases. These approaches are based on a differential pumping scheme and the closed cell TEM holder approach and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In the closed cell approach, gas molecules...... are confined to a thin (typically 50-200 μm thick) slab around the sample, but the electrons interact with the window material (e.g. C, SiN) as well as with the gas and the sample. In addition, the field of view is typically smaller than in a conventional TEM and a limited range of sample geometries can...

  3. Understanding reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry from catastrophe theory applied to the electron localization function topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Victor; Andres, Juan; Berski, Slawomir; Domingo, Luis R; Silvi, Bernard

    2008-08-07

    Thom's catastrophe theory applied to the evolution of the topology of the electron localization function (ELF) gradient field constitutes a way to rationalize the reorganization of electron pairing and a powerful tool for the unambiguous determination of the molecular mechanisms of a given chemical reaction. The identification of the turning points connecting the ELF structural stability domains along the reaction pathway allows a rigorous characterization of the sequence of electron pair rearrangements taking place during a chemical transformation, such as multiple bond forming/breaking processes, ring closure processes, creation/annihilation of lone pairs, transformations of C-C multiple bonds into single ones. The reaction mechanism of some relevant organic reactions: Diels-Alder, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Cope rearrangement are reviewed to illustrate the potential of the present approach.

  4. Can Social Cognitive Theories Help Us Understand Nurses' Use of Electronic Health Records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Booth, Richard; Mistry, Kartini

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health record implementations have accelerated in clinical settings around the world in an effort to improve patient safety and enhance efficiencies related to care delivery. As the largest group of healthcare professionals globally, nurses play an important role in the use of these records and ensuring their benefits are realized. Social cognitive theories such as the Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and the Technology Acceptance Model have been developed to explain behavior. Given that variation in nurses' electronic health record utilization may influence the degree to which benefits are realized, the aim of this article is to explore how the use of these social cognitive theories may assist organizations implementing electronic health records to facilitate deeper-level adoption of this type of clinical technology.

  5. Children's understanding of fraction and decimal symbols and the notation-specific relation to pre-algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-04-01

    Fraction and decimal concepts are notoriously difficult for children to learn yet are a major component of elementary and middle school math curriculum and an important prerequisite for higher order mathematics (i.e., algebra). Thus, recently there has been a push to understand how children think about rational number magnitudes in order to understand how to promote rational number understanding. However, prior work investigating these questions has focused almost exclusively on fraction notation, overlooking the open questions of how children integrate rational number magnitudes presented in distinct notations (i.e., fractions, decimals, and whole numbers) and whether understanding of these distinct notations may independently contribute to pre-algebra ability. In the current study, we investigated rational number magnitude and arithmetic performance in both fraction and decimal notation in fourth- to seventh-grade children. We then explored how these measures of rational number ability predicted pre-algebra ability. Results reveal that children do represent the magnitudes of fractions and decimals as falling within a single numerical continuum and that, despite greater experience with fraction notation, children are more accurate when processing decimal notation than when processing fraction notation. Regression analyses revealed that both magnitude and arithmetic performance predicted pre-algebra ability, but magnitude understanding may be particularly unique and depend on notation. The educational implications of differences between children in the current study and previous work with adults are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing primary-school children's understanding of the nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Susanne; Osterhaus, Christopher; Sodian, Beate

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS) is a critical aspect of scientific reasoning, yet few studies have investigated its developmental beginnings and initial structure. One contributing reason is the lack of an adequate instrument. Two studies assessed NOS understanding among third graders using a multiple-select (MS) paper-and-pencil test. Study 1 investigated the validity of the MS test by presenting the items to 68 third graders (9-year-olds) and subsequently interviewing them on their underlying NOS conception of the items. All items were significantly related between formats, indicating that the test was valid. Study 2 applied the same instrument to a larger sample of 243 third graders, and their performance was compared to a multiple-choice (MC) version of the test. Although the MC format inflated the guessing probability, there was a significant relation between the two formats. In summary, the MS format was a valid method revealing third graders' NOS understanding, thereby representing an economical test instrument. A latent class analysis identified three groups of children with expertise in qualitatively different aspects of NOS, suggesting that there is not a single common starting point for the development of NOS understanding; instead, multiple developmental pathways may exist. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Understanding children: a qualitative study on health assets of the Internet in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-García, Mariano; Botello-Díaz, Blanca; Marcos-Marcos, Jorge; Toro-Cárdenas, Silvia; Gil-García, Eugenia

    2015-02-01

    This research was designed to explore the opinions held by primary school pupils about the Internet as a source of assets for health and well-being. A qualitative study was carried out based on 8 focus groups comprising 64 pupils from 8 primary schools in Spain. Our findings describe the Internet as a tool for learning, communication, fun and health care. In addition, they reveal how children understand influences on health and well-being in relation to their view of the Internet. The results are discussed in terms of the public-health implications of digital literacy, as well as its connection to well-being, especially in relation to health assets. The Internet is an important resource for children's health and well-being, which, through learning, communication, fun and health care, encourages them to make use of it. Digital and health literacy constitutes the foundation required for browsing the Internet in a positive way, as identified by the children interviewed in this study, and especially in relation to the health assets that the Internet can contain.

  8. Towards a feminist understanding of intersecting violence against women and children in the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Carlson, Catherine; O’Hara, Kathleen; Nakuti, Janet; Bukuluki, Paul; Lwanyaaga, Julius; Namakula, Sylvia; Nanyunja, Barbrah; Wainberg, Milton L.; Naker, Dipak; Michau, Lori

    2017-01-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and violence against children (VAC) have emerged as distinct fields of research and programming, a growing number of studies demonstrate the extent to which these forms of violence overlap in the same households. However, existing knowledge of how and why such co-occurrence takes place is limited, particularly in the Global South. The current study aims to advance empirical and conceptual understanding of intersecting IPV and VAC within families in order to inform potential programming. We explore shared perceptions and experiences of IPV and VAC using qualitative data collected in December 2015 from adults and children in Kampala, Uganda (n = 106). We find that the patriarchal family structure creates an environment that normalizes many forms of violence, simultaneously infantilizing women and reinforcing their subordination (alongside children). Based on participant experiences, we identify four potential patterns that suggest how IPV and VAC not only co-occur, but more profoundly intersect within the family, triggering cycles of emotional and physical abuse: bystander trauma, negative role modeling, protection and further victimization, and displaced aggression. The discussion is situated within a feminist analysis, including careful consideration of maternal violence and an emphasis on the ways in which gender and power dynamics can coalesce and contribute to intra-family violence. PMID:28501019

  9. Understanding parenting concerns in cancer survivors with minor and young-adult children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhestern, Laura; Bultmann, Johanna Christine; Beierlein, Volker; Möller, Birgit; Romer, Georg; Koch, Uwe; Bergelt, Corinna

    2016-08-01

    Parents with cancer are concerned about the impact of their disease on their children. However, parenting concerns and associated factors in cancer survivors have not previously been analyzed. The purpose of this study is to examine parenting concerns and to test a path model for understanding parenting concerns in cancer survivors. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 1416 parents with cancer (mean age 47.5years, 74% women) having minor or young-adult children were recruited through two cancer registries. Parenting concerns were assessed using the Parenting Concerns Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the associations between social support, parenting confidence, emotional distress, family functioning and parenting concerns. Mothers reported higher total parenting concerns than fathers (peffects of emotional distress and parenting confidence on parenting concerns. Family dysfunctioning was associated with lower concerns. An indirect association between social support and parenting concerns was identified. Parenting concerns in cancer survivors display the need for interventions and after care programs that focus on affected families with minor and young adult children. The results of the structural path model illustrate the associations between psychological and interactional factors. Supporting parents with cancer in their parenting confidence and strengthen social support and family functioning may not only reduce the long-term burden on the parents themselves but also the burden on the entire family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards a feminist understanding of intersecting violence against women and children in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Carlson, Catherine; O'Hara, Kathleen; Nakuti, Janet; Bukuluki, Paul; Lwanyaaga, Julius; Namakula, Sylvia; Nanyunja, Barbrah; Wainberg, Milton L; Naker, Dipak; Michau, Lori

    2017-07-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and violence against children (VAC) have emerged as distinct fields of research and programming, a growing number of studies demonstrate the extent to which these forms of violence overlap in the same households. However, existing knowledge of how and why such co-occurrence takes place is limited, particularly in the Global South. The current study aims to advance empirical and conceptual understanding of intersecting IPV and VAC within families in order to inform potential programming. We explore shared perceptions and experiences of IPV and VAC using qualitative data collected in December 2015 from adults and children in Kampala, Uganda (n = 106). We find that the patriarchal family structure creates an environment that normalizes many forms of violence, simultaneously infantilizing women and reinforcing their subordination (alongside children). Based on participant experiences, we identify four potential patterns that suggest how IPV and VAC not only co-occur, but more profoundly intersect within the family, triggering cycles of emotional and physical abuse: bystander trauma, negative role modeling, protection and further victimization, and displaced aggression. The discussion is situated within a feminist analysis, including careful consideration of maternal violence and an emphasis on the ways in which gender and power dynamics can coalesce and contribute to intra-family violence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Young children understand the normative implications of future-directed speech acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Karoline; Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode ("A, do X!") or as a prediction ("the actor A will do X"). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation.

  12. Children's understanding of the immune system: Integrating the cognitive-developmental and intuitive theories' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry-Boozer, Kristine L.

    Traditional cognitive-developmental researchers have provided a large body of evidence supporting the stage-like progression of children's cognitive development. Further, from this body of research comes evidence that children's understanding of HIV/AIDS develops in much the same way as their understanding of other illness-related concepts. Researchers from a newer perspective assert that biological concepts develop from intuitive theories. In general, as children are exposed to relevant content and have opportunities to organize this information, their theories become more accurate and differentiated. According to this perspective, there are no broad structural constraints on developing concepts, as asserted by cognitive developmental theorists. The purpose of the current study was two-fold: to provide support for both theoretical perspectives, while at the same time to explore children's conceptualizations of the immune system, which has not been done previously in the cognitive-developmental literature. One hundred ninety children ranging in age from 4 years old through 11 years old, and a group of adults, participated. Each participant was interviewed regarding health concepts and the body's function in maintaining health. Participants were also asked to report if they had certain experiences that would have led to relevant content exposure. Qualitative analyses were utilized to code the interviews with rubrics based on both theoretical perspectives. Quantitative analyses consisted of a series of univariate ANOVAs (and post hoc tests when appropriate) examining all three coding variables (accuracy, differentiation, and developmental level) across various age-group combinations and exposure groups. Results of these analyses provided support for both theoretical perspectives. When the data were analyzed for developmental level by all ages, a stage-like progression consistent with Piagetian stages emerged. When accuracy and differentiation were examined (intuitive

  13. Adherence to active play and electronic media guidelines in preschool children: gender and parental education considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Schary, David P; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine adherence to current active play and electronic media use guidelines in a sample of US preschool-aged children and to examine whether differences occurred across gender and parental education. 164 parents completed an on-line survey to estimate preschool children's active play and sedentary behaviors. For weekdays, 50% of the sample met the active play guideline with this increasing to 65% during the weekend. With respect to electronic media use, 90% of the sample met guidelines during the week, with the percentage meeting guidelines dropping to 78% during the weekend. A greater percentage of preschool children from high parental education families (83.4 ± 3.3) met electronic media use guidelines on the weekends, compared to preschool children from low parental education families (59.4 ± 8.1) (p = 0.002). Our findings indicate that a substantial portion of preschool children are not meeting active play guidelines and that adherence to active play and electronic media use guidelines may be influenced by parental education.

  14. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. An experimental comparison of the understanding and use of speaker-addressee personal pronouns in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R R

    1989-08-01

    Eleven autistic children were compared to normally developing children and mentally handicapped children, matched by receptive vocabulary age, on their understanding and use of the personal pronouns 'you' and 'me'. There were no significant differences between the groups in their comprehension of these terms, where the terms could be understood simply as referential labels. There was, however, a marked difference in the production of 'me' and 'you'. Only two autistic children showed the same pattern of responses that was shown by all but 4 of the 22 control children. The autistic children showed almost no 'pronoun reversal'. Instead, they used incorrect case pronouns or proper names for self or other reference. The results are interpreted in the light of significant difficulties in the acquisition of person deixis in autistic children.

  16. Theory of Mind "emotion", developmental characteristics and social understanding in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Françoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). Echelles Différentielles d'Efficiences Intellectuelles. Forme Révisée (EDEI-R). Paris: Editions et Applications Psychologiques) was used to match participants and to assess social understanding. ECOSSE (Lecocq, P. (1996). L'E.CO.S.SE. Une épreuve de compréhension syntaxico-sémantique. Paris: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion) assessed the level of syntactic and semantic comprehension of French speaking, to ensure a good comprehension of the questions in ToM-emotion tasks. Adapted tasks of the understanding of causes and consequences of emotions (Quintal, G. (2001). La compréhension des émotions chez les enfants d'âge préscolaire dans le cadre d'une théorie de l'esprit. Un-published master's thesis, University of Montreal, Québec) assessed ToM-emotion abilities (Nader-Grosbois, N., Thirion-Marissiaux, A.-F., & Grosbois, M. (2003). Adapted tests for assessment of the Theory of Mind of causes and consequences of emotions (unpublished documents). Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). Similarities in the development of ToM-emotion abilities and social understanding were found, respectively, in both groups (delay hypothesis in ID participants). Some differences between groups were observed in the links between social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities. Significant correlations between developmental characteristics (verbal and non-verbal cognition) and ToM-emotion abilities were obtained for both groups. Verbal cognition explained an important part of the variance of ToM results (understanding of causes and consequences of emotions). The impact of chronological age on ToM-emotion abilities was also examined and is discussed.

  17. Understanding Clinician Information Demands and Synthesis of Clinical Documents in Electronic Health Record Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farri, Oladimeji Feyisetan

    2012-01-01

    Large quantities of redundant clinical data are usually transferred from one clinical document to another, making the review of such documents cognitively burdensome and potentially error-prone. Inadequate designs of electronic health record (EHR) clinical document user interfaces probably contribute to the difficulties clinicians experience while…

  18. Importance of full Coulomb interactions for understanding the electronic structure of δ-Pu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorelov, E.; Kolorenč, Jindřich; Wehling, T.; Hafermann, H.; Shick, Alexander; Rubtsov, A. N.; Landa, A.; McMahan, A. K.; Anisimov, V.I.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 8 (2010), 085117/1-085117/5 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC202/07/J047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : strong electron correlations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  19. A pilot study using children's books to understand caregiver perceptions of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nerissa S; Hus, Anna M; Sullivan, Paula D; Szczepaniak, Dorota; Carroll, Aaron E; Downs, Stephen M

    2012-06-01

    To conduct a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of using children's books to understand caregiver perceptions of parenting practices around common behavior challenges. A prospective 1-month pilot study was conducted in 3 community-based pediatric clinics serving lower income families living in central Indianapolis. One hundred caregivers of 4- to 7-year-old children presenting for a well-child visit chose 1 of 3 available children's books that dealt with a behavioral concern the caregiver reported having with the child. The book was read aloud to the child in the caregiver's presence by a trained research assistant and given to the families to take home. Outcomes measured were caregiver intent to change their interaction with their child after the book reading, as well as caregiver reports of changes in caregiver-child interactions at 1 month. Reading the book took an average of 3 minutes. Most (71%) caregivers reported intent to change after the book reading; two-thirds (47/71) were able to identify a specific technique or example illustrated in the story. One month later, all caregivers remembered receiving the book, and 91% reported reading the book to their child and/or sharing it with someone else. Three-fourths of caregivers (60/80) reported a change in caregiver-child interactions. The distribution of children's books with positive parenting content is a feasible and promising tool, and further study is warranted to see whether these books can serve as an effective brief intervention in pediatric primary care practice.

  20. Medipix3 Demonstration and understanding of near ideal detector performance for 60 & 80 keV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, J.A.; MacInnes, R.; Gough, C.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Sawada, H.; MacLaren, I.; Ballabriga, R.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; McGrouther, D.; Kirkland, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    In our article we report first quantitative measurements of imaging performance for the current generation of hybrid pixel detector, Medipix3, as direct electron detector. Utilising beam energies of 60 & 80 keV, measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have revealed that, in single pixel mode (SPM), energy threshold values can be chosen to maximize either the MTF or DQE, obtaining values near to, or even exceeding, those for an ideal detector. We have demonstrated that the Medipix3 charge summing mode (CSM) can deliver simultaneous, near ideal values of both MTF and DQE. To understand direct detection performance further we have characterized the detector response to single electron events, building an empirical model which can predict detector MTF and DQE performance based on energy threshold. Exemplifying our findings we demonstrate the Medipix3 imaging performance, recording a fully exposed electron diffraction pattern at 24-bit depth and images in SPM a...

  1. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  2. Understanding catalyst behavior during in situ heating through simultaneous secondary and transmitted electron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Jane Y.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Bigelow, Wilbur C.; Demers, Hendrix; Overbury, Steven H.

    2014-11-01

    By coupling techniques of simultaneous secondary (SE) and transmitted electron (TE) imaging at high resolution in a modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), with the ability to heat specimens using a highly stable MEMS-based heating platform, we obtained synergistic information to clarify the behavior of catalysts during in situ thermal treatments. Au/iron oxide catalyst 'leached' to remove surface Au was heated to temperatures as high as 700°C. The Fe2O3 support particle structure tended to reduce to Fe3O4 and formed surface terraces; the formation, coalescence, and mobility of 1- to 2-nm particles on the terraces were characterized in SE, STEM-ADF, and TEM-BF modes. If combined with simultaneous nanoprobe spectroscopy, this approach will open the door to a new way of studying the kinetics of nano-scaled phenomena.

  3. Understanding the effect of inelastic electron-phonon scattering and channel inhomogeneities on a nanowire FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Niladri

    2018-02-01

    Using self-consistent Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism, the effect of the inelastic scattering due to electron-phonon interaction on the transfer and output characteristics of a coaxially gated generic nanowire field effect transistor has been studied in detail. The scattering strength Do is varied from 0.003 eV2 to 0.3 eV2. There is change in the threshold voltage and suppression of channel current with increasing scattering strength. We also studied the effect of channel inhomogeneities on electron energy. The channel inhomogeneities are invoked by introducing potential step inside the channel. We study the energy relaxation due to inelastic scattering and channel inhomogeneities by comparing the normalized terminal current per energy for the source and drain terminals.

  4. Nano-diamonds surface modifications: understanding of electron exchange mechanisms and evidence of a therapeutic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Tristan

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a therapeutic effect of nano-diamonds (NDs) has been evidenced by investigating the role of NDs surface chemistry on their electronic properties. More precisely, the generation of reactive oxygen species from detonation NDs under ionizing radiation, which could improve current radiotherapy treatments, has been demonstrated. To this end, surface treatments facilitating electron transfer from NDs to their environment, namely hydrogenation and surface graphitization, were developed. Experimental conditions ensuring an efficient hydrogenation by hydrogen plasma were determined under ultrahigh vacuum, before being used to prepare large quantities of NDs in powder phase. A similar procedure was applied to the surface graphitization of NDs, performed by annealing under vacuum at high temperature. The impact of such surface treatments on the electronic interaction properties of NDs has been investigated under ambient air and after dispersion in water. These surface treatments induce a positive Zeta potential to NDs in water, which origin has been discussed. Finally, their interactions with human tumor cells were observed. Radiosensitization of tumor cells using NDs under gamma irradiation was demonstrated, opening new perspectives for NDs in nano-medicine. (author) [fr

  5. Analysis of Teachers’ Understanding Level, Needs, and Difficulties in Identifying Children with Special Needs in Inclusve School in Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Atnantomi Wiliyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine teachers’ understanding level of identification concept, needs, and difficulties in implementing the identification of children with special needs in inclusive school. It was a descriptive research with 40 special teachers as the subject taken by using purposive random sampling in 11 inclusive school in Surakarta. Data was cllected through interview and questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using percentage quantitative descriptive. Result of the research showed that: (1 teachers’ understanding level of the identification of children with special needs was strongly uncomprehend (37%, uncomprehend (23%, and less comprehend (18%; (2 teachers’ needs of the identification of children with special needs mostly need training program and digital identificatio instrument development, (3 problems found in the field about identification of children with special needs are identification instrument standardize, difficulty in applying identification steps, low competence of non-special-education teacher about identification and in detecting similar characteristics of children with special needs.

  6. Definitional ceremonies: narrative practices for psychologists to inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality in pediatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Moxley-Haegert, Linda

    2015-03-01

    In pediatric settings, parents and children often seek spiritual and religious support from their healthcare provider, as they try to find meaning in their illness. Narrative practices, such as definitional ceremonies, can provide a unique framework for psychologists to explore children's spirituality and its role in the midst of illness. In addition, definitional ceremonies can be used as a means for psychologists to inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality and its relevance in pediatric treatment settings. In this article, our objectives are to (a) provide a brief overview of the literature on children's spirituality, (b) review some of the literature on childhood cancer patients' spirituality, (c) highlight the importance of whole-person care for diverse pediatric patients, and (d) introduce definitional ceremonies as appropriate narrative practices that psychologists can use to both guide their therapy and inform interdisciplinary teams' understanding of children's spirituality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Childrens Hospital Integrated Patient Electronic Record System Continuation (CHIPERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    effect these strategies would have on the compliance with Surviving Sepsis management bundles and clinical outcomes of these patients. These non-EMR... didactic education around the implementation of Nutritional “Alerts.” Education on the BPA alerts will be included in all EPIC training for new...stepwise clinical decision support strategy to augment understanding and effectiveness of time sensitive identification and management of pediatric

  8. Electronic monitoring of adherence to inhaled corticosteroids: an essential tool in identifying severe asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Anja; Artusio, Luca; Jamalzadeh, Angela; Nagakumar, Prasad; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Saglani, Sejal; Bush, Andrew; Frey, Urs; Fleming, Louise J

    2017-12-01

    International guidelines recommend that severe asthma can only be diagnosed after contributory factors, including adherence, have been addressed. Accurate assessment of adherence is difficult in clinical practice. We hypothesised that electronic monitoring in children would identify nonadherence, thus delineating the small number with true severe asthma.Asthmatic children already prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were prospectively recruited and persistence of adherence assessed using electronic monitoring devices. Spirometry, airway inflammation and asthma control were measured at the start and end of the monitoring period.93 children (62 male; median age 12.4 years) were monitored for a median of 92 days. Median (range) monitored adherence was 74% (21-99%). We identified four groups: 1) good adherence during monitoring with improved control, 24% (likely previous poor adherence); 2) good adherence with poor control, 18% (severe therapy-resistant asthma); 3) poor adherence with good control, 26% (likely overtreated); and 4) poor adherence with poor control, 32%. No clinical parameter prior to monitoring distinguished these groups.Electronic monitoring is a useful tool for identifying children in whom a step up in treatment is indicated. Different approaches are needed in those who are controlled when adherent or who are nonadherent. Electronic monitoring is essential in a paediatric severe asthma clinic. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  9. Categorization of videogames: some comments on 'Children and electronic games' by Funk, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M

    2000-06-01

    Comments are made on an article by Funk, et al. about children and electronic games. This author argues the cross-cultural differences and developmental effects must be taken into account and that the categorization system of videogames based on content is incomplete or too general to cover the complex actions of contemporary videogames. These factors alone may have implications for research.

  10. Children and Electronic Text: Challenges and Opportunities of the "New Literacy." An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, William; Chen, Milton

    This exploratory study of children's use of electronic text systems drew upon site visits, interviews, and data compilations for an overview and synthesis of issues. Systems studied included Green Thumb (videotext, Kentucky); Channel 2000 (videotext, Ohio); KCET (teletext, California); WETA (teletext, Washington, D.C.); QUBE (interactive cable,…

  11. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Children with Cochlear Implants Using Electronic Storybooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Jane; Wood, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The present intervention study explored the word learning of 18 children with cochlear implants in response to E-book instruction. Capitalizing on the multimedia options available in electronic storybooks, the intervention incorporated videos and definitions to provide a vocabulary intervention that includes evidence-based teaching strategies. The…

  12. Assessing Physical Activity in Children with Asthma: Convergent Validity between Accelerometer and Electronic Diary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floro, Josh N.; Dunton, Genevieve F.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Convergent validity of accelerometer and electronic diary physical activity data was assessed in children with asthma. Sixty-two participants, ages 9-18 years, wore an accelerometer and reported their physical activity level in quarter-hour segments every 2 hr using the Ambulatory Diary Assessment (ADA). Moderate validity was found between…

  13. Possible Effects of Electronic Social Media on Gifted and Talented Children's Intelligence and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In just a few decades, electronic networks have expanded beyond all expectations. Instant messaging via smart phones and computers of all sorts whizz round the world. Researchers and policy makers are strongly divided in their findings and conclusions as to the effects of possible persuasive changes on the minds and lives of children, particularly…

  14. The Pattern of Electronic Game Use and Related Bodily Discomfort in Hong Kong Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Donald P. Y.; Szeto, Grace P. Y.; Jones, Alice Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the usage pattern of electronic game devices among primary school children in Hong Kong. Commonly used types of games devices were grouped into three main categories: large-screen/TV-based games, small handheld game devices and active game devices. A survey was conducted among 476 students in a local primary school, with…

  15. Children's Use of Electronic Games: Choices of Game Mode and Challenge Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H. P. Sit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Interactive electronic games are popular and are believed to contribute to physical activity accrual. The purpose of this study was to examine children's electronic game use during conditions in which they had free access to selecting interactive and seated screen-based versions of electronic games and during the interactive versions had free choice in making adjustments to the activity intensity. Methods. We systematically observed 60 Hong Kong primary school children during two 60-minute game sessions while simultaneously recording their game mode choices and physical activity levels using SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time. Results. When given free choice, children spent more than half of their available time participating in interactive versions of games. These versions of games provided significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and greater energy expenditure than the computer screen versions. Children with the opportunity to modify intensity levels spent more time playing the interactive versions and accrued more physical activity. Conclusions. The tenets of behavioral choice theory were supported. Access to new-generation interactive games, particularly those with modifiable intensity levels, may facilitate children's participation in physical activity.

  16. Understanding the Influence of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Outbound Tourists’ Visit Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Ping

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Digital Services; International audience; The valence of online user-generated reviews is an increasing important antecedents affecting tourist’s decision with the pervasion of Web 2.0 and information and communication technology. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on outbound tourists’ intention to visit a destination through a dual-process perspective. A research model was proposed based on the dual-route theory of elaboration li...

  17. Understanding the Interaction between Low-Energy Electrons and DNA Nucleotides in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Maeve; Smyth, Maeve; Gu, Bin; Tribello, Gareth A; Kohanoff, Jorge

    2015-08-06

    Reactions that can damage DNA have been simulated using a combination of molecular dynamics and density functional theory. In particular, the damage caused by the attachment of a low energy electron to the nucleobase. Simulations of anionic single nucleotides of DNA in an aqueous environment that was modeled explicitly have been performed. This has allowed us to examine the role played by the water molecules that surround the DNA in radiation damage mechanisms. Our simulations show that hydrogen bonding and protonation of the nucleotide by the water can have a significant effect on the barriers to strand breaking reactions. Furthermore, these effects are not the same for all four of the bases.

  18. Living with ASD: how do children and their parents assess their difficulties with social interaction and understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Fiona; Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Mackay, Tommy

    2006-11-01

    Social interaction and understanding in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are key areas of concern to practitioners and researchers alike. However, there is a relative lack of information about the skills and competencies of children and young people with ASD who access ordinary community facilities including mainstream education. In particular, contributions by parents and their children have been under-utilized. Using two structured questionnaires, 19 children with ASD reported difficulties with social skills including social engagement and temper management and also reported difficulties with social competence, affecting both friendships and peer relationships. Parents rated the children's social skill and competence as significantly worse than did the children themselves, but there was considerable agreement about the areas that were problematic. Using an informal measure to highlight their children's difficulties, parents raised issues relating to conversation skills, social emotional reciprocity and peer relationships. The implications for assessment and intervention are discussed.

  19. Using identity and recognition as a framework to understand and promote the resilience of caregiving children in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Andreouli, E.

    2011-01-01

    children from Western Kenya who through individual interviews, photography and draw-and-write compositions articulated their experiences. The views of ten local adults have also been included. A thematic analysis revealed that caregiving children in Kenya are active participants in community life......Children around the world have been observed to assume caregiving responsibilities when a parent or other family members fall ill. Whilst the circumstances surrounding caregiving children in Anglophone countries have been looked at in detail, we know relatively little about how children in Africa...... experience young caregiving. This paper seeks to further our understanding of caregiving children in Africa by looking at how local constructions of childhood can facilitate their agency and resilience, paying particular attention to the role of identity and recognition. The study involved 48 caregiving...

  20. Determining rates of overweight and obese status in children using electronic medical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Catherine S.; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Design Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Setting Ontario. Participants Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. Results There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Conclusion Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. PMID:28209703

  1. Why do we eat? Children's and adults' understanding of why we eat different meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author examined why children and adults think they need to eat. Preschoolers through adults were provided with physiological, social, psychological, and routine causes for eating breakfast, lunch, snack, and dinner, and were asked to either agree or disagree with the causal responses provided. A 4 Reason x 4 Meal repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for meals and reasons, as well as significant Meal x Reason and Meal x Reason x Grade interactions. The effect sizes ranged from 0.1 to 0.7. Across all age groups, participants acknowledged physiological needs and desires (fulfilling hunger and needs to stay healthy) and routine (e.g., it is dinner time) as the primary causes for eating breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, for snack physiological needs were the primary reason. Second-grade students onward spontaneously produced biological justifications such as the need for energy and nutrition as important reasons for food consumption. These results lend support to the developmental model that children's and adults' understanding of eating changes in middle childhood.

  2. Diagnostic exome sequencing in children: A survey of parental understanding, experience and psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J; Ottman, R; Duong, J; Wilson, A L; Ahimaz, P; Martinez, J; Rabin, R; Rosen, E; Webster, R; Au, C; Cho, M T; Egan, C; Guzman, E; Primiano, M; Shaw, J E; Sisson, R; Klitzman, R L; Appelbaum, P S; Lichter-Konecki, U; Anyane-Yeboa, K; Iglesias, A; Chung, W K

    2017-12-20

    Clinical exome sequencing (CES) is increasingly being used as an effective diagnostic tool in the field of pediatric genetics. We sought to evaluate the parental experience, understanding and psychological impact of CES by conducting a survey study of English-speaking parents of children who had diagnostic CES. Parents of 192 unique patients participated. The parent's interpretation of the child's result agreed with the clinician's interpretation in 79% of cases, with more frequent discordance when the clinician's interpretation was uncertain. The majority (79%) reported no regret with the decision to have CES. Most (65%) reported complete satisfaction with the genetic counseling experience, and satisfaction was positively associated with years of genetic counselor (GC) experience. The psychological impact of CES was greatest for parents of children with positive results and for parents with anxiety or depression. The results of this study are important for helping clinicians prepare families for the possible results and variable psychological impact of CES. The frequency of parental misinterpretation of test results indicates the need for additional clarity in the communication of results. Finally, while the majority of patients were satisfied with their genetic counseling, satisfaction was lower for new GCs, suggesting a need for targeted GC training for genomic testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Rural Asthma: Current Understanding of Prevalence, Patterns, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Robin Dawson; Ownby, Dennis R

    2017-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of children and adolescents in the USA. While asthma has been understood to disproportionately affect urban dwellers, recent investigations have revealed rural pediatric asthma prevalence to be very similar to urban and to be more closely correlated with socioeconomic and environmental factors than geographic location or population density. Rural children experience factors unique to location that impact asthma development and outcomes, including housing quality, cigarette smoke exposure, and small/large-scale farming. Additionally, there are challenging barriers to appropriate asthma care that frequently are more severe for those living in rural areas, including insurance status, lack of primary care providers and pulmonary specialists, knowledge deficits (both patient and provider), and a lack of culturally tailored asthma interventions. Interventions designed to address rural pediatric asthma disparities are more likely to be successful when targeted to specific challenges, such as the use of school-based services or telemedicine to mitigate asthma care access issues. Continued research on understanding the complex interaction of specific rural environmental factors with host factors can inform future interventions designed to mitigate asthma disparities.

  4. A design study to develop young children's understanding of multiplication and division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung

    2016-12-01

    This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in May-June and October-November. The focus in this article is on three key aspects of classroom teaching: instructional tasks, the use of representations, and discourse, including the mathematics register. Results from selected pre- and post-assessment tasks within a diagnostic interview showed that there were improvements in addition and subtraction as well as multiplication and division, even though the teaching had used multiplication and division problems. Students made progress on all four operational domains, with effect sizes ranging from approximately two thirds of a standard deviation to 2 standard deviations. Most of the improvement in students' number strategies was in moving from `counting all' to `counting on' and `skip counting'. The findings challenge the idea that learning experiences in addition and subtraction should precede those in multiplication and division as suggested in some curriculum documents.

  5. Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayla Amaral Lemos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. METHOD An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. RESULTS There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension, minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. CONCLUSION Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  6. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental mind-mindedness but not false belief understanding predicts Hong Kong children's lie-telling behavior in a temptation resistance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lamei; Zhu, Liqi; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-10-01

    Children can tell lies before they understand the concept of false belief. This study investigated the relationship between parental mind-mindedness, defined as the propensity of parents to view their children as mental agents with independent thoughts and feelings, and the lie-telling behavior of Hong Kong children aged 3-6years. The results confirmed earlier findings indicating that Hong Kong children's understanding of false belief is delayed; nevertheless, the participants appeared to lie just as well as children from other cultures. The lie-telling behavior of Hong Kong children was predicted by parental mind-mindedness and children's age but was unrelated to children's false belief understanding. It is suggested that children of mind-minded parents are more likely to exercise autonomy in socially ambiguous situations. Future studies should focus on the roles of parenting and children's multifaceted autonomy when addressing children's adaptive lie telling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding high traffic injury risks for children in low socioeconomic areas: a qualitative study of parents' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, N; Ward, H; Kimberlee, R; Towner, E; Sleney, J

    2007-12-01

    To gain an in-depth qualitative understanding of parents' views about their children's exposure to road traffic injury risk in low socioeconomic areas. Focus groups facilitated by a moderator with content analysis of data. Focus groups were conducted in 10 low socioeconomic English districts that also have high rates of child pedestrian injury. Research was conducted in community venues within each area. Parents of children aged 9-14 years living in low socioeconomic areas. Parents believe that children play in their local streets for the following reasons: they like playing out with friends near home; there are few safe, secure, and well-maintained public spaces for children; children are excluded from affordable leisure venues because of their costs; insufficient parental responsibility. For children that play in the street, the key sources of risk identified by parents were: illegal riding and driving around estates and on the pavements; the speed and volume of traffic; illegal parking; drivers being poorly informed about where children play; children's risk-taking behavior. Intervention programs need to take into account multiple reasons why children in low socioeconomic areas become exposed to hazardous environments thereby increasing their risk of injury. Multi-agency partnerships involving the community are increasingly needed to implement traditional road safety approaches, such as education, engineering, and enforcement, and provide safe and accessible public space, affordable activities for children, and greater support for parents.

  9. Use of physical models for the understanding of the Earth's electron radiation belts dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varotsou, Athina

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Earth's radiation belts by James Van Alien, in the fifties, the interest in exploring this region around Earth and in understanding the physics implicated hasn't ceased to increase. This environment being very radioactive, it constitutes an important danger for satellites in orbit and humans in space. The Department of Space Environment at ONERA, centre of Toulouse, begun in the nineties the development of a physical model describing the Earth's radiation belts, the Salammbo model. Since its conception, the Salammbo model hasn't ceased to evolve thanks to an important number of PhDs and continuous researches. The purpose of this thesis was to study the dynamics of the electron outer radiation belt. Early in the history of research on the radiation belts, the process of radial diffusion was identified as a key process of the dynamics observed. Recently, local acceleration of electrons due to resonant interactions with whistler-mode chorus waves is being considered as the most probable candidate to explain the important increase of high energy electron flux observed after a magnetic storm. Research of this thesis has focalized on the combined effect of radial diffusion and electron-chorus interactions outside the plasmapause. Results show that chorus waves accelerate electrons to relativistic energies. When radial diffusion and electron-chorus interactions are taken into account in the simulations, the two processes are in competition and the final result depends on the relative power of the two. (author) [fr

  10. Nanoparticle mediated electron transfer across organic layers: from current understanding to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooding, J. Justin; Alam, Muhammad Tanzirul; Barfidokht, Abbas; Carter, Lachlan, E-mail: justin.gooding@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine, The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    In the last few years electrode-organic layer-nanoparticle constructs have attracted considerable research interest for systems where in the absence of the nanoparticles the electrode is passivated. This is because it has been observed that if the organic layer is a good self-assembled monolayer that passivates the electrode, the presence of the nanoparticles 'switches on' faradaic electrochemistry and because electron transfer between the electrode and the nanoparticles is apparently independent of the thickness of the organic layer. This review 1) outlines the full extent of the experimental observations regarding this phenomenon, 2) discusses a recent theoretical description to explain the observations that have just been supported with experimental evidences and 3) provides an overview of the application of these systems in sensing and photovoltaic. (author)

  11. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sede...

  12. The Understanding of Peace among Children and Adolescents: A Critical Review of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Smith

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation Despite the existence in Northern Ireland of an internationally endorsed Peace Process (the 1998 Good Friday or Belfast Agreement, the need for education to play its part in developing a new peace culture and peace consciousness remains as important as ever. In December 1998, the Education Minister established a working group concerned with the promotion of tolerance in schools. The report of this group recommended that there needed to be greater encouragement to regard the development of respect for diversity as a core rather than peripheral element of the school curriculum (DENI 2000. However, earlier research suggested that the received discourses and assumptions about school effectiveness and school improvement were inappropriate to meeting the challenges of improving school effectiveness for peace within a conflicted society (see, Smith 2001 a; 2001 b. This research confirmed that there was a pervasive "culture of silence" within schools with regard to open discussion on the causes and consequences of social division. There were also other silences and gaps in the story forms available to teachers within schools. When, for example, it came to having a say or being allowed to air their views on issues of relevance to school-based community relations policy and practice, the voice of students and parents were mostly silenced, disqualified or subjugated. Consequently, I decided to examine the theme of school improvement for peace from a Narrative psychology perspective. That is, from a perspective which gives a central role to the storied nature of human conduct. This stance is a special case of the wider perspective called social constructionism (Wagner and Watkins, forthcoming. A critical review of relevant extant literatures, including the developmental literature on children's and young peoples' understanding of peace, strengthened my view that new paradigm methodologies and methods were required to investigate and

  13. The Next Level of Research on Electronic Play: Potential Benefits and Contextual Influences for Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy E. Salonius-Pasternak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on electronic play has focused on its possible negative effects for children and adolescents, and contextual factors such as socioeconomic status (SES and culture are rarely considered. This article considers the potential benefits of electronic play from a psychological perspective, as well as individual and contextual factors that may shape the influence of electronic play for children and adolescents. Demographics of players and the games themselves are presented, and recommendations for research and policy are discussed.

  14. The unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terry Tin-Yau

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined the unique and shared contributions of arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation to children's mathematics achievement. A sample of 124 fourth graders was tested on their arithmetic operation understanding (as reflected by their understanding of arithmetic principles and the knowledge about the application of arithmetic operations) and their precision of rational number magnitude representation. They were also tested on their mathematics achievement and arithmetic computation performance as well as the potential confounding factors. The findings suggested that both arithmetic operation understanding and numerical magnitude representation uniquely predicted children's mathematics achievement. The findings highlight the significance of arithmetic operation understanding in mathematics learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fully Atomistic Understanding of the Electronic and Optical Properties of a Prototypical Doped Charge-Transfer Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brivio, Gian Paolo; Baby, Anu; Gruenewald, Marco

    2017-01-01

    . To arrive at a conclusive, unambiguous, and fully atomistic understanding of the interface properties, we combine state-of-the-art density-functional theory calculations with optical differential reflectance data, photoelectron spectra, and X-ray standing wave measurements. In combination with the full...... structural characterization of the KxPTCDA/Ag(111) interface by low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments (ACS Nano 2016, 10, 2365-2374), the present comprehensive study provides access to a fully characterized reference system for a well-defined metal-organic interface...

  16. Understanding Contrasting Approaches to Nationwide Implementations of Electronic Health Record Systems: England, the USA and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Morrison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As governments commit to national electronic health record (EHR systems, there is increasing international interest in identifying effective implementation strategies. We draw on Coiera's typology of national programmes - ‘top-down’, ‘bottom-up’ and ‘middle-out’ - to review EHR implementation strategies in three exemplar countries: England, the USA and Australia. In comparing and contrasting three approaches, we show how different healthcare systems, national policy contexts and anticipated benefits have shaped initial strategies. We reflect on progress and likely developments in the face of continually changing circumstances. Our review shows that irrespective of the initial strategy, over time there is likely to be convergence on the negotiated, devolved middle-out approach, which aims to balance the interests and responsibilities of local healthcare constituencies and national government to achieve national connectivity. We conclude that, accepting the current lack of empirical evidence, the flexibility offered by the middle-out approach may make this the best initial national strategy.

  17. Electron Ion Collider: The Next QCD Frontier - Understanding the glue that binds us all

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, A.; Anselmino, M.; Armesto, N.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Bacchetta, A.; Boer, D.; Brooks, W.K.; Burton, T.; Chang, N.B.; Deng, W.T.; Deshpande, A.; Diehl, M.; Dumitru, A.; Dupré, R.; Ent, R.; Fazio, S.; Gao, H.; Guzey, V.; Hakobyan, H.; Hao, Y.; Hasch, D.; Holt, R.; Horn, T.; Huang, M.; Hutton, A.; Hyde, C.; Jalilian-Marian, J.; Klein, S.; Kopeliovich, B.; Kovchegov, Y.; Kumar, K.; Kumerički, K.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Lappi, T.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, Y.; Levin, E.M.; Lin, F.L.; Litvinenko, V.; Ludlam, T.W.; Marquet, C.; Meziani, Z.E.; McKeown, R.; Metz, A.; Milner, R.; Morozov, V.S.; Mueller, A.H.; Müller, B.; Müller, Dieter; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Paukkunen, H.; Prokudin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Qian, X.; Qiu, J.W.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Roser, T.; Sabatié, F.; Sassot, R.; Schnell, G.; Schweitzer, P.; Sichtermann, E.; Stratmann, M.; Strikman, M.; Sullivan, M.; Taneja, S.; Toll, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Ullrich, T.; Venugopalan, R.; Vigdor, S.; Vogelsang, W.; Weiss, C.; Xiao, B.W.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, Y.H.; Zheng, L.

    2016-01-01

    This White Paper presents the science case of an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), focused on the structure and interactions of gluon-dominated matter, with the intent to articulate it to the broader nuclear science community. It was commissioned by the managements of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) with the objective of presenting a summary of scientific opportunities and goals of the EIC as a follow-up to the 2007 NSAC Long Range plan. This document is a culmination of a community-wide effort in nuclear science following a series of workshops on EIC physics and, in particular, the focused ten-week program on "Gluons and quark sea at high energies" at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Fall 2010. It contains a brief description of a few golden physics measurements along with accelerator and detector concepts required to achieve them, and it benefited from inputs from the users' communities of BNL and JLab. This White Paper offers the promise to prope...

  18. Big-data reflection high energy electron diffraction analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-10-28

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED images, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the data set are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of a RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of La(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3) films grown on etched (001) SrTiO(3) substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the asymmetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  19. Understanding differences in dose-equivalents reported by passive and electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, Christopher A.; Burgess, Peter; Smith, David; Salasky, Mark; Yahnke, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In a number of challenging environments, clients occasionally double badge with electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) to ensure day-to-day management of their employees personal dose-equivalent while using passive (in our case Luxel or InLight) dosemeters for monthly monitoring for approved results for dose record keeping. In some cases there have been significant differences in the cumulative doses recorded by the EPDs and the passive dosemeters. In these circumstances the passive dosemeters usually report a higher dose than the EPD by up to a factor of two, though more commonly 1.3. In this paper we describe the differences seen between EPD and passive dosemeters (in a number of countries). We then examine the possible causes for such discrepancies by comparison with published response function data available for the EPDs and Landauer dosemeters. We have undertaken a number of experiments comparing directly a number of EPDs and passive dosemeter response to a variety of energy and complex angular geometries where the two types of dosimeter have been exposed at the same time. Recommendations will be made on the appropriate use of double badging in difficult environments and interpretation of the results. (author)

  20. Mothers' use of cognitive state verbs in picture-book reading and the development of children's understanding of mind: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa Ana; Villanueva, Lidón

    2007-01-01

    Mothers read stories to their children (N=41) aged between 3.3 years and 5.11 years old, and children then completed two false-belief tasks. One year later, mothers read a story to 37 of those children who were also given four tasks to assess their advanced understanding of mental states. Mothers' early use of cognitive verbs in picture-book reading correlated with their children's later understanding of mental states. Some pragmatic aspects of maternal input correlated with children's later outcomes. Two different factors in mothers' cognitive discourse were identified, suggesting a zone of proximal development in children's understanding of mental states.

  1. Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-05-01

    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households.

  2. To Lie or Not to Lie? The Influence of Parenting and Theory-of-Mind Understanding on Three-Year-Old Children's Honesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Evans, Angela D.; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xianming; Xu, Fen

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that social-cognitive factors such as children's false-belief understanding and parenting style are related to children's lie-telling behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate how earlier forms of theory-of-mind understanding contribute to children's lie-telling as well as how parenting practices are related…

  3. Understanding of emotional experience in autism: insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Molly; Capps, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the authors investigate emotional understanding in autism through a discourse analytic framework to provide a window into children's strategies for interpreting emotional versus nonemotional encounters and consider the implications for the mechanisms underlying emotional understanding in typical development. Accounts were analyzed for thematic content and discourse structure. Whereas high-functioning children with autism were able to discuss contextually appropriate accounts of simple emotions, their strategies for interpreting all types of emotional (but not nonemotional) experiences differed from those used by typically developing children. High-functioning children with autism were less inclined to organize their emotional accounts in personalized causal-explanatory frameworks and displayed a tendency to describe visually salient elements of experiences seldom observed among comparison children. Findings suggest that children with autism possess less coherent representations of emotional experiences and use alternative strategies for interpreting emotionally evocative encounters. Discussion focuses on the significance of these findings for informing the nature of emotional dysfunction in autism as well as implications for theories of emotional understanding in typical development.

  4. False belief understanding and cool inhibitory control in 3-and 4-year-old Italian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eBellagamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM, and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC has distinguished between more cognitive, cool aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and hot, affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds’ performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and two tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in three tasks: (a the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day-Night Stroop task, and (c the Delay task. Children’s receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children’s performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children’s performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay task may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus. Moreover, our findings support the view that cool aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an Italian sample of children previous findings on an association between self-control and ToM.

  5. Children's understanding of multiplication and division: Insights from a pooled analysis of seven studies conducted across 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Adam K; Robinson, Katherine M

    2017-11-14

    Research suggests that children's conceptual understanding of multiplication and division is weak and that it remains poor well into the later elementary school years. Further, children's understanding of fundamental concepts such as inversion and associativity does not improve as they progress from grades 6 to 8. Instead, some children simply possess strong understanding while others do not. Other studies have identified an increase across these grades. The present investigation analyses data from seven studies of Grade 6 (n = 226), Grade 7 (n = 221), and Grade 8 (n = 216) children's three-term problem-solving (e.g., 3 × 24 ÷ 24 and 3 × 24 ÷ 6) and provides a unified account of multiplication and division understanding, one in which grade differences and individual variability coexist and are moderated by sex. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children's conceptual understanding of multiplication and division is weak and it is unclear whether it increases across the key grades of 6-8. Understanding of the inversion and associativity concepts is characterized by high individual variability, but grade and sex have never been found to be a contributing factor. What does this study add? A meta-analysis of seven data sets (n = 643) indicates that grade differences and individual variability coexist and are moderated by sex. Understanding increases across grade only for boys, but an equal number of boys and girls are in the top 10% of conceptual problem-solvers. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Contributions of electron microscopy to understanding CO adsorption on powder Au/ceria-zirconia catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cíes, José María; Delgado, Juan José; López-Haro, Miguel; Pilasombat, Ratchaneekorn; Pérez-Omil, José Antonio; Trasobares, Susana; Bernal, Serafin; Calvino, José Juan

    2010-08-16

    The influence of the highly dispersed gold phase on the CO-support interaction occurring in two 2.5 wt % Au/Ce(0.62)Zr(0.38)O(2) catalysts with medium (Au/CZ-MD) and high (Au/CZ-HD) metal dispersion is quantitatively assessed. For this purpose, we have followed an approach in which high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), computer modelling, volumetric adsorption and FTIR spectroscopy studies are combined. This approach has already been fruitfully applied to the investigation of the specific CO-metal adsorption in Au/ceria-zirconia catalysts. As deduced from the experimental studies reported herein, the presence of gold dramatically increases the amount of CO strongly chemisorbed on the support. Moreover, this amount is sensitive to the metal dispersion, thus suggesting the occurrence of a mechanism in which the CO molecules that are initially adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles are further transferred to the support by means of a spillover process. An annular model is proposed for the growth of the CO phase adsorbed on the ceria-zirconia mixed oxide in the presence of Au. By assuming this model, we have estimated the width of the annulus, Delta r, of the adsorbed CO grown around the Au nanoparticles in Au/CZ-MD and Au/CZ-HD catalysts. This value is found to be very close to Delta r approximately 2 nm in both cases, the coincidence lending some additional support to the model. To further confirm this proposal, we have investigated the influence of CO pre-adsorption on the D(2)-Au/CZ-MD interaction, at 298 K. As revealed by FTIR spectroscopy, the kinetics of the deuterium spillover is significantly disturbed by the pre-adsorbed CO, which is fully consistent with an annular model for the CO adsorption. We conclude from the global analysis of the results reported here and those already available on CO-Au adsorption that the appropriate combination of nanostructural, computer modelling and chemical techniques is a powerful

  7. Visomotor development and use of electronic games in elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Thatiana Helena de Lima; Neide de Brito Cunha; Acácia Aparecida Angeli dos Santos; Jocemara Ferreira Mognon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the perceptual-motor maturity and the use of electronic games, as well the differences between gender and age. 148 children of elementary school participated, of a public institution from Brazil, with 54.1% males and 45.9% female. Students were attending the 2nd to 4th grade. The tests were applied in a collective way, the Bender Test (B-SPG) and a questionnaire to assess the standards of use of electronic games. The results indicated that boy...

  8. The impact of recent improvements in cryo-electron microscopy technology on the understanding of bacterial ribosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Aida; Britton, Robert A; Ortega, Joaquin

    2017-02-17

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) had played a central role in the study of ribosome structure and the process of translation in bacteria since the development of this technique in the mid 1980s. Until recently cryo-EM structures were limited to ∼10 Å in the best cases. However, the recent advent of direct electron detectors has greatly improved the resolution of cryo-EM structures to the point where atomic resolution is now achievable. This improved resolution will allow cryo-EM to make groundbreaking contributions in essential aspects of ribosome biology, including the assembly process. In this review, we summarize important insights that cryo-EM, in combination with chemical and genetic approaches, has already brought to our current understanding of the ribosomal assembly process in bacteria using previous detector technology. More importantly, we discuss how the higher resolution structures now attainable with direct electron detectors can be leveraged to propose precise testable models regarding this process. These structures will provide an effective platform to develop new antibiotics that target this fundamental cellular process.

  9. Understanding the Potential for Patient Engagement in Electronic Consultation and Referral Systems: Lessons From One Safety Net System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayiwola, Jacqueline Nwando; Knox, Margae; Dubé, Kate; Lu, Emily Chen-Yuan; Woldeyesus, Tem; James, Iguehi E; Willard-Grace, Rachel; Tuot, Delphine

    2017-09-20

    To understand patient, primary care clinician (PCC), and subspecialist perspectives on potential, unexplored roles for patients in electronic consultation and referral (eCR) systems. Primary focus group and survey data collected April-November 2015. Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital (ZSFG) is part of an integrated public health delivery system. Its mature eCR system was first implemented in 2005. This mixed-methods study synthesizes patient, subspecialist, and PCC perspectives through two patient focus groups in English, Spanish, and Cantonese (n = 6); subspecialist focus groups (n = 2); and an electronic survey of all PCCs (n = 222/634, 35 percent response). Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Two researchers coded the transcripts to identify recurrent themes. Survey data were analyzed using summary and bivariate statistics. Patients expressed minimal desire to directly engage in eCR, instead of emphasizing their PCC's role in advocating, informing, and finding health solutions. Subspecialists requested more consistent communication to patients about the electronic consultation process. Most PCCs (52 percent) supported patient engagement in the eCR process, particularly patient ability to track consult status and securely message with subspecialists. Results suggest a continuum of opportunities for patients and their caregivers to engage in eCR systems. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Bedtime Electronic Media Use and Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Hilgard, Joseph; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the use of screen-based media at bedtime among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study specifically examined whether the presence of media devices in the child's bedroom, the use of media as part of the bedtime routine, and exposure to media with violent content just before bedtime were associated with sleep difficulties. Parents of 101 children with ASD completed questionnaires assessing their children's sleep habits, bedroom media access (including television, video game devices, and computers), and patterns of nighttime media use (including timing of media exposure and violent media content). Children with ASD who used media as part of the bedtime routine showed significantly greater sleep onset latency than those who did not (39.8 vs 16.0 minutes). Similarly, children who were exposed to media with violent content within the 30-minute period before bedtime experienced significantly greater sleep onset delays and shorter overall sleep duration. In contrast, the mere presence of bedroom media was not associated with either sleep onset latency or sleep duration. Overall, these findings indicate that incorporating television and video games into the bedtime routine is associated with sleep onset difficulties among children with ASD. Exposure to violent media before bed is also associated with poor sleep. Families of children with ASD should be encouraged to regulate and monitor the timing and content of television and video game use, whether or not such devices are physically present in the child's bedroom.

  11. Thinking or feeling? An exploratory study of maternal scaffolding, child mental state talk, and emotion understanding in language-impaired and typically developing school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Little, Sarah

    2017-10-06

    Mother-child mental state talk (MST) supports children's developing social-emotional understanding. In typically developing (TD) children, family conversations about emotion, cognition, and causes have been linked to children's emotion understanding. Specific language impairment (SLI) may compromise developing emotion understanding and adjustment. We investigated emotion understanding in children with SLI and TD, in relation to mother-child conversation. Specifically, is cognitive, emotion, or causal MST more important for child emotion understanding and how might maternal scaffolding support this? Nine 5- to 9-year-old children with SLI and nine age-matched typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers. We assessed children's language, emotion understanding and reported behavioural adjustment. Mother-child conversations were coded for MST, including emotion, cognition, and causal talk, and for scaffolding of causal talk. Children with SLI scored lower than TD children on emotion understanding and adjustment. Mothers in each group provided similar amounts of cognitive, emotion, and causal talk, but SLI children used proportionally less cognitive and causal talk than TD children did, and more such child talk predicted better child emotion understanding. Child emotion talk did not differ between groups and did not predict emotion understanding. Both groups participated in maternal-scaffolded causal talk, but causal talk about emotion was more frequent in TD children, and such talk predicted higher emotion understanding. Cognitive and causal language scaffolded by mothers provides tools for articulating increasingly complex ideas about emotion, predicting children's emotion understanding. Our study provides a robust method for studying scaffolding processes for understanding causes of emotion. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Understanding barriers to fruit and vegetable intake in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine Ann; Banwell, Cathy; Neeman, Teresa; Dobbins, Timothy; Pescud, Melanie; Lovett, Raymond; Banks, Emily

    2017-04-01

    To identify barriers to fruit and vegetable intake for Indigenous Australian children and quantify factors related to these barriers, to help understand why children do not meet recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. We examined factors related to carer-reported barriers using multilevel Poisson models (robust variance); a key informant focus group guided our interpretation of findings. Eleven diverse sites across Australia. Australian Indigenous children and their carers (N 1230) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children. Almost half (45 %; n 555/1230) of carers reported barriers to their children's fruit and vegetable intake. Dislike of fruit and vegetables was the most common barrier, reported by 32·9 % of carers; however, we identified few factors associated with dislike. Carers were more than ten times less likely to report barriers to accessing fruit and vegetables if they lived large cities v. very remote areas. Within urban and inner regional areas, child and carer well-being, financial security, suitable housing and community cohesion promoted access to fruit and vegetables. In this national Indigenous Australian sample, almost half of carers faced barriers to providing their children with a healthy diet. Both remote/outer regional carers and disadvantaged urban/inner regional carers faced problems accessing fruit and vegetables for their children. Where vegetables were accessible, children's dislike was a substantial barrier. Nutrition promotion must address the broader family, community, environmental and cultural contexts that impact nutrition, and should draw on the strengths of Indigenous families and communities.

  13. Tapping into the Spirit of the Sensitive Child: A Foundation for Understanding and Bringing the Joy of Music to Children Who Have Sensory Integration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Presents an article on understanding and introducing music to sensory-sensitive children. Description of a child with Sensory Integrity Dysfunction; Problems experienced by sensory-sensitive students; Potential of sensory-sensitive children to excel in musical aptitude tests.

  14. Towards a Dialogic Understanding of Children's Art-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended to identify the complex process of children's art making by bringing new methodologies into the analysis of children's pictures. This article analyses the art-making process of a selected drawing by a five-year-old boy. The study builds on previous findings regarding children's verbal discourses during the art-making…

  15. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  16. Understanding Factors Associated with Children's Motivation to Engage in Recess-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is linked with health and academic benefits. While recess provides the greatest opportunity for children to accumulate physical activity, most children are not motivated to engage in sufficient amounts of physical activity during recess. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between self-efficacy and children's motivation…

  17. Children's Attitudes toward Superheroes as a Potential Indicator of Their Moral Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin F.

    2007-01-01

    McCrary's work in the late 1990s suggested that superheroes influence children's development of moral values. Similarly, Bauer and Dettore advocated adults' and educators' monitoring of children's superhero play to help children foster cooperation and conflict resolution skills. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between…

  18. What Do I Look Like on the Inside? Developing Children's Understanding about Their Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn; Leslie, Careen

    1995-01-01

    This booklet discusses techniques and activities intended to help early childhood educators to explain the structure and function of the human body to preschool children. It reviews typical questions that preschoolers have about what goes on inside their bodies, observations that children make about the human body, how children draw the human…

  19. Can Executive Functions Help to Understand Children with Mathematical Learning Disorders and to Improve Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie; De Weerdt, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Working memory, inhibition and naming speed was assessed in 22 children with mathematical learning disorders (MD), 17 children with a reading learning disorder (RD), and 45 children without any learning problems between 8 and 12 years old. All subjects with learning disorders performed poorly on working memory tasks, providing evidence that they…

  20. Health care quality measures for children and adolescents in Foster Care: feasibility testing in electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C; Nacion, Kristine M; Leonhart, Karen; Cooper, Jennifer N; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2018-02-22

    Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested. The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System. The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures. Quality measures related to well child visits, developmental screenings, immunizations, trauma-related care, BMI measurements, sexually transmitted infections and depression were defined. Retrospective chart reviews were performed on a cohort of children in foster care from a single large pediatric institution and related county. Data available in the Ohio Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System was compared to the same population studied in the electronic health record review. Quality measures were calculated as observed (received) to expected (recommended) ratios (O/E ratios) to describe the actual quantity of recommended health care that was received by individual children. Electronic health records and the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System data frequently lacked important information on foster care youth essential for calculating the measures. Although electronic health records were rich in encounter specific clinical data, they often lacked custodial information such as the dates of entry into and exit from foster care. In contrast, Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System included robust data on custodial arrangements, but lacked detailed medical information. Despite these limitations, several quality measures were devised that attempted to accommodate these limitations. In this feasibility testing, neither the electronic health records at a single institution nor the county level Statewide

  1. Children with Autism Understand Indirect Speech Acts: Evidence from a Semi-Structured Act-Out Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissine, Mikhail; Cano-Chervel, Julie; Carlier, Sophie; De Brabanter, Philippe; Ducenne, Lesley; Pairon, Marie-Charlotte; Deconinck, Nicolas; Delvenne, Véronique; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism.

  2. Understanding Stigma from a Sociocultural Context: Mothers' Experience of Stigma Directed towards Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Chijioke Dike; Nwoga, Kechinyerem Amaka

    2016-01-01

    Although the need for a better understanding and deconstruction of the barriers that underpin and impede the realisation of inclusive education in many developing countries is acknowledged, few studies focus specifically on exploring how stigma affects the choices that parents in developing countries make on behalf of their children. This paper…

  3. Two-Year-Old Children but Not Domestic Dogs Understand Communicative Intentions without Language, Gestures, or Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard; Mueller, Bettina; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not…

  4. Typically Developing Children's Understanding of and Attitudes towards Diversity and Peers with Learning Difficulties in the Greek Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, A. M.; Margeti, M.; Doudoni, E.; Pantelemidou, V.; Rozou, T.; Evaggelopoulou, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the last few years, across Europe, special education has been orientated towards an inclusive model. Accordingly, in Greece, special education functions as an integral part of general education. However, few studies have investigated how children in the mainstream school understand diversity issues and specifically learning difficulties.…

  5. Done Wrong or Said Wrong? Young Children Understand the Normative Directions of Fit of Different Speech Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Young children use and comprehend different kinds of speech acts from the beginning of their communicative development. But it is not clear how they understand the conventional and normative structure of such speech acts. In particular, imperative speech acts have a world-to-word direction of fit, such that their fulfillment means that the world…

  6. Symbolic Understanding of Pictures in Low-Functioning Children with Autism: The Effects of Iconicity and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated whether symbolic understanding of pictures in low-functioning children with autism is mediated by iconicity and language. In Experiment 1, participants were taught novel words paired with unfamiliar pictures that varied in iconicity (black-and-white line drawings, greyscale photographs, colour line drawings, colour…

  7. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from countries…

  8. Understanding Contextual and Social Meaning in Typically Developing Finnish-Speaking Four- To Eight-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukusa Soile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the development of social-pragmatic comprehension in 170 Finnish four- to eight-year-old children. The children were asked to respond to socially and contextually demanding questions targeting their social-pragmatic language processing, and to explain their correct answers in order to elicit their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results showed that the number of correct answers increased especially between the ages of four and seven years. We found that questions demanding contextual processing without mind-reading were the easiest to understand, followed by questions demanding processing of feelings of others and false beliefs. The questions demanding understanding of relevant language use and processing of contextual factors including mental states and intentions were the most challenging for the children. Between four and five years of age there was a remarkable developmental phase in children’s ability to give proper explanations.

  9. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity.

  10. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Children With Cochlear Implants Using Electronic Storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Jane; Wood, Carla

    2015-10-01

    The present intervention study explored the word learning of 18 children with cochlear implants in response to E-book instruction. Capitalizing on the multimedia options available in electronic storybooks, the intervention incorporated videos and definitions to provide a vocabulary intervention that includes evidence-based teaching strategies. The extent of the children's word learning was assessed using three assessment tasks: receptive pointing, expressively labeling, and word defining. Children demonstrated greater immediate expressive labeling gains and definition generation gains for words taught in the treatment condition compared to those in the comparison condition. In addition, the children's performance on delayed posttest vocabulary assessments indicated better retention across the expressive vocabulary task for words taught within the treatment condition as compared to the comparison condition. Findings suggest that children with cochlear implants with functional speech perception can benefit from an oral-only multimedia-enhanced intensive vocabulary instruction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Daisy J H; van Dijken, Marianne J; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two stories were presented as video books with motion pictures, music, and sounds, and (b) two stories included only static illustrations without music or sounds. Two other stories served as the control condition. Both static and video books were effective in increasing knowledge of unknown words, but static books were most effective. Experiment 2 was designed to examine which elements in video books interfere with word learning: video images or music or sounds. A total of 23 kindergarten SLI children heard 8 storybooks each four times: (a) two static stories without music or sounds, (b) two static stories with music or sounds, (c) two video stories without music or sounds, and (d) two video books with music or sounds. Video images and static illustrations were equally effective, but the presence of music or sounds moderated word learning. In children with severe SLI, background music interfered with learning. Problems with speech perception in noisy conditions may be an underlying factor of SLI and should be considered in selecting teaching aids and learning environments. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  12. A New Understanding of Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Obesity: Contribution of the Self-determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttitta, Marie; Rousseau, Amélie; Guerrien, Alain

    2017-12-01

    Preservation of Quality of Life (QOL) is now a major determinant of obesity management, but little is known about variables predicting QOL. Identifying these predicting variables of QOL would provide further understanding of the QOL concept and help draw clinical implications. The Self-determination Theory (SDT) is a promising understanding perspective of the QOL. The SDT postulates that well-being and motivation are determined by the satisfaction of three needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Many researches have confirmed the relationships between these SDT's needs and well-being, but this theory has little been applied to the problem of QOL in obese children and adolescents. Literature results and theoretical implications of the SDT in understanding of QOL in youth obesity are discussed. New clinical applications could be drawn: in children with obesity, interventions promoting high satisfaction of the SDT's needs could improve their QOL and help them break the vicious circles of overweight.

  13. Information security of children and adolescents in understanding parents and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovina I.B.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first part of the work devoted to the study of ordinary representations of parents and teachers about information security of children and adolescents. It is about addressing the problem of information security of children and adolescents, discuss the effects of observing violence in the mass media on the subsequent behaviour of viewers, refers to directing television roles on the example of transfer schemes by S. Milgram in the context of television game (experiment J. L. Beauvois with colleagues. This paper examines the impact on users has the Internet, discusses the main directions of action in relation to ensuring information security of children and adolescents, focusing on psychological aspects of the concept of information security of children, demonstrates the importance of studying "naive theories" that govern the actions aimed at ensuring information security of children. The authors explain the prospect of studying problems of information security of children in the framework of the theory of social representations.

  14. Understanding Taiwanese children's perceptions of peace and strategies to make peace: a social and cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liang-Yu F; Shih, Yi-Ling

    2009-12-01

    This exploratory study described Taiwanese children's perceptions of peace and what they think children can do to make peace. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 Taiwanese children ages 4 to 18 years. The most predominant themes for the perceptions of peace were what peace is not, prosocial behaviors, positive emotions, and positive evaluations of peace. Approximately half of the children (48%) provided specific strategies for making peace. The suggested strategies generally were based on the child's immediate environment, such as "don't fight" "don't argue," and specific prosocial behaviors. 52% of children either said, "I don't know" when asked what children can do to make peace, or did not feel empowered to make peace. The initial findings were interpreted in terms of sociocultural issues, such as cultural heritage and upbringing, as well as within a political context.

  15. Preschool children's social understanding: a pilot study of goals and strategies during conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazura, Kerry; Flanders, Rachel

    2007-10-01

    This pilot study tested a new enactive measure of social information-processing skills and investigated whether preschool children's goals were related to their strategies during hypothetical conflict situations. Children (13 boys, 12 girls) ages 3 to 6 years (three 3-yr.-olds, three 4-yr.-olds, 11 5-yr.-olds, and eight 6-yr.-olds) engaged in a puppet interview of six hypothetical situations. Significant correlations were found between goals and strategies of the adapted version of Chung and Asher's Children's Conflict Resolution Measure, suggesting that preschool children who endorsed friendship goals tended to select more prosocial strategies (.41). Children who endorsed more retaliation goals tended to select more hostile strategies (.67) but fewer prosocial strategies (-.41), and children who endorsed more avoidance goals tended to select more adult-seeking strategies (.45).

  16. Scanning electron microscopy-based approach to understand the mechanism underlying the adhesion of dengue viruses on ceramic hydroxyapatite columns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Saito

    Full Text Available Although ceramic hydroxyapatite (HAp chromatography has been used as an alternative method ultracentrifugation for the production of vaccines, the mechanism of virus separation is still obscure. In order to begin to understand the mechanisms of virus separation, HAp surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy after chromatography with dengue viruses. When these processes were performed without elution and with a 10-207 mM sodium phosphate buffer gradient elution, dengue viruses that were adsorbed to HAp were disproportionately located in the columns. However, when eluted with a 10-600 mM sodium phosphate buffer gradient, few viruses were observed on the HAp surface. After incubating the dengue viruses that were adsorbed on HAp beads at 37°C and 2°C, the sphericity of the dengue viruses were reduced with an increase in incubation temperature. These results suggested that dengue virus was adsorbed to the HAp surface by electronic interactions and could be eluted by high-salt concentration buffers, which are commonly used in protein purification. Furthermore, virus fusion was thought to occur with increasing temperature, which implied that virus-HAp adhesion was similar to virus-cell adhesion.

  17. Understanding, identifying gifted blind and visually impaired children and development of their giftedness

    OpenAIRE

    Lokošek, Janja

    2012-01-01

    In my thesis, I focus on a group of children with special needs - the gifted children, who are blind or visually impaired. I was interested in what characteristics they have, how to help them develop their talent and whether our educational system is adequate for them. The goal of my thesis is mainly to point out that talent can occur in different groups of children, including children with visual impairment. Furthermore, I would also like to point out that it is harder to identify gifted vis...

  18. Screening children for autism in an urban clinic using an electronic M-CHAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John W; Bai, Robert; Perkins, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a screening tool for autism spectrum disorders in the clinic. However, the follow-up questions in the M-CHAT are difficult to implement on a paper format. To compare the effectiveness of the M-CHAT on an electronic format versus paper format in an outpatient clinic setting. Methods. A prospective study used electronic M-CHAT on the iPad. A retrospective review of paper M-CHATs 6 months prior to implementation was used as the comparison group. A total of 176 participants completed the electronic M-CHAT format and 197 paper M-CHATs were retrospectively reviewed. The electronic format (3%) resulted in a significant difference in the frequency of children found to be at risk for autism compared with the paper version (11%); 99% of parents rated the experience as "good" or "excellent." The electronic format lowered both false at-risk screens and false not-at-risk screens and had higher parental satisfaction.

  19. Awareness of Language Use in Conceptualization: A Study of Children's Understanding of Movement and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerblom, Annika; Anderberg, Elsie; Alvegard, Christer; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    In this article the role of children's awareness of the function of language use is examined in an empirical, qualitative investigation. Forty children of six and 10 years old were asked to make sense of a science problem in special dialogue setting where they were encouraged to reflect on their own language use. The article concerns the interplay…

  20. Early Developments in Children's Understanding of Number: Inferences about Numerosity and One-to-One Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophian, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    The main finding that three- and four-year-old children can make inferences relating numerosity and one-to-one correspondence information implicate more mathematical knowledge than Piaget attributed to young children. Their knowledge does not appear to be as closely tied to counting and other action schemas as other accounts of early numerical…

  1. Children's Perceptions of Sharks and Understanding of Its Ecological Significance for Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kwok Ho

    2011-01-01

    Global shark populations are seriously declining and many species are now threatened by anthropogenic stresses. Their extinction would cause devastating consequences to the marine biodiversity and ecosystems. However some children describe the sharks as bad guys, "we should kill them all!" Such children's view motivates my study…

  2. Role of Working Memory in Children's Understanding Spoken Narrative: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…

  3. Breaking the Mold: A Fresh Look at Children's Understanding of Questions About Lies and Mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Peterson, Candida C.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the claim that young children (three to five years old) regard all false statements as lies. Found that most young children at all ages could distinguish between lies and mistaken statements, if care was taken to clarify the form of question. (Author/DR)

  4. Do Children Understand the Basic Relationship Between Speech and Writing? The Mow-Motorcycle Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; And Others

    School children (N=218) who have not yet attained moderate reading fluency were tested for their awareness of a fundamental relationship between our writing system and speech: that the sounds of speech are represented in writing. Children were shown a long and short word written on a card (e.g., mow and motorcycle), and asked which word…

  5. Children's Understanding of Experimental Contrast and Experimental Control: An Inventory for Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Experimentation skills are a central component of scientific thinking, and many studies have investigated whether and when primary-school children develop adequate experimentation strategies. However, the answers to these questions vary substantially depending on the type of task that is used: while discovery tasks, which require children to…

  6. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  7. What Does Batman Think about SpongeBob? Children's Understanding of the Fantasy/Fantasy Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Deena; Bloom, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Young children reliably distinguish reality from fantasy; they know that their friends are real and that Batman is not. But it is an open question whether they appreciate, as adults do, that there are multiple fantasy worlds. We test this by asking children and adults about fictional characters' beliefs about other characters who exist either…

  8. How Do Children Who Understand Mixed Emotion Represent Them in Freehand Drawings of Themselves and Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    This research is the first to assess children's representation of mixed emotion using a freehand drawing task. Two hundred and forty-one 5--11-year olds completed a drawing and a colour preference task. Children heard a condition appropriate vignette about themselves or a protagonist designed to evoke mixed emotion, and were asked to draw the self…

  9. "What Makes You Shy?": Understanding Situational Elicitors of Shyness in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two exploratory studies of situations that elicit shyness in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 100; M[subscript age] = 10.42) interviews with Chinese children identified three kinds of shyness-eliciting situations: social novelty; negative social evaluation; and public attention. In Study 2 (N = 162, M[subscript age]…

  10. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  11. Promoting Honesty: The Influence of Stories on Children's Lie-Telling Behaviours and Moral Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Yachison, Sarah; Leduc, Karissa

    2016-01-01

    Moral stories are a means of communicating the consequences of our actions and emphasizing virtuous behaviour, such as honesty. However, the effect of these stories on children's lie-telling has yet to be thoroughly explored. The current study investigated the influence of moral stories on children's willingness to lie for another individual.…

  12. Remembering and Understanding: The Effects of Changes in Underlying Knowledge on Children's Recollections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer

    2000-01-01

    Explored influence of changes in kindergartners' knowledge about a protagonist on earlier constructed memories of the story. Found that children's story recall was affected by their prior impressions. Following the second knowledge manipulation, children revised story reports consistent with newly acquired impressions, suggesting that they had…

  13. Understanding the perceptions of children battling cancer about self and others through drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadruddin, Munir Moosa; Hameed-Ur-Rehman, M

    2013-07-01

    Childhood cancer is a stressful experience and may cause a change in the child's perception of himself/ herself, the family and the world around him/ her. This study sought to (a) explore the self-perception of children; and (b) examine the relation of children with others. The total population of the study consisted of all the children, undergoing cancer treatment at Children Cancer Hospital, located in Karachi. The participants were asked to draw a drawing on self and others. Through qualitative approach (phenomenology), themes and sub-themes were derived. Using purposive sampling, the total sample size drawn for this study was 78 children aged 7-12, receiving treatment for cancer (1st stage) at the Children Cancer Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. The drawings of the children were categorized into facial expressions, self images and family ties. Within each category, there were sub-categories. Under facial expressions, the common emotions reflected were sadness, seriousness, anger; and pain. The self-image pictures uniformly reflected low self-esteem, especially focusing on hair loss, missing body parts. Under the category of family ties, most of the children's drawings reflected their isolation or emotional detachment from or abandonment by their family members. The study concludes that the self- image of most of the participants is deteriorated and they are socially isolated. Social and moral support can bring positive emotional development and helps to correct their self-perception.

  14. Harmony or Discord? Understanding Children's Valuations of a Sistema-Inspired Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Mark

    2018-01-01

    This article explores children's reflections on the value of their participation in "In Harmony," a social and music education programme whose approach and philosophy derives from the Venezuelan 'El Sistema' ('The System') model. More specifically, through an analysis of participating children's accounts (n = 111) and an exploration of…

  15. Legal guardians understand how children with the human immunodeficiency virus perceive quality of life and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydström, Lise-Lott; Wiklander, Maria; Ygge, Britt-Marie; Navér, Lars; Eriksson, Lars E

    2015-09-01

    This aim of this study was to describe how legal guardians assessed health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma in children with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compared to the children's own ratings. A cross-sectional nationwide study was performed to compare how 37 children aged from eight to 16 years of age with perinatal HIV, and their legal guardians, assessed the children's health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. Data were collected using the 37-item DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Module and a short eight-item version of the HIV stigma scale. Intraclass correlations indicated concordance between the legal guardians' ratings and the children's own ratings of the child's health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. There were no statistically significant differences between the ratings of the two groups and gender did not have any impact on the results. Both groups indicated that the children had concerns about being open about their HIV status. The results of this study indicated that legal guardians understood how their children perceived their health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. The results also indicated the need for interventions to support both the children and legal guardians when it came to disclosing the child's HIV status. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Understanding definitions of minimally verbal across instruments: evidence for subgroups within minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Katz, Terry; Bishop, Somer L; Krasileva, Kate

    2016-12-01

    Minimally verbal (MV) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often assumed to be profoundly cognitively impaired and excluded from analyses due to challenges completing standardized testing protocols. A literature aimed at increasing understanding of this subgroup is emerging; however, the many methods used to define MV status make it difficult to compare studies. Understanding how different instruments and definitions used to identify MV children affect sample composition is critical to advance research on this understudied clinical population. The MV status of 1,470 school-aged children was defined using five instruments commonly used in ASD research. MV sample composition was compared across instruments. Analyses examined the proportion of overlap across MV subgroups and the extent to which child characteristics varied across MV subgroups defined using different definitions or combinations of measures. A total of 257 children were classified as MV on at least one instrument. Proportion of overlap between definitions ranged from 3% to 100%. The stringency of definition (i.e. few-to-no vs. some words) was associated with differences in cognitive and adaptive functioning; more stringent definitions yielded greater consistency of MV status across instruments. Cognitive abilities ranged from profoundly impaired to average intelligence; 16% had NVIQ ≥ 70. Approximately half exhibited verbal skills commensurate with nonverbal cognitive ability, whereas half had verbal abilities significantly lower than their estimated NVIQ. Future studies of MV children must carefully consider the methods used to identify their sample, acknowledging that definitions including children with 'some words' may yield larger samples with a wider range of language and cognitive abilities. Broadly defined MV samples may be particularly important to delineate factors interfering with language development in the subgroup of children whose expressive impairments are considerably

  17. [From fantasy to reality: understanding the way of playing of institutionalized children victims of violence through therapeutic play].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomello, Karina Jorgino; Melo, Luciana de Lione

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research is based on the reference framework of Phenomenology--analysis of the structure of the situated phenomenon, and aims to understand institutionalized children victims of violence through therapeutic play sessions. Participants were three sheltered children of preschool age, one boy and two goals. The therapeutic play sessions of the drama type were held in a reserved place and ranged from 30 to 50 minutes, using the following guiding proposal: "Let us play that we are children who live at the shelter?" Two broad theme categories could be captured: playing and pretending and playing and reality. When they are pretending while playing, sometimes calmly, sometimes violently, the children brought contents that evidenced situations in their daily family reality. When they expose their reality, the children addressed questions about the shelter institution and the bond with these professionals and with the relatives. It can be affirmed that therapeutic play allowed for the children's effective communication by expressing their feelings, desires, experiences, criticism against the environment they live in and family relations, besides permitting a moment of pleasure and relaxation.

  18. Hispanic Immigrant Mothers of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Do They Understand and Cope With Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijalba, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the experiences of raising a child with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a group of Hispanic immigrant mothers. The following 3 aspects were explored: (a) the families' social environments, (b) cultural beliefs on development and autism, and (c) perceptions of bilingualism influencing language choices. In-depth 3-part phenomenological interviews and thematic analyses were conducted with 22 Hispanic immigrant mothers of preschool children with ASD. A total of 3 thematic categories emerged: stigmatization and social isolation, preconceptions about developmental milestones and autism, and mothers' reluctance to speak Spanish with their children. A lack of awareness about autism influenced social isolation, and autism was viewed as temporary and associated with fear or sadness. The mothers believed that exposure to 2 languages would increase their children's language difficulties. Hispanic immigrant mothers raising children with autism were often challenged by immigration status, economic hardship, and advice against using Spanish with their children. Professional training and parent education are needed to facilitate early identification of ASD. Immigrant families should be encouraged to communicate in the home language with their children. Information about ASD should be disseminated through community outreach, home-school connections, and pediatricians, who remain pivotal in informing Hispanic immigrant families.

  19. Understanding the perceptions of children battling cancer about self and others through drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Moosa Sadruddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood cancer is a stressful experience and may cause a change in the child′s perception of himself/ herself, the family and the world around him/ her. Aims: This study sought to (a explore the self-perception of children; and (b examine the relation of children with others. Materials and Methods: The total population of the study consisted of all the children, undergoing cancer treatment at Children Cancer Hospital, located in Karachi. The participants were asked to draw a drawing on self and others. Through qualitative approach (phenomenology, themes and sub-themes were derived. Results: Using purposive sampling, the total sample size drawn for this study was 78 children aged 7-12, receiving treatment for cancer (1st stage at the Children Cancer Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. The drawings of the children were categorized into facial expressions, self images and family ties. Within each category, there were sub-categories. Under facial expressions, the common emotions reflected were sadness, seriousness, anger; and pain. The self-image pictures uniformly reflected low self-esteem, especially focusing on hair loss, missing body parts. Under the category of family ties, most of the children′s drawings reflected their isolation or emotional detachment from or abandonment by their family members. Conclusions: The study concludes that the self- image of most of the participants is deteriorated and they are socially isolated. Social and moral support can bring positive emotional development and helps to correct their self-perception.

  20. Contrasting lives, contrasting views? Understandings of health inequalities from children in differing social circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Davis, John

    2003-08-01

    Children's differing socio-economic, cultural and familial circumstances and experiences are part of the pathways implicated in health and illness in adulthood. However, in the existing, mainly survey based, work children's own voices tend to be absent and adult-defined data about health and illness accumulated. Little is known about the social and cultural processes, in children's very different childhoods, which underpin and ultimately constitute these epidemiological findings. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study examining the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lifestyles and the production of inequalities in health, carried out in a large Scottish city. Two rounds of semi-structured interviews, using a range of child-friendly techniques (photographs, drawings, vignettes), were carried out with 35 girls and boys aged 9-12 years living in two contrasting but contiguous areas, one relatively advantaged and one relatively disadvantaged. Thirty of their parents were also interviewed and community profiling and observational work undertaken. Children and parents described often starkly contrasting lives and opportunities, regularly involving material differences. However, children appeared to locate inequalities as much in relationships and social life as in material concerns; in this their direct experiences of relationships and unfairness were central to their making sense of inequality and its impact on health. Although children from both areas highlighted several different inequalities, including those related to material resources, they also spoke of the importance of control over their life world; of care and love particularly from parents; of friendship and acceptance by their peer group. Many children challenged straightforward causal explanations for future ill-health, privileging some explanations, such as psychological or lifestyle factors. The accounts of children from both areas displayed considerable resilience to and

  1. Chromium exposure among children from an electronic waste recycling town of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Liu, Junxiao; Zhuang, Bingrong; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2015-02-01

    Guiyu is one of the most heavily chromium-polluted areas in China due to the numerous informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities. A 3-year (2004, 2006, and 2008) independent cross-sectional study on blood chromium (BCr) levels of 711 children from Guiyu and a control area was investigated. Questionnaire completed by parents/guardians was used to assess the risk factors of chromium (Cr) exposure, while physical examination, for the year 2008 only, was used to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to Cr on child physical development. Children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BCr levels compared with those living in Chendian at the same period from 2004 to 2008 (P e-waste recycling, and child residence in Guiyu. Children's weight and chest circumferences in group with high exposure to Cr (upper quartile) were higher than in the low-exposure group (P e-waste recycling activities might be threatening the health of children, with implications on physical growth and development.

  2. Evidence-based guidelines for wise use of electronic games by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon; Abbott, Rebecca; Collins, Rachel; Campbell, Amity

    2014-01-01

    Electronic games (e-games) are widely used by children, often for substantial durations, yet to date there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding their use. The aim of this paper is to present guidelines for the wise use of e-games by children based on a narrative review of the research. This paper proposes a model of factors that influence child-e-games interaction. It summarises the evidence on positive and negative effects of use of e-games on physical activity and sedentary behaviour, cardio-metabolic health, musculoskeletal health, motor coordination, vision, cognitive development and psychosocial health. Available guidelines and the role of guidelines are discussed. Finally, this information is compiled into a clear set of evidence-based guidelines, about wise use of e-games by children, targeting children, parents, professionals and the e-game industry. These guidelines provide an accessible synthesis of available knowledge and pragmatic guidelines based on e-game specific evidence and related research.

  3. The expert network and electronic portal for children with respiratory and allergic symptoms: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomer-Kooijker Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on baseline characteristics of children with asthma to predict individual treatment responses are lacking. We aimed to set up a data-collection system which can easily fill this gap in clinical practice. A web-based application was developed, named 'Portal for children with respiratory and allergic symptoms', hereafter called Electronic Portal (EP. It contains health- and disease-related questionnaires on respiratory- and allergic diseases. All patients, 1–18 years of age, with respiratory- and/or allergic complaints are invited to enter the EP before their first visit. By using the EP large amounts of data, gathered during routine patient care can be used for research purposes. This may help to further investigate the different treatment related asthma phenotypes and will be helpful to monitor risk factors for other atopic diseases and respiratory infections.

  4. Website Evaluation of Online Electronic Children and Adolescent Journals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Bradar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation attempts to find out the present status quo by studying the strength and weakness of websites of online electronic journals for children and adolescents. By comparing them, it intends to provide a model for optimal use and more pragmatic design. Both library and evaluative research methods were employed. The latter was carried out using descriptive and inferential statistics. An evaluation form based on five factors of content, visual design structure, technical structure and copyright and operational indicators was used as the primary data collection instruments. Each in turn were composed of 62 sub-indicators. SPSS statistical software was used. The study found that the current fourteen journal websites lack the required effectiveness, ranging from unsuitable to totally inappropriate. The findings further indicated that the website designers for children and adolescent magazines do not pay the necessary attention to website design based on the aforementioned five factors.

  5. Children's Understanding and Knowledge of Conception and Birth: Comparing Children from England, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Sandra L.; Ahlgrim, Carie Jo

    2012-01-01

    The present study replicated research conducted decades earlier (Goldman & Goldman, 1982a; Koch, 197480) on what children in the United States know about conception and birth compared to those in other countries. Specifically, response drawings by 48 six-year-old boys and girls from England, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States were…

  6. Understanding the relationship between dog ownership and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, H; Trapp, G; Lauritsen, C; Wright, K; Giles-Corti, B

    2013-10-01

    Dog ownership is a catalyst for physical activity in adults. Given 50-70% of Australian households with children have a dog, dog-facilitated physical activity may be an effective way to increase physical activity and decrease child obesity. We hypothesized that children with a family dog walk more, are more physically active and are more likely to achieve recommended levels of weekly physical activity compared with children who do not have a dog. Cross-sectional data from the Western Australian TRravel, Environment, and Kids project (TREK) were analyzed for 1218 children aged 10-12 years. Individual and environment factors, child physical activity, walking, screen use, sedentary behaviour and dog ownership status was collected from child and parent questionnaires. Children's height and weight were measured. Approximately 60% of children had a family dog. Dog ownership was associated with, on average, 29 more minutes of walking and 142 more minutes of physical activity per week (P ≤ 0.01). After adjustment, children with a dog were 49% more likely to achieve the recommended level of weekly physical activity (420 min) and 32% more likely to have walked in their neighbourhood in the last week, compared with non-dog owners (P ≤ 0.05). These relationships varied by gender. Dog ownership was not associated with screen use or weight status. Dog ownership was associated with walking and physical activity, but not screen use or weight status. Within dog-owning families, the promotion of walking and active play with a dog may be a strategy to increase children's physical activity. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Understanding Ethical Issues of Research Participation from the Perspective of Participating Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E.

    2017-01-01

    Background The past twenty years have seen distinct shifts in the way the participation of children and adolescents in research is viewed. This has been emphasized by the growing pediatric research enterprise. Additional information on children’s and adolescents’ experiences during research participation is needed to better inform researchers on the ethical conduct of research with this vulnerable population. Aims The objective of this analysis was to examine ethical issues in research with children and adolescents from their perspective as participants, including: assent, parental consent, risk perception, impact of research participation, and incentives. Methods This systematic review was conducted per the Long et al. framework by means of an iterative searching process. Using the key words ‘research ethics’ and ‘child or pediatric or adolescent’, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases were searched to identify articles. Limitations placed on the original searches were: English language, year of publication between 2003–2014, humans, abstract available, and age birth–18 years. Findings Twenty-three empiric studies were identified and formed the sample. Included studies represented a diverse range of areas of research, methods, settings, sample demographics, authors, and journals. Discussion Even young children demonstrated the ability to understand essential elements of research, although there is variability in children’s level of understanding. Trust was a significant contributing factor to children’s and adolescents’ participation in research, and also shaped their assessments of risk. Research participation was mainly beneficial for children and adolescents. Incentives were mainly viewed positively, although concerns of possible undue influence were expressed. Linking Evidence to Action This systematic review highlights the importance of including the perspectives of children and adolescents and provides researchers and nurse clinicians

  8. Refining Our Understanding of Value-Based Insurance Design and High Cost Sharing on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Bachman, Sara S; Tan, Hui Ren

    2017-05-01

    There is significant concern about the financial burdens of new insurance plan designs on families, particularly families with children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). With value-based insurance design (VBID) plans growing in popularity, this study examined the implications of selected VBID cost-sharing features on children. We studied children's health care spending patterns in 2 data sets that include high deductible and narrow network plans among others. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2007 to 2013 on 22 392 children were used to study out-of-pocket (OOP) costs according to CYSHCN, family income, and spending. MarketScan large employer insurance claims data from 2007 to 2014 ( N = 4 263 452) were used to test for differences in mean total payments and OOP costs across various health plans. Across the data sets, we found that existing health plans place significant financial burdens on families, particularly lower income households and families with CYSHCN; individuals among the top 10% of OOP spending averaged more than $2000 per child. Although high deductible and consumer-driven plans impose substantial OOP costs on children, they do not significantly reduce spending, whereas health maintenance organizations that use network restrictions and tighter management do. Our results do not support the conclusion that high cost-sharing features that are common in VBID plans will significantly reduce health care spending on children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Hart

    Full Text Available There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  10. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  11. European views of divorce among parents of young children: Understanding cross-national variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieke Rijken

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also expect that divorce involving young children is more accepted in countries where enrolment in child care is high. METHODS Our sample consists of 37,975 individuals from 22 countries, obtained from the European Social Survey (2006. We conduct multilevel regression analyses including individual-level and country-level variables. RESULTS Findings confirm our main hypotheses: the lower the poverty rate among single parents and the higher enrolment in childcare, the lower the disapproval of divorce when young children are involved. These findings remain when taking into account the crude divorce rate and secularisation at the country level, and when controlling for differences in the composition of populations with regard to individual characteristics that are associated with divorce attitudes. Additionally, cross-level interactions indicate that poverty among single parents has the strongest impact on mothers' divorce attitudes. CONCLUSIONS Divorce attitudes appear to be related to people's assessment of the consequences of divorce for the children involved. Cross-European differences in attitudes towards divorce involving young children are associated with two aspects of welfare states that are indicative of the consequences of divorce for children and the parent that takes care of them: poverty among single parents and child care.

  12. Two-year-old children but not domestic dogs understand communicative intentions without language, gestures, or gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard; Mueller, Bettina; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Infants can see someone pointing to one of two buckets and infer that the toy they are seeking is hidden inside. Great apes do not succeed in this task, but, surprisingly, domestic dogs do. However, whether children and dogs understand these communicative acts in the same way is not yet known. To test this possibility, an experimenter did not point, look, or extend any part of her body towards either bucket, but instead lifted and shook one via a centrally pulled rope. She did this either intentionally or accidentally, and did or did not address her act to the subject using ostensive cues. Young 2-year-old children but not dogs understood the experimenter's act in intentional conditions. While ostensive pulling of the rope made no difference to children's success, it actually hindered dogs' performance. We conclude that while human children may be capable of inferring communicative intent from a wide variety actions, so long as these actions are performed intentionally, dogs are likely to be less flexible in this respect. Their understanding of communicative intention may be more dependent upon bodily markers of communicative intent, including gaze, orientation, extended limbs, and vocalizations. This may be because humans have come under selective pressure to develop skills for communicating with absent interlocutors - where bodily co-presence is not possible. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Understanding the parents of children with special needs: collaboration between health, social and education networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, S; Freeman, A; Carrière, M; Beaupré, P; Gascon, H; Marier Deschênes, P

    2014-11-01

    In 2003, Quebec's Ministry of Health and Social Services (MSSS) and the Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sports (MELS) concluded the Agreement for the complementarity of services between the health and social services network and the education network. The objectives of the current investigation were to evaluate the implementation of this Agreement and its impact upon renewal of practices and services, and to investigate the consequences for children with special needs and their families. The specific focus of this article is to describe parents' perspectives regarding the impact of this Agreement upon them and their children. Interviews were conducted with 56 parents of children with disabilities, social maladjustment or learning difficulties across the province of Quebec. Data were analysed using content analysis. Most parents were not directly aware of any contact between school staff and health or social professionals, although discussions might have been held without their knowledge. The intervention plans seemed to be the main vehicle through which some parents perceived collaboration to be occurring. For parents, the impact upon actual practices or collaborative work is either minimal or non-existent. School inclusion of children with special needs is a challenge for all societies. The Agreement illustrates the Quebec government's intent to promote an alliance between two complex networks and has the potential to greatly benefit children and their families. However, more concrete action is required in order to realize specific changes regarding work cohesion and service organization for these groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. CHRONIC FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION IN CHILDREN — FROM UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM TO THE PROPER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Privorotskiy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional origin is known in 95% of children with constipation. According to ICD-10 there is traditional distinction between syndrome of irritated bowel and proper functional constipation which have wide spectrum of causes. Rome criteria III propose initial diagnostic criteria of these disorders but the use of the criteria in pediatrics is frequently complicated. Clinical practice of pediatrician demands differentiation of constipations into hypertonic and hypotonic ones. Treatment programs include necessary component — laxative drugs which are useful in cases of subcompensated and decompensated types of constipation. One of the laxative drugs is Forlax containing polyethyleneglycol 4.000; it can be given to children 6 months old and older. The literature data shows high efficiency and safety of the drug.Key words: children, constipation, laxative drugs.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:69-77

  15. Understanding, identifying and supporting speech, language and communication needs in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Shona

    2013-12-01

    Communication is a fundamental life skill and acts as the foundation on which many other areas of development are based. Any child who is not developing their speech, language and communication skills in the expected way is considered to have speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). These range from children with delayed speech and language development, whose difficulties will resolve with the correct intervention, to children with long term, persistent difficulties in one or more areas of their speech, language and communication development. Speech, language and communication is a skill central to other areas of development, meaning the impacts of SLCN can be significant. These impacts can be minimised by ensuring early identification and support for those children and young people who are presenting with SLCN.

  16. Role of biomarkers in understanding and treating children with asthma: towards personalized care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang JE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jason E Lang,1 Kathryn V Blake21Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA; 2Center for Pharmacogenomics and Translational Research, Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting children. Despite publicized expert panels on asthma management and the availability of high-potency inhaled corticosteroids, asthma continues to pose an enormous burden on quality of life for children. Research into the genetic and molecular origins of asthma are starting to show how distinct disease entities exist within the syndrome of "asthma". Biomarkers can be used to diagnose underlying molecular mechanisms that can predict the natural course of disease or likely response to drug treatment. The progress of personalized medicine in the care of children with asthma is still in its infancy. We are not yet able to apply stratified asthma treatments based on molecular phenotypes, although that time may be fast approaching. This review discusses some of the recent advances in asthma genetics and the use of current biomarkers that can help guide improved treatment. For example, the fraction of expired nitric oxide and serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE (including allergen-specific IgE, when evaluated in the context of recurrent asthma symptoms, are general predictors of allergic airway inflammation. Biomarker assays for secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and cysteinyl leukotrienes are both promising areas of study that can help personalize management, not just for pharmacologic management, but also education and prevention efforts.Keywords: asthma, biomarkers, children, management

  17. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: social resources and mental health of children in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B = -.22, p PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (β = .16, p = .002) and T2 and T3 (β = .16, p = .002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children's mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mediated intimacy in families: understanding the relation between children and parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsggaard, Thomas; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2006-01-01

    Mediating intimacy between children and their parents is still limited investigated and at the same time, we find that, emerging technologies are about to change and affect the way we interact with each other. In this paper, we report from an empirical study where we investigated the social...... with other types of intimate relations such as strong-tie intimacy (couples cohabiting). However, we also identified several issues of intimacy unique to the special relation between children and their parents. These unique acts of intimacy propose challenges when designing technologies for mediated intimacy...

  19. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. What Influences Children's and Adolescents' Understanding of the Complexity of the Internet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing complex relationships among Internet use, Internet users, and conceptual understanding of the Internet. It used path models to examine factors related to Internet use (duration of Internet use, frequency of Internet use, and informal Internet classes) and Internet users (age and gender) in affecting understanding of…

  1. Understanding Pervasive Language Impairment in Young Children: Exploring Patterns in Narrative Language and Functional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Anna Jeddeloh

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified language impairment as a pervasive disability (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987; Greenhalgh & Strong, 2001). Classroom communication behaviors have a role in the maintenance of special education eligibility and functional communication difficulties for young children with language impairment. This paper reviews the…

  2. Age and Task-Related Effects on Young Children's Understanding of a Complex Picture Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Denyse; Schneider, Phyllis; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined age- and task-related effects in story schema knowledge across an independent narrative task (story formulations) and a supported narrative task (answering questions). We also examined age-related changes to questions about the story as a whole. Participants were typically developing English-speaking children aged 4, 5,…

  3. European views of divorce among parents of young children: understanding cross-national variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also expect

  4. Helping Early Childhood Educators to Understand and Assess Young Children's Mathematical Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2016-01-01

    This issue of "ZDM Mathematics Education" focuses on the formative assessment of young children's mathematical thinking, with an emphasis on computer-based approaches drawing upon on cognitive and educational research. The authors discuss several different assessment methods, including clinical interviewing, observation, and testing,…

  5. "That's Really Clever!" Ironic Hyperbole Understanding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguert, Marc; Le Vallois, Coralie; Martel, Karine; Laval, Virginie

    2018-01-01

    Hyperbole supports irony comprehension in adults by heightening the contrast between what is said and the actual situation. Because young children do not perceive the communication situation as a whole, but rather give precedence to either the utterance or the context, we predicted that hyperbole would reduce irony comprehension in six-year-olds…

  6. How Children Understand War and Peace: A Call for International Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Amiram, Ed.; Oppenheimer, Louis, Ed.; Bar-Tal, Daniel, Ed.

    This book of essays offers an international perspective on how the concepts of war and peace develop in children and how, through overt teaching of conflict resolution and peacemaking skills in schools, a more peaceful world can be created. Following an introduction, the 14 essays in the book are grouped in 3 parts: (1) "Developmental…

  7. Understanding the Gender Gap in School Performance among Low-Income Children: A Developmental Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, girls outperform boys in overall school performance. The gender gap is particularly large among those in at-risk groups, such as children from families at economic disadvantage. This study modeled the academic trajectories of a low-income sample of boys and girls from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project across the full course…

  8. "THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

  9. Children's Attachment-Related Narratives Following US Gulf Coast Hurricanes: Linkages with Understanding and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Verbovaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The central focus of this study was the perceptions of emotional security among 64 elementary school-aged children exposed to the hurricanes that affected the US Gulf Coast in 2005. Specifically, we examined the representational qualities of attachment, exploration, and caregiving as assessed with a narrative story-stem task in relation to…

  10. Escape from Metaignorance: How Children Develop an Understanding of Their Own Lack of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Michael; Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Previous research yielded conflicting results about when children can accurately assess their epistemic states in different hiding tasks. In Experiment 1, ninety-two 3- to 7-year-olds were either shown which object was hidden inside a box, were totally ignorant about what it could be, or were presented with two objects one of which was being put…

  11. Children's understanding of the Earth in a multicultural community: Mental models or fragments of knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, G.; Moore, D. G.; Martin, A. E.; Clifford, B. R.; Butterworth, G.; Panagiotaki, G.; Siegal, M.

    Asian and white British students ages 4-8 (N=167) were asked to select an earth from a set of plastic models and then respond to forced-choice questions. There were no significant differences in performance after accounting for language differences. Evidence suggests that children hold fragmentary knowledge rather than mental models, as suggested by previous researchers.

  12. Mexican-American mothers’ initiation and understanding of home oral hygiene for young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOEFT, Kristin S.; BARKER, Judith C.; MASTERSON, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate caregiver beliefs and behaviors as key issues in the initiation of home oral hygiene routines. Oral hygiene helps reduce the prevalence of early childhood caries, which is disproportionately high among Mexican-American children. Methods Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 48 Mexican-American mothers of young children in a low income, urban neighborhood. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated, transcribed, coded and analyzed using standard qualitative procedures. Results The average age of tooth brushing initiation was 1.8±0.8 years; only a small proportion of parents (13%) initiated oral hygiene in accord with American Dental Association (ADA) recommendations. Mothers initiated 2 forms of oral hygiene: infant oral hygiene and regular tooth brushing. For the 48% of children who participated in infant oral hygiene, mothers were prompted by pediatrician and social service (WIC) professionals. For regular tooth brushing initiation, a set of maternal beliefs exist about when this oral hygiene practice becomes necessary for children. Beliefs are mainly based on a child’s dental maturity, interest, capacity and age/size. Conclusions Most (87%) of the urban Mexican-American mothers in the study do not initiate oral hygiene practices in compliance with ADA recommendations. These findings have implications for educational messages. PMID:19947134

  13. "Ah, I Know Why…": Children Developing Understandings through Engaging with a Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Christine; Finch, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes part of a study that explored the responses of nine- and ten-year-old children during a picture book read aloud in a small group setting in a New Zealand classroom. The read aloud was interactive, where the participants were encouraged to respond to the book and to each other throughout the session. The authors created a…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Children of Divorced Families and Relations to Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Oliver, Mallory I.; Brosi, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are well-positioned to play a critical role in fostering resiliency in children of divorce and to assist in reducing the risk for adjustment problems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preservice early childhood teachers have the awareness of the stress responses and effects of parental divorce on their students. Early…

  15. The Use of Narrative to Promote Primary School Children's Understanding of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Emma; Hohenstein, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study explores learning about evolution when information is presented in either a narrative or an expository text (ET). Narratives engage the imagination, and consequently may allow children to overcome conceptual constraints that make evolution difficult to comprehend. Participants were 16 Year One, 21 Year Two and 25 Year Three pupils from…

  16. Effects of Advance Organizer Lessons on Children's Use and Understanding of the Causal and Logical "Because"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.

    1977-01-01

    Tests Ausubel's (1960) subsumption theory of learning in the context of children's use of causal and logical connectives. Predicts that the acquisition of prior cognitive structure organizers would facilitate the learning and retention of subsequently presented concepts and logical operations and lead to a decrease of syncretic reasoning and…

  17. Understanding Parent Advocacy during the Transition to School of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Three Canadian Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Pyle, Angela; Villeneuve, Michelle; Dods, Jennifer; Dalton, C. J.; Minnes, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown the benefits of parent involvement for student participation in education. Parent advocacy is a critical form of involvement by parents for children who are young, have disabilities, and are making transitions. Studies have classified forms of parent advocacy but have not illuminated the components necessary for effective parent…

  18. European views of divorce among parents of young children: understanding cross-national variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also

  19. Moral Scripts and Dialogic Inquiry in Scaffolding Young Children's Cultural Understanding of a Movie Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robert J.

    In a movie retelling task that was concerned with the moral dilemma of how to treat a hurt wild animal, the extended preparatory dialogues of seven effective middle-class mothers and their 5-year-olds were studied to develop a moral script and dialogic inquiry model of scaffolding children's narrative competency. A content analysis of the…

  20. "Listen, Do, Repeat, Understand and Remember": Teaching English to Very Young Children in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Qismullah; Asyik, Abdul Gani; Yusuf, Yunisrina Qismullah; Rusdi, Lathifatuddini

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the methods used in teaching English vocabulary to very young children (i.e. toddlers) at a bilingual school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Not much research has been published on teaching English to toddlers in the EFL context; therefore, this research is important as the results can become additional input to L2…

  1. Media advertising and consumerism: How children and adolescents understand and resist persuasive messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Rozendaal, E.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Lemish, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the first decade of the new millennium, children and adolescents' commercial media environment has changed dramatically. Advertisers have rapidly adopted new advertising techniques including branded websites, brand placement in video games, and viral marketing in social media (Buijzen et al.,

  2. "It's Like a Giant Brain with a Keyboard": Children's Understandings about How Computers Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Judy; Manches, Andrew; Pain, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Thirty years ago, when personal computers were first becoming available in homes and schools, a large group of primary school-age children were asked to share their attitudes about computers, their conceptions regarding how computers function, and their beliefs concerning computers' agency. The researchers wanted to gather baseline data regarding…

  3. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: Social resources and mental health of children in Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J.; Tol, Wietse A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa, Johnson, & Feeny, 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B=−0.22, pCognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (β=0.16, p=.002) and T2 and T3 (β=0.16, p=.002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children’s mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities may alter the trajectories of resource loss and gain with conflict-affected children. PMID:24922609

  4. Childhood psychopathology in children of women with eating disorders: understanding risk mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet; Simonoff, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated psychopathology in children of mothers with eating disorders (ED). We aimed to determine the effect of maternal ED on childhood psychopathology in a large population-based cohort and investigate relevant risk pathways using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data on emotional and behavioral problems at 3½ years were obtained prospectively on 8,622 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Children of exposed women who self-reported lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN, N = 193) or bulimia nervosa (BN, N = 158) in pregnancy were compared with children of unexposed women (N = 8,271) using linear and logistic regression models. SEM was used to determine best-fitting risk models by child gender. There was evidence that girls of AN women were more likely to have emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity disorders [Odds Ratio (OR): 1.7 (95% Confidence Intervals 1.0-3.0); OR: 2.2 (1.2-4.0); OR: 1.8 (1.1-3.1), respectively] and boys of AN women to have emotional disorders compared with unexposed [OR: 2.0(1.2-3.4)]. Girls of women with BN were more likely to show hyperactivity [OR: 1.7 (1.0-3.1)]; and boys to show emotional and conduct disorders compared with unexposed [OR: 2.2 (1.2-3.9); OR: 2.4 (1.4-4.2), respectively]. SEM models showed that pregnancy anxiety and depression mediated the effect of maternal ED on child psychopathology. Maternal ED are associated with different childhood psychopathology outcomes in boys and girls. Pregnancy anxiety and depression and active ED symptoms are important mediators of risk and are preventable; the direct effect of maternal lifetime ED was small. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. [Understanding social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders: does whole-body motion mean anything to them?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centelles, L; Assaiante, C; Etchegoyhen, K; Bouvard, M; Schmitz, C

    2012-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social interaction and verbal and non verbal reciprocal communication. Face and gaze direction, which participate in non verbal communication, are described as atypical in ASD. Also body movements carry multiple social cues. Under certain circumstances, for instance when seeing two persons from far, they constitute the only support that allows the grasping of a social content. Here, we investigated the contribution of whole-body motion processing in social understanding. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether children with ASD make use of information carried by body motion to categorize dynamic visual scenes that portrayed social interactions. In 1973, Johansson devised a technique for studying the perception of biological motion that minimizes static form information from the stimulus, but retains motion information. In these point-light displays, the movement figure, such as a body, is represented by a small number of illuminated dots positioned to highlight the motion of the body parts. We used Johansson's model to explore the ability of children with ASD to understand social interactions based on human movement analysis. Three-second silent point-light displays were created by videotaping two actors. The two actors were either interacting together or moving side by side without interacting. A large range of social interaction displays were used to cover social scenes depicting social norms (conventional gestures and courteous attitudes), emotional situations (carrying positive or negative valences) and scenes from games (sports, dance, etc.). Children were asked to carefully watch the stimuli and to classify them according to the question "Are the two persons communicating or not?". Four sessions of 3 minutes were performed by each child. Children with ASD were compared with typically developing control children matched with either non verbal mental age or chronological age. Response and

  6. Comparison of light and electron microscopy in measurement of esophageal intercellular space in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A; Ciecierega, Thomas; Szabo, Sara; Miranda, Adrian; Gorges, Christina; Simpson, Pippa; Sood, Manu R

    2014-08-01

    A good objective marker of esophageal mucosal damage from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is lacking in children. Increased esophageal epithelial intercellular (EEIC) space measured using electron microscopy (EM) has been proposed as a surrogate of esophageal mucosal damage in adults with GERD. The aim of the present study was to compare EEIC space measured using EM and light microscopy (LM) in children with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) with asymptomatic controls. Distal esophageal mucosal biopsy was used to measure EEIC space using EM in 35 NERD subjects and 8 controls. In a subset of these patients we used phase contrast LM to measure EEIC space area (26 NERD subjects and 8 controls). The median (range) EEIC space measured using EM in the NERD group was 1.15 (0.74-1.64) μm compared with 0.93 (0.67-1.11) μm in the control group (P = 0.002). The median (range) EEIC space measured using LM was 14.4% (9.6%-26.3%) in the NERD group and 9.6% (8.5%-17.2%) in controls (P = 0.003). Using a cutoff value of 1.02 μm for normal EEIC space measured by EM, we obtained 73% sensitivity and 75% specificity to distinguish the NERD group from the control group, and using a cutoff value of 11.1% for EEIC space measured by LM, we obtained 96% sensitivity and 75% specificity. EEIC space is increased in children with NERD compared with that in controls, suggesting that changes in EEIC space can be a useful marker of esophageal mucosal injury in children with NERD. Our results suggest that the accuracy of EM and LM to evaluate EEIC space changes in NERD is comparable, and LM may be a more cost-effective option.

  7. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Nizar, F Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined.

  8. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein E. Al-Agha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC standards. Results: The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. Conclusion: An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined.

  9. Understanding the Impact of Having a Military Father on Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    to the plate and organising this so well; thanks also to Jean-Philippe Calvin for his creative inputs. It was lovely to see a good number of you...Mindfulness as a Mediator of PTSD following Combat Experience and Build- ing a Dynamic Model of Help Seeking Behaviour (CIR) • Impact on Wellbeing of...Youth (CIR) • Expanding the Understanding of Risk Behaviour Associated with Homeless- ness among Veterans (CIR) • Understanding Hospital Admissions

  10. International Symposium on Understanding Moderate Malnutrition in Children for Effective Interventions. Compilation of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The symposium focused on developments in the area of management of MAM in infants and children. The symposium had the following objectives: • To share experience related to the implementation and evaluation of programmes to prevent and treat MAM in infants and children, particularly during the first 1000 days; • To support overall policy and specific evidence-based programmes dealing with the management of MAM; • To identify knowledge gaps and define needs for future research to improve the management of MAM; • To issue recommendations on how to improve the monitoring and evaluation of programmes dealing with the management of MAM; and • To identify the role of the IAEA in addressing knowledge gaps and evaluating programmes to prevent and treat MAM.

  11. Understanding the ecology and development of children and families experiencing homelessness: implications for practice, supportive services, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Ryan P; Cook, James R; Crusto, Cindy; Strater, Katherine P; Haber, Mason G

    2012-07-01

    The experience of homelessness can pervade multiple levels and facets of a child and family's world. In view of the historical risks in the lives of children who are experiencing homelessness (e.g., growing up under conditions of poverty, exposure to family violence), it is clear that interventions, services, and supports need to be equally comprehensive to have a positive influence on child functioning and development. Consequently, service systems, providers, and community supports need to address the circumstances of children and families experiencing homelessness and, more specifically, better attend to their ecologies and the diverse factors that can affect their well-being and adjustment trajectories. Such an approach is needed to better understand the range of factors and influences on the development and adaptation of these youngsters at home, at school, and with their peers as well as to guide the identification and implementation of adequate family-centered services and supports. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. Two spelling programmes that promote understanding of the alphabetic principle in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Alves Martins & Cristina Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to test two programmes designed to lead preschool children to use conventional letters to spell the initial consonants of words. These programmes differed in terms of the characteristics of the vowels that followed those consonants. The participants were 45 five-year-old Portuguese children whose spelling was pre-syllabic - they used strings of random letters in their spelling, making no attempt to match the oral to the written language. They were divided into two experimental and a control group. Their age, level of intelligence, and phonological awareness were controlled. Their spelling was assessed in a pre- and a post-test. In-between, children from the experimental groups participated in two programmes where they had to think about the relationships between the initial consonant and the corresponding phoneme in different words: In Experimental Group 1, the initial consonants were followed by an open vowel, and in Experimental Group 2, these same consonants were followed by a closed vowel. The control group classified geometric shapes. Experimental Group 1 achieved better results than Experimental Group 2 following open vowels, being more able to generalize the phonological procedures to sounds that were not taught during the programmes. Both experimental groups used conventional letters to represent several phonemes in the post-test whereas the control group continued to produce pre-syllabic spellings.

  13. Feasibility of using a handheld electronic device for the collection of patient reported outcomes data from children

    OpenAIRE

    Vinney, Lisa A.; Grade, John; Connor, Nadine P.

    2011-01-01

    The manner in which a communication disorder affects health-related quality of life (QOL) in children is not known. Unfortunately, collection of quality of life data via traditional paper measures is labor intensive and has several other limitations, which hinder the investigation of pediatric quality of life in children. Currently, there is not sufficient research regarding the use of electronic devices to collect pediatric patient reported outcomes in order to address such limitations. Thus...

  14. Towards a better understanding of the e-health user: comparing USE IT and Requirements study for an Electronic Patient Record.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, Antonius A.M.; Schuring, R.W.; Stegwee, R.A.; Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares a traditional requirements study with 22 interviews for the design of an electronic patient record (EPR) and a USE IT analysis with 17 interviews trying to understand the end- user of an EPR. Developing, implementing and using information technology in organizations is a complex

  15. A process approach to children's understanding of scientific concepts : A longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Steffie; Steenbeek, Henderien; van Dijk, Marijn; van Geert, Paul

    In order to optimally study changes in the complexity of understanding, microgenetic measures are needed, and a coupling of these to longer-term measures. We focus on the interaction dynamics between a 4-year old boy and a researcher while they work on tasks about air pressure in three subsequent

  16. Young Children's Understanding of the Limits and Benefits of Group Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Michelle; Friedman, Ori

    2017-01-01

    Group ownership is ubiquitous-property is owned by countries, corporations, families, and clubs. However, people cannot understand group ownership by simply relying on their conceptions of ownership by individuals, as group ownership is subject to complexities that do not arise when property is individually owned. We report 6 experiments…

  17. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  18. Countering Common-Sense Understandings of "Good Parenting": Women of Color Advocating for Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Thandeka K.; Bhopal, Kalwant K.

    2013-01-01

    Commonsense understandings of school practices have historically painted parents of color as inattentive and non-participatory actors in public school settings. Racist implementations of policy and individual actions, based on teacher ideology and deficit paradigms of race, force parents of color to take an oppositional stance in public school…

  19. Pain Elimination during Injection with Newer Electronic Devices: A Comparative Evaluation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Neha; Saha, Sonali; Jaiswal, Jn; Samadi, Firoza

    2014-05-01

    The present study was taken up to clinically evaluate and compare effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS) and comfort control syringe (CCS) in various pediatric dental procedures as an alternative to the conventional method of local anesthesia (LA) administration. Ninety healthy children having at least one deciduous molar tooth indicated for extraction in either maxillary right or left quadrant in age group of 6 to 10 years were randomly divided into three equal groups having 30 subjects each. Group I: LA administration using conventional syringe, group II: LA administration using TENS along with the conventional syringe, group III: LA administration using CCS. After LA by the three techniques, pain, anxiety and heart rate were measured. The observations, thus, obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA), student t-test and paired t-test. The mean pain score was maximum in group I followed by group II, while group III revealed the minimum pain, where LA was administered using CCS. Mean anxiety score was maximum in group I followed by group II, while group III revealed the minimum score. Mean heart rate was maximum in group I followed in descending order by groups II and III. The study supports the belief that CCS could be a viable alternative in comparison to the other two methods of LA delivery in children. How to cite this article: Bansal N, Saha S, Jaiswal JN, Samadi F. Pain Elimination during Injection with Newer Electronic Devices: A Comparative Evaluation in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):71-76.

  20. Understanding the Psychosocial Effects of WES Test Results on Parents of Children with Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenborg, Lotte; Vissers, L E L M; Schieving, J; Kleefstra, T; Kamsteeg, E J; Veltman, J A; Willemsen, M A; Van der Burg, S

    2016-12-01

    The use of whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnostics of children with rare genetic diseases raises questions about best practices in genetic counselling. While a lot of attention is now given to pre-test counselling procedures for WES, little is known about how parents experience the (positive, negative, or inconclusive) WES results in daily life. To fill this knowledge gap, data were gathered through in-depth interviews with parents of 15 children who underwent WES analysis. WES test results, like results from other genetic tests, evoked relief as well as worries, irrespective of the type of result. Advantages of obtaining a conclusive diagnosis included becoming more accepting towards the situation, being enabled to attune care to the needs of the child, and better coping with feelings of guilt. Disadvantages experienced included a loss of hope for recovery, and a loss by parents of their social network of peers and the effort necessary to re-establish that social network. While parents with conclusive diagnoses were able to re-establish a peer community with the help of social media, parents receiving a possible diagnosis experienced hurdles in seeking peer support, as peers still needed to be identified. These types of psychosocial effects of WES test results for parents are important to take into account for the development of successful genetic counselling strategies.

  1. Feed First, Ask Questions Later: Alleviating and Understanding Caregiver Food Insecurity in an Urban Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makelarski, Jennifer A; Thorngren, Daniel; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the prevalence of caregiver hospital food insecurity (defined as not getting enough to eat during a child's hospitalization), examined associations between food insecurity and barriers to food access, and propose a conceptual framework to inform remedies to this problem. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 200 caregivers of hospitalized children in Chicago, Illinois (June through December 2011). A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic characteristics, barriers to food, and caregiver hospital food insecurity. Caregiver hospital food insecurity was prevalent (32%). Caregivers who were aged 18 to 34 years, Black or African American, unpartnered, and with less education were more likely to experience hospital food insecurity. Not having enough money to buy food at the hospital, lack of reliable transportation, and lack of knowledge of where to get food at the hospital were associated with hospital food insecurity. The proposed conceptual framework posits a bidirectional relationship between food insecurity and health, emphasizing the interdependencies between caregiver food insecurity and patient outcomes. Strategies are needed to identify and feed caregivers and to eradicate food insecurity in homes of children with serious illness.

  2. Mothers' Use of Cognitive State Verbs in Picture-Book Reading and the Development of Children's Understanding of Mind: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Juan E.; Clemente, Rosa Ana; Villanueva, Lidon

    2007-01-01

    Mothers read stories to their children (N = 41) aged between 3.3 years and 5.11 years old, and children then completed two false-belief tasks. One year later, mothers read a story to 37 of those children who were also given four tasks to assess their advanced understanding of mental states. Mothers' early use of cognitive verbs in picture-book…

  3. The Comparison of the Skill of Understanding Complex Syntax at Children Attending to a Preschool Education Institution (TRNC-TR Sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Elçin

    2016-01-01

    The current study was carried out to compare the skills of understanding complex syntax at children attending to preschool education institutions. In the current study, relational screening model, a model providing to determine the current study, was used. The working group of the study was made up of 224 children at the age of 4-5 attending to a…

  4. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  5. Received, Understanding and Satisfaction of National Health Insurance Premium Subsidy Scheme by Families of Children with Disabilities: A Census Study in Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Ya-Wen; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chwo, Miao-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to provide the first data on utilization, understanding and satisfaction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) premium subsidy for families of children with disabilities in Taipei. Data from the 2001 Taipei Early Intervention Utilization and Evaluation Survey for Aged 0-6 Children with Disabilities were…

  6. Improved Understanding of Space Radiation Effects on Exploration Electronics by Advanced Modeling of Nanoscale Devices and Novel Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space exploration missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and materials...

  7. Understanding the Electronic Structures and Absorption Properties of Porphyrin Sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Heng; Zhang, Cai-Rong; Zhe, Jian-Wu; Jin, Neng-Zhi; Shen, Yu-Lin; Wang, Wei; Gong, Ji-Jun; Chen, Yu-Hong; Liu, Zi-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structures and excitation properties of dye sensitizers determine the photon-to-current conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to understand the different performance of porphyrin dye sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 in DSSC, their geometries and electronic structures have been studied using density functional theory (DFT), and the electronic absorption properties have been investigated via time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with polarizable continuum model for solvent effects. The geometrical parameters indicate that YD2 and YD2-o-C8 have similar conjugate length and charge transfer (CT) distance. According to the experimental spectra, the HSE06 functional in TDDFT is the most suitable functional for describing the Q and B absorption bands of porphyrins. The transition configurations and molecular orbital analysis suggest that the diarylamino groups are major chromophores for effective CT excitations (ECTE), and therefore act as electron donor in photon-induced electron injection in DSSCs. The analysis of excited states properties and the free energy changes for electron injection support that the better performance of YD2-o-C8 in DSSCs result from the more excited states with ECTE character and the larger absolute value of free energy change for electron injection. PMID:24152435

  8. Understanding the Electronic Structures and Absorption Properties of Porphyrin Sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Jiang Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structures and excitation properties of dye sensitizers determine the photon-to-current conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In order to understand the different performance of porphyrin dye sensitizers YD2 and YD2-o-C8 in DSSC, their geometries and electronic structures have been studied using density functional theory (DFT, and the electronic absorption properties have been investigated via time-dependent DFT (TDDFT with polarizable continuum model for solvent effects. The geometrical parameters indicate that YD2 and YD2-o-C8 have similar conjugate length and charge transfer (CT distance. According to the experimental spectra, the HSE06 functional in TDDFT is the most suitable functional for describing the Q and B absorption bands of porphyrins. The transition configurations and molecular orbital analysis suggest that the diarylamino groups are major chromophores for effective CT excitations (ECTE, and therefore act as electron donor in photon-induced electron injection in DSSCs. The analysis of excited states properties and the free energy changes for electron injection support that the better performance of YD2-o-C8 in DSSCs result from the more excited states with ECTE character and the larger absolute value of free energy change for electron injection.

  9. Teaching Interaction Design and Children: Understanding the Relevance of Theory for Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Bekker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the challenge of teaching interaction design for children’s products especially pertaining to bridging the gap between child development theories and interaction design issues. We describe our experiences from developing a one-week course on interaction design and children, that is part of a competency based Masters program in design. We conclude that key elements in this course, to support learning how to incorporate theoretical knowledge in design, are a providing design tool that covers a child developmental model of four domains (cognitive, social, emotional and physical , such as the Developmentally Situated Design cards for creating child personas and design concepts b using a design exercise c giving students the possibility to work on several iterations d giving students more than one age-group to work with in the project, and e providing the students with an evaluation protocol.

  10. Understanding Malnutrition of Tribal Children in India: The Role of Women's Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Avijit; Bhattacharjee, Nairita

    2016-01-01

    Child malnutrition is considered to be the key risk factor for illness during adolescence and is responsible for about one-third of child deaths globally. Historically tribal communities have lagged behind the general population in terms of most socioeconomic aspects, and one such aspect is the nutritional status of children. The present study analyzes regional variations in child malnutrition and its association with women's empowerment in the tribal communities of India. The investigation is based on secondary data compiled from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS). Both bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to analyze data. We found a conditional inverse association between child malnutrition and women's empowerment in tribal communities. It is conditional in the sense that women's empowerment is effective when other factors supposed to influence nutritional status are proactive. Policy prescriptions are discussed.

  11. Understanding the relationship between brain and upper limb function in children with unilateral motor impairments: A multimodal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Maya; Green, Dido; Rudisch, Julian; Zielinski, Ingar M; Benthem-Muñiz, Marta; Jongsma, Marijtje L A; McClelland, Verity; Steenbergen, Bert; Shiran, Shelly; Ben Bashat, Dafna; Barker, Gareth J

    2018-01-01

    ) and a mixed (n = 1) connectivity pattern; again without clear association with MMs. No differences were found between children with and without MMs in lesion scores, motor fMRI laterality indices, CST diffusivity values, and upper limb function. In the genu, midbody, and splenium of the CC, higher fractional anisotropy values were found in children with MMs compared to children without MMs. The EEG data indicated a stronger mu-restoration above the contralateral hemisphere in 6/8 children and above the ipsilateral hemisphere in 2/8 children. The current results demonstrate benefits from the use of different modalities when studying upper-limb function in children with CP; not least to accommodate to the variations in tolerance and feasibility of implementation of the differing methods. These exposed multiple individual brain-reorganization patterns corresponding to different functional motor abilities. Additional research is warranted to understand the transactional influences of early brain injury, neuroplasticity and developmental and environmental factors on hand function in order to develop targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determining rates of overweight and obese status in children using electronic medical records: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Catherine S; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD ® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Ontario. Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  13. Understanding the causes of obesity in children with trisomy 21: hyperphagia vs physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerste, T; Sabin, M; Reid, S; Reddihough, D

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. This is particularly evident in people with trisomy 21 and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Although metabolic factors are known to contribute to obesity in trisomy 21 and hyperphagia plays a primary role in PWS, hyperphagia has not yet been investigated as a possible contributing factor to obesity in trisomy 21. Participants comprised three diagnostic groups: trisomy 21 (T21 group), PWS (PWS group) and lifestyle-related obesity (LRO group). They were required to be aged 6-18 years and have a body mass index over the 85th percentile for age and gender. A parent of each participant completed the Hyperphagia Questionnaire and the Children's Leisure Activity Study Survey. Mean scores for each domain and across all domains of the Hyperphagia Questionnaire and the Children's Leisure Activity Study Survey were compared between diagnostic groups using linear regression analysis. The study group consisted of 52 young people (23 men and 29 women) aged 6-18 years (mean 12.5 years; T21 group n = 17, PWS group n = 16 and LRO group n = 19). As hypothesised, the PWS group had the highest mean scores across all domains of the Hyperphagia Questionnaire, and the LRO group had the lowest. Food-seeking behaviour was more pronounced in the PWS group than the T21 group (mean score 13.2 vs. 8.6, p = 0.008). The LRO group spent more hours per week engaged in physical activity (14.7) in comparison with the other groups (9.6 and 9.7), whereas between the groups, differences in time spent in sedentary activities were less pronounced. Preoccupation with food and low levels of physical activity may contribute to the development of overweight and obesity in some individuals with trisomy 21. These factors warrant consideration in the clinical context. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley

  14. Increasing Understanding in Children of Depressed Parents: Predictors and Moderators of Intervention Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy R. G. Gladstone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated predictors and moderators of differential response to two family-based depression prevention programs for families with a depressed parent: a clinician-facilitated intervention and a lecture group intervention. Individual and family level variables were examined using regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. For the outcome of child understanding of depression, parental changes in child-related behaviors and attitudes predicted greater child understanding (p<0.001. For the parent outcome of behavior and attitude change, across intervention conditions, younger parent age (p<0.05, female parent gender (p<0.01, more chronic and severe parental depression history (p<0.05, lower SES (p<0.05, and single-parent status (p<0.05 were associated with better outcomes across conditions. Effect sizes were moderate, ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 SD. Family and marital functioning were not found to be predictors of any outcomes. When both parents were depressed at baseline, there was no difference in the clinician- versus lecture-based approach, and when only the father was depressed, families reported more changes with the clinician condition than with the lecture condition (p<0.05. Findings from this study can help identify intervention strategies that are appropriate for different types of at-risk individuals and families.

  15. Science learning at the zoo: Evaluating children's developing understanding of animals and their habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Jensen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    
 these
 issues,
 a
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 using
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 which
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 Specifically,
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 study
 investigated
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 development......This study investigated the development of new ideas about animals, habitats and the zoo amongst a sample of pupils attending ZSL London Zoo. Results indicate the potential of educational presentations based around zoo visits, for enabling conceptual transformations relating to environmental...... 
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 children.
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 the
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However,
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  16. A Socio Behavioural Perspective for Understanding and Managing Behaviour Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Cull

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of interictal behaviour disturbance in children with epilepsy, and the management of such problems, are considered. The search for a direct relationship between epilepsy related variables and behaviour disorders is far from conclusive. While such a relationship may exist with respect to ictal behaviour problems, this line of investigation is of limited value in respect of its implications for the management of interictal problems. In the latter case it is proposed that organic factors may be considered to be a risk factor. In addition, the negative psychosocial sequelae of a diagnosis of epilepsy can result in conditions which are likely to foster the development of inappropriate behaviours. Learning theory would further suggest that environmental contingencies have a role to play in the shaping and maintenance of such behaviours. This broader framework for conceptualising the development and maintenance of interictal behaviour disorders has clear management implications. Clinical examples of the successful application of this approach to the management of persistent behavioural problems in two young people with epilepsy are presented.

  17. From Phenomenology to Neurophysiological Understanding of Hallucinations in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardri, Renaud; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Debbané, Martin; Jenner, Jack A.; Kelleher, Ian; Dauvilliers, Yves; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Demeulemeester, Morgane; David, Christopher N.; Rapoport, Judith; Dobbelaere, Dries; Escher, Sandra; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Typically reported as vivid, multisensory experiences which may spontaneously resolve, hallucinations are present at high rates during childhood. The risk of associated psychopathology is a major cause of concern. On the one hand, the risk of developing further delusional ideation has been shown to be reduced by better theory of mind skills. On the other hand, ideas of reference, passivity phenomena, and misidentification syndrome have been shown to increase the risk of self-injury or heteroaggressive behaviors. Cognitive psychology and brain-imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these early-onset hallucinations. Notably, specific functional impairments have been associated with certain phenomenological characteristics of hallucinations in youths, including intrusiveness and the sense of reality. In this review, we provide an update of associated epidemiological and phenomenological factors (including sociocultural context, social adversity, and genetics, considered in relation to the psychosis continuum hypothesis), cognitive models, and neurophysiological findings concerning hallucinations in children and adolescents. Key issues that have interfered with progress are considered and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:24936083

  18. The direct way may not be the best way: Children with ADHD and their understanding of self-presentation in social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Kain, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge and use of self-presentational tactics is an important social skill. We examined understanding of the function of three different self-presentational tactics (self-promotion, ingratiation and blasting) in 11 8–12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 11 matched comparison children. Children were given six different self-presentation stories, two for each one of the three different tactics. After each story, they were asked to evaluate the effects of the self-presentational tactic used. Children with ADHD rated self-promotion and blasting as more positive and more effective—and ingratiation as less positive and less effective—than children in the control group. This implicates that children with ADHD prefer simple and direct self-presentational strategies (like self-promotion), and, therefore, may not as easily understand more subtle strategies (like ingratiation). They also seem to be more inclined to use negatively connoted strategies (like blasting). We suggest that this limited understanding of self-presentational strategies in children with ADHD may explain some of their problems in social interactions. Therefore, social skill interventions in children with ADHD should incorporate elements focusing on use and understanding of different self-presentational strategies. PMID:27081391

  19. The direct way may not be the best way: Children with ADHD and their understanding of self-presentation in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Kain, Winfried

    2016-01-02

    Knowledge and use of self-presentational tactics is an important social skill. We examined understanding of the function of three different self-presentational tactics (self-promotion, ingratiation and blasting) in 11 8-12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 11 matched comparison children. Children were given six different self-presentation stories, two for each one of the three different tactics. After each story, they were asked to evaluate the effects of the self-presentational tactic used. Children with ADHD rated self-promotion and blasting as more positive and more effective-and ingratiation as less positive and less effective-than children in the control group. This implicates that children with ADHD prefer simple and direct self-presentational strategies (like self-promotion), and, therefore, may not as easily understand more subtle strategies (like ingratiation). They also seem to be more inclined to use negatively connoted strategies (like blasting). We suggest that this limited understanding of self-presentational strategies in children with ADHD may explain some of their problems in social interactions. Therefore, social skill interventions in children with ADHD should incorporate elements focusing on use and understanding of different self-presentational strategies.

  20. Young Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning and Their Theory of Mind Development: A Causal Analysis from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wang, X. Christine; Chui, Wai Yip

    2017-01-01

    Children's understanding of the concepts of teaching and learning is closely associated with their theory of mind (ToM) ability and vital for school readiness. This study aimed to develop and validate a Preschool Teaching and Learning Comprehension Index (PTLCI) across cultures and examine the causal relationship between children's comprehension of teaching and learning and their mental state understanding. Two hundred and twelve children from 3 to 6 years of age from Hong Kong and the United States participated in study. The results suggested strong construct validity of the PTLCI, and its measurement and structural equivalence within and across cultures. ToM and PTLCI were significantly correlated with a medium effect size, even after controlling for age, and language ability. Hong Kong children outperformed their American counterparts in both ToM and PTLCI. Competing structural equation models suggested that children's performance on the PTLCI causally predicted their ToM across countries. PMID:28559863

  1. Young Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning and Their Theory of Mind Development: A Causal Analysis from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children's understanding of the concepts of teaching and learning is closely associated with their theory of mind (ToM ability and vital for school readiness. This study aimed to develop and validate a Preschool Teaching and Learning Comprehension Index (PTLCI across cultures and examine the causal relationship between children's comprehension of teaching and learning and their mental state understanding. Two hundred and twelve children from 3 to 6 years of age from Hong Kong and the United States participated in study. The results suggested strong construct validity of the PTLCI, and its measurement and structural equivalence within and across cultures. ToM and PTLCI were significantly correlated with a medium effect size, even after controlling for age, and language ability. Hong Kong children outperformed their American counterparts in both ToM and PTLCI. Competing structural equation models suggested that children's performance on the PTLCI causally predicted their ToM across countries.

  2. Understanding the Importance of Context: A Qualitative Study of a Location-Based Exergame to Enhance School Childrens Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Robertson

    Full Text Available Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a modify the intervention; b modify the context; c stop providing the intervention. Exergames-also known as Active Video Games or AVGS-are video games which use the player's bodily movements as input and have potential to increase physical activity in children. However, the results of a recent pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT of a location-based exergame (FitQuest in a school setting were inconclusive; no significant effect was detected for any of the outcome measures. The aim of this study was to explore whether the programme theory for FitQuest was correct with respect to how and why it would change children's perceptions of physical activity (PA and exercise self-efficacy in the school setting. A further aim was to investigate the features of the school setting (context that may impact on FitQuest's implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative data (gathered during the RCT were gathered from interviews with teachers and children, and observation of sessions using FitQuest. Thematic analysis indicated that whilst children enjoyed playing the game, engaged with goal setting within the game context and undertook low to vigorous physical activity, there were significant contextual factors that prevented it from being played as often as intended. These included environmental factors (e.g. size of the playground, school factors (cancellations due to other activities, school technology policy (rules

  3. Establishment and metabolic analysis of a model microbial community for understanding trophic and electron accepting interactions of subsurface anaerobic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zamin K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities of microorganisms control the rates of key biogeochemical cycles, and are important for biotechnology, bioremediation, and industrial microbiological processes. For this reason, we constructed a model microbial community comprised of three species dependent on trophic interactions. The three species microbial community was comprised of Clostridium cellulolyticum, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, and Geobacter sulfurreducens and was grown under continuous culture conditions. Cellobiose served as the carbon and energy source for C. cellulolyticum, whereas D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens derived carbon and energy from the metabolic products of cellobiose fermentation and were provided with sulfate and fumarate respectively as electron acceptors. Results qPCR monitoring of the culture revealed C. cellulolyticum to be dominant as expected and confirmed the presence of D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens. Proposed metabolic modeling of carbon and electron flow of the three-species community indicated that the growth of C. cellulolyticum and D. vulgaris were electron donor limited whereas G. sulfurreducens was electron acceptor limited. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. cellulolyticum, D. vulgaris, and G. sulfurreducens can be grown in coculture in a continuous culture system in which D. vulgaris and G. sulfurreducens are dependent upon the metabolic byproducts of C. cellulolyticum for nutrients. This represents a step towards developing a tractable model ecosystem comprised of members representing the functional groups of a trophic network.

  4. Understanding Providers' Interaction with Graphical User Interface Pertaining to Clinical Document Usage in an Electronic Health Record System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Rubina Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Despite high Electronic Health Record (EHR) system adoption rates by hospital and office-based practices, many users remain highly dissatisfied with the current state of EHRs. Sub-optimal EHR usability as a result of insufficient incorporation of User-Centered Design (UCD) approach during System Development Life Cycle process (SDLC) is considered…

  5. Understanding health care providers' reluctance to adopt a national electronic patient record : An empirical and legal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Ploem, M.C.; Wiesman, F.J.; Verheij, R.A.; Friele, R.D.; Gevers, J.K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several countries are implementing a national electronic patient record (n-EPR). Despite the assumed positive effects of n-EPRs on the efficiency, continuity, safety and quality of care, their overall adoption remains low and meets resistance from involved parties. The implementation of

  6. Understanding health care providers' reluctance to adopt a national electronic patient record: an empirical and legal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Ploem, M. C.; Wiesman, F. J.; Verheij, R. A.; Friele, R. D.; Gevers, J. K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Several countries are implementing a national electronic patient record (n-EPR). Despite the assumed positive effects of n-EPRs on the efficiency, continuity, safety and quality of care, their overall adoption remains low and meets resistance from involved parties. The implementation of the Dutch

  7. Understanding of genetic inheritance among Xhosa-speaking caretakers of children with hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gabriele; Greenberg, Jacquie; Futter, Merle; Vivian, Lauraine; Penn, Claire

    2012-10-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked recessive inherited bleeding disorders that have a profound impact on the family of affected individuals. Education is vital to enable women to appreciate the implications of being a carrier and the implications for a prospective child. Prior research has shown that cultural, socio-economic and linguistic issues in South Africa are major barriers to communication for first-language Xhosa-speakers. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the basic knowledge of genetic inheritance among this cultural group in order to promote culturally-sensitive, effective genetic counseling. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted with Xhosa-speaking mothers or caregivers of boys with hemophilia. Results suggest that the participants had a very limited understanding of the clinical management, genetic consequences and cause of hemophilia. While treatment and care by health care service providers was fully accepted, several participants believed that traditional methods would provide them with more satisfactory explanations. These findings suggest that there is a critical need for socio-culturally tailored, language-specific education for families with hemophilia.

  8. A Data-Model Comparison Approach to Understand the Source and Transport Mechanisms of keV-Energy Electrons at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Costa, D.; Clark, G. B.; Paranicas, C.; Menietti, J. D.; Tseng, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a multi-instrument data analysis and interpretation of Cassini observations that is guided by a theoretical model. Through this analysis, we discuss the source and transport mechanisms of energetic electrons at Saturn and attempt to explain their spatial distributions inside 20 planetary radii (Rs). Using only data sets from equatorial orbits, a recent analysis of Cassini MIMI/LEMMS, CAPS, and MAG data sets by Clark et al. (2014; doi:10.1016/j.pss.2014.07.004) demonstrated how the angular profiles (i.e., 'pancakes', 'isotropic', 'field-aligned', and 'butterfly' PADs) of keV-energy electrons are statistically distributed at Saturn. Through a theoretical transport model, Clark et al. (2014) also demonstrated the role of Saturn's neutral gas torus with adiabatic transport to explain the spatial distribution of electrons. However, their data/model comparison was limited to a case study analysis and the data-model comparison results still do not provide the full picture in understanding the source of keV-energy electrons and their radial evolution. Here we continue to refine our understanding of the spatial distributions of keV-energy electrons at Saturn with the use of a data-model comparison approach. Using the full set of MIMI/LEMMS particle data available for the period mid-2004 to mid-2014, we carefully reexamine the role of neutrals and adiabatic transport for the region ~10 to 15 Rs. Using PAD profiles deduced from data sets at 15 Rs, we build different boundary conditions for our computational model and discuss how angular profiles radially evolve throughout the region ~10-15 Rs and which PADs at our boundary condition can explain the Cassini observations near ~10 Rs. We also present the results from our ongoing investigation of the dominant processes inside ~10 Rs and focus on the impact of chorus emission on the energetic electron distributions.

  9. Trying to understand the extreme: school children's narratives of the mass killings in Norway July 22, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Beate Fosse; Skarstein, Dag; Schultz, Jon-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    School-aged children have limited resources for coping with exposure to high-intensity media coverage of terrorist events. This study explores pupils' meaning-making process of their indirect, media-communicated encounters with a specific terrorist event in Norway. Qualitative in-depth interviews about the July 22, 2011 terror attacks were conducted with 54 pupils aged 6-8 years. Seven months after the attacks, the majority had unanswered questions based on more or less accurate knowledge of the events, and they still experienced fear. The media and peers appeared to be their major source of information and not parents or teachers. These children's narratives, characterized by some detailed facts, limited understanding, and a high degree of fiction, were inadequate for restoring calm and feelings of safety. Examples indicate how teacher-facilitated collaborative activities among pupils dealing with crisis can provide a way to construct meaning-making by stimulating conversations and reflections, and developing the narrative through a process of metacognition can provide for further learning and new insights. Implications for a proactive teacher role are indicated.

  10. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  11. Understanding caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children: evidence from 34 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Khan, Shane M

    2011-12-01

    This article presents findings on caregivers' attitudes towards physical punishment of children from 34 household surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries in 2005 and 2006. The article analyzes the variability in attitudes by background characteristics of the respondents to examine whether various factors at the individual and family levels correlate with the caregivers' beliefs in the need for violent discipline. The article also examines to what extent attitudes influence behaviors and compares groups of respondents to see how attitudes relate to disciplinary practices across caregivers of different socio-economic backgrounds. The analysis is based on nationally representative data from 33 MICS and 1 DHS surveys. Questions on child discipline were addressed to the mother (or primary caregiver) of one randomly selected child aged 2-14 years in each household. The questionnaire asked whether any member of the household had used various violent and non-violent disciplinary practices with that child during the past month. Additionally, the interviewers asked the respondent if she believed that, in order to bring up that child properly, physical punishment was necessary. The sample included 166,635 mothers/primary caregivers. The analysis shows that, in most countries, the majority of mothers/primary caregivers did not think there was a need for physical punishment. Overall, characteristics such as household wealth and size, educational level and age, as well as place of residence were significantly associated with caregivers' attitudes. The analysis confirms that beliefs influence disciplinary practices to a large degree: in all the countries but two, children were significantly more likely to experience physical punishment if their mothers/primary caregivers thought such punishment was needed. However, large proportions of children were found to be subject to physical punishment even if their mothers/primary caregivers did not consider this method

  12. Understanding the photoluminescence characteristics of Eu{sup 3+}-doped double-perovskite by electronic structure calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Binita [St. Paul’s Cathedral Mission College, 33/1Raja Rammohan Roy Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Halder, Saswata; Sinha, T. P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Das, Sayantani [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Europium-doped luminescent barium samarium tantalum oxide Ba{sub 2}SmTaO{sub 6} (BST) has been investigated by first-principles calculation, and the crystal structure, electronic structure, and optical properties of pure BST and Eu-doped BST have been examined and compared. Based on the calculated results, the luminescence properties and mechanism of Eu-doped BST has been discussed. In the case of Eu-doped BST, there is an impurity energy band at the Fermi level, which is formed by seven spin up energy levels of Eu and act as the luminescent centre, which is evident from the band structure calculations.

  13. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Nizar, F. Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. Results: The mean age of...

  15. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  16. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  17. Children's Understandings of Characters' Beliefs in Persuasive Arguments: Links with Gender and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Anna M.; Bosacki, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of gender plays in the relation between children's theory of mind (ToM) and persuasion. We explored children's use of the belief information of the characters involved within a persuasive situation. In two studies, children (four- to eight-year-olds) performed a comic strip task that described a…

  18. A Social-Cognitive-Ecological Framework for Understanding the Impact of Exposure to Persistent Ethnic-Political Violence on Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a theoretical framework for understanding how persistent and extreme exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence interacts with cognitive, emotional, and self processes to influence children's psychosocial adjustment. Three recent strands of theorizing guide our approach. First, we focus on how observational and…

  19. Exploring Young Children's Understanding about the Concept of Volume through Engineering Design in a STEM Activity: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mi-Hwa; Bates, Alan B.

    2018-01-01

    This case study explores young children's understanding and application of the concept of volume through the practices of engineering design in a STEM activity. STEM stands for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. However, engineering stands out as a challenging area to implement. In addition, most early engineering education…

  20. Educators' Understanding of Young Children's Typical and Problematic Sexual Behaviour and Their Training in This Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Lesley-anne; McInnes, Elspeth; Rigney, Lester Irabinna

    2017-01-01

    As part of a wider study, this paper reports on Australian educators' understanding of children's typical and problematic sexual behaviour and their source of training in this area. A sample of 107 educators from government, independent and Catholic primary schools, preschools and care organisations across Australia answered an online…

  1. On Being in the Wrong Place: The Role of Children's Conceptual Understanding and Ballgame Experience When Judging a Football Player's Offside Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Bosco, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of children's conceptual understanding and ballgame experience when judging whether a football player is in an offside position, or not. In the offside position, a player takes advantage of being behind the defence line of the opposing team and just waits for the ball to arrive in order to score a goal. We explained the…

  2. A Field Evaluation of Devices for Maintaining Contact with Mobile Deaf and Deaf-Blind Children: Electronic Communication with Deaf and Deaf-Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, William; And Others

    Behavioral and engineering tests were conducted in the field and laboratory to assess effectiveness and usefulness of the Vibralert, an electronic device for maintaining contact with deaf and deaf-blind children and adults. The vibrating portable signal system was used by 24 deaf and hearing parents to maintain contact with their deaf children at…

  3. Electronic Structure, Optical and Transport Properties of Double Perovskite La2NbMnO6: A Theoretical Understanding from DFT Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrey, Khursheed Ahmad; Khandy, Shakeel Ahmad; Islam, Ishtihadah; Laref, Amel; Gupta, Dinesh C.; Niazi, Asad; Aziz, Anver; Ansari, S. G.; Khenata, R.; Rubab, Seemin

    2018-03-01

    Double perovskite La2NbMnO6 was systematically studied using the first-principles calculations. The structural, electronic, optical and transport properties of this compound were calculated. Spin resolved band structure predicted this material as a half-metal with an energy gap of 3.75 eV in spin down state. The optical coefficients including optical conductivity, reflectivity and electron energy loss are calculated for photon energy up to 30.00 eV to understand the optical response of this perovskite. The strong absorption of all the ultraviolet and infrared frequencies of the spectrum by this material may suggest the potential application of this material for the optoelectronic devices in ultraviolet and infra-red region. Also, the thermoelectric properties with a speculation from the half-metallic electronic structure are reported. Subsequently, the Seebeck coefficient, electrical and thermal conductivity coefficients are calculated to predict the thermoelectric figure of merit (zT), the maximum of which is found out to be 0.14 at 800 K.

  4. Evaluation of the Safety Detective Program: A Classroom-Based Intervention to Increase Kindergarten Children's Understanding of Home Safety Hazards and Injury-Risk Behaviors to Avoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Bell, Melissa; Park, Katey; Pogrebtsova, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Home injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity for young children. Most programs that aim to improve their knowledge of home safety have been narrowly focused on one injury type and/or required specialized personnel for delivery. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new Safety Detective Program that was designed to teach young children (4-6 years) about several types of home safety hazards and unsafe behaviors, with the program delivered in a classroom setting by non-experts based on manualized training. The current study used a randomized group, pre-post design to evaluate the effectiveness of the program to increase children's knowledge and understanding of home safety hazards and injury-risk behaviors to avoid. Children participated in six structured sessions, covering burns, falls, drowning, and poisoning. Each session involved play-based activities (storybook, song, and game or craft) to teach main messages about hazards and injury-risk behaviors, a take home activity, and a parent information sheet about the injury type covered that day. An individually administered photo-sort task with follow-up interview was used to measure intervention and control group participants' knowledge and understanding of injury-risk behaviors before and after program delivery. Children in the intervention, but not the control, group exhibited significant gains in their knowledge and understanding of home safety hazards and injury-risk behaviors to avoid, establishing the effectiveness of the program. This evaluation indicates that the Safety Detective Program can be delivered in classrooms without requiring specialized personnel or extensive training and with positive changes obtained. The program holds much promise as a means of improving kindergarten children's understanding of a broad range of home hazards and injury-risk behaviors that are relevant to their safety.

  5. Do television and electronic games predict children's psychosocial adjustment? Longitudinal research using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion

    2013-05-01

    Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms.

  6. On Being in the Wrong Place: The Role of Children's Conceptual Understanding and Ballgame Experience when Judging a Football Player's Offside Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Bosco, Giorgia

    2016-06-28

    We investigated the role of children's conceptual understanding and ballgame experience when judging whether a football player is in an offside position, or not. In the offside position, a player takes advantage of being behind the defence line of the opposing team and just waits for the ball to arrive in order to score a goal. We explained the offside rule to 7- and 9-year-old children with a Subbuteo setup. They produced drawings of an offside position until it was correct (drawing to criterion). Thereafter, children judged whether a designated player was in an offside position in a computerized task. Like adults, also children found it easier to judge when a player was in a wrong rather than a right place. Only when including frequency of ballgame practice in the analysis it was revealed that boys were better independently of age as they judged the offside position more systematically.

  7. A Cross-Continental Study on Children's Drawings of Football Players: Implications for Understanding Key Issues and Controversies in Human Figure Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluch, Bahman; Duffy, Linda J; Badami, Rokhsareh; Pereira, Elisangela C Ap

    2017-08-01

    Professionals examine various aspects of girls' and boys' drawings as a way of understanding their intelligence, personality and emotional state. However, the extent to which such measures could be universally generalised or attributed to a specific cultural norm is still a debatable issue. In the present study five key features of children's drawings namely: the size (height) of the drawings, profile or full face, figure in action or static, shaded or non-shaded and the nature of additional details were examined from a cross-cultural perspective, and by providing a topic (football) for which children's drawing of a human figure could provide opportunities for the latter indices to manifest and flourish. Children from three countries; England, Iran and Brazil, representing three continents took part in this study. The participants were asked to draw a football player from their own country and from the other participating countries. The results showed that Brazilian children differ from Iranian and English children by drawing significantly smaller figures and putting more football action in the drawings. Shading of the figure drawn was more prevalent amongst English children. Such findings have implications for the interpretation of key aspects of children's drawings in educational, clinical and therapeutic settings and from a universal vs. culturally-specific viewpoint.

  8. 'Sometimes I want to play by myself': Understanding what friendship means to children with autism in mainstream primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom peers. Consistent with previous research, children with autism (n = 12), aged between 9 and 11 years, rated their friendships to be of poorer quality than their non-autistic classroom peers (n = 11). There was, however, much variability in autistic children's ratings, which, unexpectedly, was related to neither children's cognitive ability nor their theory of mind ability. Encouragingly, the children generally reported satisfaction with their friendships, and although no child was socially isolated, the degree of inclusion in friendship networks varied widely. Furthermore, autistic children's social motivation emerged as a key factor in parents' and teachers' reports in determining both the nature and extent of their friendships. Adults played an active role in supporting children's friendships, but this sometimes conflicted with what the children wanted. These findings highlight the need to ascertain the perspectives of young people with autism on their friendships and to consider the social and ethical implications of when and how to intervene.

  9. Are Electronic Books Effective in Teaching Young Children Reading and Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jamillah M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether electronic books, CD-ROM'S, or interactive media are beneficial in teaching reading should be determined on evidence that they aid reading comprehension. Reading is worthless unless one comprehends. In order to examine the effectiveness of electronic books in a reading program, the characteristics and attributes of how…

  10. Effect of electronic time monitors on children's television watching: pilot trial of a home-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Roberts, Vaughan; Maddison, Ralph; Dorey, Enid; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Tin Tin, Sandar

    2009-11-01

    This pilot study evaluated the feasibility (recruitment, retention, and acceptability) and preliminary efficacy of a six-week home-based electronic time monitor intervention on New Zealand children's television watching in 2008. Twenty-nine children aged 9 to 12 years who watched more than 20 h of television per week (62% male, mean age 10.4 years) were randomised to either the intervention or the control group. The intervention group received an electronic TV time monitor for 6 weeks and advice to restrict TV watching to 1 h per day or less. The control group was given verbal advice to restrict TV watching. Participant retention at 6 weeks was 93%. Semi-structured interviews with intervention families confirmed moderate acceptability of TV time monitors and several perceived benefits including better awareness of household TV viewing and improved time planning. Drawbacks reported included disruption to parents' TV watching and increased sibling conflict. Time spent watching television decreased by 4.2 h (mean change [SD]: -254 [536] min) per week in the intervention group compared with no change in the control group (-3 [241] min), but the difference between groups was not statistically significant, p=0.77. Both groups reported decreases in energy intake from snacks and total screen time and increases in physical activity measured by pedometer and between-group differences were not statistically significant. Electronic TV time monitors are feasible to use for home-based TV watching interventions although acceptability varies between families. Preliminary findings from this pilot suggest that such devices have potential to decrease children's TV watching but a larger trial is needed to confirm effectiveness. Future research should be family-orientated; take account of other screen time activities; and employ TV time monitors as just one of a range of strategies to decrease sedentary behaviour.

  11. Emotional Abilities in Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Impairments in Perspective-Taking and Understanding Mixed Emotions are Associated with High Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kearney, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Liwag, Maria; Fortune, Clare-Ann; Dawel, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of emotion abilities in disruptive children focus on emotion expression recognition. This study compared 74 children aged 4-8 years with ODD to 45 comparison children (33 healthy; 12 with an anxiety disorder) on behaviourally assessed measures of emotion perception, emotion perspective-taking, knowledge of emotions causes and understanding ambivalent emotions and on parent-reported cognitive and affective empathy. Adjusting for child's sex, age and expressive language ODD children showed a paucity in attributing causes to emotions but no other deficits relative to the comparison groups. ODD boys with high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CU) (n = 22) showed deficits relative to low CU ODD boys (n = 25) in emotion perspective-taking and in understanding ambivalent emotions. Low CU ODD boys did not differ from the healthy typically developing boys (n = 12). Impairments in emotion perceptive-taking and understanding mixed emotions in ODD boys are associated with the presence of a high level of CU.

  12. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  13. Context and Communication Strategies in Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention: A Framework for Understanding How Practitioners Facilitate Communication in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy

    2011-01-01

    There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…

  14. A Study of Parental Understanding of and Intervention in Cyberbullying among Children in Fourth through Eighth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parents' perceptions of their role in supervision of their children's use of technology and their reported responses to events in which their children are cyberbullying oppressors, victims, or bystanders. The theoretical perspectives such as Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological theory,…

  15. "Sometimes I Want to Play by Myself": Understanding What Friendship Means to Children with Autism in Mainstream Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom…

  16. The Voice of the Practitioner: Sharing Fiction Books to Support the Understanding of Theory of Mind in Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, S.; Chilton, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing research interest in the development of theory of mind (ToM) in deaf children and young people and the conditions which might enable or suppress development of the set of skills involved. However, the views of practitioners working with deaf children have not been widely explored. This paper presents the…

  17. "If You Were the Researcher What Would You Research?": Understanding Children's Perspectives on Educational Research in Mongolia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Julia; Sengedorj, Tumendelger

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a project undertaken with children (N?=?72) in Mongolia and Zambia. The research is distinctive in bringing together diverse children, ranging from those living on the street to those in mainstream education and involving them in discussions about educational research. Being conscious of critiques of adult-initiated…

  18. Developing a System of Protection for Young Children in Uruguay: Understanding the Link between the Home Environment and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Boo, Florencia; Cubides Mateus, Mayaris; Sorio, Rita; Garibotto, Giorgina; Berón, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Uruguay is making great progress in improving the lives of its youngest children. A national longitudinal early childhood-focused household survey has been, and will continue to be, an important tool for identifying concerns and targeting interventions. In a study of the home environment, the authors found that children from lower income…

  19. Towards a better understanding of the geometrical and orientational aspects of the electronic structure of halogens (F–I) adsorption on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Hantarto; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Yin, Chun-Yang; Goh, Bee-Min; Mondinos, Nicholas; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Examines the orientation (zigzag, armchair) effects of F/Cl/Br/I-adsorbed graphene. • F cases are site-dependent, while Cl/Br/I cases have minimal orientation dependence. • F is adsorbed to graphene at about three times stronger than Cl/Br/I. • To prompt re-examination of elemental-graphene systems to account for orientation. - Abstract: Adding impurities or doping through adsorption is an effective way to modify the properties of graphene-based materials. The capability of making predictions pertinent to the trends of elemental adsorption on graphene is very instrumental towards a better understanding of the more complex adsorption cases. It also affords useful guidelines for fabricating 2-D graphene materials with novel properties. The electronic structure of elemental adsorption on graphene is affected by side of adsorption (single- or double-sided), site of adsorption (i.e. bridge, hollow or top), and the relative orientation of the adsorbed sites (i.e. zigzag or armchair). In this contribution, we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the electronic structures of halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) adsorbed on graphene at lower concentrations spanning 1:6, 1:8 and 1:18 atomic ratios, in order to elucidate effects of adsorption trends. We demonstrate that adsorption of F is merely site-dependent (top). On the contrary, adsorptions of Cl, Br and I display a minimal dependence towards orientation (i.e. the effects of the deployed supercells). Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the elemental adsorption on graphene in terms of geometry which may aid in reexamining previous studies and producing better predictions for future studies, in which the inclusion of orientation is indispensable.

  20. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.