WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding arbovirus persistence

  1. Vertebrate Reservoirs of Arboviruses: Myth, Synonym of Amplifier, or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Kuno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid succession of the pandemic of arbovirus diseases, such as dengue, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and Zika fever, has intensified research on these and other arbovirus diseases worldwide. Investigating the unique mode of vector-borne transmission requires a clear understanding of the roles of vertebrates. One major obstacle to this understanding is the ambiguity of the arbovirus definition originally established by the World Health Organization. The paucity of pertinent information on arbovirus transmission at the time contributed to the notion that vertebrates played the role of reservoir in the arbovirus transmission cycle. Because this notion is a salient feature of the arbovirus definition, it is important to reexamine its validity. This review addresses controversial issues concerning vertebrate reservoirs and their role in arbovirus persistence in nature, examines the genesis of the problem from a historical perspective, discusses various unresolved issues from multiple points of view, assesses the present status of the notion in light of current knowledge, and provides options for a solution to resolve the issue.

  2. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  3. Using Narrative Inquiry to Understand Persistently Disciplined Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Lewis, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Grosland, Tanetha J.

    2016-01-01

    Educators' persistent disciplining of a small group of students positions them as "frequent flyers." This identity prevents educators from developing an understanding that could enable them to reengage these students. Using the methodology of interpretive biography positioned within narrative inquiry and using a Gestalt-based analysis,…

  4. Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm.

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    Luis Adrian Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as CHK, DEN and urban YFV. However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities.

  5. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

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    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature and environmental (nurture factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  6. Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:24244760

  7. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

  8. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-11-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

  9. The First Year of College: Understanding Student Persistence in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Marina Calvet

    This research study aimed to expand our understanding of the factors that influence student persistence in engineering. The unique experiences of engineering students were examined as they transitioned into and navigated their first year of college at a public research university in California. Most students provided similar responses with respect to the way they experienced the transition to college and social life. There was, however, wide student response variation regarding their experience of academic life and academic policies, as well as in their level of pre-college academic preparation and financial circumstances. One key finding was that students' experiences during the first year of college varied widely based on the extent to which they had acquired organizational and learning skills prior to college. The study used a mixed methods approach. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through an online survey and one-on-one interviews conducted with freshman students near the end of their first year of college. The theoretical foundations of this study included Astin's Theory of Student Involvement and Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The design of the study was guided by these theories which emphasize the critical importance of student involvement with the academic and social aspects of college during the first year of college.

  10. [Arboviruses also have an American dream].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2017-08-01

    Some arboviruses that originated in the Old World have been introduced by humans into the American continent. The first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the West African coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the Americas. Next was theWest Nile virus, introduced in New York in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. Then, Chikungunya virus arrived on Saint Martin Island in 2013 after its outbreak in Polynesia; it is now widespread in the Caribbean Islands and on the American continent from the United States to Brazil. Finally, Zika virus, already active in Asia and in the South Pacific region, was introduced in Brazil and spread between the southern part of United States and south Brazil. These unexpected emergences are the consequence of the generalization of transoceanic trading; so, it is humans who are truly responsible for such transportation of viruses from the African and Asian continents. The mechanisms of virus establishment in unusual ecosystems have to be analyzed in order to understand the conditions for the circulation of the viruses, which supposes an adaptation to new hosts and vectors that are sometimes local species (like Culex vectors of West Nile virus) but mainly previously introduced mosquitoes (like Aedes aegypti and/or Aedes albopictus). Over time, all these vectors developed a strong anthropophily and, most of them, a remarkable adaptation to urban environment; hence, these arboviruses can disseminate both in rural and urban context. This type of arboviral emergences will certainly continue in the following years and we must imperatively develop preventive strategies by detecting virus mutations with capacity for emergence, enhancing the sensibility and rapidity of epidemiological surveillance, and becoming ready to face such events that cause a truly international health crisis.

  11. Intersectionality and HIV/AIDS. Towards Understanding the Persistence of Educational Gender Inequality in Rural Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakuru, D.M.; Burg, van der Margreet

    2008-01-01

    Gender inequalities have persisted in Uganda¿s primary education regardless of specific interventions put in place to eliminate them. These include the implementation of Universal Primary Education in 1997. Research was carried out to understand the reasons for the persistence of these inequalities.

  12. Understanding policy persistence : The case of police drug detection dog policy in NSW, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, Caitlin E.; Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari; Hoppe, Robert

    Background Significant research attention has been given to understanding the processes of drug policy reform. However, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the persistence of policy in the face of opposition and evidence of ineffectiveness. In this article we analysed just such a case –

  13. (Arbo)viruses in high European Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    ELSTEROVÁ, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Since an ongoing climate change covers strongly the polar areas. Higher temperatures and related climate parameters bring the emergence of new parasites and their pathogens to higher latitudes. This may influence zoonotic diseases including arthropod-transmitted diseases. The tick species Ixodes uriae, parasitizing seabirds in the Arctic, may transmit many pathogens including various arboviruses, Borrelia spirochetes and Babesia apicomplexans. In the study we diagnosed 89 individuals of seabi...

  14. Vertebrate reservoirs of arboviruses: myth, synonym of amplifier, or reality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuno, G.; Mackenzie, J. S.; Junglen, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Plyusnin, A.; Gubler, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 185. ISSN 1999-4915 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : insect-specific virus * arbovirus * transmission mechanism * vertebrate reservoir * origin of arbovirus * virus maintenance * zoonosis * host range Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2016

  15. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community

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    Bethany G. Bolling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching.

  16. Towards an understanding of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium persistence in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sheila K; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Borewicz, Klaudyna; Isaacson, Richard E

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella enterica is an important food borne pathogen that is frequently carried by swine. Carrier animals pose a food safety risk because they can transmit S. enterica to finished food products in the processing plant or by contamination of the environment. Environmental contamination has become increasingly important as non-animal foods (plant-based) have been implicated as sources of S. enterica. The prevalence of S. enterica in swine is high and yet carrier animals remain healthy. S. enterica has developed a highly sophisticated set of virulence factors that allow it to adapt to host environments and to cause disease. It is assumed that S. enterica also has developed unique ways to maintain itself in animals and yet not cause disease. Here we describe our research to understand persistence. Specifically, data are presented that demonstrates that detection of most carrier animals requires specific stresses that cause S. enterica to be shed from pigs. As well, we describe a phenotypic phase variation process that appears to be linked to the carrier state and a complex set of factors that control phenotypic phase variation. Finally, we describe how the composition of the gut bacterial microbiome may contribute to persistence and at the least how S. enterica might alter the composition of the gut bacterial microbiome.

  17. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  18. Imaging lymphoid tissues in nonhuman primates to understand SIV pathogenesis and persistence.

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    Deleage, Claire; Turkbey, Baris; Estes, Jacob D

    2016-08-01

    CD4+ T cells are the primary HIV-1 target cell, with the vast majority of these cells residing within lymphoid tissue compartments throughout the body. Predictably, HIV-1 infection, replication, localization, reservoir establishment and persistence, as well as associated host immune and inflammatory responses and disease pathology principally take place within the tissues of the immune system. By virture of the fact that the virus-host struggle is played out within lymphoid and additional tissues compartments in HIV-1 infected individuals it is critical to understand HIV-1 infection and disease within these relevant tissue sites; however, there are obvious limitations to studying these dynamic processes in humans. Nonhuman primate (NHP) research has provided a vital bridge between basic and preclinical research and clinical studies, with experimental SIV infection of NHP models offering unique opportunities to understand key processes of HIV-1 infection and disease that are either not practically feasible or ethical in HIV-1 infected humans. In this review we will discuss current approaches to studying the tissue based immunopathogenesis of AIDS virus infection in NHPs, including both analyses of tissues obtained at biopsy or necropsy and complementary non-invasive imaging approaches that may have practical utility in monitoring HIV-1 disease in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Water Resources System Archetypes: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Persistent Water Resources Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W.; Madani, K.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.

  20. Understanding decisions Latino students make regarding persistence in the science and math pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Janet Lynn

    This qualitative study focused on the knowledge and perceptions of Latino high school students, as well those of their parents and school personnel, at a southwestern, suburban high school regarding persistence in the math/science pipeline. In the context of the unique school and community setting these students experience, the decision-making process was examined with particular focus on characterizing the relationships that influence the process. While the theoretical framework that informs this study was that of social capital, its primary purpose was to inform the school's processes and policy in support of increased Latino participation in the math and science pipeline. Since course selection may be the most powerful factor affecting school achievement and college-preparedness, and since course selection is influenced by school policy, school personnel, students, parents, and teachers alike, it is important to understand the beliefs and perceptions that characterize the relationships among them. The qualitative research design involved a phenomenological study of nine Latino students, their parents, their teachers and counselors, and certain support personnel from the high school. The school's and community's environment in support of academic intensity served as context for the portrait that developed. Given rapidly changing demographics that bring more and more Latino students to suburban high schools, the persistent achievement gap experienced by Latino students, and the growing dependence of the world economy on a citizenry versed in the math- and science-related fields, a deeper understanding of the decision-making processes Latino 12 students experience can inform school policy as educators struggle to influence those decisions. This study revealed a striking lack of knowledge concerning the college-entrance ramifications of continued course work in math and science beyond that required for graduation, relationships among peers, parents, and school

  1. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution.

  2. [Arbovirus circulation in the Republic of Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, A M

    1996-01-01

    In 1978-1991 the USSR-Guinea Virological and Microbiological Laboratory functioned in Kindia, the Republic of Guinea. Arbovirus activity in this country was studied by a number of virologists and other specialists. Their personal contribution and achievements in this collaboration are reflected in the present paper. About 74,000 mosquitoes, 100,000 Ixodidae ticks, 1,500 wild birds, 2,700 bats, 106 monkeys, and 308 other mammals, 927 blood samples collected from febrile patients were examined in 1978-1989, using inoculation of new-born white mice. As a result of this work 127 strains of the following arboviruses were isolated: Chikungunia (1 strain), Dengue 2 (4), Saboya (7), Wesselsbron (1), Bunyamwera (4), M'Poko (5), Rift Valley Fever (6), CHF-Congo (9), Dugbe (22), Bhanja (6), Forecariah (2), Jos (26), Abadina (15), Kindia (2), Ark 6956 (1), Fomede (2), Bluetongue (9), Mossuril (2), AnK 6009 (1), and Kolente (2). Dengue 2, Wesselsbron, Bunyamwera, M'Poko, Kindia, Mossuril viruses were isolated from mosquitoes. Ixodidae ticks were sources for isolation of Chikungunia, Saboya, CCHF, Dugbe, Bhanja, Forecaciah, Jos, Abadina, Kindia, Ark 6956, Fomede, Bluetongue, and Kolente viruses. Saboya, RVF, Fomede, Kolente, AnK 6909 were isolated from bats (Chiroptera); Saboya, Abadina, and Bluetongue viruses from birds. One strain of Dugbe virus was originated from the brain of Cercopithecus patas. Bunyamwera and Abadina viruses were isolated from the blood of two febrile patients. Serological identification of many strains was kindly conducted at the Pasteur Institute, Dakar (J. P.Digoutte) and some at the YARU, USA (R. Shope). Kindia and Ark 6956 (Reovirus, gr. Palyam), Fomede (gr. Chobar Gorge), Forecariah (Bunyavirus, gr. Bhanja), Kolente (Rhabdovirus) were identified as an original type of Lagos bat virus. The results of seroepidemiological surveys are also presented.

  3. Understanding the Persistence of Caste: A Commentary on Cotterill, Sidanius, Bhardwaj and Kumar (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal A. Jogdand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We contextualise Cotterill, Sidanius, Bhardwaj, and Kumar’s (2014 paper within a broader literature on caste and collective mobilisation. Cotterill and colleagues’ paper represents a fresh and timely attempt to make sense of the persistence of caste from the perspective of Social Dominance Theory. Cotterill and colleagues, however, do not examine caste differences in the endorsement of karma, and take behavioural asymmetry among lower castes for granted. Cotterill and colleagues also adhere to a Varna model of the caste system that arguably is simplistic and benefits the upper castes of Indian society. We caution that emphasising behavioural asymmetry and endorsing the Varna model might further stigmatise lower castes, especially Dalits, and feed into a conformity bias already predominant in caste-related psychological research. We argue that the conceptualisation and operationalisation of Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation and legitimising myths in the Indian context needs to take into account the particular meaning and functions of these constructs in specific intergroup contexts, and for identity positions salient within these contexts. We contend that any examination aimed at better understanding the nature of social hierarchy and oppression within the caste system and Indian society in general remains inconclusive without including a focus on the construction and contestation of social categories and social identities.

  4. Assessing the zoonotic potential of arboviruses of African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Marietjie

    2018-02-01

    Several African arboviruses have emerged over the past decade in new regions where they caused major outbreaks in humans and/or animals including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. This raise questions regarding the importance of less known zoonotic arboviruses in local epidemics in Africa and their potential to emerge internationally. Syndromic surveillance in animals may serve as an early warning system to detect zoonotic arbovirus outbreaks. Rift Valley fever and Wesselsbronvirus are for example associated with abortion storms in livestock while West Nile-virus, Shuni virus and Middelburg virus causes neurological disease outbreaks in horses and other animals. Death in birds may signal Bagaza virus and Usutu virus outbreaks. This short review summarise data on less known arboviruses with zoonotic potential in Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecological Relationships between Arboviruses, Ectoparasites, and Vertebrates in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    amplifying hosts of Group B arboviruses. Among other groups there is a high incidence of Group B antibody in a monkey, a baboon, two fruit bats and a lizard. Rodents and amphibia are of little or not importance.

  6. Deployable Molecular Detection of Arboviruses in the Australian Outback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bradbury, Richard S; McInnes, Russell L; Frances, Stephen P; Merritt, Adam J; Levy, Avram; Nicholson, Jay; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael; Smith, David W

    2016-09-07

    The most common causes of human infection from the arboviruses that are endemic in Australia are the arthritogenic alphaviruses: Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV). The most serious infections are caused by the neurotropic flaviviruses, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus. The greatest individual risk of arbovirus infection occurs in tropical/subtropical northern Australia because of the warm, wet summer conditions from December to June, where conventional arbovirus surveillance is difficult due to a combination of low population density, large distances between population centers, poor roads, and seasonal flooding. Furthermore, virus detection requires samples to be sent to Perth up to 2,000 km away for definitive analysis, causing delays of days to weeks before test results are available and public health interventions can be started. We deployed a portable molecular biology laboratory for remote field detection of endemic arboviruses in northern Queensland, then in tropical Western Australia and detected BFV, MVEV, and RRV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of extracts from mosquitoes trapped in Queensland. We then used a field-portable compact real-time thermocycler for the samples collected in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Real-time field PCR assays enabled concurrent endemic arbovirus distribution mapping in outback Queensland and Western Australia. Our deployable laboratory method provides a concept of operations for future remote area arbovirus surveillance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Severson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue (DENV, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The “vectorial capacity” of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as “vector competence”. Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions.

  8. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus). They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick

  9. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F.; Main, Andy J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Ferrandino, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003–2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. PMID:25487728

  10. Understanding the Organizational Nature of Student Persistence: Empirically-based Recommendations for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.

    2002-01-01

    Builds on the assumption that colleges and universities are organizations and subsequently that the organizational perspective provides important insights for improving retention on campuses. A review of existing organizational studies of undergraduate persistence serves as the basis for ten empirically-based recommendations for practice that are…

  11. Neglected Australian Arboviruses and Undifferentiated Febrile Illness: Addressing Public Health Challenges Arising From the 'Developing Northern Australia' Government Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Narayan; Bradbury, Richard S; Aaskov, John G; Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Government is currently promoting the development of Northern Australia, with an associated increase in the local population. Consequent to this is the public health threat posed by heightened human exposure to many previously neglected arboviruses that are indigenous to the region. This initiative to support economic activity in the tropical north of the continent is leading to the accelerated expansion of an infection-naïve human population into hitherto un-encountered ecosystems inhabited by reservoir animals and vectors for these arboviruses. Combined with an apparent rise in the number and impact of dramatic climate events, such as tropical cyclones and floods caused by torrential monsoonal rainfall, this heightens the potential for viral transmission to humans. More than 75 arboviruses have been identified in Australia, some of which are associated with human disease but for which routine tests are not available to diagnose infection. Here, we describe briefly the neglected Australian arboviruses that are most likely to emerge as significant agents of human disease in the coming decades. We also advocate the establishment of a thorough surveillance and diagnostic protocol, including developing new pan-viral rapid tests for primary care use to assist in the early diagnosis and correct treatment of affected patients. We propose that the implementation of these activities will enhance our understanding of the geographical range, prevalence, identification and control of neglected Australian arboviruses. This would minimise and limit the possibility of large-scale outbreaks with these agents as population and economic growth expands further into Australia's tropical north.

  12. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Nunes Lima-Camara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country.

  13. Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya: Emerging Arboviruses in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jessica; Sammon, Maura; Garg, Manish

    2016-11-01

    The arboviruses that cause dengue, chikungunya, and Zika illnesses have rapidly expanded across the globe in recent years, with large-scale outbreaks occurring in Western Hemisphere territories in close proximity to the United States (U.S.). In March 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC) expanded its vector surveillance maps for A. aegypti and A. albopictus , the mosquito vectors for these arboviruses. They have now been shown to inhabit a larger portion of the U.S., including the heavily populated northeast corridor. Emergency physicians need to further familiarize themselves with these diseases, which have classically been considered only in returning travelers but may soon be encountered in the U.S. even in the absence of travel. In this paper, we discuss the presentation and treatment of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya, as well as special challenges presented to the emergency physician in evaluating a patient with a suspected arbovirus infection.

  14. Understanding the conditions that encourage the persistence of women in science, mathematics, and engineering career pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrick, Linda C.

    The purpose of this study was to determine which factors encourage the persistence of women in the pursuit of Science, Math, and Engineering (SME) careers. Surveys with 36 parallel pairs of theory and history questions regarding the importance and the aptness of variables identified in the literature were completed by 205 SME career women. The variables covered three educational levels: High School, Undergraduate and Graduate. Results reveal which variables fit the experiences of these women and were also believed by them to be important to women in the pursuit of an SME career goal. False Negatives, women who according to the SME literature should not have persisted but did, were identified. Their existence, together with the false positives identified in the SME literature, is evidence, according to Confirmation/Disconfirmation Theory, that important variables in SME persistence are yet to be discovered. Follow-up telephone interviews with nineteen respondents identified important affective variables. Love of math or science was in itself a powerful motivator. Respondents made suggestions for intervention programs that may help to develop that abiding interest. Mentors, role models, and social support networks were identified as important in building the confidence and sustaining the focus needed to cope with the rigorous curriculum and negative sex-bias encountered in SME programs. The qualitative and quantitative results were synthesized in a Causal Event Flow Network, a cognitive map of the longitudinal effects of both positive and negative push/pull vectors operating on women in pursuit of an SME career goal.

  15. Understanding the impact of infection, inflammation and their persistence in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jherna eBalany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concerted interaction of genetic and environmental factors act on the preterm human immature lung with inflammation being the common denominator leading to the multifactorial origin of the most common chronic lung disease in infants – bronchopulmonary dysplasia or BPD. Adverse perinatal exposure to infection/inflammation with added insults like invasive mechanical ventilation, exposure to hyperoxia and sepsis causes persistent immune dysregulation. In this review article we have attempted to analyze and consolidate current knowledge about the role played by persistent prenatal and postnatal inflammation in the pathogenesis of BPD. While some parameters of the early inflammatory response (neutrophils, cytokines etc. may not be detectable after days to weeks of exposure to noxious stimuli, they have already initiated the signaling pathways of the inflammatory process / immune cascade and have affected permanent defects structurally and functionally in the BPD lungs. Hence translational research aimed at prevention / amelioration of BPD needs to focus on dampening the inflammatory response at an early stage to prevent the cascade of events leading to lung injury with impaired healing resulting in the pathologic pulmonary phenotype of alveolar simplification and dysregulated vascularization characteristic of BPD.

  16. Isolation, feeling 'stuck' and loss of control: understanding persistence of depression in British Pakistani women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gask, Linda; Aseem, Saadia; Waquas, Ayesha; Waheed, Waquas

    2011-01-01

    Persistent depression is more commonly experienced by British Pakistani women. The processes by which this results in an experience of chronic depression are not well understood. Qualitative thematic analysis of 15 in-depth interviews with British Pakistani women being treated for depression in primary care, collected in the process of a larger three-centre research project to explore experience of depression and its treatment (the QUEST-D study) in England. Three key overlapping themes emerged: a) 'feeling stuck'--for many of the women, the persistence of depression was experienced as inescapable because it was related to family conflict that seemed impossible to resolve; b) 'isolation'--which might be externally determined by social and cultural factors but also in some cases appeared to be self-imposed; c) 'control'--issues related to loss of a sense of control in depression, and attempts to regain it. The study was carried out in only one area of the United Kingdom, East Lancashire. It formed part of a larger study to explore views of treatment, and there were therefore limited opportunities for further development of some of the themes that have subsequently emerged in this secondary analysis of the data. Psychological therapy for this population needs to be tailored to specific needs by identifying and addressing both the underlying cause(s) and the specific consequences of depression and associated social isolation for each individual person. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding the Impact of Infection, Inflammation, and Their Persistence in the Pathogenesis of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balany, Jherna; Bhandari, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    The concerted interaction of genetic and environmental factors acts on the preterm human immature lung with inflammation being the common denominator leading to the multifactorial origin of the most common chronic lung disease in infants - -bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Adverse perinatal exposure to infection/inflammation with added insults like invasive mecha nical ventilation, exposure to hyperoxia, and sepsis causes persistent immune dysregulation. In this review article, we have attempted to analyze and consolidate current knowledge about the role played by persistent prenatal and postnatal inflammation in the pathogenesis of BPD. While some parameters of the early inflammatory response (neutrophils, cytokines, etc.) may not be detectable after days to weeks of exposure to noxious stimuli, they have already initiated the signaling pathways of the inflammatory process/immune cascade and have affected permanent defects structurally and functionally in the BPD lungs. Hence, translational research aimed at prevention/amelioration of BPD needs to focus on dampening the inflammatory response at an early stage to prevent the cascade of events leading to lung injury with impaired healing resulting in the pathologic pulmonary phenotype of alveolar simplification and dysregulated vascularization characteristic of BPD.

  18. Persistent Dento-Alveolar Pain Disorder (PDAP): Working towards a Better Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Donald; Moana-Filho, Estephan

    2011-01-01

    New terminology, persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP), and diagnostic criteria have been put forward to address the shortcomings of existing nomenclature, which are associated with unclear criteria. Arriving at an accurate diagnosis of PDAP is based on excluding other possible aetiologies, and may involve different care providers. Synthesis of published data suggests that PDAP has a frequency of occurrence following root canal therapy of around 1.6%. The putative risk factors involved in PDAP are largely unknown, but seem to be similar to those being identified with other post-surgical chronic pain disorders. The underlying mechanisms involved in the development of and/or perpetuating PDAP are unknown and the approach to treatment remains empiric in nature. PMID:25309718

  19. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic

  20. Collection & Processing of Medically Important Arthropods for Arbovirus Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; Chamberlain, Roy W.

    The methods given for collecting, preserving, and processing mosquitoes and other archropods for isolation of arboviruses are those used by the National Communicable Disease Center. Techniques of collecting mosquitoes as they bite, using light or bait traps, and from their daytime resting sites are described and illustrated. Details of subsequent…

  1. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hall-Mendelin

    Full Text Available Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  2. Unraveling Structural Infrasound: understanding the science for persistent remote monitoring of critical infrastructure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, S. M.; Diaz-Alvarez, H.; McComas, S.; Costley, D.; Whitlow, R. D.; Jordan, A. M.; Taylor, O.

    2013-12-01

    In 2006, the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) began a program designed to meet the capability gap associated with remote assessment of critical infrastructure. This program addresses issues arising from the use of geophysical techniques to solve engineering problems through persistent monitoring of critical infrastructure using infrasound. In the original 2006-2009 study of a railroad bridge in Ft. Leonard Wood, MO, the fundamental modes of motion of the structure were detected at up to 30 km away, with atmospheric excitation deemed to be the source driver. Follow-on research focused on the mechanically driven modes excited by traffic, with directional acoustic emanations. The success of the Ft. Wood ambient excitation study resulted in several subsequent programs to push the boundaries of this new technique for standoff assessment, discussed herein. Detection of scour and river system health monitoring are serious problems for monitoring civil infrastructure, from both civilian and military perspectives. Knowledge of overall system behavior over time is crucial for assessment of bridge foundations and barge navigation. This research focuses on the same steel-truss bridge from the Ft. Wood study, and analyzes 3D and 2D substructure models coupled with the superstructure reaction loads to assess the modal deformations within the infrasound bandwidth and the correlation to scour of embedment material. The Urban infrasound program is infrasound modeling, data analysis, and sensor research leading to the detection, classification and localization of threat activities in complex propagation environments. Three seismo-acoustic arrays were deployed on rooftops across the Southern Methodist University campus in Dallas, Texas, to characterize the urban infrasound environment. Structural sources within 15 km of the arrays have been identified through signal processing and confirmed through acoustical models. Infrasound is also being studied as a means of

  3. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Camara,Tamara Nunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by th...

  4. Emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Gerhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. They belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. Several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like West Nile virus (WNV in the Americas, Usutu virus (USUV in Central Europe, or Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV in the Arabian Peninsula. In most instances the ways of introduction of arboviruses into new regions are not known. Infections acquired during stays in the tropics and subtropics are diagnosed with increasing frequency in travellers returning from tropical countries, but interestingly no attention is paid on accompanying pet animals or the hematophagous ectoparasites that may still be attached to them. Here we outline the known ecology of the mosquito-borne equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV, WNV, USUV, RVFV, and Japanese Encephalitis virus, as well as Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus and its North American counterpart Powassan virus, and will discuss the most likely mode that these viruses could expand their respective geographical range. All these viruses have a different epidemiology as different vector species, reservoir hosts and virus types have adapted to promiscuous and robust or rather very fine-balanced transmission cycles. Consequently, these viruses will behave differently with regard to the requirements needed to establish new endemic foci outside their original geographical ranges. Hence, emphasis is given on animal trade and suitable ecologic conditions, including competent vectors and vertebrate hosts.

  5. Neglected Australian Arboviruses and Undifferentiated Febrile Illness: Addressing Public Health Challenges Arising From the ‘Developing Northern Australia’ Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Gyawali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Government is currently promoting the development of Northern Australia, with an associated increase in the local population. Consequent to this is the public health threat posed by heightened human exposure to many previously neglected arboviruses that are indigenous to the region. This initiative to support economic activity in the tropical north of the continent is leading to the accelerated expansion of an infection-naïve human population into hitherto un-encountered ecosystems inhabited by reservoir animals and vectors for these arboviruses. Combined with an apparent rise in the number and impact of dramatic climate events, such as tropical cyclones and floods caused by torrential monsoonal rainfall, this heightens the potential for viral transmission to humans. More than 75 arboviruses have been identified in Australia, some of which are associated with human disease but for which routine tests are not available to diagnose infection. Here, we describe briefly the neglected Australian arboviruses that are most likely to emerge as significant agents of human disease in the coming decades. We also advocate the establishment of a thorough surveillance and diagnostic protocol, including developing new pan-viral rapid tests for primary care use to assist in the early diagnosis and correct treatment of affected patients. We propose that the implementation of these activities will enhance our understanding of the geographical range, prevalence, identification and control of neglected Australian arboviruses. This would minimise and limit the possibility of large-scale outbreaks with these agents as population and economic growth expands further into Australia’s tropical north.

  6. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  7. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  8. Understanding Interest and Self-Efficacy in the Reading and Writing of Students with Persisting Specific Learning Disabilities during Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert; Mickail, Terry; Richards, Todd; Renninger, K. Ann; Hidi, Suzanne E.; Beers, Scott; Berninger, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Three methodological approaches were applied to understand the role of interest and self-efficacy in reading and/or writing in students without and with persisting specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in literacy. For each approach students in grades 4 to 9 completed a survey in which they rated 10 reading items and 10 writing items on a Scale 1…

  9. A Social-Cognitive-Ecological Framework for Understanding the Impact of Exposure to Persistent Ethnic-Political Violence on Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a theoretical framework for understanding how persistent and extreme exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence interacts with cognitive, emotional, and self processes to influence children's psychosocial adjustment. Three recent strands of theorizing guide our approach. First, we focus on how observational and…

  10. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Julia dos Santos; Murta, Michele; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio; Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-01-01

    In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.

  11. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-06-27

    Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País.

  12. Microculture Plaque Neutralization Test for California Group Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawright, Gary L.; Harding, Gherry; Thomas, Frederick C.; Hanson, Robert P.

    1974-01-01

    A microculture plaque neutralization test is described for California-group arboviruses that is as precise and quantitative as the standard test conducted in 60-mm petri dishes. It was shown that there was no significant between-panel or between-day variation in determinations and that a single pipette could be used for all serum-dilution levels within a titration without inoculum carry-over effect. The experimental protocol and statistical methods used produce 50% neutralization end points that meet the assumptions of parametric statistics. This permits the power and versatility of the analysis of variance to be exploited in testing for treatment effects in serological and immunological studies with viruses. Images PMID:4216288

  13. The Persistent Gap: Understanding Male-Female Salary Differentials amongst Canadian Academic Staff. CAUT Equity Review. Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2011

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long-standing concern amongst policymakers, economists, and trade unions over the persistent earnings gap between men and women in the Canadian labour market. Although this gap has narrowed over time, women's average hourly wages still remain about 16% lower than that earned by men. The reasons for this inequality in male and…

  14. Understanding Desisting and Persisting Forms of Delinquency: The Unique Contributions of Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Interpersonal Callousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While associations between conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and interpersonal callousness (IC) symptoms and delinquency onset are well established, less is known about whether these characteristics differentiate desisting and persisting delinquency. The current…

  15. Clinical and serological tests for arboviruses in free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bruna Alves; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Chagas, Liliane Leal das; Silva, Franko de Arruda E; Ferreira, Milene Silveira; Freitas, Maria Nazaré Oliveira; Alcantara, Bianca Nascimento de; Silva, Sandro Patroca da; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sepulvreda, Barbara Alves; Corrêa, Layna Thayssa Guimarães; Negrão, Andréa Maria Góes; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Casseb, Alexandre do Rosário

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia) as a reservoir of arboviruses in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. We investigated the presence of antibodies against the most prevalent arboviruses. This study was aimed at evaluating some clinical and physical parameters of domestic pigeons, including the presence of antibodies to Amazon-endemic arboviruses. Eighty-five healthy pigeons were captured in Mangal das Garças Park, in Belém, and were bled. Upon capture, the birds were subjected to a clinical examination in search of alterations that could indicate the presence of arboviruses. Blood samples were converted to serum and tested using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique with a panel of 19 antigens of arboviruses circulating in the Amazon. The confirmation assay for the positive reactions to the viral species tested by HI was a neutralisation test in new-born Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) [mouse neutralisation test (MNT)]. A total of 10 (11.8%) serum samples tested positive for antiflavivirus antibodies by HI. All the samples positive for the HI test were subjected to MNT for detection of viruses and yielded negative results (logarithmic neutralisation index < 1.7). The results represent the first serological detection of antiarbovirus antibodies in domestic pigeons as potential hosts of arboviruses in Brazil. The detection of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against genus Flavivirus indicated that there was recent contact between the analysed domestic pigeons and these arboviruses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of free-living pigeons in the maintenance cycle and spread of arboviruses in the Amazon.

  16. Laboratory preparedness and response with a focus on arboviruses in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusken, C B; Ieven, M; Sigfrid, L; Eckerle, I; Koopmans, M

    2018-03-01

    The global health burden of arboviruses is continuously rising, which results in increasing pressure on local and (inter)national laboratory infrastructures. Timely and accurate diagnosis of cases is one of the main pillars for public health and clinical responses to an arbovirus emergence. This narrative review aims to summarize recent advances and to identify needs in laboratory preparedness and response activities, with a focus on viruses transmitted by arthropods in Europe. The review is based on evidence extracted from PubMed searches, Public Health and clinical laboratory experiences from the authors and the authors' opinions substantiated by peer-reviewed scientific literature. We illustrate the importance of inter-epidemic laboratory preparedness activities to ensure adequate Public Health and clinical responses. We describe the status of arbovirus endemicity and emergence in Europe thereby highlighting the need for preparedness for these viruses. We discuss the components and pitfalls of an adequate laboratory preparedness and response and the broader context of the current landscape of international research, clinical and laboratory preparedness networks. The complexity of arbovirus laboratory preparedness and response is described. Outbreak preparedness plans need to look beyond national reference laboratories, to include first-line responding onsite hospital laboratories and plans for strengthening of such local capacity and capability as required depending on the nature of the outbreak. In particular, the diagnosis of arbovirus infections is complicated by the existence of geographic overlap of circulation of numerous arboviruses, the overlap in clinical manifestation between many arboviruses and other aetiologies and the existence of cross-reactivity between related arboviruses in serology testing. Inter-epidemic preparedness activities need strong national and international networks addressing these issues. However, the current mushrooming of

  17. The Role of RNA Interference (RNAi in Arbovirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. Blair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi was shown over 18 years ago to be a mechanism by which arbovirus replication and transmission could be controlled in arthropod vectors. During the intervening period, research on RNAi has defined many of the components and mechanisms of this antiviral pathway in arthropods, yet a number of unexplored questions remain. RNAi refers to RNA-mediated regulation of gene expression. Originally, the term described silencing of endogenous genes by introduction of exogenous double-stranded (dsRNA with the same sequence as the gene to be silenced. Further research has shown that RNAi comprises three gene regulation pathways that are mediated by small RNAs: the small interfering (siRNA, micro (miRNA, and Piwi-interacting (piRNA pathways. The exogenous (exo-siRNA pathway is now recognized as a major antiviral innate immune response of arthropods. More recent studies suggest that the piRNA and miRNA pathways might also have important roles in arbovirus-vector interactions. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of the exo-siRNA pathway as an arthropod vector antiviral response and on emerging research into vector piRNA and miRNA pathway modulation of arbovirus-vector interactions. Although it is assumed that arboviruses must evade the vector’s antiviral RNAi response in order to maintain their natural transmission cycles, the strategies by which this is accomplished are not well defined. RNAi is also an important tool for arthropod gene knock-down in functional genomics studies and in development of arbovirus-resistant mosquito populations. Possible arbovirus strategies for evasion of RNAi and applications of RNAi in functional genomics analysis and arbovirus transmission control will also be reviewed.

  18. Climate Change and the Arboviruses: Lessons from the Evolution of the Dengue and Yellow Fever Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2016-09-29

    The impact of anticipated changes in global climate on the arboviruses and the diseases they cause poses a significant challenge for public health. The past evolution of the dengue and yellow fever viruses provides clues about the influence of changes in climate on their future evolution. The evolution of both viruses has been influenced by virus interactions involving the mosquito species and the primate hosts involved in virus transmission, and by their domestic and sylvatic cycles. Information is needed on how viral genes in general influence phenotypic variance for important viral functions. Changes in global climate will alter the interactions of mosquito species with their primate hosts and with the viruses in domestic cycles, and greater attention should be paid to the sylvatic cycles. There is great danger for the evolution of novel viruses, such as new serotypes, that could compromise vaccination programs and jeopardize public health. It is essential to understand (a) both sylvatic and domestic cycles and (b) the role of virus genetic and environmental variances in shaping virus phenotypic variance to more fully assess the impact of global climate change.

  19. Dengue and Zika viruses: lessons learned from the similarities between these Aedes mosquito-vectored arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmanee, San; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2017-02-01

    The currently spreading arbovirus epidemic is having a severe impact on human health worldwide. The two most common flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are transmitted through the same viral vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since the discovery of DENV in 1943, this virus has been reported to cause around 390 million human infections per year, approximately 500,000 of which require hospitalization and over 20,000 of which are lethal. The present DENV epidemic is primarily concentrated in Southeast Asia. ZIKV, which was discovered in 1952, is another important arthropod-borne flavivirus. The neurotropic role of ZIKV has been reported in infected newborns with microcephaly and in adults with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Despite DENV and ZIKV sharing the same viral vector, their complex pathogenic natures are poorly understood, and the infections they cause do not have specific treatments or effective vaccines. Therefore, this review will describe what is currently known about the clinical characteristics, pathogenesis mechanisms, and transmission of these two viruses. Better understanding of the interrelationships between DENV and ZIKV will provide a useful perspective for developing an effective strategy for controlling both viruses in the future.

  20. An agent-based simulation of persistent inequalities in health behavior: Understanding the interdependent roles of segregation, clustering, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A

    2016-12-01

    Health inequalities are conspicuously persistent through time and often durable even in spite of interventions. In this study, I use agent-based simulation models (ABMs) to understand how the complex interrelationships between residential segregation, social network formation, group-level preferences, and social influence may contribute to this persistence. I use a more-stylized ABM, Bubblegum Village (BV), to understand how initial inequalities in bubblegum-chewing behaviors either endure, increase, or decrease over time given group-level differences in preferences, neighborhood-level barriers or facilitators of bubblegum chewing (e.g., access to bubblegum shops), and agents' preferences for segregation, homophily, and clustering (i.e., the 'tightness' of social networks). I further use BV to understand whether segregation and social network characteristics impact whether the effects of a bubblegum-reduction intervention that is very effective in the short term are durable over time, as well as to identify intervention strategies to reduce attenuation of the intervention effects. In addition to BV, I also present results from an ABM based on the distribution and social characteristics of the population in Philadelphia, PA. This model explores similar questions to BV, but examines racial/ethnic inequalities in soda consumption based on agents' social characteristics and baseline soda consumption probabilities informed by the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Collectively, the models suggest that residential segregation is a fundamental process for the production and persistence of health inequalities. The other major conclusion of the study is that, for behaviors that are subject to social influence and that cluster within social groups, interventions that are randomly-targeted to individuals with 'bad' behaviors will likely experience a large degree of recidivism to pre-intervention behaviors. In contrast, interventions that target

  1. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna R Caceda

    Full Text Available The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN, Yellow Fever (YF, Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE, West Nile (WN, Ilheus (ILH, Group C (GC, Oropouche (ORO, Mayaro (MAY and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH. MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO. For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  2. Confronting the Emerging Threat to Public Health in Northern Australia of Neglected Indigenous Arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Gyawali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In excess of 75 arboviruses have been identified in Australia, some of which are now well established as causative agents of debilitating diseases. These include Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus, each of which may be detected by both antibody-based recognition and molecular typing. However, for most of the remaining arboviruses that may be associated with pathology in humans, routine tests are not available to diagnose infection. A number of these so-called ‘neglected’ or ‘orphan’ arboviruses that are indigenous to Australia might have been infecting humans at a regular rate for decades. Some of them may be associated with undifferentiated febrile illness—fever, the cause of which is not obvious—for which around half of all cases each year remain undiagnosed. This is of particular relevance to Northern Australia, given the Commonwealth Government’s transformative vision for the midterm future of massive infrastructure investment in this region. An expansion of the industrial and business development of this previously underpopulated region is predicted. This is set to bring into intimate proximity infection-naïve human hosts, native reservoir animals, and vector mosquitoes, thereby creating a perfect storm for increased prevalence of infection with neglected Australian arboviruses. Moreover, the escalating rate and effects of climate change that are increasingly observed in the tropical north of the country are likely to lead to elevated numbers of arbovirus-transmitting mosquitoes. As a commensurate response, continuing assiduous attention to vector monitoring and control is required. In this overall context, improved epidemiological surveillance and diagnostic screening, including establishing novel, rapid pan-viral tests to facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of febrile primary care patients, should be considered a public health priority. Investment in a rigorous

  3. [The role of ecovirological zoning in prediction of the influence of climatic changes on arbovirus habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelkanov, M Iu; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; L'vov, D K

    2006-01-01

    The paper contains methodical basis of ecovirological zoning in the analysis of the problem of interrelation between climatic changes and the activity of natural nidi of arboviral infection. The authors offer an original hieroglyphic system of cartographic signs of arboviruses and a map of prevalence of arboviruses in various landscape zones of Noth Eurasia (within the boundaries of the former USSR.) They analyze the three main cartographic approaches to ecovirological zoning of natural territorial complexes, which imply analysis of a ralation to a landscape, conjugated component analysis, and paleographic reconstruction analysis.

  4. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia K. Farris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.

  5. The Role of Interferon Antagonist, Non-Structural Proteins in the Pathogenesis and Emergence of Arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha S. Soldan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of factors favor the emergence and re-emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including migration, climate change, intensified livestock production, an increasing volume of international trade and transportation, and changes to ecosystems (e.g., deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Consequently, arboviruses are distributed worldwide and represent over 30% of all emerging infectious diseases identified in the past decade. Although some arboviral infections go undetected or are associated with mild, flu-like symptoms, many are important human and veterinary pathogens causing serious illnesses such as arthritis, gastroenteritis, encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever and devastating economic loss as a consequence of lost productivity and high mortality rates among livestock. One of the most consistent molecular features of emerging arboviruses, in addition to their near exclusive use of RNA genomes, is the inclusion of viral, non-structural proteins that act as interferon antagonists. In this review, we describe these interferon antagonists and common strategies that arboviruses use to counter the host innate immune response. In addition, we discuss the complex interplay between host factors and viral determinants that are associated with virus emergence and re-emergence, and identify potential targets for vaccine and anti-viral therapies.

  6. Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Aubry

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

  7. Arbovirus vaccines: opportunities for the baculovirus-insect cell expression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well-established technology for the production of heterologous viral (glyco)proteins in cultured cells, applicable for basic scientific research as well as for the development and production of vaccines and diagnostics. Arboviruses form an emerging

  8. A Social-Cognitive-Ecological Framework for Understanding the Impact of Exposure to Persistent Ethnic-Political Violence on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a theoretical framework for understanding how persistent and extreme exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence interacts with cognitive, emotional, and self processes to influence children’s psychosocial adjustment. Three recent strands of theorizing guide our approach. First, we focus on how observational and social learning processes combine to influence the development of social-cognitive structures and processes that affect behavior. Second, we focus on the role of developing self and identity processes in shaping the child’s interactions with the world and the consequences of those interactions. Third, we build on the complex systems perspective on development and assume that human development can only be understood accurately by examining how the multiple contexts affecting children and the adults in their lives interact to moderate biosocial factors which predispose individuals to develop in certain directions. We review the recent empirical literature on children’s exposure to ethnic-political violence and we apply the social-cognitive-ecological framework to the empirical findings in this literature. Finally, we propose future directions for research and clinical implications derived from this framework. PMID:19430904

  9. Rapid Molecular Detection Methods for Arboviruses of Livestock of Importance to Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses have been responsible for some of the most explosive epidemics of emerging infectious diseases over the past decade. Their impact on both human and livestock populations has been dramatic. The early detection either through surveillance or diagnosis of virus will be a critical feature in responding and resolving the emergence of such epidemics in the future. Although some of the most important emerging arboviruses are human pathogens, this paper aims to highlight those diseases that primarily affect livestock, although many are zoonotic and some occasionally cause human mortality. This paper also highlights the molecular detection methods specific to each virus and identifies those emerging diseases for which a rapid detection methods are not yet developed.

  10. Blood meal acquisition enhances arbovirus replication in mosquitoes through activation of the GABAergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yibin; Zhang, Rudian; Zhang, Bei; Zhao, Tongyan; Wang, Penghua; Liang, Guodong; Cheng, Gong

    2017-11-02

    Mosquitoes are hematophagous insects that carry-on and transmit many human viruses. However, little information is available regarding the common mechanisms underlying the infection of mosquitoes by these viruses. In this study, we reveal that the hematophagous nature of mosquitoes contributes to arboviral infection after a blood meal, which suppresses antiviral innate immunity by activating the GABAergic pathway. dsRNA-mediated interruption of the GABA signaling and blockage of the GABA A receptor by the specific inhibitors both significantly impaired arbovirus replication. Consistently, inoculation of GABA enhanced arboviral infection, indicating that GABA signaling facilitates the arboviral infection of mosquitoes. The ingestion of blood by mosquitoes resulted in robust GABA production from glutamic acid derived from blood protein digestion. The oral introduction of glutamic acid increased virus acquisition by mosquitoes via activation of the GABAergic system. Our study reveals that blood meals enhance arbovirus replication in mosquitoes through activation of the GABAergic system.

  11. Arboviruses emerging in Brazil: challenges for clinic and implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses’ capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The impact on morbidity and mortality intensifies as extensive epidemics lead to a high number of affected individuals, severe cases, and implications for health services, mainly due to the absence of treatment, vaccines, and effective prevention and control measures.

  12. Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: Identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L; Page, Brady L; Greninger, Alexander L; Herring, Belinda L; Russell, Richard C; Doggett, Stephen L; Haniotis, John; Wang, Chunlin; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric L

    2014-01-05

    Viral metagenomics characterizes known and identifies unknown viruses based on sequence similarities to any previously sequenced viral genomes. A metagenomics approach was used to identify virus sequences in Australian mosquitoes causing cytopathic effects in inoculated mammalian cell cultures. Sequence comparisons revealed strains of Liao Ning virus (Reovirus, Seadornavirus), previously detected only in China, livestock-infecting Stretch Lagoon virus (Reovirus, Orbivirus), two novel dimarhabdoviruses, named Beaumont and North Creek viruses, and two novel orthobunyaviruses, named Murrumbidgee and Salt Ash viruses. The novel virus proteomes diverged by ≥ 50% relative to their closest previously genetically characterized viral relatives. Deep sequencing also generated genomes of Warrego and Wallal viruses, orbiviruses linked to kangaroo blindness, whose genomes had not been fully characterized. This study highlights viral metagenomics in concert with traditional arbovirus surveillance to characterize known and new arboviruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Follow-up epidemiological studies are required to determine whether the novel viruses infect humans. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mosquito-borne Arbovirus Surveillance at Selected Sites in Diverse Ecological Zones of Kenya 2007 -- 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    fatal disease in animals [2]. They replicate in the arthropods that become infected following a blood meal on viremic vertebrate hosts [2]. Virus...increased reservoir, vector and humans/ domestic animals contact precipitated by suitable environmental, socio-economic conditions/activity there is...isolated suggesting a role of animals as amplifiers and indicating the need for improved arbovirus disease diagnosis among pastoral communities

  14. Possible Future Monoclonal Antibody (mAb-Based Therapy against Arbovirus Infections

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    Giuseppe Sautto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 150 arboviruses belonging to different families are known to infect humans, causing endemic infections as well as epidemic outbreaks. Effective vaccines to limit the occurrence of some of these infections have been licensed, while for the others several new immunogens are under development mostly for their improvements concerning safety and effectiveness profiles. On the other hand, specific and effective antiviral drugs are not yet available, posing an urgent medical need in particular for emergency cases. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of several infectious diseases as well as in preliminary in vitro and in vivo models of arbovirus-related infections. Given their specific antiviral activity as well-tolerated molecules with limited side effects, mAbs could represent a new therapeutic approach for the development of an effective treatment, as well as useful tools in the study of the host-virus interplay and in the development of more effective immunogens. However, before their use as candidate therapeutics, possible hurdles (e.g., Ab-dependent enhancement of infection, occurrence of viral escape variants must be carefully evaluated. In this review are described the main arboviruses infecting humans and candidate mAbs to be possibly used in a future passive immunotherapy.

  15. Species abundance and temporal variation of arbovirus vectors in Brownsville, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithika Srinivasan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent outbreaks of the dengue fever and West Nile viruses and the looming threats of the Zika and chikungunya viruses highlight the importance of establishing effective, proactive arboviral surveillance in communities at high risk of transmission, such as those on the Texas–Mexico border. Currently, there are no approved human vaccines available for these mosquito-borne diseases, so entomological control and case management are the only known methods for decreasing disease incidence. The principal vectors, which include Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Ae. Albopictus, all have an established presence in South Texas. The public health response to most arbovirus outbreaks in the region has been reactionary rather than proactive. However, after the 2005 dengue outbreak and subsequent fatality, the City of Brownsville Public Health Department began collecting data on mosquito vector abundance and incidence. The objective of this study was to describe the various species of mosquitoes found in vector surveillance in Brownsville, Texas, during 2009–2013; quantify their prevalence; and identify any associations with temporal or weather-related variations. The results confirm a significant mosquito population in Brownsville in late winter months, indicating a high risk of arbovirus transmission in South Texas year-round, and not just until November, previously considered the end date of arbovirus season by state health services. The data from Brownsville’s surveillance program can help characterize local vector ecology and facilitate more proactive mitigation of future arboviral threats in South Texas.

  16. Advances in Understanding and Managing Rosacea: Part 2: The Central Role, Evaluation, and Medical Management of Diffuse and Persistent Facial Erythema of Rosacea

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the second part of a two-part series on rosacea, emphasis will be placed on persistent facial erythema. Despite variations in the intensity of visible redness, persistent facial erythema is a very common and consistent finding among patients with rosacea, including those with presentations classically defined as papulopustular rosacea, erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, and in many patients with phymatous rosacea. The underlying mechanisms of rosacea and their correlation with...

  17. Addressing knowledge gaps in molecular, sero-surveillance and monitoring approaches on Zika epidemics and other arbovirus co-infections: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, with consequent increased travel and trade, rapid urbanization and growing weather variation events due to climate change has contributed to the recent unprecedented Zika virus (ZIKV pandemic. This has emphasized the pressing need for local, national, regional and global community collaborative proactiveness, leadership and financial investment resilience in research and development. This paper addresses the potential knowledge gaps and impact of early detection and monitoring approaches on ZIKV epidemics and related arboviral infections steered towards effective prevention and smart response strategies. We advocate for the development and validation of robust field and point of care diagnostic tools that are more sensitive, specific and cost effective for use in ZIKV epidemics and routine pathophysiology surveillance and monitoring systems as an imperative avenue in understanding Zika-related and other arbovirus trends and apply genomic and proteomic characterisation approaches in guiding annotation efforts in order to design and implement public health burden mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  18. Emergent and Reemergent Arboviruses in South America and the Caribbean: Why So Many and Why Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Contigiani, Marta; Gleiser, Raquel Miranda

    2017-05-01

    Varios arbovirus han emergido y/o reemergido en el Nuevo Mundo en las últimas décadas. Los virus Zika y chikungunya, anteriormente restringidos a África y quizás Asia, invadieron el continente, causando gran preocupación; además siguen ocurriendo brotes causados por el virus dengue en casi todos los países, con millones de casos por año. El virus West Nile invadió rápidamente América del Norte, y ya se han encontrado casos en América Central y del Sur. Otros arbovirus, como Mayaro y el virus de la encefalitis equina del este han aumentado su actividad y se han encontrado en nuevas regiones. Se han documentado cambios en la patogenicidad de algunos virus que conducen a enfermedades inesperadas. Una fauna diversa de mosquitos, cambios climáticos y en la vegetación, aumento de los viajes, y urbanizaciones no planificadas que generan condiciones adecuadas para la proliferación de Aedes aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say y otros mosquitos vectores, se han combinado para influir fuertemente en los cambios en la distribución y la incidencia de varios arbovirus. Se enfatiza la necesidad de realizar estudios exhaustivos de la fauna de mosquitos y modificaciones de las condiciones ambientales, sobre todo en las zonas urbanas fuertemente influenciadas por factores sociales, políticos y económicos. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  20. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Pedro F. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  1. Selective factors associated with the evolution of codon usage in natural populations of arboviruses and their practical application to infer possible hosts for emerging viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) have life cycles that include both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts with substantial differences in vector and host specificity between different viruses. Most arboviruses utilize RNA for their genetic material and are completely dependent on host tRNAs for the...

  2. Poverty persistence and poverty dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Biewen

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of the poverty that is measured in a single period is transitory rather than persistent. In most countries, only a portion of people who are currently poor are persistently poor. People who are persistently poor or who cycle into and out of poverty should be the main focus of anti-poverty policies. Understanding the characteristics of the persistently poor, and the circumstances and mechanisms associated with entry into and exit from poverty, can help to inform governments...

  3. Rapid assessment of mosquitoes and arbovirus activity after floods in southeastern Kansas, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Bruce A; Whitt, Parker B; Roberts, Lesa F; Lehman, Jennifer A; Lindsey, Nicole P; Nasci, Roger S; Hansen, Gail R

    2009-09-01

    A rapid assessment was conducted in July-August 2007 to determine the impact of heavy rains and early summer floods on the mosquitoes and arbovirus activity in 4 southeastern Kansas counties. During 10 days and nights of collections using different types and styles of mosquito traps, a total of 10,512 adult female mosquitoes representing 29 species were collected, including a new species record for Kansas (Psorophora mathesoni). High numbers of Aedes albopictus were collected. Over 4,000 specimens of 4 Culex species in 235 species-specific pools were tested for the presence of West Nile, St. Louis, and western equine encephalitis viruses. Thirty pools representing 3 Culex species were positive for West Nile virus (WNV). No other arboviruses were detected in the samples. Infection rates of WNV in Culex pipiens complex in 2 counties (10.7/1,000 to 22.6/1,000) and in Culex salinarius in 1 county (6.0/1,000) were sufficiently high to increase the risk of transmission to humans. The infection rate of WNV in Culex erraticus was 1.9/1,000 in one county. Two focal hot spots of intense WNV transmission were identified in Montgomery and Wilson counties, where infection rates in Cx. pipiens complex were 26/ 1,000 and 19.9/1,000, respectively. Despite confirmed evidence of WNV activity in the area, there was no increase in human cases of arboviral disease documented in the 4 counties for the remainder of 2007.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Vector-Borne Disease Prevention during the Emergence of a New Arbovirus: Implications for the Control of Chikungunya Virus in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Camille; Raude, Jocelyn; Adde, Antoine; Dusfour, Isabelle; Quenel, Philippe; Flamand, Claude

    2016-11-01

    During the last decade, French Guiana has been affected by major dengue fever outbreaks. Although this arbovirus has been a focus of many awareness campaigns, very little information is available about beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding vector-borne diseases among the population of French Guiana. During the first outbreak of the chikungunya virus, a quantitative survey was conducted among high school students to study experiences, practices and perceptions related to mosquito-borne diseases and to identify socio-demographic, cognitive and environmental factors that could be associated with the engagement in protective behaviors. A cross-sectional survey was administered in May 2014, with a total of 1462 students interviewed. Classrooms were randomly selected using a two-stage selection procedure with cluster samples. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) associated with a hierarchical cluster analysis and with an ordinal logistic regression was performed. Chikungunya was less understood and perceived as a more dreadful disease than dengue fever. The analysis identified three groups of individual protection levels against mosquito-borne diseases: "low" (30%), "moderate" (42%) and "high" (28%)". Protective health behaviors were found to be performed more frequently among students who were female, had a parent with a higher educational status, lived in an individual house, and had a better understanding of the disease. This study allowed us to estimate the level of protective practices against vector-borne diseases among students after the emergence of a new arbovirus. These results revealed that the adoption of protective behaviors is a multi-factorial process that depends on both sociocultural and cognitive factors. These findings may help public health authorities to strengthen communication and outreach strategies, thereby increasing the adoption of protective health behaviors, particularly in high-risk populations.

  5. [Persistent diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  6. Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Bell-Sakyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV, which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells.

  7. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered......The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary...

  8. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered......The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary...

  9. Arbovirus-derived piRNAs exhibit a ping-pong signature in mosquito cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Vodovar

    Full Text Available The siRNA pathway is an essential antiviral mechanism in insects. Whether other RNA interference pathways are involved in antiviral defense remains unclear. Here, we report in cells derived from the two main vectors for arboviruses, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the production of viral small RNAs that exhibit the hallmarks of ping-pong derived piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs after infection with positive or negative sense RNA viruses. Furthermore, these cells produce endogenous piRNAs that mapped to transposable elements. Our results show that these mosquito cells can initiate de novo piRNA production and recapitulate the ping-pong dependent piRNA pathway upon viral infection. The mechanism of viral-piRNA production is discussed.

  10. Semibiotic Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothmann, C.; Zauner, K.-P.

    From observation, we find four different strategies to successfully enable structures to persist over extended periods of time. If functionally relevant features are very large compared to the changes that can be effectuated by entropy, the functional structure itself has a high enough probability to erode only slowly over time. If the functionally relevant features are protected from environmental influence by sacrificial layers that absorb the impinging of the environment, deterioration can be avoided or slowed. Loss of functionality can be delayed, even for complex systems, by keeping alternate options for all required components available. Biological systems also apply information processing to actively counter the impact of entropy by mechanisms such as self-repair. The latter strategy increases the overall persistence of living systems and enables them to maintain a highly complex functional organisation during their lifetime and over generations. In contrast to the other strategies, information processing has only low material overhead. While at present engineered technology is far from achieving the self-repair of evolved systems, the semibiotic combination of biological components with conventionally engineered systems may open a path to long-term persistence of functional devices in harsh environments. We review nature's strategies for persistence, and consider early steps taken in the laboratory to import such capabilities into engineered architectures.

  11. Development, screening, and analysis of DNA aptamer libraries potentially useful for diagnosis and passive immunity of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno John G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acid aptamers have long demonstrated the capacity to bind viral envelope proteins and to inhibit the progression of pathogenic virus infections. Here we report on initial efforts to develop and screen DNA aptamers against recombinant envelope proteins or synthetic peptides and whole inactivated viruses from several virulent arboviruses including Chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF, dengue, tickborne encephalitis and West Nile viruses. We also analyzed sequence data and secondary structures for commonalities that might reveal consensus binding sites among the various aptamers. Some of the highest affinity and most specific aptamers in the down-selected libraries were demonstrated to have diagnostic utility in lateral flow chromatographic assays and in a fluorescent aptamer-magnetic bead sandwich assay. Some of the reported aptamers may also be able to bind viral envelope proteins in vivo and therefore may have antiviral potential in passive immunity or prophylactic applications. Results Several arbovirus DNA aptamer sequences emerged multiple times in the various down selected aptamer libraries thereby suggesting some consensus sequences for binding arbovirus envelope proteins. Screening of aptamers by enzyme-linked aptamer sorbent assay (ELASA was useful for ranking relative aptamer affinities against their cognate viral targets. Additional study of the aptamer sequences and secondary structures of top-ranked anti-arboviral aptamers suggest potential virus binding motifs exist within some of the key aptamers and are highlighted in the supplemental figures for this article. One sequence segment (ACGGGTCCGGACA emerged 60 times in the anti-CCHF aptamer library, but nowhere else in the anti-arbovirus library and only a few other times in a larger library of aptamers known to bind bacteria and rickettsia or other targets. Diagnostic utility of some of the aptamers for arbovirus detection in lateral flow

  12. Reconstruction of the Evolutionary History and Dispersal of Usutu Virus, a Neglected Emerging Arbovirus in Europe and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Dimitri; Jöst, Hanna; Wink, Michael; Börstler, Jessica; Bosch, Stefan; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Jöst, Artur; Czajka, Christina; Lühken, Renke; Ziegler, Ute; Groschup, Martin H; Pfeffer, Martin; Becker, Norbert; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2016-02-02

    Usutu virus (USUV), one of the most neglected Old World encephalitic flaviviruses, causes epizootics among wild and captive birds and sporadic infection in humans. The dynamics of USUV spread and evolution in its natural hosts are unknown. Here, we present the phylogeny and evolutionary history of all available USUV strains, including 77 newly sequenced complete genomes from a variety of host species at a temporal and spatial scaled resolution. The results showed that USUV can be classified into six distinct lineages and that the most recent common ancestor of the recent European epizootics emerged in Africa at least 500 years ago. We demonstrated that USUV was introduced regularly from Africa into Europe in the last 50 years, and the genetic diversity of European lineages is shaped primarily by in situ evolution, while the African lineages have been driven by extensive gene flow. Most of the amino acid changes are deleterious polymorphisms removed by purifying selection, with adaptive evolution restricted to the NS5 gene and several others evolving under episodic directional selection, indicating that the ecological or immunological factors were mostly the key determinants of USUV dispersal and outbreaks. Host-specific mutations have been detected, while the host transition analysis identified mosquitoes as the most likely origin of the common ancestor and birds as the source of the recent European USUV lineages. Our results suggest that the major migratory bird flyways could predict the continental and intercontinental dispersal patterns of USUV and that migratory birds might act as potential long-distance dispersal vehicles. Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused massive bird die-offs, mostly in Europe. There is increasing evidence that USUV appears to be pathogenic for humans, becoming a potential public health problem. The emergence of USUV in Europe allows us to understand how an arbovirus

  13. Emerging arboviruses in Quebec, Canada: assessing public health risk by serology in humans, horses and pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J P; Michel, P; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Dibernardo, A; Ogden, N H; Fortin, A; Arsenault, J

    2017-10-01

    Periodic outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and to a lesser extent, California serogroup viruses (CSGV), have been reported in parts of Canada in the last decade. This study was designed to provide a broad assessment of arboviral activity in Quebec, Canada, by conducting serological surveys for these arboviruses in 196 horses, 1442 dogs and 485 humans. Sera were screened by a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and positive samples confirmed by plaque reduction neutralisation tests. The percentage of seropositive samples was 83·7%, 16·5%, 7·1% in horses, 18·8%, 0·6%, 0% in humans, 11·7%, 3·1%, 0% in adult dogs and 2·9%, 0·3%, 0% in juvenile dogs for CSGV, WNV and EEEV, respectively. Serological results in horses and dogs appeared to provide a meaningful assessment of risk to public health posed by multiple arboviruses.

  14. Phenotypic changes in Langerhans' cells after infection with arboviruses: a role in the immune response to epidermally acquired viral infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, L J; Halliday, G M; King, N J

    1996-01-01

    The role of Langerhans cells (LC) in the initiation of an immune response to a viral infection remains unclear. In vivo epidermal infection with the arboviruses West Nile virus and Semliki Forest virus significantly increased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens, CD54, and CD80 on LC. Thus, during an epidermally acquired viral infection, local LC appear to mature to a phenotype approximating that of lymphoid dendritic cells. This change may be important in the ...

  15. Distribution of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses in Yunnan Province near the China–Myanmar–Laos Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Hailin; Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanqin; Feng, Yun; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of Yunnan Province in China, adjacent to several countries in Southeast Asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. We report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of China–Myanmar–Laos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. Seventeen mosquito species representing four genera were obtained, and 14 strains of mosquito-borne viruses representing six viruses in five genera were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus. In addition, IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, Yunnan orbivirus and novel Banna virus was detected in acute-phase serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients with fever and encephalitis near the areas where the viruses were isolated. This investigation suggests that Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and lesser-known arboviruses circulate and may be infecting humans in the China–Myanmar–Laos border region. PMID:21540383

  16. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further......, the state variable of the model - the surplus consumption ratio - explains counter-cyclical time-varying expected returns on stocks. The model also produces plausible low real risk-free rates despite high relative risk aversion....

  17. Arboviruses emerging in Brazil: challenges for clinic and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Freitas, André Ricardo Ribas; Zuben, Andrea Paula Bruno Von

    2017-04-10

    Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses' capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The impact on morbidity and mortality intensifies as extensive epidemics lead to a high number of affected individuals, severe cases, and implications for health services, mainly due to the absence of treatment, vaccines, and effective prevention and control measures. RESUMO Notifica-se a emergência de arboviroses em diferentes regiões do planeta em decorrência de mudanças genéticas no vírus, alteração da dinâmica populacional de hospedeiros e vetores ou por fatores ambientais de origem antropogênica. É notável a capacidade de adaptação desses vírus e a possibilidade de emergirem e se estabelecerem em novas áreas geográficas. No contexto epidemiológico brasileiro, os arbovírus de maior circulação são DENV, CHIKV e ZIKV, embora existam outros com potencial de disseminação no País. O impacto da cocirculação viral ainda é pouco conhecido, a qual teoricamente resultaria em viremias mais intensas ou outras alterações imunológicas que poderiam ser o gatilho para doenças autoimunes, como a síndrome de Guillain-Barré. O impacto na morbidade e mortalidade se intensifica à medida que extensas epidemias pressupõem grande número de indivíduos acometidos, casos graves e implicações sobre os serviços de saúde, principalmente diante da aus

  18. Persistent barriers to care; a qualitative study to understand women's experiences in areas served by the midwives service scheme in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Josephine; Pitchforth, Emma; Okeke, Edward; Glick, Peter; Abubakar, Isa Sadeeq; Chari, Amalavoyal; Bashir, Usman; Gu, Kun; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2016-08-19

    The Nigerian Midwives Service Scheme (MSS) is an ambitious human resources project created in 2009 to address supply side barriers to accessing care. Key features include the recruitment and deployment of newly qualified, unemployed and retired midwives to rural primary healthcare centres (PHCs) to ensure improved access to skilled care. This study aimed to understand, from multiple perspectives, the views and experiences of childbearing women living in areas where it has been implemented. A qualitative study was undertaken as part of an impact evaluation of the MSS in three states from three geo-political regions of Nigeria. Semi-structured interviews were conducted around nine MSS PHCs with women who had given birth in the past six months, midwives working in the PHCs and policy makers. Focus group discussions were held with wider community members. Coding and analysis of the data was performed in NVivo10 based on the constant comparative approach. The majority of participants reported that there had been positive improvements in maternity care as a result of an increasing number of midwives. However, despite improvements in the perceived quality of care and an apparent willingness to give birth in a PHC, more women gave birth at home than intended. There were some notable differences between states, with a majority of women in one northern state favouring home birth, which midwives and community members commented stemmed from low levels of awareness. The principle reason cited by women for home birth was the sudden onset of labour. Financial barriers, the lack of essential drugs and equipment, lack of transportation and the absence of staff, particularly at night, were also identified as barriers to accessing care. Our research highlights a number of barriers to accessing care exist, which are likely to have limited the potential for the MSS to have an impact. It suggests that in addition to scaling up the workforce through the MSS, efforts are also needed to

  19. The arbovirus vector Culex torrentium is more prevalent than Culex pipiens in northern and central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, J C; Rettich, F; Merdić, E; Vignjević, G; Ostman, O; Schäfer, M; Schaffner, F; Foussadier, R; Besnard, G; Medlock, J; Scholte, E-J; Lundström, J O

    2014-06-01

    Two species of arbovirus vector, Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), occur in several European countries, but difficulties in their accurate identification and discrimination have hampered both detailed and large-scale distribution and abundance studies. Using a molecular identification method, we identified to species 2559 larvae of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected from 138 sites in 13 European countries ranging from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean coast. In addition, samples of 1712 males of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected at several sites in the Czech Republic were identified to species based on the morphology of their hypopygia. We found that the two species occur together in large areas of Europe, and that Cx. torrentium dominates in northern Europe and Cx. pipiens dominates south of the Alps. The transition in dominance occurs in central Europe, where both species are roughly equally common. There was a strong correlation between the length of the growing season at different sites and occurrences of the two species. As the growing season increases, the proportion and detection of Cx. torrentium decrease, whereas those of Cx. pipiens increase. The present findings have important consequences for the interpretation of the results of studies on major enzootic and link-vectors of mosquito-borne bird-associated viruses (i.e. Sindbis, West Nile and Usutu viruses), especially in central Europe and Scandinavia. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Mosquitoes used to draw blood for arbovirus viremia determinations in small vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah C Kading

    Full Text Available Serial samples from the same individuals may be required for certain virological studies, however, some small animals cannot easily be blood-sampled. Therefore, we evaluated the use of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes as "biological syringes" to draw blood for virus titer determinations in small vertebrates. Groups of chicks (Gallus gallus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, and house sparrows (Passer domesticus were experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV or Highlands J virus (HJV. In general, good correlation was seen between mosquito- and syringe-derived blood samples at titers ≥5.0 log10 pfu/mL serum as compared with titers 105 pfu/mL serum had mosquito- and syringe-derived titers within one log of each other. Sparrow viremia profiles generated from single mosquito blood meals and syringe were not significantly different (p>0.05. This technique is valuable for assessing the roles of small vertebrates in the ecologies of arboviruses, and could be used in applications beyond virology and infectious diseases, when <10 µL of whole blood is required.

  1. Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A A; McLean, R G; Cook, R S; Quan, T J

    1992-07-01

    During 1988 and 1989, a serologic survey of wildlife was conducted in northeastern Mexico to determine the presence, prevalence, and distribution of arboviruses and other selected disease agents. Eighty mammal specimens were tested. Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Rio Grande virus, and vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey were detected predominantly in small mammals. Deer and mouflon (Ovis musimon) had antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease. Two species had serologic evidence of recent exposure to Francisella tularensis. A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) had antibodies to Anaplasma marginale. All specimens tested for antibodies against Yersinia pestis and Brucella abortus were negative. Sera from 315 birds were tested for antibody against five equine encephalitis viruses and six avian pathogens. During 1988, antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-TC83, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis were detected in birds of several species. Antibodies to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus were also detected. Birds from five species presented antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis. Specimens tested for M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and Chlamydia psittaci were negative. To the best of our knowledge, this survey represents the first serologic evidence of bluetongue, Cache Valley virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, Jamestown Canyon virus, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, Rio Grande virus, and tularemia reported among wildlife in Mexico.

  2. Aedes Mosquitoes and Aedes-Borne Arboviruses in Africa: Current and Future Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, David; Kamgang, Basile; Badolo, Athanase; Moyes, Catherine L; Shearer, Freya M; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Pinto, João; Lambrechts, Louis; McCall, Philip J

    2018-01-28

    The Zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. Yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika are poorly controlled in Africa and often go unrecognized. However, to combat these diseases, both in Africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. Here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in Africa, their Aedes vectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities for Aedes control. Data on disease and vector ranges are sparse, and consequently maps of risk are uncertain. Issues such as genetic and ecological diversity, and opportunities for integration with malaria control, are primarily African; others such as ever-increasing urbanization, insecticide resistance and lack of evidence for most control-interventions reflect problems throughout the tropics. We identify key knowledge gaps and future research areas, and in particular, highlight the need to improve knowledge of the distributions of disease and major vectors, insecticide resistance, and to develop specific plans and capacity for arboviral disease surveillance, prevention and outbreak responses.

  3. Aedes Mosquitoes and Aedes-Borne Arboviruses in Africa: Current and Future Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Weetman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. Yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika are poorly controlled in Africa and often go unrecognized. However, to combat these diseases, both in Africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. Here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in Africa, their Aedes vectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities for Aedes control. Data on disease and vector ranges are sparse, and consequently maps of risk are uncertain. Issues such as genetic and ecological diversity, and opportunities for integration with malaria control, are primarily African; others such as ever-increasing urbanization, insecticide resistance and lack of evidence for most control-interventions reflect problems throughout the tropics. We identify key knowledge gaps and future research areas, and in particular, highlight the need to improve knowledge of the distributions of disease and major vectors, insecticide resistance, and to develop specific plans and capacity for arboviral disease surveillance, prevention and outbreak responses.

  4. Contributions to Persistence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistence theory discussed in this paper is an application of algebraic topology (Morse Theory [29] to Data Analysis, precisely to qualitative understanding of point cloud data, or PCD for short. PCD can be geometrized as a filtration of simplicial complexes (Vietoris-Rips complex [25] [36] and the homology changes of these complexes provide qualitative information about the data. Bar codes describe the changes in homology with coefficients in a fixed field. When the coefficient field is ℤ2, the calculation of bar codes is done by ELZ algorithm (named after H. Edelsbrunner, D. Letscher, and A. Zomorodian [20]. When the coefficient field is ℝ, we propose an algorithm based on the Hodge decomposition [17]. With Dan Burghelea and Tamal K. Dey we developed a persistence theory which involves level sets discussed in Section 4. We introduce and discuss new computable invariants, the “relevant level persistence numbers” and the “positive and negative bar codes”, and explain how they are related to the bar codes for level persistence. We provide enhancements and modifications of ELZ algorithm to calculate such invariants and illustrate them by examples.

  5. The role of metabolism in bacterial persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Amato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants with extraordinary tolerances toward antibiotics. Persister survival has been attributed to inhibition of essential cell functions during antibiotic stress, followed by reversal of the process and resumption of growth upon removal of the antibiotic. Metabolism plays a critical role in this process, since it participates in the entry, maintenance, and exit from the persister phenotype. Here, we review the experimental evidence that demonstrates the importance of metabolism to persistence, highlight the successes and potential for targeting metabolism in the search for anti-persister therapies, and discuss the current methods and challenges to understand persister physiology.

  6. Understanding and Responding to Persistently High Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    amount of regular benefits, and specifies the payroll taxes that fund those programs. During the recent recession and its aftermath, federal...workers among industries, occupations, or locales. As an example, the advent of computerized word processing in the 1980s greatly reduced the need...include reducing employers’ payroll taxes (especially if limited to firms that increase their pay- roll), increasing aid to the unemployed, and

  7. Embracing Racism: Understanding Its Pervasiveness & Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of slavery and racism in America and the history of what John C. Calhoun and other Southern leaders of the 1800s called "our peculiar institution" has not gone unnoticed. Neither has the psychological damage that remains as baggage carried by the descendents of both the slave and the slave owner (Berry & Blassingame, 1982;…

  8. EDITORIAL Understanding persistent postoperative pain in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are few studies documenting the prevalence of chronic pain in. South Africa. Igumbor et al1 cite a prevalence of 42.3% amongst people living in rural communities, whilst Rauf et al2 report a similarly high prevalence of 41% in a more urban population in South West Tshwane. There are even fewer published data on ...

  9. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Moyes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus, making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance.

  10. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Catherine L; Vontas, John; Martins, Ademir J; Ng, Lee Ching; Koou, Sin Ying; Dusfour, Isabelle; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Pinto, João; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Weetman, David

    2017-07-01

    Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance.

  11. Contemporary status of insecticide resistance in the major Aedes vectors of arboviruses infecting humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Martins, Ademir J.; Ng, Lee Ching; Koou, Sin Ying; Dusfour, Isabelle; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Pinto, João; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Weetman, David

    2017-01-01

    Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids). Emerging resistance to all 4 of these insecticide classes has been detected in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Target-site mutations and increased insecticide detoxification have both been linked to resistance in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus but more work is required to further elucidate metabolic mechanisms and develop robust diagnostic assays. Geographical distributions are provided for the mechanisms that have been shown to be important to date. Estimating insecticide resistance in unsampled locations is hampered by a lack of standardisation in the diagnostic tools used and by a lack of data in a number of regions for both resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The need for increased sampling using standard methods is critical to tackle the issue of emerging insecticide resistance threatening human health. Specifically, diagnostic doses and well-characterised susceptible strains are needed for the full range of insecticides used to control Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to standardise measurement of the resistant phenotype, and calibrated diagnostic assays are needed for the major mechanisms of resistance. PMID:28727779

  12. High morphological and genetic variabilities of Ochlerotatus scapularis, a potential vector of filarias and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Vivian; Devicari, Mariana; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-02-26

    Ochlerotatus scapularis is a potential vector of filarias and arboviruses in the Neotropics. This species was once typically associated with sylvatic environments; however, cases of synanthropy and urbanization of this species have been increasingly reported in southeast Brazil. Despite the medical relevance of Oc. scapularis, its populational variability is not yet known. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the morphological and genetic variabilities of this species. Population samples were characterized using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene and wing geometrics. Adult mosquitoes were collected from five sampling sites from remnants of the Atlantic forest embedded in the urban or rural areas of southeast Brazil. In the 130 individuals analyzed, 46 COI haplotypes were detected. Haplotype diversity was high and ranged from 0.66 to 0.97. Six haplotypes were present in 61% of the individuals, whereas the remaining haplotypes were less frequent (39%). Wing shape was also highly polymorphic. Differentiation of populations across sampling sites according to genetic distances (Fst = -0.009 to 0.060) and morphological distances (Qst = 0.47) indicated that populations were not identical. No correlations were noted for phenetic and genetic diversities (p = 0.19) or for genetic or phenetic distances with geographical distances (p = 0.2 and p = 0.18, respectively). Our study results suggest that Oc. scapularis has a rich genetic patrimony, even though its habitat is fragmented. Implications of such genetic richness with respect to vectorial competence, plasticity, and ability to exploit urbanized areas need to be further investigated.

  13. Ecological divergence of two sympatric lineages of Buggy Creek virus, an arbovirus associated with birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Padhi, Abinash; Moore, Amy T; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Foster, Jerome E; Pfeffer, Martin; O'Brien, Valerie A; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-11-01

    Most arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) show distinct serological subtypes or evolutionary lineages, with the evolution of different strains often assumed to reflect differences in ecological selection pressures. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is an unusual RNA virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) that is associated primarily with a cimicid swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) as its vector and the Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and the introduced House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) as its amplifying hosts. There are two sympatric lineages of BCRV (lineages A and B) that differ from each other by > 6% at the nucleotide level. Analysis of 385 BCRV isolates all collected from bug vectors at a study site in southwestern Nebraska, USA, showed that the lineages differed in their peak times of seasonal occurrence within a summer. Lineage A was more likely to be found at recently established colonies, at those in culverts (rather than on highway bridges), and at those with invasive House Sparrows, and in bugs on the outsides of nests. Genetic diversity of lineage A increased with bird colony size and at sites with House Sparrows, while that of lineage B decreased with colony size and was unaffected by House Sparrows. Lineage A was more cytopathic on mammalian cells than was lineage B. These two lineages have apparently diverged in their transmission dynamics, with lineage A possibly more dependent on birds and lineage B perhaps more a bug virus. The long-standing association between Cliff Swallows and BCRV may have selected for immunological resistance to the virus by swallows and thus promoted the evolution of the more bug-adapted lineage B. In contrast, the recent arrival of the introduced House Sparrow and its high competence as a BCRV amplifying host may be favoring the more bird-dependent lineage A.

  14. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  15. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to arbovirus and hepatitis B virus in the Vale do Ribeira region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Sérgio Pannuti

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available 280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the periurban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and periurban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory. The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche. A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36,1% when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5,6%, peri-urban (6/89 = 6,7% or from the cultivated zone (0/30 = 0%. The result suggest the existence of a common factor in the dissemination of the arboviruses and the hepatitis B virus, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes may play an important role in the HBV transmission in tropical forested region.

  16. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to arbovirus and hepatitis B virus in the Vale do Ribeira region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, C S; Iversson, L B; de Mendonça, J S; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Granato, C F

    1989-01-01

    280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the peri-urban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and peri-urban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag) was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory). The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche). A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36.1%) when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5.6%), peri-urban (6/89 = 6.7%) or from the cultivated zone (0/30 = 0%). The result suggest the existence of a common factor in the dissemination of the arboviruses and the hepatitis B virus, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes may play an important role in the HBV transmission in tropical forested region.

  17. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Van Roey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the

  18. A review on Zika virus, a re-emerging arbovirus: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Khodakhah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Before the recent outbreaks of Zika virus, few people have ever heard of its name. Even virologists had paid little attention to this member of the Flaviviridae family. Hence, up to January 2016, only 269 articles about Zika virus had been indexed in PubMed compared to the 9187 articles related to dengue virus. However, declaration of the World health organization (WHO about the global Zika virus spreading, which has been associated with birth defects and some neurological problems, diverted more attention to this forgotten virus. Afterwards, the virus hit the headlines and became a research interest. Since then, up to 9 August 2017, the number of Zika related articles indexed in PubMed reached to 3214. Zika virus is a re-emerging arbovirus. The First detection of Zika virus was in Uganda in 1947. It belongs to the Flavivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. Zika can typically cause a mild and self-limiting disease in a healthy person. However, in pregnant women, it might cause birth defects and occasionally it can be associated with peripheral neuropathy such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Although many research have been conducted to find out the casual link between this virus and these disorders but this relationship is still dim and controversial. Considering its recent epidemics in 2015 and 2016 the geographical distribution of Zika virus seems to expand all over the world progressively. Interaction between virus and vector is dynamic. Variety of competent vectors and adaptability of virus to new arthropod vectors are the two major factors for this process. According to the last report published by WHO, 84 countries/territories in five continents have reported the circulation of Zika virus in their area. In the recent outbreak, WHO regional office in our region (EMRO have reported no case of Zika virus transmission from this region. Nonetheless, because specific and competent vectors exist in some countries, this region has a potential of

  19. Differentiation of Neurons Restricts Arbovirus Replication and Increases Expression of the Alpha Isoform of IRF-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Vernon, Patty S.

    2014-01-01

    changes in neurons that may improve outcome, we compared immature and mature cultured neurons for susceptibility to three encephalitic arboviruses and found that replication of Old World and New World alphaviruses and a bunyavirus was reduced in mature compared to immature neurons. Neuronal maturation was associated with increased baseline expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 and 7 mRNAs and production of distinct isoforms of interferon regulatory factor 7 protein. Overall, our studies identified maturational changes in neurons that likely contribute to assembly of immunoregulatory factors prior to infection, a more rapid antiviral response, increased resistance to virus infection, and improved survival. PMID:25320290

  20. Reabilitação psicológica de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus Psychological rehabilitation of patients with sequelae due to encephalitis caused by arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anency Giannotti Hallage

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o possível comprometimento psíquico de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus, do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, com a finalidade de definir o papel do psicólogo, em um programa de reabilitação física e psicossocial. A presença das seqüelas era encarada de forma depreciativa e observou-se que essa percepção comprometeu fundamentalmente a identidade do paciente como ser humano, trazendo uma série de respostas emocionais desadaptadas e impossibibilitando a convivência satisfatória consigo e com o próximo. Os resultados analisados, em seu aspecto psicossociológico, revelaram que as dificuldades psíquicas observadas eram originárias da maneira como a deficiência física é encarada no meio social.The possibility of psychological damage in patients with sequelae from encephalitis caused by arbovirus in the southern section of the coastal area of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil was investigated for the purpose of defining the role of the psychologist in a programme of physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. The presence of the sequelae was regarded depreciatively by the patients and this attitude affected their self-regard as human beings. The result was a series of emotional maladjustments which made it impossible for the patients to live with themselves or maintain a satisfactory relationship with others. The results analyzed from a psychosocial standpoint revealed that the psychological problems observed arose from the way in which the physical deficiency is regarded within the social context.

  1. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Introduction and establishment of Aedes (Finlaya) Japonicus japonicus (Theobald) on the island of Hawaii: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larish, Linda Burnham; Savage, Harry M

    2005-09-01

    On November 24, 2003, 1 female adult specimen of Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) was collected in a New Jersey (NJ) light trap on the island of Hawaii. From June through October, 2004, female and male adults were collected by NJ light traps and gravid traps placed at multiple sites on the island of Hawaii. Larvae were collected in artificial containers and reared to adults for identification. Aedes (Fin.) j. japonicus is the 8th mosquito species to be introduced and established in the State of Hawaii. Currently, this species is known only from the island of Hawaii. Aedes (Fin.) j. japonicus is a competent laboratory vector for a number of arboviruses. Increased quarantine inspections, inspection and treatment of imported used tires and plants, disinsection of airline cargo holds, enhanced vector surveillance, and the development of sanitary corridors around airports and port facilities are necessary to reduce the introduction of vectors and pathogens.

  3. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  4. Revealing trap depth distributions in persistent phosphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Eeckhout, K.; Bos, A.J.J.; Poelman, D.; Smet, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent luminescence or afterglow is caused by a gradual release of charge carriers from trapping centers. The energy needed to release these charge carriers is determined by the trap depths. Knowledge of these trap depths is therefore crucial in the understanding of the persistent luminescence

  5. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  6. Treatment of persistent pain from torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Amanda C de C; Amris, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Torture and the conditions under which it is inflicted often leave persistent painful disorders. Because there may be no lasting signs, persistent pain is often misconceived as a somatic representation of psychological distress, also common after torture. This serious failure to understand...... the nature of persistent pain means that pain is largely overlooked and untreated in torture survivors. We carried out a systematic review on treatments for pain from torture, but found few studies and little use of current understanding and evidence. We discuss this in the context of treating pain...

  7. Suppression of the Arboviruses Dengue and Chikungunya Using a Dual-Acting Group-I Intron Coupled with Conditional Expression of the Bax C-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Carter

    Full Text Available In portions of South Asia, vectors and patients co-infected with dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV are on the rise, with the potential for this occurrence in other regions of the world, for example the United States. Therefore, we engineered an antiviral approach that suppresses the replication of both arboviruses in mosquito cells using a single antiviral group I intron. We devised unique configurations of internal, external, and guide sequences that permit homologous recognition and splicing with conserved target sequences in the genomes of both viruses using a single trans-splicing Group I intron, and examined their effectiveness to suppress infections of DENV and CHIKV in mosquito cells when coupled with a proapoptotic 3' exon, ΔN Bax. RT-PCR demonstrated the utility of these introns in trans-splicing the ΔN Bax sequence downstream of either the DENV or CHIKV target site in transformed Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells, independent of the order in which the virus specific targeting sequences were inserted into the construct. This trans-splicing reaction forms DENV or CHIKV ΔN Bax RNA fusions that led to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by annexin V staining, caspase, and DNA fragmentation assays. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate effective suppression of DENV and CHIKV infections by our anti-arbovirus group I intron approach. This represents the first report of a dual-acting Group I intron, and demonstrates that we can target DENV and CHIKV RNAs in a sequence specific manner with a single, uniquely configured CHIKV/DENV dual targeting group I intron, leading to replication suppression of both arboviruses, and thus providing a promising single antiviral for the transgenic suppression of multiple arboviruses.

  8. External quality assessment for arbovirus diagnostics in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, 2013–2016: improving laboratory quality over the years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdad, Mohammad Yazid; Squires, Raynal C; Cognat, Sebastien; Oxenford, Christopher John

    2017-01-01

    Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA) programme for arbovirus diagnostics. By 2016, it had grown into a global programme with participation of 96 laboratories worldwide, including 25 laboratories from 19 countries, territories and areas in the Region. The test performance of the 25 laboratories in the Region in 2016 was high with 23 (92%) reporting correct results in all specimens for dengue and chikungunya viruses. For Zika virus, 18 (72%) of the 25 laboratories reported correct results in all specimens, while seven (28%) demonstrated at least one error. When comparing iterations of this EQA programme in the Region between 2013 and 2016, the number of participating laboratories increased from 18 to 25. The first round only included dengue virus, while the latest round additionally included chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses. Proficiency for molecular detection of dengue virus remained high (83–94%) over the four-year period. The observed proficiency for arbovirus diagnostics between 2013 and 2016 is an indicator of laboratory quality improvement in the Region. PMID:29051839

  9. External quality assessment for arbovirus diagnostics in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, 2013–2016: improving laboratory quality over the years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yazid Abdad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA programme for arbovirus diagnostics. By 2016, it had grown into a global programme with participation of 96 laboratories worldwide, including 25 laboratories from 19 countries, territories and areas in the Region. The test performance of the 25 laboratories in the Region in 2016 was high with 23 (92% reporting correct results in all specimens for dengue and chikungunya viruses. For Zika virus, 18 (72% of the 25 laboratories reported correct results in all specimens, while seven (28% demonstrated at least one error. When comparing iterations of this EQA programme in the Region between 2013 and 2016, the number of participating laboratories increased from 18 to 25. The first round only included dengue virus, while the latest round additionally included chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses. Proficiency for molecular detection of dengue virus remained high (83–94% over the four-year period. The observed proficiency for arbovirus diagnostics between 2013 and 2016 is an indicator of laboratory quality improvement in the Region.

  10. [Asymptomatic infections in man: a Trojan horse for the introduction and spread of mosquito-borne arboviruses in non-endemic areas?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    2011-08-01

    In mosquito-borne arbovirus infections in man the asymptomatic cases are much more frequent than the symptomatic ones, but their true role in the introduction and subsequent spread of such diseases in non-endemic areas remains to be clarified. We have collected pertinent data from English and French literature from 1952 to 2010 through Pubmed and other bibliographic sources. Data were analysed to assess if viremia in asymptomatic human arbovirus infections might be sufficient to represent a true risk for introduction in non-endemic areas. During dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks, humans are believed to be the only vertebrate hosts. Since a very large number of individuals are infected and since viremic levels are known to vary by many orders of magnitude in symptomatic patients, it is reasonable to augur that a proportion of asymptomatic cases might reach levels of viremia sufficient to infect competent mosquitoes. Moreover, in both dengue and chikungunya fever, nosocomial infections have been identified representing an alternative opportunity for virus introduction in non-endemic areas. In zoonotic mosquito-borne arbovirus infections such as Japanese encephalitis or West Nile infection, the situation is quite different since humans are considered as "dead-end" hosts. However, the very large number of asymptomatic cases arising during outbreaks and the existence of newly recognised ways of contamination (blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental way etc.) may also ensure their introduction and subsequent spread in new areas.

  11. Demographics of antibiotic persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollerova, Silvia; Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Persister cells, cells that can survive antibiotic exposure but lack heritable antibiotic resistance, are assumed to play a crucial role for the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Persistence is a stage associated with reduced metabolic activity. Most previous studies have been done on batch...... cultures, rather than the individual level. Here, we used individual level bacteria data to confirm previous studies in how fast cells switch into a persistence stage, but our results challenge the fundamental idea that persistence comes with major costs of reduced growth (cell elongation) and division due...... even play a more prominent role for the evolution of resistance and failures of medical treatment by antibiotics as currently assumed....

  12. Poverty and Arbovirus Outbreaks: When Chikungunya Virus Hits More Precarious Populations Than Dengue Virus in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifay, Timothée; Douine, Maylis; Bonnefoy, Clémence; Hurpeau, Benoit; Nacher, Mathieu; Djossou, Félix; Epelboin, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, 3 successive arbovirus outbreaks, dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika virus, have occurred in French Guiana (FG). The primary objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic indicators of the first patients infected with CHIKV during the outbreak of 2014. The secondary objective was to compare those patients with patient infected by DENV and with the local population. A monocentric, retrospective, case-control study was conducted in Cayenne hospital in FG comparing a group of patients infected with CHIKV in 2014 with a group infected with DENV in 2013. Children aged less than 15 years and pregnant women were excluded. A total of 168 CHIKV patients were compared with 168 DENV patients. Factors associated with CHIKV were living in poor neighborhoods (82% vs 44%; odds ratio [OR], 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.35-10.2), having a precarious status (54% vs 33%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.49-3.78), and being born abroad (70% vs 35%; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 2.69-7.06). The present results suggest that early in the epidemic, the populations most at risk for CHIKV infection were the most socially vulnerable populations in the poorest neighborhoods, whereas DENV appeared to have affected a richer population and richer areas.

  13. Barcoding Turkish Culex mosquitoes to facilitate arbovirus vector incrimination studies reveals hidden diversity and new potential vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Filiz; Alten, Bulent; Simsek, Fatih; Aldemir, Adnan; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    As a precursor to planned arboviral vector incrimination studies, an integrated systematics approach was adopted using morphology and DNA barcoding to examine the Culex fauna present in Turkey. The mitochondrial COI gene (658bp) were sequenced from 185 specimens collected across 11 Turkish provinces, as well as from colony material. Although by morphology only 9 species were recognised, DNA barcoding recovered 13 distinct species including: Cx. (Barraudius) modestus, Cx. (Culex) laticinctus, Cx. (Cux.) mimeticus, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens form molestus, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) theileri, Cx. (Cux.) torrentium, Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (Maillotia) hortensis. The taxon formerly identified as Cx. (Neoculex) territans was shown to comprise two distinct species, neither of which correspond to Cx. territans s.s. These include Cx. (Neo.) impudicus and another uncertain species, which may be Cx. (Neo.) europaeus or Cx. (Neo.) martinii (herein=Cx. (Neo.) sp. 1). Detailed examination of the Pipiens Group revealed Cx. pipiens, Cx. pipiens f. molestus and the widespread presence of the highly efficient West Nile virus vector Cx. quinquefasciatus for the first time. Four new country records are reported, increasing the Culex of Turkey to 15 recognised species and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. A new taxonomic checklist is provided, annotated with respective vector competencies for transmission of arboviruses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A new continuous cell line from the mosquito Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae and its susceptibility to infections with some arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Felio J

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new cell line, PC-0199-BR, was established from embryonated eggs of the mosquito Psorophora confinnis. To date (September 2000 it has had 62 continuous passages. This is the first report of a cell line of mosquitoes belonging to the genus Psorophora. Cell growth initially was achieved in the MM/VP12 medium, supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum; however, the subcultures were later adapted to Grace's medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell morphology in the primary cultures was heterogeneous; but later in the established cell line, the predominant cell type was epithelioid. Cultured cells were predominantly diploid (2n=6; however, chromosome abnormalities were observed in a small proportion of the cells in later passages. C and G band patterns were also determined in the karyotype. The cell line isozyme profiles coincided with pupae and adult samples of the species taken from the same colony. A preliminary arbovirus susceptibility study for the cell line was undertaken. No evidence was observed of contamination of the cell line with bacteria, fungi or mycoplasma.

  15. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  16. Increased serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants among prediabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Kristine Villum; Højlund, Kurt; Vind, Birgitte Falbe

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the potential role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.......There is a need for a better understanding of the potential role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes....

  17. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Omondi

    Full Text Available The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.

  18. Mosquitos (Díptera: Culicidae vectores potenciales de arbovirus en la región de Urabá, noroccidente de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Parra-Henao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los estudios encaminados a conocer los parámetros ecológicos de las poblaciones de mosquitos selváticos, permiten establecer el riesgo de transmisión de arbovirus y aportar recomendaciones sobre prevención, vigilancia y control a las autoridades de salud. Objetivo. Determinar la diversidad y abundancia de mosquitos nocturnos y crepusculares, potenciales vectores de arbovirus en zonas rurales de Apartadó y Turbo, Antioquia. Materiales y métodos. Se realizaron muestreos trimestrales. Para la recolección de mosquitos se usaron trampas CDC, Shannon y cebo humano protegido, en fragmentos de bosque, entre las 18:00 y las 06:00 horas. Se estimaron los índices de diversidad y abundancia de especies. Resultados. Se capturaron 583 mosquitos de 10 géneros y 27 especies. Las especies más abundantes fueron Coquilletidia venezuelensis (14,6 %, Aedes scapularis (14,08 %, Psorophora ferox (10,82 % y Culex quinquefasciatus (10,3 %. La riqueza específica y los índices ecológicos calculados fueron mayores en Turbo; el fragmento de bosque estudiado en Turbo se considera de mayor riqueza y uniformidad de especies. El hallazgo de Cx. pedroi, Ae. scapularis, Ae. angustivittatus, Cq. venezuelensis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. declarator, Mansonia titillans, Ma. pseudotitillans, Ps. ferox y Trichiprosopon digitatum reportados como vectores de arbovirus, alerta sobre la posibilidad de transmisión en la zona. Conclusión. La diversidad y abundancia de mosquitos en la zona de estudio son altas. Los análisis ecológicos más los reportes previos de capacidad vectorial de algunas de las especies registradas, permiten concluir que en la zona se pueden presentar brotes de arbovirosis.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i2.667

  19. Persistence in youth unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Gil-Alana, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the degree of persistence of youth unemployment (total, male and female) in twenty-four countries by using two alternative measures: the AR coefficient and the fractional differencing parameter, based on short- and long-memory processes respectively. The evidence suggests that persistence is particularly high in Japan and some EU countries such as Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Finland, where appropriate policy actions are of the essence. Specifically, active labour market p...

  20. Persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Carole; Paladino, Nunzia Cinzia; Lowery, Aoife; Castinetti, Fréderic; Taieb, David; Sebag, Fréderic

    2017-06-01

    Despite remarkable progress in imaging modalities and surgical management, persistence or recurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) still occurs in 2.5-5% of cases of PHPT. The aim of this review is to expose the management of persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE using the search terms "recurrent" or "persistent" and "hyperparathyroidism" within the past 10 years. We also searched the reference lists of articles identified by this search strategy and selected those we judged relevant. Before considering reoperation, the surgeon must confirm the diagnosis of PHPT. Then, the patient must be evaluated with new imaging modalities. A single adenoma is found in 68% of cases, multiglandular disease in 28%, and parathyroid carcinoma in 3%. Others causes (<1%) include parathyromatosis and graft recurrence. The surgeon must balance the benefits against the risks of a reoperation (permanent hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy). If surgery is necessary, a focused approach can be considered in cases of significant imaging foci, but in the case of multiglandular disease, a bilateral neck exploration could be necessary. Patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are at high risk of recurrence and should be managed regarding their hereditary pathology. The cure rate of persistent-PHPT or recurrent-PHPT in expert centers is estimated from 93 to 97%. After confirming the diagnosis of PHPT, patients with persistent-PHPT and recurrent-PHPT should be managed in an expert center with all dedicated competencies.

  1. Optimizing Persistent Random Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Vincent; Voituriez, Raphael; Bénichou, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    We consider a minimal model of persistent random searcher with a short range memory. We calculate exactly for such a searcher the mean first-passage time to a target in a bounded domain and find that it admits a nontrivial minimum as function of the persistence length. This reveals an optimal search strategy which differs markedly from the simple ballistic motion obtained in the case of Poisson distributed targets. Our results show that the distribution of targets plays a crucial role in the random search problem. In particular, in the biologically relevant cases of either a single target or regular patterns of targets, we find that, in strong contrast to repeated statements in the literature, persistent random walks with exponential distribution of excursion lengths can minimize the search time, and in that sense perform better than any Levy walk.

  2. Defining persistent hotspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittur, Nupur; Binder, Sue; Campbell, Carl H.

    2017-01-01

    , investigators and neglected tropical disease (NTD) program managers need to define them based on changes in prevalence and/or intensity. But how should the data be analyzed to define a persistent hotspot? We have analyzed a dataset from an operational research study in western Tanzania after three annual MDAs...... and contrast the outcomes of these analyses. Our intent is to showhowthe samedataset yields different numbers of persistent hotspots depending on the approach used to define them. We suggest that investigators and NTD program managers use the approach most suited for their study or program, but whichever...... using four different approaches to define persistent hotspots. The four approaches are 1) absolute percent change in prevalence; 2) percent change in prevalence; 3) change in World Health Organization guideline categories; 4) change (absolute or percent) in both prevalence and intensity. We compare...

  3. Persistent luminescence nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Rodríguez, Emma; López-Peña, Gabriel; Montes, Eduardo; Lifante, Ginés; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel; Diaz-Torres, Luis Armando; Salas, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Persistent phosphorescence nanoparticles emitting in the red and near-infrared spectral regions are strongly demanded as contrast nanoprobes for autofluorescence free bioimaging and biosensing. In this work, we have developed Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Cr3+, Nd3+ nanopowders that produce persistent red phosphorescence peaking at 694 nm generated by Cr3+ ions. This emission displays temperature sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (20-60 °C), which makes these nanoparticles potentially useful as fluorescence (contactless) nanothermometers operating without requiring optical excitation. Nd3+ ions, which act as shallow electron traps for the red Cr3+ persistent emission, also display infrared emission bands, extending the fluorescence imaging capability to the second biological window. This unique combination of properties makes these nanoparticles multifunctional luminescent probes with great potential applications in nanomedicine.

  4. Predictors of caregiver feeding practices differentiating persistently obese from persistently non-overweight adolescents ✩

    OpenAIRE

    Towner, Elizabeth K.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Boles, Richard E.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of caregiver feeding practices to adolescent diet and weight is important to refining caregiver roles within the context of adolescent obesity prevention and treatment. This secondary data analysis examined whether feeding practices of female caregivers differentiated persistently non-overweight (n = 29) from persistently obese (n = 47) adolescents. Families who previously participated in a cross-sectional study on correlates of obesity were recruited for this f...

  5. Undergraduate Women's Persistence in the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    George-Jackson, Casey E.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data of undergraduate students from five public land-grant universities to better understand undergraduate students' persistence in and switching of majors, with particular attention given to women's participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Specifically, the study examines…

  6. The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph; Anderson, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Argues that "persistence of vision" myth (the succession of still images perceived as continuous motion) has a place in the history of film scholarship but can no longer be given currency in film theory. Suggests replacement of the concept of the passive viewer implied by the myth by an enlightened understanding of how viewers actually…

  7. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  8. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  9. Is corruption really persistent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.

    Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of

  10. Parsing apart the persisters: Etiological mechanisms and criminal offense patterns of moderate- and high-level persistent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Jamie; Vanderhei, Susan; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2017-08-01

    Longitudinal investigations that have applied Moffitt's dual taxonomic framework to criminal offending have provided support for the existence of adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial individuals, but have also identified additional trajectories. For instance, rather than a single persistent trajectory, studies have found both high-level and moderate-level persistent offenders. To inform theory and progress our understanding of chronic antisocial behavior, the present study used a sample of serious adolescent offenders (N =1,088) followed from middle adolescence to early adulthood (14-25 years), and examined how moderate-level persistent offenders differed from low-rate, desisting, and high-level persistent offenders. Results indicated that moderate-level persisters' etiology and criminal offense patterns were most similar to high-level persisters, but there were notable differences. Specifically, increasing levels of contextual adversity characterized both moderate-level and high-level persisting trajectories, but moderate-level persisters reported consistently lower levels of environmental risk. While both high- and moderate-level persisters committed more drug-related offenses in early adulthood compared to adolescence, moderate-level persisters engaged in lower levels of antisocial behavior across all types of criminal offenses. Taken cumulatively, the findings of this study suggest that sociocontextual interventions may be powerful in reducing both moderate- and high-level persistence in crime.

  11. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  12. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.

  13. Introduction: Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    of this relationship is becoming increasingly variegated. This is apparent in three principle areas; the duration of active influence that representation can hold in relation to the represented; the means, methods and media through which representations are constructed and used; what it is that is being represented.......This introduction to 'Persistent Modelling – an extended role for architectural representation' identifies how the book probes the relationship between representation and the represented, in an architectural context. It discusses how the book presents an examination and discussion of historical......, familiar contemporary and, perhaps, not so familiar emerging manifestations of this relation. What persists from this probing, fully intact, is that representation and the represented remain inextricably related in our contemporary and emerging practices. What comes into focus is that the nature...

  14. Persistent Hiccups Following Stapedectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We report a case of a 37 year-old man who developed persistent hiccups after elective stapedectomy. Method and Results: The diagnostic approach is discussed as well as the non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments and overall management. The aim is to stress that there is a variety of potential factors that can induce hiccups perioperatively and in cases like this a step by step approach must be taken. Conclusion: Persistent hiccups are very rare following stapedectomy, control of them is crucial for the successful outcome. The trigger may be more than one factors and the good response to treatment may be due to dealing successfully with more than one thing.

  15. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    maintenance in the host cell. These importantly include the ability to self-mobilize in a process termed conjugative transfer, which may occur across species barriers. Other plasmid stabilizing mechanisms include the multimer resolution system, active partitioning, and post-segregational-killing of plasmid......Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting...... the successful propagation and long-term continued existence of these extra-chromosomal elements is extensive. Apart from the accessory genetic elements that may provide plasmid-harboring cells a selective advantage, special focus is placed on the mechanisms conjugative plasmids employ to ensure their stable...

  16. Persistent misconceptions regarding SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovits, Martin

    2013-04-21

    SERS is some 35 years old, and the subject of over 11 000 articles. The field of Plasmonics, and large aspects of Metamaterials are clearly based on concepts that became current as a result of SERS. Despite this, a number of persistent, fuzzy ideas about the origin of the enhancement in SERS continue to be current even among SERS researchers, leading to the external impression that SERS is uniquely poorly understood. Six such ideas are discussed.

  17. Numeric invariants from multidimensional persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.

  18. Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.L.; de Vogt, J.; Knopp, S.; Panning, M.; Warhurst, D.C.; Polman, K.; Marti, H.; Muller, L.; Yansouni, C.P.; Jacobs, J.; Bottieau, E.; Sacko, M.; Rijal, S.; Meyanti, F.; Miles, M.A.; Boelaert, M.; Lutumba, P.; Lieshout, L.; N'Goran, E.K.; Chappuis, F.; Utzinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Persistent digestive disorders account for considerable disease burden in the tropics. Despite advances in understanding acute gastrointestinal infections, important issues concerning epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control of most persistent digestive symptomatologies remain to

  19. Strengthening Preparedness for Arbovirus Infections in Mediterranean and Black Sea Countries: A Conceptual Framework to Assess Integrated Surveillance in the Context of the One Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, Maria Grazia; Riccardo, Flavia; Nacca, Gloria; Ranghiasci, Alessia; Escadafal, Camille; Gaayeb, Lobna; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Picard, Marie; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Robert, Vincent; Victoir, Kathleen; Declich, Silvia

    2018-03-10

    In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. We analyzed findings using a conceptual framework we developed for this purpose. The review highlights that the criteria proposed in the conceptual framework to describe integrated surveillance are consistently reported in the context of studies and programs related to integrated surveillance of the selected arboviral diseases. These criteria can facilitate the identification and description of operationalized One Health surveillance.

  20. Temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Yougang, Aurelie P; Tchoupo, Micareme; Riveron, Jacob M; Wondji, Charles

    2017-10-10

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya worldwide. Both Aedes vectors are presents in Cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. Here, we assessed the current distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Yaoundé, the Capital City, established the resistance profile to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms involved. Immature stages of Aedes were sampled in several breeding sites in December 2015 (dry season) and June 2016 (rainy season) in three central neighborhoods and four peripheral neighborhoods and reared to adult stage. The G0 adults were used for molecular identification and genotyping of F1534C mutation in Ae. aegypti. Bioassays and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. Analysis revealed that both species Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in all prospected sites in Yaounde. However, in the dry season Ae. aegypti is most abundant in neighborhoods located in downtown. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was found most prevalent in suburbs whatever the season and in downtown during the rainy season. Bioassay analysis showed that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, are resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). A decreased of susceptibility to 0.75% permethrin and a full susceptibility to malathion 5% was observed. The mortality rate was increased after pre-exposure to synergist PBO. None of Ae. aegypti assayed revealed the presence of F1534C mutation. These findings are useful to planning vector control programme against arbovirus vectors in Cameroon and can be used as baseline in Africa where data on Aedes resistance is very scarce to plan further works.

  1. Persistent Dentoalveolar Pain Disorder: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Alberto; Spierings, Egilius L H; Lu, Chao; Maloney, George E

    2018-02-01

    Persistent dentoalveolar pain of idiopathic origin represents a diagnostic challenge for the dentist and physician alike. Disagreement on taxonomy and diagnostic criteria presents a significant limit to the advancement of research in the field. Patients struggle with a lack of knowledge by dental and medical professionals, diagnostic delays, and unnecessary treatments. A PubMed search was performed as of January 1, 2017 by using the terms atypical odontalgia, phantom tooth pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy, idiopathic toothache, persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder, nonodontogenic tooth pain, and continuous neuropathic orofacial pain. Three hundred forty-five abstracts were screened, and 128 articles that were pertinent to the topic went through full-text reading. Case reports and narrative reviews constitute the majority of available literature. Several retrospective case-control studies investigated the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and diagnostic processes. Treatment strategies were evaluated in only 7 open-label and 2 randomized controlled trials. Persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder is likely neuropathic in origin, but pathophysiological mechanisms to explain the onset and persistence of the pain are still far from understood. A correct diagnosis should be established before treatments are performed. Researchers should reach an agreement on the diagnostic criteria to enable a coherent research path to better understand the condition and reduce patient suffering. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Term Structure Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbritti, M. (Mirko); Gil-Alana, L.A. (Luis A.); Lovcha, Y. (Yuliya); Moreno, A. (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    Stationary I(0) models employed in yield curve analysis typically imply an unrealistically low degree of volatility in long-run short-rate expectations due to fast mean reversion. In this paper we propose a novel multivariate affine term structure model with a two-fold source of persistence in the yield curve: Long-memory and short-memory. Our model, based on an I(d) specification, nests the I(0) and I(1) models as special cases and the I(0) model is decisively rejected by the data. Our model...

  3. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  4. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  5. Six persistent research misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    Scientific knowledge changes rapidly, but the concepts and methods of the conduct of research change more slowly. To stimulate discussion of outmoded thinking regarding the conduct of research, I list six misconceptions about research that persist long after their flaws have become apparent. The misconceptions are: 1) There is a hierarchy of study designs; randomized trials provide the greatest validity, followed by cohort studies, with case-control studies being least reliable. 2) An essential element for valid generalization is that the study subjects constitute a representative sample of a target population. 3) If a term that denotes the product of two factors in a regression model is not statistically significant, then there is no biologic interaction between those factors. 4) When categorizing a continuous variable, a reasonable scheme for choosing category cut-points is to use percentile-defined boundaries, such as quartiles or quintiles of the distribution. 5) One should always report P values or confidence intervals that have been adjusted for multiple comparisons. 6) Significance testing is useful and important for the interpretation of data. These misconceptions have been perpetuated in journals, classrooms and textbooks. They persist because they represent intellectual shortcuts that avoid more thoughtful approaches to research problems. I hope that calling attention to these misconceptions will spark the debates needed to shelve these outmoded ideas for good.

  6. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  7. Diabetes medication persistence, different medications have different persistence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Lustman, Alex; Vinker, Shlomo

    2017-08-01

    To assess the persistence of diabetic patients to oral medications. The study included all type 2 diabetic patients over 40 years, members of one District of Clalit Health Services Israel, who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus before 2008 and who filled at least one prescription per year during 2008-2010, for the following medications: metformin, glibenclamide, acarbose, statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs). Purchase of at least 9 monthly prescriptions during 2009 was considered "good medication persistence". We compared HbA1c and LDL levels, according to medication persistence, for each medication; and cross persistence rates between medications. 21,357 patients were included. Average age was 67.0±11.0years, 48.9% were men, and 35.8% were from low SES. Good medication persistence rates for ARBs were 78.8%, ACEI 69.0%, statins 66.6%, acarbose 67.8%, metformin 58.6%, and glibenclamide 55.3%. Good persistence to any of the medications tested was associated with a higher rate of good persistence to other medications. Patients who took more medications had better persistence rates. Different oral medications used by diabetic patients have different persistence rates. Good persistence for any one medication is an indicator of good persistence to other medications. Investment in enhancing medication persistence in persons with diabetes may improve persistence to other medications, as well as improve glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genesis and Persistence of Trust in Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Groessl, Ingrid; von Luede, Rolf; Fleck, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of the ongoing financial crisis the question of the genesis and persistence of trust in banks plays an important role not only for the prevention of bank runs and, related to this, for the regulation of banks, but also with respect to the perspective of customer loyalty of private investors towards their housebanks. Moreover, addressing issues of trust in banks will contribute to a better understanding of how private investors cope with the uncertainties and complexitie...

  9. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Araújo Pinho Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints.

  10. University Experiences and Women Engineering Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, LoAnn Debra Gienger

    Riverside University (a pseudonym), like many universities, has not significantly increased the number of women who graduate with bachelor's degrees in engineering. The purpose of the study is to understand how the university experiences of women students influence the decision to persist in an undergraduate engineering degree and to understand the role of self-perception in how the students perceive experiences as supporting or hindering their persistence in the major. Archival data, documents and artifacts, observations, individual interviews, and a focus group with women engineering students provide insights into students' perceived barriers and supports of student success. Analysis of the data results in two major themes. First, students' self-confidence and self-efficacy influence how women assimilate university experiences as either supportive or diminishing of academic success. Second, university policies and practices shape the campus environment within which student experiences are formed and influence a student's level of institutional, academic, and social integration. The results of the study indicate opportunities for university leadership to enhance strategies that positively shape students' institutional, academic and social integration as precursors toward increasing the number of women students who successfully complete undergraduate engineering degrees at Riverside University. Future research is indicated to better understand how gender and gender identity intersects with other demographic factors, such as socio-economic status, immigration status, and life stage (e.g., traditional versus non-traditional students), to support or deter the persistence of engineering students to degree completion.

  11. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of persistent pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guang; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Persistent or chronic pain is tightly associated with various environmental changes and linked to abnormal gene expression within cells processing nociceptive signaling. Epigenetic regulation governs gene expression in response to environmental cues. Recent animal model and clinical studies indicate that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the development/maintenance of persistent pain and, possibly the transition of acute pain to chronic pain, thus shedding light in a direction for development of new therapeutics for persistent pain. PMID:24948399

  13. Heterologous Immunity and Persistent Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jenny W; Daniels, Keith A; Selin, Liisa K; Welsh, Raymond M

    2017-01-15

    One's history of infections can affect the immune response to unrelated pathogens and influence disease outcome through the process of heterologous immunity. This can occur after acute viral infections, such as infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vaccinia virus, where the pathogens are cleared, but it becomes a more complex issue in the context of persistent infections. In this study, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) was used as a persistent infection model to study heterologous immunity with LCMV. If mice were previously immune to LCMV and then infected with MCMV (LCMV+MCMV), they had more severe immunopathology, enhanced viral burden in multiple organs, and suppression of MCMV-specific T cell memory inflation. MCMV infection initially reduced the numbers of LCMV-specific memory T cells, but continued MCMV persistence did not further erode memory T cells specific to LCMV. When MCMV infection was given first (MCMV+LCMV), the magnitude of the acute T cell response to LCMV declined with age though this age-dependent decline was not dependent on MCMV. However, some of these MCMV persistently infected mice with acute LCMV infection (7 of 36) developed a robust immunodominant CD8 T cell response apparently cross-reactive between a newly defined putative MCMV epitope sequence, M57 727-734 , and the normally subdominant LCMV epitope L 2062-2069 , indicating a profound private specificity effect in heterologous immunity between these two viruses. These results further illustrate how a history of an acute or a persistent virus infection can substantially influence the immune responses and immune pathology associated with acute or persistent infections with an unrelated virus. This study extends our understanding of heterologous immunity in the context of persistent viral infection. The phenomenon has been studied mostly with viruses such as LCMV that are cleared, but the situation can be more complex with a persistent virus such as MCMV. We found that

  14. The Enigmatic Persistence of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this review, based on recent advances in cognitive neuroscience, the author presents a formulation in which the marked persistence of anorexia nervosa can be usefully understood as a well-ingrained maladaptive habit. Method The author reviewed the relevant literature on the development and course of anorexia nervosa and interpreted critical features in light of developments in cognitive neuroscience. Results Anorexia nervosa is a well characterized disorder with remarkable persistence both across history and among affected individuals. Food restriction, the salient behavioral feature of the disorder, often begins innocently but gradually takes on a life of its own. Over time, it becomes highly entrenched and resistant to change through either psychological or pharmacological treatment. Cognitive neuroscience has described two related but distinct processes that underlie the acquisition of new patterns of behavior, namely, action-outcome and stimulus-response learning. It is likely that both processes are engaged in the development of anorexia nervosa and that stimulus-response learning (that is, habit formation) is critical to the persistence of the dieting behavior. Conclusions The formulation of the dieting behavior characteristic of anorexia nervosa as a well-entrenched habit provides a basis for understanding the striking persistence of this disorder. This model helps explain the resistance of anorexia nervosa to interventions that have established efficacy in related disorders and implies that addressing the dieting behavior is critical, especially early in the course of the illness, before it has become ingrained. PMID:23429750

  15. Persistent homology of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Danijela; Maletić, Slobodan; Rajković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived topological features are distinguished from short-lived ones (considered as topological noise) in simplicial complexes constructed from complex networks. A new topological invariant, persistent homology, is determined and presented as a parameterized version of a Betti number. Complex networks with distinct degree distributions exhibit distinct persistent topological features. Persistent topological attributes, shown to be related to the robust quality of networks, also reflect the deficiency in certain connectivity properties of networks. Random networks, networks with exponential connectivity distribution and scale-free networks were considered for homological persistency analysis

  16. Intrinsic and Inherited Inflation Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey C. Fuhrer

    2006-01-01

    In the now conventional view of the inflation process, the New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC) captures most of the persistence in inflation. The sources of persistence are twofold. First, the “driving process” for inflation—the output gap or, more commonly, real marginal cost—is itself quite persistent, and a casual inspection of the NKPC reveals that inflation must “inherit” this persistence. Second, a modest amount of backward-looking or indexing behavior imparts some “intrinsic” persisten...

  17. Environment, arbovirus transmission and control of epidemics Ambiente, transmissão de arbovírus e controle de epidemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Cordellier

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the relationships between the biotopes (or phytogeographical zones, arbovirus vectors and vertebrate hosts (including man, and epidemiology, current knowledge on the transmission of Yellow Fever virus in West Africa is reported. A dynamic scheme has been devised to integrate the observed geographical distribution of cases and the timing of their occurrence. Two principal areas, endemicity and epidetnicity, were defined according to the presence or absence of sylvatic monkey-mosquito transmission. The intensity and potential of contacts between humans and vectors depends on the degree of man-made changes in the environment, often increasing the extension of ecotone areas where the mosquitoes are easily biting at the ground level. Prevention and/or control of arbovirus diseases require detailed eco-epidemiological studies to determine: (1 the effective role of each potential vector in each phytogeographical region; (2 the risk factors for the people living in or near areas with a sylvatic transmission cycle; (3 the priorities - vaccination and/or control - for preventing the expansion of natural foci.Para ilustrar as relações existentes entre os biótopos (ou zonas fitogeográficas, os vetores e hospedeiros vertebrados (incluindo o homem de arbovírus e a epidemiologia, o conhecimento atual sobre a transmissão do vírus de febre amarela na África Ocidental é apresentado e discutido. Um modelo dinâmico foi desenvolvido para integrar a distribuição geográfica dos casos observados e o momento de sua ocorrência. Duas áreas principais, endemicidade e epidemicidade, foram definidas de acordo com a presença ou ausência de transmissão silvática macaco-mosquito. A intensidade e o potencial dos contatos entre homem e vetores depende do grau das alterações ambientais produzidas pelas atividades humanas, geralmente aumentando a extensão das áreas de ecótono onde os mosquitos estão ativos ao nível do solo. A preven

  18. [Yellow fever virus, dengue 2 and other arboviruses isolated from mosquitos, in Burkina Faso, from 1983 to 1986. Entomological and epidemiological considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, V; Lhuillier, M; Meunier, D; Sarthou, J L; Monteny, N; Digoutte, J P; Cornet, M; Germain, M; Cordellier, R

    1993-01-01

    An arbovirus surveillance was carried out in Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1986. It was based on crepuscular catches of mosquitoes on human bait in some wooded areas and in one town. The total collection was 228 catches with an average of 8 men per catch. The total number of mosquitoes caught was 44,956 among which 32,010 potential vector of yellow fever; all these mosquitoes were analysed for arbovirology. In the south-western part of the country (region of Bobo-Dioulasso), surveillance was conducted each year from August to November, whilst the circulation of Aedes-borne arboviruses is well known to be favoured. In 1983, 1984 and 1986, seven strains of yellow fever virus were isolated in circumstances remarkably similar. They came from selvatic areas and never from the town. They concerned only Aedes (Stegomyia) luteocephalus which is the very predominant potential vector of yellow fever in the region. They were obtained in low figure, between 1 and 4 per year. They occurred from 27th of October to 21th of November. These observations confirm that the southern portion of the Sudan savanna zone of West Africa is the setting of a customary circulation of yellow fever virus and therefore belongs to the endemic emergence zone. In 1986, two strains of dengue 2 virus were isolated. One concerned Ae. luteocephalus from the selvatic area, the other Ae. (St.) aegypti from the heart of town. These data suggest two distinct cycles for dengue 2 virus, one urban and one selvatic, which could coexist simultaneously in the same region. In the south-eastern part of the country (region of Fada-N'Gourma) a yellow fever epidemic occurred between September and December 1983; its study has enable to precise their entomological aspects. The entomological inoculation rate of yellow fever virus has been evaluated to 22 infected bites per man during the month of october, for a man living close to forest gallery. 25 strains of yellow fever virus strains was isolated from Ae. (Diceromyia

  19. Persistent idiopathic facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Rafael; Gaul, Charly

    2017-06-01

    Background Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a chronic disorder recurring daily for more than two hours per day over more than three months, in the absence of clinical neurological deficit. PIFP is the current terminology for Atypical Facial Pain and is characterized by daily or near daily pain that is initially confined but may subsequently spread. Pain cannot be attributed to any pathological process, although traumatic neuropathic mechanisms are suspected. When present intraorally, PIFP has been termed 'Atypical Odontalgia', and this entity is discussed in a separate article in this special issue. PIFP is often a difficult but important differential diagnosis among chronic facial pain syndromes. Aim To summarize current knowledge on diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of PIFP. Methods We present a narrative review reporting current literature and personal experience. Additionally, we discuss and differentiate the common differential diagnoses associated with PIFP including traumatic trigeminal neuropathies, regional myofascial pain, atypical neurovascular pains and atypical trigeminal neuropathic pains. Results and conclusion The underlying pathophysiology in PIFP is still enigmatic, however neuropathic mechanisms may be relevant. PIFP needs interdisciplinary collaboration to rule out and manage secondary causes, psychiatric comorbidities and other facial pain syndromes, particularly trigeminal neuralgia. Burden of disease and psychiatric comorbidity screening is recommended at an early stage of disease, and should be addressed in the management plan. Future research is needed to establish clear diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies based on clinical findings and individual pathophysiology.

  20. Using Persistent Homology to Describe Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tithof, Jeffrey; Suri, Balachandra; Xu, Mu; Kramar, Miroslav; Levanger, Rachel; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Paul, Mark; Schatz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Complex spatial patterns that exhibit aperiodic dynamics commonly arise in a wide variety of systems in nature and technology. Describing, understanding, and predicting the behavior of such patterns is an open problem. We explore the use of persistent homology (a branch of algebraic topology) to characterize spatiotemporal dynamics in a canonical fluid mechanics problem, Rayleigh Bénard convection. Persistent homology provides a powerful mathematical formalism in which the topological characteristics of a pattern (e.g. the midplane temperature field) are encoded in a so-called persistence diagram. By applying a metric to measure the pairwise distances across multiple persistence diagrams, we can quantify the similarities between different states in a time series. Our results show that persistent homology yields new physical insights into the complex dynamics of large spatially extended systems that are driven far-from-equilibrium. This work is supported under NSF grant DMS-1125302.

  1. Multidimensional persistence in biomolecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-07-30

    Persistent homology has emerged as a popular technique for the topological simplification of big data, including biomolecular data. Multidimensional persistence bears considerable promise to bridge the gap between geometry and topology. However, its practical and robust construction has been a challenge. We introduce two families of multidimensional persistence, namely pseudomultidimensional persistence and multiscale multidimensional persistence. The former is generated via the repeated applications of persistent homology filtration to high-dimensional data, such as results from molecular dynamics or partial differential equations. The latter is constructed via isotropic and anisotropic scales that create new simiplicial complexes and associated topological spaces. The utility, robustness, and efficiency of the proposed topological methods are demonstrated via protein folding, protein flexibility analysis, the topological denoising of cryoelectron microscopy data, and the scale dependence of nanoparticles. Topological transition between partial folded and unfolded proteins has been observed in multidimensional persistence. The separation between noise topological signatures and molecular topological fingerprints is achieved by the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The multiscale multidimensional persistent homology reveals relative local features in Betti-0 invariants and the relatively global characteristics of Betti-1 and Betti-2 invariants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Student Persistence in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mikiko A.; Dembo, Myron H.; Mossler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The current study extends the research on student persistence in community colleges by investigating factors likely to influence a student's decision to drop out or stay in school. Specifically, this study examined demographic, financial, academic, academic integration, and psychosocial variables and their relationship to student persistence. A…

  3. Molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial persisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisonneuve, Etienne; Gerdes, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    All bacteria form persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and therefore able to survive antibiotic treatment. Due to the low frequencies of persisters in growing bacterial cultures and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms, the phenomenon has been challenging to study. However, recent...

  4. Fish population persistence in hydrologically variable landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Nick R; Balcombe, Stephen R; Crook, David A; Marshall, Jonathan C; Menke, Norbert; Lobegeiger, Jaye S

    2015-06-01

    Forecasting population persistence in environments subjected to periodic disturbances represents a general challenge for ecologists. In arid and semiarid regions, climate change and human water use pose significant threats to the future persistence of aquatic biota whose populations typically depend on permanent refuge waterholes for their viability. As such, habitats are increasingly being lost as a result of decreasing runoff and increasing water extraction. We constructed a spatially explicit population model for golden perch Macquaria ambigua (Richardson), a native freshwater fish in the Murray-Darling Basin in eastern Australia. We then used the model to examine the effects of increased aridity, increased drought frequency, and localized human water extraction on population viability. Consistent with current observations, the model predicted golden perch population persistence under the current climate and levels of water use. Modeled increases in local water extraction greatly increased the risk of population decline, while scenarios of increasing aridity and drought frequency were associated with only minor increases in this risk. We conclude that natural variability in abundances and high turnover rates (extinction/recolonization) of local populations dictate the importance of spatial connectivity and periodic cycles of population growth. Our study also demonstrates an effective way to examine population persistence in intermittent and ephemeral river systems by integrating spatial and temporal dynamics of waterhole persistence with demographic processes (survival, recruitment, and dispersal) within a stochastic modeling framework. The approach can be used to help understand the impacts of natural and anthropogenic drivers, including water resource development, on the viability of biota inhabiting highly dynamic environments.

  5. Mechanisms of Toxoplasma gondii persistence and latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William J.; Jeffers, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes opportunistic disease, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Central to its transmission and pathogenesis is the ability of the proliferative stage (tachyzoite) to convert into latent tissue cysts (bradyzoites). Encystment allows Toxoplasma to persist in the host, and affords the parasite a unique opportunity to spread to new hosts without proceeding through its sexual stage, which is restricted to felids. Bradyzoite tissue cysts can cause reactivated toxoplasmosis if host immunity becomes impaired. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms orchestrating bradyzoite development is needed to better manage the disease. Here we will review key studies that have contributed to our knowledge about this persistent form of the parasite and how to study it, with a focus on how cellular stress can signal for the reprogramming of gene expression needed during bradyzoite development. PMID:22091606

  6. Strengthening Preparedness for Arbovirus Infections in Mediterranean and Black Sea Countries: A Conceptual Framework to Assess Integrated Surveillance in the Context of the One Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Dente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV, chikungunya virus (CHKV, dengue virus (DENV, and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. We analyzed findings using a conceptual framework we developed for this purpose. The review highlights that the criteria proposed in the conceptual framework to describe integrated surveillance are consistently reported in the context of studies and programs related to integrated surveillance of the selected arboviral diseases. These criteria can facilitate the identification and description of operationalized One Health surveillance.

  7. The role of viral persistence in flavivirus biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlera, Luwanika; Melik, Wessam; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, vector-borne flaviviruses are persistently cycled between either the tick or mosquito vector and small mammals such as rodents, skunks, and swine. These viruses account for considerable human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increasing and substantial evidence of viral persistence in humans, which includes the isolation of RNA by RT-PCR and infectious virus by culture, continues to be reported. Viral persistence can also be established in vitro in various human, animal, arachnid and insect cell lines in culture. Although some research has focused on the potential roles of defective virus particles, evasion of the immune response through the manipulation of autophagy and/or apoptosis, the precise mechanism of flavivirus persistence is still not well understood. We propose additional research for further understanding of how viral persistence is established in different systems. Avenues for additional studies include determining if the multifunctional flavivirus protein NS5 has a role in viral persistence, the development of relevant animal models of viral persistence as well as investigating the host responses that allow vector borne flavivirus replication without detrimental effects on infected cells. Such studies might shed more light on the viral-host relationships, and could be used to unravel the mechanisms for establishment of persistence. PMID:24737600

  8. Spatial patterns of drought persistence in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L.; Ford, T.

    2017-12-01

    East China has experienced a number of severe droughts in recent decades. Understanding the characteristics of droughts and their persistence will provide operational guidelines for water resource management and agricultural production. This study uses a logistic regression model to measure the probability of drought occurrence in the current season given the previous season's Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) as well as drought persistence. Results reveal large spatial and seasonal variations in the relationship between the previous season's SPI and the drought occurrence probability in a given season. The drought persistence averaged over the entire study area for all the four seasons is approximately 34% with large variations from season to season and from region to region. The East and Northeast regions have the largest summer drought persistence ( 40%) and lowest fall drought persistence ( 28%). The spatial pattern in winter and spring drought persistence is dissimilar with stronger winter and weaker spring drought persistence in the Southwest and Northeast relative to other regions. Logistic regression analysis indicates a stronger negative relationship in summer-to-fall (or between fall drought occurrence and summer SPI) than other inter-season relationships. This study demonstrates that the impact of previous season SPI and SOI on current season drought varies substantially from region to region and from season to season. This study also shows stronger drought persistence in summer than in other seasons. In other words, the probability of fall drought occurrence is closely related to summer moisture conditions in the East China.

  9. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    form of musical consumption and experience. The three pieces draw lines connecting different aspects of persistence, resistance, and resonance.

  10. CHANGES IN HIPPOCAMPAL SPINE DENSITY AND PROTEIN KINASE C ISOFORMS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO A MIXTURE OF PERSISTENT CHEMICALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) offer a unique model to understand the major issues related to complex environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. These pollutants are ubiquitous, persistent, bioaccumulate in human body through the food chain, and exist as mixtures of severa...

  11. Energy landscapes and persistent minima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Joanne M.; Wales, David J., E-mail: dw34@cam.ac.uk [University Chemical Laboratories, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mazauric, Dorian; Cazals, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.cazals@inria.fr [Inria Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée, 2004 route des Lucioles, F-06902 Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2016-02-07

    We consider a coarse-graining of high-dimensional potential energy landscapes based upon persistences, which correspond to lowest barrier heights to lower-energy minima. Persistences can be calculated efficiently for local minima in kinetic transition networks that are based on stationary points of the prevailing energy landscape. The networks studied here represent peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, an atomic cluster, and a glassy system. Minima with high persistence values are likely to represent some form of alternative structural morphology, which, if appreciably populated at the prevailing temperature, could compete with the global minimum (defined as infinitely persistent). Threshold values on persistences (and in some cases equilibrium occupation probabilities) have therefore been used in this work to select subsets of minima, which were then analysed to see how well they can represent features of the full network. Simplified disconnectivity graphs showing only the selected minima can convey the funnelling (including any multiple-funnel) characteristics of the corresponding full graphs. The effect of the choice of persistence threshold on the reduced disconnectivity graphs was considered for a system with a hierarchical, glassy landscape. Sets of persistent minima were also found to be useful in comparing networks for the same system sampled under different conditions, using minimum oriented spanning forests.

  12. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  13. Persistent photoconductivity in strontium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Marianne C; Selim, Farida A; McCluskey, Matthew D

    2013-11-01

    Persistent photoconductivity was observed in strontium titanate (SrTiO(3)) single crystals. When exposed to sub-bandgap light (2.9 eV or higher) at room temperature, the free-electron concentration increases by over 2 orders of magnitude. After the light is turned off, the enhanced conductivity persists for several days, with negligible decay. From positron lifetime measurements, the persistent photoconductivity is attributed to the excitation of an electron from a titanium vacancy defect into the conduction band, with a very low recapture rate.

  14. Persistence in an Online Master's Degree Program: Perceptions of Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budash, Deborah; Shaw, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Persistence in online learning experiences has been perceived as chronically lower than in face-to-face learning, but a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon has proven elusive. As online learning opportunities continue to expand, a better understanding of how learners and faculty perceive persistence is needed to foster this continued…

  15. Object-oriented Persistent Homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  16. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    OpenAIRE

    Thiruchelvam, Nirosshan; Randhawa, Jaskirat; Sadiek, Happy; Kistangari, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  17. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  18. Predicting medication persistence to buprenorphine transdermal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Ben-Joseph, Rami; Chang, Chun-Lan; Hess, Gregory

    2015-02-01

    Persistence, the duration a patient remains on therapy, in chronic, symptomatic conditions plays an important role in therapy effectiveness. Understanding the duration and patient factors associated with prescribed medication persistence is, therefore, an important step toward better treatment and health outcomes for patients. In the following study, an analysis of such factors associated with buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS) persistence was conducted utilizing a large US private practitioner and pharmacy claims database and is herein reported. Patients aged ≥ 18 years initiating BTDS during January 1, 2011-November 30, 2011 were identified in the IMS Private Practitioner Medical Claims and Pharmacy Claims databases. An index date was defined as the first prescription of BTDS during the studied interval. During the preindex period, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), chronic pain-related conditions, and prior medication use were assessed. Concomitant medications and various treatment patterns (eg, last dose strength and dose adjustments) were assessed in the postindex 6-month period. Persistence was measured as the duration of BTDS from initiation to the 1st >28-day refill gap in the postindex 6-month period. Descriptive statistical and survival analysis was used to assess the predictors of BTDS persistence. During the study period, 10,457 patients newly treated with BTDS were identified. Patients' mean (± SD) age was 54.5 (± 15.2) years; 69.9% were women, and the mean (± SD) CCI was 1 (± 1.4). Utilizing a hierarchical approach, patients were separated into different cohorts based on the initial analgesic prescription identified during postindex period with 91.7%, 34.7%, and 59.0% of the patients using opioids, NSAIDs and adjuvant analgesics, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses showed that patients with prior opioid and adjuvant analgesic use were 21% and 5% less likely to discontinue BTDS (P 5 mcg/hour. Sensitivity analyses for those with 30

  19. Predictors of caregiver feeding practices differentiating persistently obese from persistently non-overweight adolescents ✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Elizabeth K.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Boles, Richard E.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of caregiver feeding practices to adolescent diet and weight is important to refining caregiver roles within the context of adolescent obesity prevention and treatment. This secondary data analysis examined whether feeding practices of female caregivers differentiated persistently non-overweight (n = 29) from persistently obese (n = 47) adolescents. Families who previously participated in a cross-sectional study on correlates of obesity were recruited for this follow-up study. At the time of the follow-up study, anthropometric measures were taken for all female caregivers and adolescents, and caregivers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire-Adolescent version. Socioeconomic, demographic, female caregiver anthropometric, and psychological (caregiver perceived self-weight and concern for adolescent overweight) variables were examined as predictors of feeding practices found to differentiate the two groups. Female caregivers of persistently obese adolescents reported significantly greater use of restriction and monitoring compared to female caregivers of persistently non-overweight adolescents. Restriction was predicted by female caregiver age and concern for adolescent overweight whereas monitoring was predicted by concern for adolescent overweight only. Caregiver feeding strategies may be an important target for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention efforts particularly among those with heightened concern about their teen’s weight status. PMID:25246031

  20. Predictors of caregiver feeding practices differentiating persistently obese from persistently non-overweight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Elizabeth K; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Boles, Richard E; Zeller, Meg H

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of caregiver feeding practices to adolescent diet and weight is important to refining caregiver roles within the context of adolescent obesity prevention and treatment. This secondary data analysis examined whether feeding practices of female caregivers differentiated persistently non-overweight (n = 29) from persistently obese (n = 47) adolescents. Families who previously participated in a cross-sectional study on correlates of obesity were recruited for this follow-up study. At the time of the follow-up study, anthropometric measures were taken for all female caregivers and adolescents, and caregivers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire-Adolescent version. Socioeconomic, demographic, female caregiver anthropometric, and psychological (caregiver perceived self-weight and concern for adolescent overweight) variables were examined as predictors of feeding practices found to differentiate the two groups. Female caregivers of persistently obese adolescents reported significantly greater use of restriction and monitoring compared to female caregivers of persistently non-overweight adolescents. Restriction was predicted by female caregiver age and concern for adolescent overweight whereas monitoring was predicted by concern for adolescent overweight only. Caregiver feeding strategies may be an important target for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention efforts particularly among those with heightened concern about their teen's weight status. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Briese

    Full Text Available The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904 and New South Wales (12005. Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV, NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV, and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV, isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  2. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Thomas; Williams, David T; Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  3. A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Mmando, Arnold S; Swai, Johnson K; Horstmann, Sebastian; Malone, David; Killeen, Gerry F

    2017-04-01

    The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. The effects of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips upon mosquito biting exposure of users and nearby non-users, as well as dependence of protection upon treatment dose, were measured outdoors in rural Tanzania using human landing catches (HLC). Strips treated with 10ml of transfluthrin prevented at least three quarters (p bites by Anopheles arabiensis, Culex spp. and Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, and >90% protection against bites on warmer nights with higher evaporation rates, for at least one year. Strips treated with this high dose also reduced biting exposure of non-users at a distance of up to 5m from the strips for An. arabiensis (p < 0.001) and up to 2m for Mansonia spp. (p = 0.008), but provided no protection to non-users against Culex spp. No evidence of increased risk for non-users, caused by diversion of mosquitoes to unprotected individuals, was found at any distance within an 80m radius. A dose of only 1ml provided equivalent protection to the 10ml dose against An. arabiensis, Culex spp. and Mansonia spp. mosquitoes over 6 months (p < 0.001). Transfluthrin-treated hessian emanators provide safe, affordable, long-term protection against several different pathogen-transmitting mosquito taxa that attack humans outdoors, where they are usually active and cannot be protected by bed nets or residual sprays with conventional, solid

  4. The energetic and chemical signatures of persistent soil organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barré, Pierre; Plante, Alain F.; Cecillon, Lauric

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of soil organic matter (OM) resists decomposition over decades to centuries as indicated by long radiocarbon residence times, but the mechanisms responsible for the long-term (multi-decadal) persistence are debated. The current lack of mechanistic understanding limits our ability...... chemical composition. From an energetic point of view, thermal analyses revealed that combustion of persistent OM occurred at higher temperature and provided less energy than combustion of more labile OM. In terms of chemical composition, persistent OM was H-depleted compared to OM present at the start...... of bare fallow, but spectroscopic analyses of OM functional groups did not reflect a consistent chemical composition of OM across sites, nor substantial modifications with bare fallow duration. The low energy content of persistent OM may be attributed to a combination of reduced content of energetic C...

  5. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  6. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  7. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  8. [The presence of Culicidae species in medium-sized cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil and the risk of West Nile fever and other arbovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibo, Margareth Regina; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Ghirardelli, Caroline Perez; Mendonça, Adriano Luís; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The objectives for this study were to measure the diversity of Culicidae species, describe their abundance and seasonal variation in São José do Rio Preto, SP, and discuss the risk of arbovirus infections. The collection of larval and adult mosquitoes was conducted monthly from 2006 to 2007 in an urban area and four sections of forested land. In the urban area, larvae were collected from sites where oviposition by Culex mosquitoes was most likely to occur. At two of the four sites in the forested land, adult mosquitoes were collected with the use of CDC traps at night, and a Nasci aspirator was used in the daytime at the two other collection sites. In the urban area, 34 Culicidae species were identified out of a total sample of 8,683 specimens; of these specimens, 80.7% were Culex quinquefasciatus, 9.6% were Culex coronator, 3.2% were Aedes albopictus, and 1.1% were Ochlerotatus fluviatilis. The abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae was negatively related to rainfal. In the woods, 2,268 mosquitoes were collected, representing 10 genera and 46 species. The most abundant mosquito species were Aedeomyia squamipennis, Culex coronator, Culex (Mel.) Melanoconion section, Culex declarator, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Anopheles triannulatus, Culex bidens/interfor and Culex habilitator/pseudojhantinosoma. The abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the urban area and the presence of other Culicidae species in urban areas and forested land point to the possibility of the transmission of West Nile virus and other arbovirus infections in São José do Rio Preto and other cities. Thus, the enacting of measures aimed at the surveillance of these arbovirus infections is essential.

  9. Persistence Statements: Describing Digital Stickiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kunze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a draft vocabulary for making “persistence statements.” These are simple tools for pragmatically addressing the concern that anyone feels upon experiencing a broken web link. Scholars increasingly use scientific and cultural assets in digital form, but choosing which among many objects to cite for the long term can be difficult. There are few well-defined terms to describe the various kinds and qualities of persistence that object repositories and identifier resolvers do or don’t provide. Given an object’s identifier, one should be able to query a provider to retrieve human- and machine-readable information to help judge the level of service to expect and help gauge whether the identifier is durable enough, as a sort of long-term bet, to include in a citation. The vocabulary should enable providers to articulate persistence policies and set user expectations.

  10. Missed diagnosis-persistent delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is in general considered as an acute short lasting reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome. However, there is some evidence to suggest that in a small proportion of cases delirium may be a chronic or persistent condition. However, making this diagnosis requires clinical suspicion and ruling other differential diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of a 55-year-old man who had cognitive symptoms, psychotic symptoms and depressive symptoms along with persistent hypokalemia and glucose intolerance. He was seen by 3 psychiatrists with these symptoms and was initially diagnosed as having depressive disorder and later diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (current episode mania, and psychosis were considered by the third psychiatrist. However, despite the presence of persistent neurocognitive deficits, evening worsening of symptoms, hypokalemia and glucose intolerance diagnosis of delirium was not suspected.

  11. Assessing persistence: Experiences documenting savings persistence under the California protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Drain, M.; Caulfield, T.O.

    1998-07-01

    As California enters the final stages of DSM evaluation and verification under regulation, documentation of energy savings persistence (persistence) takes center stage with respect to earnings claims. The California Protocols both simplify and complicate the process of measuring persistence. This paper discusses the California Protocols and the interaction between individual utility studies and cooperative statewide studies in fulfilling the requirements of the Protocols. It addresses measure effective useful life and measure technical degradation. The paper describes how California utilities are grappling with the practical issues of projecting effective useful life based on limited attrition data and speculative survival functions. Specifically, the paper discusses the difficulty of establishing meaningful survival functions for the breadth of measures represented in California DSM programs. Similarly, California utilities as a whole are attempting to establish exactly what measure technical degradation means, and whether it actually exists. The paper recounts the process, documents the approaches taken, and documents publicly available information on both retention based effective useful life and study based measure technical degradation. Finally, the authors propose improvements in the approach to persistence assessment.

  12. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  13. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  14. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  15. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  16. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity. PMID:25803027

  17. "It's More Flexible": Persistence of Women Engineers in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlambo, Yeukai Angela; Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng

    2017-01-01

    The under-representation of women in engineering is an issue of concern for policy-makers. While much of the existing literature has focussed on understanding reasons for women's under-representation in engineering and related technical fields, there is a paucity of research that examines why women who are already in engineering persist. This…

  18. Student Perceptions of Online Learning and Persistence for Course Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to explore students' perceptions of online learning at a small rural community college to understand what factors impacted their persistence in coursework. The research problem dealt with retention rates in online courses, which were lower than in face-to-face courses. Despite extensive quantitative…

  19. Persistent postoperative hiccups: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B J; Rosenberg, J

    1993-01-01

    . Numerous treatment modalities have been tried but with questionable success. Valproate has proven effective in two trials investigating persistent non-surgical hiccups. The simple application of a nasogastric tube may successfully treat the hiccups, possibly because of an alteration of the activity...

  20. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight ® intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight ® group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight ® group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight ® group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight ® treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  1. Do some Firms Persistently Outperform?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capasso, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314016627; Cefis, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/274516233; Frenken, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses persistence in growth rates of the entire population of Dutch manufacturing firms. Previous literature on firm growth rates shows that extreme growth events are likely to be negatively correlated over time. A rebound effect following an extreme growth event questions the

  2. Do some firms persistently outperform?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capasso, M.; Cefis, E.; Frenken, K.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses persistence in growth rates of the entire population of Dutch manufacturing firms. Previous literature on firm growth rates shows that extreme growth events are likely to be negatively correlated over time. A rebound effect following an extreme growth event questions the

  3. Child Abuse Potential: How Persistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Jaana; Aaltonen, Terhi

    1999-01-01

    Compares mothers whose children had been under supervision of Child Protective Services (CPS) with comparison mothers for child abuse potential using Millner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory. CPS mothers scored significantly higher than the comparison mothers, indicating their persistent elevated child abuse potential; there was no significant…

  4. Coping with persistent environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varjopuro, Riku; Andrulewicz, Eugeniusz; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1) decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a polic...

  5. Effects of meropenem exposure in persister cells of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Stephanie Wagner; Donamore, Bruna Kern; Pagnussatti, Vany Elisa; Ferreira, Carlos Alexandre Sanchez; de Oliveira, Sílvia Dias

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of meropenem in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) persister levels. Persister levels in planktonic and biofilm cultures from ACB isolates were evaluated after exposure to different meropenem concentrations. A high variability of persister fractions was observed among the isolates cultured under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Meropenem concentration did not influence persister fractions, even when far above the MIC. No correlation was found between persister levels and biofilm biomass. The magnitude of persister levels from ACB planktonic and, particularly, biofilm cultures exposed to meropenem was independent of the antibiotic concentration, dosing regimen and biofilm biomass. These findings, in a context of meropenem failure to treat chronic infections, strengthen the importance of understanding persister behavior.

  6. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  7. Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kis Boisen

    2012-01-01

    The note shows an example of an architure for buildin g stand-alone program, where the programming language is object oriented and the databas system is a relational database system. Together with the notes is an example program.......The note shows an example of an architure for buildin g stand-alone program, where the programming language is object oriented and the databas system is a relational database system. Together with the notes is an example program....

  8. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  9. Urbanization is a main driver for the larval ecology of Aedes mosquitoes in arbovirus-endemic settings in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudou, Benjamin G.; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Aedes fauna. The predatory mosquito species Culex tigripes was commonly sampled, while Toxorhynchites and Eretmapodites were mostly collected in rural areas. Conclusions/significance In Côte d’Ivoire, urbanization is associated with high abundance of Aedes larvae and a predominance of artificial containers as breeding sites, mostly colonized by Ae. aegypti in urban areas. Natural containers are still common in rural areas harboring several Aedes species and, therefore, limiting the impact of systematic removal of discarded containers on the control of arbovirus diseases. PMID:28704434

  10. Urbanization is a main driver for the larval ecology of Aedes mosquitoes in arbovirus-endemic settings in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien B Z Zahouli

    2017-07-01

    species Culex tigripes was commonly sampled, while Toxorhynchites and Eretmapodites were mostly collected in rural areas.In Côte d'Ivoire, urbanization is associated with high abundance of Aedes larvae and a predominance of artificial containers as breeding sites, mostly colonized by Ae. aegypti in urban areas. Natural containers are still common in rural areas harboring several Aedes species and, therefore, limiting the impact of systematic removal of discarded containers on the control of arbovirus diseases.

  11. Urbanization is a main driver for the larval ecology of Aedes mosquitoes in arbovirus-endemic settings in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouli, Julien B Z; Koudou, Benjamin G; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-07-01

    Culex tigripes was commonly sampled, while Toxorhynchites and Eretmapodites were mostly collected in rural areas. In Côte d'Ivoire, urbanization is associated with high abundance of Aedes larvae and a predominance of artificial containers as breeding sites, mostly colonized by Ae. aegypti in urban areas. Natural containers are still common in rural areas harboring several Aedes species and, therefore, limiting the impact of systematic removal of discarded containers on the control of arbovirus diseases.

  12. Living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis: a BARFOT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Sidona-Valentina; Samuelson, Karin; Hagell, Peter; Fridlund, Bengt; Forslind, Kristina; Svensson, Björn; Thomé, Bibbi

    2017-09-01

    To describe and understand the meaning of living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis. A considerable number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis live with an ongoing active and symptomatic illness despite access to potent antirheumatic treatment. There is, however, a lack of knowledge about the meaning of living with this severe long-term illness, defined as persistent rheumatoid arthritis. A descriptive design based on a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used. Ten adults with persistent rheumatoid arthritis and at least five years disease duration were interviewed. The interviews were analysed according to van Manen's method. Living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis revealed four overall themes: an existence dominated by painful symptoms and treatment, radical changes and limitations in one's life, a continual struggle to cope with one's life and to master the illness, and a dependency on those who are close by and the world around. The lifeworld was affected to a varying extent and in various ways by the illness but also by the dependence on its treatment and care that was not experienced as sufficiently meeting needs in terms of security, access to and coordination of care as well as team and rehabilitation services. Persistent rheumatoid arthritis and its treatment entail a radical effect on the person's life and quality of life. Current ordinary rheumatology care does not seem to meet the individual needs of the person with persistent rheumatoid arthritis in an optimal way. A greater knowledge about and understanding of the person who lives with persistent rheumatoid arthritis is important for facilitating the development of care and the relief of suffering. A holistic alternative to conventional clinical practice, such as person-centred care, could be tested as an innovative model of care. Our findings might serve as material for educational and counselling purposes for healthcare professionals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, P

    1997-01-01

    Using examples predominantly drawn from study of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) model system, this review describes the mechanisms involved in control of virus infections by the cell-mediated immune response, and some of the different strategies viruses have evolved to evade such immune clearance so that they can persist in their hosts. The important role played by the CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) response in clearance of many systemic virus infections is discussed; and it is emphasized that although CD8+ CTL are classically thought of as lymphocytes which mediate lysis of virus-infected target cells, the principal mechanism by which CD8+ T cells effect clearance of persistent and many acute virus infections via production of antiviral cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, not via destruction of virus-producing cells. To avoid immune-mediated clearance, viruses frequently use a combination of several different strategies. These can be grouped into mechanisms for avoiding recognition by the immune response (such as establishing latent infections, replicating in immune-privileged sites, down-regulating the expression of immune recognition signals on the surface of infected cells, or undergoing antigenic variation); and mechanisms for suppressing the immune response. The latter include generalized immune suppression mechanisms, and strategies for more precisely disabling the specific immune response such as inducing tolerance or exhaustion of virus-specific CTL. The value of understanding both immune clearance mechanisms and viral evasion strategies in the rational design of immune-based therapies to combat persistent virus infections is discussed.

  14. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  15. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health.Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes.Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research.Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as

  16. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  17. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  18. Persistent Homology of Collaboration Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Carstens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, network science has introduced several statistical measures to determine the topological structure of large networks. Initially, the focus was on binary networks, where edges are either present or not. Thus, many of the earlier measures can only be applied to binary networks and not to weighted networks. More recently, it has been shown that weighted networks have a rich structure, and several generalized measures have been introduced. We use persistent homology, a recent technique from computational topology, to analyse four weighted collaboration networks. We include the first and second Betti numbers for the first time for this type of analysis. We show that persistent homology corresponds to tangible features of the networks. Furthermore, we use it to distinguish the collaboration networks from similar random networks.

  19. Search along persistent random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2008-06-01

    Optimal search strategies and their implementations in biological systems are a subject of active research. Here we study a search problem which is motivated by the hunt of sperm cells for the egg. We ask for the probability for an active swimmer to find a target under the condition that the swimmer starts at a certain distance from the target. We find that success probability is maximal for a certain level of fluctuations characterized by the persistence length of the swimming path of the swimmer. We derive a scaling law for the optimal persistence length as a function of the initial target distance and search time by mapping the search on a polymer physics problem.

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  2. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  3. Persistent Factors Facilitating Excellence in Research Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia; Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    2018-01-01

    as in the framework of the environments, influencing research performance and identifies persistent factors in dynamic and innovative research environments. The findings add to our understanding of how to improve the overall ecology of knowledge production and create optimal conditions that support research......The paper identifies robust and time-invariant features that characterise dynamic and innovative research environments. It takes as its point of departure the results of an empirical study conducted in 2002, which identified the common characteristics of 15 dynamic and innovative public research...... environments, and focusses on their development by revisiting the environments after more than a decade, hence mapping them in the current research landscape. Based on a model for studies of research environments, constructed and used in the Nordic countries, the paper maps elements internal as well...

  4. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  5. Long memory and changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    We study the empirical behaviour of semi-parametric log-periodogram estimation for long memory models when the true process exhibits a change in persistence. Simulation results confirm theoretical arguments which suggest that evidence for long memory is likely to be found. A recently proposed test...... by Sibbertsen and Kruse (2009) is shown to exhibit noticeable power to discriminate between long memory and a structural change in autoregressive parameters....

  6. Persistent Authentication in Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Syska; Kirschmeyer, Martin; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    present a proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed mechanism, which employs camera based tracking with a single stationary 3D camera that uses the "time of flight" principle. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed mechanism indicates that persistent authentication is technically possible...... with the proposed hardware. The proposed model is sufficiently general to allow the addition of more cameras or supplemental tracking technologies, which will improve the robustness and scalability of the proposed mechanism....

  7. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2014-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the Persistent Scatterer Technique, the latest development in radar interferometric data processing. It is the only book on Permanent Scatterer (PS) technique of radar interferometry, and it details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS technique. The STUN (spatio-temporal unwrapping network) algorithm, developed to cope with these issues in a robust way, is presented and applied to two test sites.

  8. Is Farm Management Skill Persistent?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Paulson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Farm management skills can affect farm managers' performance. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) panel data across 6,760 farms from 1996 through 2011. Two out-of-sample measures of skill are used to analyze the ability of farm managers that consistently perform well over yearly and longer time horizons. Persistence tests show management skills are consistent and predictable. Results also suggest that the most ...

  9. Using animal models to overcome temporal, spatial and combinatorial challenges in HIV persistence research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denton, Paul W.; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    will improve our understanding of HIV persistence and move the field closer to achieving eradication of persistent HIV. Given that humanized mice and non-human primate HIV models permit rigorous control of experimental conditions, these models have been used extensively as in vivo research platforms...

  10. Persistent Identifiers, Discoverability and Open Science (Communication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona; Lehnert, Kerstin; Hanson, Brooks

    2016-04-01

    Early in 2016, the American Geophysical Union announced it was incorporating ORCIDs into its submission workflows. This was accompanied by a strong statement supporting the use of other persistent identifiers - such as IGSNs, and the CrossRef open registry 'funding data'. This was partly in response to funders' desire to track and manage their outputs. However the more compelling argument, and the reason why the AGU has also signed up to the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines (http://cos.io/top), is that ultimately science and scientists will be the richer for these initiatives due to increased opportunities for interoperability, reproduceability and accreditation. The AGU has appealed to the wider community to engage with these initiatives, recognising that - unlike the introduction of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for articles by CrossRef - full, enriched use of persistent identifiers throughout the scientific process requires buy-in from a range of scholarly communications stakeholders. At the same time, across the general research landscape, initiatives such as Project CRediT (contributor roles taxonomy), Publons (reviewer acknowledgements) and the forthcoming CrossRef DOI Event Tracker are contributing to our understanding and accreditation of contributions and impact. More specifically for earth science and scientists, the cross-functional Coalition for Publishing Data in the Earth and Space Sciences (COPDESS) was formed in October 2014 and is working to 'provide an organizational framework for Earth and space science publishers and data facilities to jointly implement and promote common policies and procedures for the publication and citation of data across Earth Science journals'. Clearly, the judicious integration of standards, registries and persistent identifiers such as ORCIDs and International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) to the research and research output processes is key to the success of this venture

  11. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-29

    container. The ambient temperature had a marked effect on speed of development. Insects in control group A reared at summer temperature of 28C developed... ambient temperature was increased to 20C, and 7 days later it was increased to 25C. The higher temperatures increased the rate of development and...Nacional de Salud 1 neuroblastoma (N-18)cells A.A. 80080 1 dengue 1 monoclonal antibody Santa fe de Bogota, Colombia 1 dengue 2 monoclonal antibody 1

  12. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  13. Pedagogical Reform and College WOMEN’S Persistence in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Kerry J. Strand; Mayfield, M. Elizabeth

    Significant gender differences persist in the election of mathematics courses and math-related majors in college. Recent research suggests that part of the blame lies with conventional pedagogical approaches and that alternative approaches emphasizing practical applications, collaborative problem solving, and group work make mathematics more understandable and appealing to all students, particularly women. Using questionnaires administered to 355 traditional-age female college students, the authors examined the relationship between alternative teaching strategies in high school mathematics classes and two categories of outcome variables: mathematics-related attitudes and mathematics persistence in college. Multivariate analysis showed that experience with this so-called female-friendly pedagogy is positively related to students’ math-related attitudes and that these attitudes predict math persistence in college. However, the authors’ data also indicate that alternative teaching strategies have no discernible direct effect on students’ choices of mathematics courses or mathrelated

  14. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  15. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  16. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  17. MOOCs and Persistence: Definitions and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brent J.; Baker, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter argues for redefining the term "persistence" as it relates to MOOCs and considers how different measures produce different results in the research; it closes with a review of research on persistence in MOOCs.

  18. Persistent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, M. A.; Stoutenbeek, P.; Sreeram, N.; Visser, G. H. A.; Meijboom, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    Persistent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT) tends to be a persistent arrhythmia and requires aggressive therapeutic management. Diagnosis and management of this infrequently occurring tachycardia in the fetus at an early stage is of importance for the prevention of congestive heart

  19. High Persister Mutants in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Torrey

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms drug-tolerant persister cells that are the probable cause of its recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. While genetically identical to the rest of the population, persisters are dormant, which protects them from killing by bactericidal antibiotics. The mechanism of persister formation in M. tuberculosis is not well understood. In this study, we selected for high persister (hip mutants and characterized them by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis. In parallel, we identified and characterized clinical isolates that naturally produce high levels of persisters. We compared the hip mutants obtained in vitro with clinical isolates to identify candidate persister genes. Genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, toxin-antitoxin systems, and transcriptional regulators were among those identified. We also found that clinical hip isolates exhibited greater ex vivo survival than the low persister isolates. Our data suggest that M. tuberculosis persister formation involves multiple pathways, and hip mutants may contribute to the recalcitrance of the infection.

  20. Strategies used by helicobacter pylori to establish persistent infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative and motile bacterium that colonizes the hostile microniche of the human stomach, then persists for the host’s entire life, if not effectively treated. Clinically, H. pylori plays a causative role in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Due to the global distribution of H. pylori, it is no exaggeration to conclude that smart strategies are contributing to adaptation of the bacterium to its permanent host. Thirty-four years after the discovery of this bacterium, there are still many unanswered questions. For example, which strategies help the bacterium to survive in this inhospitable microniche? This question is slightly easier to answer if we presume the same clinical concept for both persistent infection and disease. Understanding the mechanisms governing H. pylori persistence will improve identification of the increased risk of diseases such as gastric cancer in patients infected with this bacterium. A well-defined and long-term equilibrium between the human host and H. pylori allows bacterial persistence in the gastric microniche; although this coexistence leads to a high risk of severe diseases such as gastric cancer. To escape the bactericidal activity of stomach acid, H. pylori secretes large amounts of surface-associated and cytosolic urease. The potential to avoid acidic conditions and immune evasion are discussed in order to explain the persistence of H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa, and data on bacterial genetic diversity are included. Information on the mechanisms related to H. pylori persistence can also provide the direction for future research concerning effective therapy and management of gastroduodenal disorders. The topics presented in the current review are important for elucidating the strategies used by H. pylori to help the bacterium

  1. Epidemiologia das encefalites por arbovírus na amazônia brasileira Epidemiology of encephalitis by arboviruses in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1991-12-01

    outbreaks of human diseases caused by arboviruses had been detected. These viruses are widespread in all Amazonia, and at least four of them, EEE, WEE, SLE and MUC are pathogenic to man. EEE and WEE infections were detected by serology, while SLE and MUC by either serology and virus isolation. The PIX virus has the lowest prevalence and, it was isolated in only a few cases, one being from a laboratory infection. Wild birds are the main hosts for all these viruses, except MUC, whose major hosts are rodents. The symptoms presented by infected people were generally a mild febrile illness. Although, jaundice was observed in two individuals from whom SLE was isolated. A comparison of the clinical symptoms presented by the patients in the Amazon Region and other areas of America, especially in the USA is made. In Brazilian Amazon region epidemics have not been detected although, at least, one EEE epizootic was recorded in Bragança, Para State, in 1960. At that time, of 500 horses that were examined 61% were positive to EEE by HI and of mem 8.2% died On the other hand. SLE has caused four epizootics in a forest near Belem. Wild birds and sentinel monkeys were infected, but no human cases were reported.

  2. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  3. Distributed Persistent Identifiers System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Golodoniuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementation, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have, by in large, catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, and persistence, regardless of the identifier’s application domain. Trustworthiness of these systems has been measured by the criteria first defined by Bütikofer (2009 and further elaborated by Golodoniuc 'et al'. (2016 and Car 'et al'. (2017. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by a single organisation they faced challenges for widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. We believe that a cause of PID systems that were once successful fading away is the centralisation of support infrastructure – both organisational and computing and data storage systems. In this paper, we propose a PID system design that implements the pillars of a trustworthy system – ensuring identifiers’ independence of any particular technology or organisation, implementation of core PID system functions, separation from data delivery, and enabling the system to adapt for future change. We propose decentralisation at all levels — persistent identifiers and information objects registration, resolution, and data delivery — using Distributed Hash Tables and traditional peer-to-peer networks with information replication and caching mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a central PID data store. This will increase overall system fault tolerance thus ensuring its trustworthiness. We also discuss important aspects of the distributed system’s governance, such as the notion of the authoritative source and data integrity

  4. Genetic Screen Reveals the Role of Purine Metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus Persistence to Rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Yee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infections with Staphylococcus aureus such as septicemia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and biofilm infections are difficult to treat because of persisters. Despite many efforts in understanding bacterial persistence, the mechanisms of persister formation in S. aureus remain elusive. Here, we performed a genome-wide screen of a transposon mutant library to study the molecular mechanisms involved in persistence of community-acquired S. aureus. Screening of the library for mutants defective in persistence or tolerance to rifampicin revealed many genes involved in metabolic pathways that are important for antibiotic persistence. In particular, the identified mutants belonged to metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, vitamin and purine biosynthesis. Five mutants played a role in purine biosynthesis and two mutants, purB, an adenylosuccinate lyase, and purM, a phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase, were selected for further confirmation. Mutants purB and purM showed defective persistence compared to the parental strain USA300 in multiple stress conditions including various antibiotics, low pH, and heat stress. The defect in persistence was restored by complementation with the wildtype purB and purM gene in the respective mutants. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of persistence in S. aureus and provide novel therapeutic targets for developing more effective treatment for persistent infections due to S. aureus.

  5. Immune persistence after pertussis vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; He, Qiushui

    2017-04-03

    Pertussis is one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The true infection rate is significantly higher than the reported incidence rate. An increased prevalence of pertussis in older populations has been found, mainly caused by waning immunity after vaccination. Vaccine-induced immunity differs due to variation in vaccine content, schedule and coverage. Protection following acellular pertussis vaccines has been suggested to wane faster than whole cell pertussis vaccines. However, long-term immune persistence of whole cell pertussis vaccines may be confounded by a progressive acquisition of natural immunity. The World Health Organization has recommended that a switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines for primary immunization in infants should only be considered if additional periodic boosters or maternal immunization can be ensured and sustained in the national immunization schedules. In this review, we present data on immune persistence after different pertussis vaccinations and compare the findings from countries with different vaccination strategies. Future aspects in serological studies are briefly discussed.

  6. The structure and stability of persistence modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chazal, Frédéric; Glisse, Marc; Oudot, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of the theory of persistence modules over the real line. It presents a set of mathematical tools to analyse the structure and to establish the stability of such modules, providing a sound mathematical framework for the study of persistence diagrams. Completely self-contained, this brief introduces the notion of persistence measure and makes extensive use of a new calculus of quiver representations to facilitate explicit computations. Appealing to both beginners and experts in the subject, The Structure and Stability of Persistence Modules provides a purely algebraic presentation of persistence, and thus complements the existing literature, which focuses mainly on topological and algorithmic aspects.

  7. New-found fundamentals of bacterial persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kint, Cyrielle I; Verstraeten, Natalie; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Persister cells display tolerance to high doses of bactericidal antibiotics and typically comprise a small fraction of a bacterial population. Recently, evidence was provided for a causal link between therapy failure and the presence of persister cells in chronic infections, underscoring the need for research on bacterial persistence. A series of recent breakthroughs have shed light on the multiplicity of persister genes, the contribution of gene expression noise to persister formation, the importance of active responses to antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity among persister cells. Moreover, the development of in vivo model systems has highlighted the clinical relevance of persistence. This review discusses these recent advances and how this knowledge fundamentally changes the way in which we will perceive the problem of antibiotic tolerance in years to come. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Eco-friendly control of malaria and arbovirus vectors using the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dosages of Mimusops elengi-synthesized silver nanoparticles: towards an integrative approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. Their impact against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Mimusops elengi as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of AgNP was studied using different biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, TEM, XRD, EDX and FTIR. Low doses of AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus. AgNP LC50 against A. stephensi ranged from 12.53 (I instar larvae) to 23.55 ppm (pupae); LC50 against A. albopictus ranged from 11.72 ppm (I) to 21.46 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of M. elengi extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. In adulticidal experiments, AgNP showed LC50 of 13.7 ppm for A. stephensi and 14.7 ppm for A. albopictus. The predation efficiency of Gambusia affinis against A. stephensi and A. albopictus III instar larvae was 86.2 and 81.7 %, respectively. In AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was 93.7 and 88.6 %, respectively. This research demonstrates that M. elengi-synthesized AgNP may be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria and arbovirus vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies, such as larvivorous fishes.

  9. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  10. Postnatal persistent infection with classical Swine Fever virus and its immunological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Muñoz-González

    might go unnoticed. In addition to the epidemiological and economic significance of persistent CSFV infection, this model could be useful for understanding the mechanisms of viral persistence.

  11. Persistent cough in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M T; Harper, G; Chen, J

    1999-12-01

    Jessica, a 14-year-old girl with a history of asthma, went to her pediatrician's office because of a persistent cough. She had been coughing for at least 3 months with occasional cough-free periods of less than a few days. The cough was nonproductive and was not accompanied by fever, rhinorrhea, or facial or chest pain. Jessica and her mother observed that the cough increased with exercise and typically was not present during sleep. She has used two metered-dose inhalers--albuterol and cromolyn--without any change in the cough pattern. For the past 5 years, Jessica has had mild asthma responsive to albuterol. She enjoys running on the cross-country team, soccer, and dancing. She is an average student and denies any change in academic performance. She has never been hospitalized or had an emergency department visit for asthma or pneumonia. There has been no recent travel or exposure to a person with a chronic productive cough, tobacco smoke, or a live-in pet. Jessica lives with her mother and younger sister in a 10-year-old, carpeted apartment without any evidence of mold or recent renovation. In the process of taking the history, the pediatrician noticed that Jessica coughed intermittently, with two or three coughs during each episode. At times, the cough was harsh; at other times, it was a quiet cough, as if she were clearing her throat. She was cooperative, without overt anxiety or respiratory distress. After a complete physical examination with normal findings, the pediatrician interviewed Jessica and her mother alone. Jessica's parents had been divorced for the past 6 years. She lived with her mother but visited her father, and his new family with two young children, every weekend. She spoke about this arrangement comfortably and said that she loved her father and mother but didn't like the tension she experienced at her father's home. "I don't like adults arguing when kids are around." When asked why she thought the cough persisted so long, she commented in a

  12. Poverty in Capitalism. Why is it Persisting Today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Isidro Luna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide elements to reflect on the way poverty is nowadays conceptualized and on its causing factors. This paper discusses that a classic-neoclassical frame of reference cannot explain the persistence or increase of poverty in today's developed countries. This article suggests that through a Marxist historic-descriptive and theoretical-logical method it may be possible to gain understanding about poverty in capitalism and its current evolution.

  13. New and Persistent Gender Equality Challenges in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    academic context characterized by increasing demands for international competitiveness, innovation, flexibility and accountability. The thesis employs a case study approach, adopting a critical realist meta- theoretical framework and a pluralist methodology to investigate the new and persistent gender......This dissertation is about the cumulative disadvantages slowing down women academics’ advancement and keeping them from gaining the same organizational status as their male colleagues. It is also about understanding and explaining how gender relations are reconstituted in a rapidly changing...

  14. Management strategies for persistent epithelial defects of the cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Katzman, Lee R.; Jeng, Bennie H.

    2014-01-01

    Management of patients with persistent epithelial defects of the cornea can be challenging to even the seasoned ophthalmologist. It is essential that one understands not only the pathophysiology of the failure of the epithelium to migrate and close a wound appropriately, but also the mechanism of action of the available treatment modalities at one’s disposal. This article serves as a review of current standard therapies, recently introduced alternative therapies gaining in popularity, and a l...

  15. Persistent homology and string vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.

  16. Persistence of antimuscarinic drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brostrøm, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evidence suggests antimuscarinic drugs for the overactive-bladder syndrome only confer modest improvements in quality of life. We wanted to describe the persistence of therapy, including an extended analysis beyond the 1-year follow-up employed in other studies. METHODS: All prescriptions...... for drugs in ATC category G04BD were retrieved for the period 1999-2006 from a regional database with complete capture of all reimbursed prescriptions. Kaplan-Meyer curves were generated for duration of treatment for each substance and analyzed for determinants of termination. RESULTS: With the exception...... of trospium chloride, all drugs had continuation rates of less than 50% at 6 months, less than 25% at 1 year, and less than 10% at 2 years and longer. Trospium chloride, however, exhibited continuation rates of 46% at 6 months, 36% at 1 year, 22% at 2 years, and 16% at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: In a setting...

  17. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, Jesse H; Waggoner, Paul E

    2008-09-02

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006.

  18. Psychoacoustic classification of persistent tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Flavia Alencar de Barros; Suzuki, Fabio Akira; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Penido, Norma Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Tinnitus is a difficult to treat symptom, with different responses in patients. It is classified in different ways, according to its origin and associated diseases. to propose a single and measurable classification of persistent tinnitus, through its perception as sounds of nature or of daily life and its comparison with pure tone or noise, of high or low pitch, presented to the patient by audiometer sound. A total of 110 adult patients, of both genders, treated at the Tinnitus Outpatient Clinic, were enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Otorhinolaryngologic and Audiological, Pitch Matching and Loudness, Visual Analog Scale, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Minimum Masking Level assessments were performed. In these 110 patients, 181 tinnitus complaints were identified accordingly to type and ear, with 93 (51%) Pure Tone, and 88 (49%) Noise type; 19 at low and 162 at high frequency; with a mean in the Pure Tone of 5.47 in the Visual Analog Scale and 12.31 decibel in the Loudness and a mean in the Noise of 6.66 and 10.51 decibel. For Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Minimum Masking Level, the 110 patients were separated into three groups with tinnitus, Pure Tone, Noise and multiple. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory higher in the group with multiple tinnitus, of 61.38. Masking noises such as White Noise and Narrow Band were used for the Minimum Masking Level at the frequencies of 500 and 6000Hz. There was a similarity between the Pure Tone and Multiple groups. In the Noise group, different responses were found when Narrow Band was used at low frequency. classifying persistent tinnitus as pure tone or noise, present in high or low frequency and establishing its different characteristics allow us to know its peculiarities and the effects of this symptom in patients' lives. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Persistence Influences Infection Dynamics for a Butterfly Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara A Satterfield

    Full Text Available Many pathogens, including those infecting insects, are transmitted via dormant stages shed into the environment, where they must persist until encountering a susceptible host. Understanding how abiotic conditions influence environmental persistence and how these factors influence pathogen spread are crucial for predicting patterns of infection risk. Here, we explored the consequences of environmental transmission for infection dynamics of a debilitating protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha that infects monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus. We first conducted an experiment to observe the persistence of protozoan spores exposed to natural conditions. Experimental results showed that, contrary to our expectations, pathogen doses maintained high infectivity even after 16 days in the environment, although pathogens did yield infections with lower parasite loads after environmental exposure. Because pathogen longevity exceeded the time span of our experiment, we developed a mechanistic model to better explore environmental persistence for this host-pathogen system. Model analysis showed that, in general, longer spore persistence led to higher infection prevalence and slightly smaller monarch population sizes. The model indicated that typical parasite doses shed onto milkweed plants must remain viable for a minimum of 3 weeks for prevalence to increase during the summer-breeding season, and for 11 weeks or longer to match levels of infection commonly reported from the wild, assuming moderate values for parasite shedding rate. Our findings showed that transmission stages of this butterfly pathogen are long-lived and indicated that this is a necessary condition for the protozoan to persist in local monarch populations. This study provides a modeling framework for future work examining the dynamics of an ecologically important pathogen in an iconic insect.

  20. Medical and sociodemographic factors predict persistent smoking after coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverre, Elise; Otterstad, Jan Erik; Gjertsen, Erik; Gullestad, Lars; Husebye, Einar; Dammen, Toril; Moum, Torbjørn; Munkhaugen, John

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the determinants of persistent smoking after a coronary event constitutes the basis of modelling interventions of smoking cessation in secondary prevention programs. We aim to identify the potentially modifiable medical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, comprising the study factors, associated with unfavourable risk factor control after CHD events. A cross-sectional explorative study used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between study factors and smoking status in 1083 patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization. Hospital record data, a self-report questionnaire, clinical examination and blood samples were applied. At the index hospitalization, 390 patients were smoking and at follow-up after 2-36 months 167 (43%) of these had quit, while 230 reported persistent smoking. In adjusted analyses, unemployed or disability benefits (Odds ratio (OR) 4.1), low education (OR 3.5), longer smoking duration (OR 2.3) and not having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as index event (OR 2.3) were significantly associated with persistent smoking. Psychosocial factors at follow-up were not associated with persistent smoking. Smokers reported high motivation for cessation, with 68% wanting help to quit. Only 42% had been offered nicotine replacement therapy or other cessation aids. Smokers rated use of tobacco as the most important cause of their coronary disease (6.8 on a 1-10 Likert scale). Low socioeconomic status, prior duration of smoking, and not having STEMI as index event were associated with persisting smoking. Persistent smokers in this study seem to have an acceptable risk perception and were motivated to cease smoking, but needed assistance through cessation programs including prescription of pharmacological aids. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02309255 , registered retrospectively.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae genome evolution during persistence in the human airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Ahearn, Christian P; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Gallo, Mary C; Munro, James B; D'Mello, Adonis; Sethi, Sanjay; Tettelin, Hervé; Murphy, Timothy F

    2018-04-03

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) exclusively colonize and infect humans and are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In vitro and animal models do not accurately capture the complex environments encountered by NTHi during human infection. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 269 longitudinally collected cleared and persistent NTHi from a 15-y prospective study of adults with COPD. Genome sequences were used to elucidate the phylogeny of NTHi isolates, identify genomic changes that occur with persistence in the human airways, and evaluate the effect of selective pressure on 12 candidate vaccine antigens. Strains persisted in individuals with COPD for as long as 1,422 d. Slipped-strand mispairing, mediated by changes in simple sequence repeats in multiple genes during persistence, regulates expression of critical virulence functions, including adherence, nutrient uptake, and modification of surface molecules, and is a major mechanism for survival in the hostile environment of the human airways. A subset of strains underwent a large 400-kb inversion during persistence. NTHi does not undergo significant gene gain or loss during persistence, in contrast to other persistent respiratory tract pathogens. Amino acid sequence changes occurred in 8 of 12 candidate vaccine antigens during persistence, an observation with important implications for vaccine development. These results indicate that NTHi alters its genome during persistence by regulation of critical virulence functions primarily by slipped-strand mispairing, advancing our understanding of how a bacterial pathogen that plays a critical role in COPD adapts to survival in the human respiratory tract.

  2. Can reanalysis datasets describe the persistent temperature and precipitation extremes over China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Huang, Dan-Qing; Yan, Pei-Wen; Huang, Ying; Kuang, Xue-Yuan

    2017-10-01

    The persistent temperature and precipitation extremes may bring damage to the economy and human due to their intensity, duration and areal coverage. Understanding the quality of reanalysis datasets in descripting these extreme events is important for detection, attribution and model evaluation. In this study, the performances of two reanalysis datasets [the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR) and Interim ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-Interim)] in reproducing the persistent temperature and precipitation extremes in China are evaluated. For the persistent temperature extremes, the two datasets can better capture the intensity indices than the frequency indices. The increasing/decreasing trend of persistent warm/cold extremes has been reasonably detected by the two datasets, particularly in the northern part of China. The ERA-Interim better reproduces the climatology and tendency of persistent warm extremes, while the 20CR has better skill to depict the persistent cold extremes. For the persistent precipitation extremes, the two datasets have the ability to reproduce the maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation. The two datasets largely underestimate the maximum consecutive dry days over the northern part of China, while overestimate the maximum consecutive wet days over the southern part of China. For the response of the precipitation extremes against the temperature variations, the ERA-Interim has good ability to depict the relationship among persistent precipitation extremes, local persistent temperature extremes, and global temperature variations over specific regions.

  3. Dualities in Persistent (Co)Homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Silva, Vin; Morozov, Dmitriy; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2011-09-16

    We consider sequences of absolute and relative homology and cohomology groups that arise naturally for a filtered cell complex. We establishalgebraic relationships between their persistence modules, and show that they contain equivalent information. We explain how one can use the existingalgorithm for persistent homology to process any of the four modules, and relate it to a recently introduced persistent cohomology algorithm. Wepresent experimental evidence for the practical efficiency of the latter algorithm.

  4. Persistence of contact allergy among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2001-01-01

    , the persistence of allergic contact sensitivity, defined as 1 or more positive patch tests in both surveys, was 71% (37 out of 52 subjects). Nickel allergy persisted in 79% (19 out of 24 subjects), while 60% (21 out of 35 subjects) had a positive patch test reaction to 1 or more allergens, other than nickel...... at least 1 positive patch test. Nickel allergy persisted in 79%. Allergen avoidance should probably be lifelong to prevent elicitation of contact dermatitis....

  5. Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting HIV Infected Cells During ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Paul W.; Long, Julie M.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Sykes, Craig; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Snyder, Olivia D.; Perkey, Katherine; Archin, Nancie M.; Choudhary, Shailesh K.; Yang, Kuo; Hudgens, Michael G.; Pastan, Ira; Haase, Ashley T.; Kashuba, Angela D.; Berger, Edward A.; Margolis, David M.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART. For this purpose, we first characterized the impact of ART on HIV RNA levels in multiple organs of bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice and found that antiretroviral drug penetration and activity was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, HIV production in each tissue tested. For targeted cytotoxic killing of these persistent vRNA+ cells, we treated BLT mice undergoing ART with an HIV-specific immunotoxin. We found that compared to ART alone, this agent profoundly depleted productively infected cells systemically. These results offer proof-of-concept that targeted cytotoxic therapies can be effective components of HIV eradication strategies. PMID:24415939

  6. Physical trust-based persistent authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Jensen, Christian D.; Arimura, Shiori

    2015-01-01

    Recently companies have applied two-factor user authentication. Persistent Authentication is one of the interesting authentication mechanisms to establish security and usability of two-factor authentication systems. However, there is room to improve its feasibility and usability. In this paper, we...... propose a new type of persistent authentication, called Persistent Authentication Based On physical Trust (PABOT). PABOT uses a context of “physical trust relationship” that is built by visual contact between users, and thus can offer a persistent authentication mechanism with better usability and higher...

  7. Annotation: Understanding the Development of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    Background: Psychopaths are not only antisocial, but also have a callous and unemotional personality profile. This article selectively reviews evidence that psychopathic personality traits are an important factor in understanding and predicting the development of persistent antisocial conduct. Cognitive neuroscience research and more tentative…

  8. [Persistence of social representation regarding breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Mora, Clara V

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the social representation of breast cancer and how it has influenced breast cancer prevention and self-care practice in a group of women from the city of Medellin. This was a qualitative study using 19 semi-structured interviews with adult females who had not had breast cancer, using maximum variation criterion as sampling technique. The analysis was orientated by grounded theory. Some women physiologically represented breast cancer while others represented it by its social and psychological effects. They identified its causes with personal and emotional problems and certain daily habits such as inadequate food ("a bodily payback for the abuses which we subject ourselves to"). The word "breast cancer" was associated with inevitable death, terror, suffering, incurability, devastation, powerlessness and pain. This cancer has strong social representation due to its severe implications for females, their attractiveness and self-image. The persistence of breast cancer's negative image is associated with "the life-style myth" (1) for which people tend to blame the patient. Our biological reductionism hides environmental, social and political factors. We are obsessed by the dangers and their control (2) and powerful images are added to these messages such as those in which "one out of nine women will develop breast cancer" to foster self-responsibility (2). However, the ghost of cancer in developing societies in which many people are still trapped is magnified and has also yet to be overcome.

  9. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs

  10. Persistence of Elementary Programming Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Programming is recognised as one of seven grand challenges in computing education and attracts much attention in computing education research. Most research in the area concerns teaching methods, educational technology and student understanding/misconceptions. Typically, evaluation of learning outcome takes place during or immediately following…

  11. Persistence of plasmid DNA in different soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Every 7 days 1 g of soil was taken, DNA purified from it and then that DNA was used for transformation with the E. coli DH5α competent cells and the results showed that DNA would persist till 35 days and it had transforming ability. Key words: Horizontal gene transfer, plasmid pUC18, persistence, abiotic.

  12. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  13. Persistence of Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids in Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    wounds, facilitates the persistence of MDR plasmids in Acinetobacter baumannii , a problematic wound pathogen. Moreover, we have shown that plasmids...which plasmid persistence can improve in Acinetobacter baumannii and other wound pathogens when grown in biofilm environments. This project has the... Acinetobacter * baumannii ,!Klebsiella*pneumoniae,!Enterobacter*sp.,! and! Escherichia* coli! (Eardley! et! al.,! 2011;! Gaynes! &! Edwards,! 2005;! Murray

  14. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  15. Persistent Identifiers as Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1989, Leigh Star and Jim Griesemer defined the seminal concept of `boundary objects'. These `objects' are what Latour calls `immutable mobiles' that enable communication and collaboration across difference by helping meaning to be understood in different contexts. As Star notes, they are a sort of arrangement that allow different groups to work together without (a priori) consensus. Part of the idea is to recognize and allow for the `interpretive flexibility' that is central to much of the `constructivist' approach in the sociology of science. Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can clearly act as boundary objects, but people do not usually assume that they enable interpretive flexibility. After all, they are meant to be unambiguous, machine-interpretable identifiers of defined artifacts. In this paper, we argue that PIDs can fill at least two roles: 1) That of the standardized form, where there is strong agreement on what is being represented and how and 2) that of the idealized type, a more conceptual concept that allows many different representations. We further argue that these seemingly abstract conceptions actually help us implement PIDs more effectively to link data, publications, various other artifacts, and especially people. Considering PIDs as boundary objects can help us address issues such as what level of granularity is necessary for PIDs, what metadata should be directly associated with PIDs, and what purpose is the PID serving (reference, provenance, credit, etc.). In short, sociological theory can improve data sharing standards and their implementation in a way that enables broad interdisciplinary data sharing and reuse. We will illustrate this with several specific examples of Earth science data.

  16. Persistent Organic Pollutants as Risk Factors for Obesity and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxue; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Cai, Zongwei; Chung, Arthur C K

    2017-11-02

    The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be fully explained by known risk factors, such as unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history. This review summarizes the available studies linking persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to obesity and diabetes and discusses plausible underlying mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggest that POPs may act as obesogens and diabetogens to promote the development of obesity and diabetes and induce metabolic dysfunction. POPs are synthesized chemicals and are used widely in our daily life. These chemicals are resistant to degradation in chemical or biological processes, which enable them to exist in the environment persistently and to be bio-accumulated in animal and human tissue through the food chain. Increasingly, epidemiologic studies suggest a positive association between POPs and risk of developing diabetes. Understanding the relationship of POPs with obesity and diabetes may shed light on preventive strategies for obesity and diabetes.

  17. Stochastic convergence of persistence landscapes and silhouettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Chazal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent homology is a widely used tool in Topological Data Analysis that encodes multi-scale topological information as a multiset of points in the plane called a persistence diagram. It is difficult to apply statistical theory directly to a random sample of diagrams. Instead, we summarize persistent homology with a persistence landscape, introduced by Bubenik, which converts a diagram into a well-behaved real-valued function. We investigate the statistical properties of landscapes, such as weak convergence of the average landscapes and convergence of the bootstrap. In addition, we introduce an alternate functional summary of persistent homology, which we call the silhouette, and derive an analogous statistical theory.

  18. On persistence interfaces for scientific data stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malon, D.M.; May, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    A common dilemma among builders of large scientific data stores is whether to use a lightweight object persistence manager or a genuine object-oriented database. There are often good reasons to consider each of these strategies; a few are described in this paper. Too often, however, electing to use a lightweight approach has meant programming to an interface that is entirely different than that expected by commercial object-oriented databases. With the emergence of object database standards, it is possible to provide an interface to persistence managers that does not needlessly inhibit coexistence with (and, perhaps, eventual migration to) object-oriented databases. This paper describes an implementation of a substantial subset of the ODMG-93[1]C++ specification that allows clients to use many of today's lightweight object persistence managers through an interface that conforms to the ODMG standard. We also describe a minimal interface that persistence software should support in order to provide persistence services for ODMG implementations

  19. Transparent Persistence with Java Data Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnác, J

    2003-01-01

    Flexible and performant Persistency Service is a necessary component of any HEP Software Framework. The building of a modular, non-intrusive and performant persistency component have been shown to be very difficult task. In the past, it was very often necessary to sacrifice modularity to achieve acceptable performance. This resulted in the strong dependency of the overall Frameworks on their Persistency subsystems. Recent development in software technology has made possible to build a Persistency Service which can be transparently used from other Frameworks. Such Service doesn't force a strong architectural constraints on the overall Framework Architecture, while satisfying high performance requirements. Java Data Object standard (JDO) has been already implemented for almost all major databases. It provides truly transparent persistency for any Java object (both internal and external). Objects in other languages can be handled via transparent proxies. Being only a thin layer on top of a used database, JDO doe...

  20. Individual and Structural Attributions for Poverty and Persistence in Family Literacy Programs: The Resurgence of the Culture of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Schafft, Kai A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational researchers have long sought to understand the factors that enable or constrain persistence in non-formal family literacy and adult education programs. Scholars typically posit three sets of factors influencing persistence: situational (learners' life circumstances), institutional (programmatic factors), and…

  1. Career Development among First-Year College Students: College Self-Efficacy, Student Persistence, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen L.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Murdock, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the career development of college student persistence decisions through the theoretical lens of social cognitive career theory (SCCT). Specifically, the authors sought to understand the potential role of college self-efficacy in first-year student persistence and academic success at a medium size university. Using a…

  2. The Role of Social Support for Promoting Quality of Life among Persistently Obese Adolescents: Importance of Support in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite school-based and other interventions for pediatric obesity, many obese youth of the present generation will persist in their obesity into adolescence and adulthood. Thus, understanding not only how better to tailor weight interventions but how to promote overall adjustment for persistently obese youth is of utmost importance.…

  3. Laboratory diagnosis of persistent human chlamydial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja ePuolakkainen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic assays for persistent chlamydial infection are much needed to conduct high-quality, large-scale studies investigating the persistent state in vivo, its disease associations and the response to therapy. Yet in most studies the distinction between acute and persistent infection is based on the interpretation of the data obtained by the assays developed to diagnose acute infections or on complex assays available for research only and/or difficult to establish for clinical use. Novel biomarkers for detection of persistent chlamydial infection are urgently needed. Chlamydial whole genome proteome arrays are now available and they can identify chlamydial antigens that are differentially expressed between acute infection and persistent infection. Utilizing these data will lead to the development of novel diagnostic assays. Carefully selected specimens from well-studied patient populations are clearly needed in the process of translating the proteomic data into assays useful for clinical practice. Before such antigens are identified and validated assays become available, we face a challenge of deciding whether the persistent infection truly induced appearance of the proposed marker or do we just base our diagnosis of persistent infection on the presence of the suggested markers. Consequently, we must bear this in mind when interpreting the available data.

  4. Persistent insomnia is associated with mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Sairam; Vasquez, Monica M; Halonen, Marilyn; Bootzin, Richard; Quan, Stuart F; Martinez, Fernando D; Guerra, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Insomnia has been associated with mortality risk, but whether this association is different in subjects with persistent vs intermittent insomnia is unclear. Additionally, the role of systemic inflammation in such an association is unknown. We used data from a community-based cohort to determine whether persistent or intermittent insomnia, defined based on persistence of symptoms over a 6-year period, was associated with death during the following 20 years of follow-up. We also determined whether changes in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels measured over 2 decades between study initiation and insomnia determination were different for the persistent, intermittent, and never insomnia groups. The results were adjusted for confounders such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, and sedatives. Of the 1409 adult participants, 249 (18%) had intermittent and 128 (9%) had persistent insomnia. During a 20-year follow-up period, 318 participants died (118 due to cardiopulmonary disease). In adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models, participants with persistent insomnia (adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.45) but not intermittent insomnia (HR 1.22; 95% CI, 0.86-1.74) were more likely to die than participants without insomnia. Serum CRP levels were higher and increased at a steeper rate in subjects with persistent insomnia as compared with intermittent (P = .04) or never (P = .004) insomnia. Although CRP levels were themselves associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; P = .04), adjustment for CRP levels did not notably change the association between persistent insomnia and mortality. In a population-based cohort, persistent, and not intermittent, insomnia was associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality and was associated with a steeper increase in inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Forecasting autoregressive time series under changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson

    Changing persistence in time series models means that a structural change from nonstationarity to stationarity or vice versa occurs over time. Such a change has important implications for forecasting, as negligence may lead to inaccurate model predictions. This paper derives generally applicable...... recommendations, no matter whether a change in persistence occurs or not. Seven different forecasting strategies based on a biasedcorrected estimator are compared by means of a large-scale Monte Carlo study. The results for decreasing and increasing persistence are highly asymmetric and new to the literature. Its...

  6. Persistence of elementary programming skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens Benned; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Programming is recognised as one of seven grand challenges in computing education and attracts much attention in computing education research. Most research in the area concerns teaching methods, educational technology and student understanding/misconceptions. Typically, evaluation of learning...... outcome takes place during or immediately following the educational activity. In this research, we conduct a qualitative investigation of sustainability of programming competence by studying the effect of recalling programming competence long time after the educational activity has taken place. Our...... population consists of 10 students who have taken an introductory object-oriented programming course 3, 15 or 27 months prior to our study. None of the students have been exposed to programming in the intervening period. As expected, our research shows that syntactical issues in general hinder immediate...

  7. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  8. Comments on H. Arp 'The persistent problem of spiral galaxies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1987-04-01

    In his paper 'The persistent problem of Spiral Galaxies' H. Arp criticises the standard theory of spiral galaxies and demonstrates that introduction of plasma theory is necessary in order to understand the structure of spiral galaxies. In the present paper arguments are given in support of Arp's theory and suggestions are made how Arp's ideas should be developed. An important result of Arp's new approach is that there is no convincing argument for the belief that there is a 'missing mass'. This is important from a cosmological point of view. (author)

  9. Management strategies for persistent epithelial defects of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Lee R; Jeng, Bennie H

    2014-07-01

    Management of patients with persistent epithelial defects of the cornea can be challenging to even the seasoned ophthalmologist. It is essential that one understands not only the pathophysiology of the failure of the epithelium to migrate and close a wound appropriately, but also the mechanism of action of the available treatment modalities at one's disposal. This article serves as a review of current standard therapies, recently introduced alternative therapies gaining in popularity, and a look into the newest developments that may change the way we manage corneal surface disease.

  10. Classical synchronization indicates persistent entanglement in isolated quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthaut, Dirk; Wimberger, Sandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Timme, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Synchronization and entanglement constitute fundamental collective phenomena in multi-unit classical and quantum systems, respectively, both equally implying coordinated system states. Here, we present a direct link for a class of isolated quantum many-body systems, demonstrating that synchronization emerges as an intrinsic system feature. Intriguingly, quantum coherence and entanglement arise persistently through the same transition as synchronization. This direct link between classical and quantum cooperative phenomena may further our understanding of strongly correlated quantum systems and can be readily observed in state-of-the-art experiments, for example, with ultracold atoms.

  11. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  12. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  13. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission Investigação preliminar das espécies de culicídeos do Pantanal Sul brasileiro e sua potencial importância na transmissão de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.Regiões como o Pantanal brasileiro, que apresentam fatores como riqueza de fauna silvestre incluindo circulação de aves migratórias e condições ambientais e climáticas favoráveis à proliferação de artrópodes estão potencialmente sujeitas à circulação de arbovírus. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos foram realizados acerca da presença de arbovírus em potenciais vetores no Pantanal. Neste sentido o principal objetivo deste trabalho foi conduzir uma investigação preliminar para presença de arbovírus em amostragens de culicídeos capturados na Sub-região da Nhecolândia no Pantanal

  14. Toxoplasma depends on lysosomal consumption of autophagosomes for persistent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristina, Manlio; Dou, Zhicheng; Lunghi, Matteo; Kannan, Geetha; Huynh, My-Hang; McGovern, Olivia L; Schultz, Tracey L; Schultz, Aric J; Miller, Alyssa J; Hayes, Beth M; van der Linden, Wouter; Emiliani, Carla; Bogyo, Matthew; Besteiro, Sébastien; Coppens, Isabelle; Carruthers, Vern B

    2017-06-19

    Globally, nearly 2 billion people are infected with the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii 1 . This persistent infection can cause severe disease in immunocompromised people and is epidemiologically linked to major mental illnesses 2 and cognitive impairment 3 . There are currently no options for curing this infection. The lack of effective therapeutics is due partly to a poor understanding of the essential pathways that maintain long-term infection. Although it is known that Toxoplasma replicates slowly within intracellular cysts demarcated with a cyst wall, precisely how it sustains itself and remodels organelles in this niche is unknown. Here, we identify a key role for proteolysis within the parasite lysosomal organelle (the vacuolar compartment or VAC) in turnover of autophagosomes and persistence during neural infection. We found that disrupting a VAC-localized cysteine protease compromised VAC digestive function and markedly reduced chronic infection. Death of parasites lacking the VAC protease was preceded by accumulation of undigested autophagosomes in the parasite cytoplasm. These findings suggest an unanticipated function for parasite lysosomal degradation in chronic infection, and identify an intrinsic role for autophagy in the T. gondii parasite and its close relatives. This work also identifies a key element of Toxoplasma persistence and suggests that VAC proteolysis is a prospective target for pharmacological development.

  15. Long - Memory Persistence in African Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Numapau Gyamfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging stock markets are said to become efficient with time. This study seeks to investigate this assertion by analyzing long - memory persistence in 8 African stock markets covering the period from 28 August 2000 to 28 August 2015. The Hurst exponent is used as our efficiency measure which is evaluated by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. Our findings show strong evidence of long - memory persistence in the markets studied therefore violating the weak - form Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH.

  16. Persistence in PHP with the doctrine ORM

    CERN Document Server

    Dunglas, Kévin

    2013-01-01

    Persistence in PHP with the Doctrine ORM is a concise, fast, and focused guide to build a blog engine with advanced features such as native queries and lifecycle callbacks.This book is primarily intended for PHP developers and architects who want to increase their skills in the field of Persistence and ORM to map the data they are working on to objects they are using in programming. Basic knowledge of databases and PDO and working knowledge of PHP namespaces is a prerequisite.

  17. [Therapeutic approach in persistent diabetic macular edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brănişteanu, Daniel; Moraru, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Terminology of persistent diabetic macular edema has been initially reserved to cases unresponsive to conventional laser photocoagulation according to ETDRS criteria. While knowledge about pathophysiology of macular edema evolved and new drugs became available, the terminology of persistent diabetic macular edema expanded to include resistance to most current therapies. The purpose of this paper is to review medical and surgical options in the treatment of such difficult cases according to literature data and personal experience.

  18. Mycobacterium Lysine ε-aminotransferase is a novel alarmone metabolism related persister gene via dysregulating the intracellular amino acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiangke; Li, Yunsong; Du, Qinglin; Huang, Qinqin; Guo, Siyao; Xu, Mengmeng; Lin, Yanping; Liu, Zhidong; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-25

    Bacterial persisters, usually slow-growing, non-replicating cells highly tolerant to antibiotics, play a crucial role contributing to the recalcitrance of chronic infections and treatment failure. Understanding the molecular mechanism of persister cells formation and maintenance would obviously inspire the discovery of new antibiotics. The significant upregulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3290c, a highly conserved mycobacterial lysine ε-aminotransferase (LAT) during hypoxia persistent model, suggested a role of LAT in persistence. To test this, a lat deleted Mycobacterium smegmatis was constructed. The expression of transcriptional regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (LrpA) and the amino acids abundance in M. smegmatis lat deletion mutants were lowered. Thus, the persistence capacity of the deletion mutant was impaired upon norfloxacin exposure under nutrient starvation. In summary, our study firstly reported the involvement of mycobacterium LAT in persister formation, and possibly through altering the intracellular amino acid metabolism balance.

  19. Persistent homology and non-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Alex; Shiu, Gary

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce the topological persistence diagram as a statistic for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps. A central concept in 'Topological Data Analysis' (TDA), the idea of persistence is to represent a data set by a family of topological spaces. One then examines how long topological features 'persist' as the family of spaces is traversed. We compute persistence diagrams for simulated CMB temperature anisotropy maps featuring various levels of primordial non-Gaussianity of local type. Postponing the analysis of observational effects, we show that persistence diagrams are more sensitive to local non-Gaussianity than previous topological statistics including the genus and Betti number curves, and can constrain Δ fNLloc= 35.8 at the 68% confidence level on the simulation set, compared to Δ fNLloc= 60.6 for the Betti number curves. Given the resolution of our simulations, we expect applying persistence diagrams to observational data will give constraints competitive with those of the Minkowski Functionals. This is the first in a series of papers where we plan to apply TDA to different shapes of non-Gaussianity in the CMB and Large Scale Structure.

  20. Shape understanding system machine understanding and human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Les, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This is the third book presenting selected results of research on the further development of the shape understanding system (SUS) carried out by authors in the newly founded Queen Jadwiga Research Institute of Understanding. In this book the new term Machine Understanding is introduced referring to a new area of research aiming to investigate the possibility of building machines with the ability to understand. It is presented that SUS needs to some extent mimic human understanding and for this reason machines are evaluated according to the rules applied for the evaluation of human understanding. The book shows how to formulate problems and how it can be tested if the machine is able to solve these problems.    

  1. Distribution and persistence of pyrethroids in runoff sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J; Lee, S J; Liu, W P; Haver, D L; Kabashima, J N

    2005-01-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides in both agricultural and urban environments. Recent studies showed that surface runoff facilitated transport of pyrethroids to surface streams, probably by sediment movement. Sediment contamination by pyrethroids is of concern due to their wide-spectrum aquatic toxicity. In this study, we characterized the spatial distribution and persistence of bifenthrin [BF; (2-methyl(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl)methyl 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] and permethrin [PM; 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester] in the sediment along a 260-m runoff path. Residues of BF and PM were significantly enriched in the eroded sediment, and the magnitude of enrichment was proportional to the downstream distance. At 145 m from the sedimentation pond, BF was enriched by >25 times, while PM isomers were enriched by >3.5 times. Pesticide enrichment along the runoff path coincided with enrichment of organic carbon and clay fractions in the sediment, as well as increases in adsorption coefficient K(d), suggesting that the runoff flow caused selective transport of organic matter and chemical-rich fine particles. Long persistence was observed for BF under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the half-life ranged from 8 to 17 mo at 20 degrees C. The long persistence was probably caused by the strong pesticide adsorption to the solid phase. The significant enrichment, along with the prolonged persistence, suggests that movement of pyrethroids to the surface water may be caused predominantly by the chemically rich fine particles. It is therefore important to understand the fate of sediment-borne pyrethroids and devise mitigation strategies to reduce offsite movement of fine sediment.

  2. Do effects of mercury in larval amphibians persist after metamorphosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Willson, John D; Bergeron, Christine M; Hopkins, William A

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread concern about the role of environmental contaminants in global amphibian declines, and evidence that post-metamorphic life stages contribute disproportionately to amphibian population dynamics, most studies in amphibian ecotoxicology focus on larval life stages. Studies that focus solely on early life stages may miss important effects of contaminant exposure, such as latent effects that manifest some time after previous exposure. Moreover, it is often assumed that effects observed in amphibian larvae will persist to affect survival or reproduction later in life. We used terrestrial enclosures to determine whether exposure to mercury (Hg) through maternal transfer and/or larval diet had any adverse effects in post-metamorphic American toads (Bufo americanus). We found a 5% difference in size at metamorphosis that was attributed to maternal Hg exposure persisted for 1 year in the terrestrial environment, resulting in a 7% difference at the conclusion of the study. Although patterns of survival differed among treatments through time, we found no overall difference in survival after 1 year. We also found no evidence of emergent latent effects in the terrestrial toads that could be attributed to earlier exposure. Our results indicate that adverse effects of maternal Hg exposure that were observed in larval amphibians may persist to affect later terrestrial life stages but that no novel adverse effects developed when animals were raised in a semi-natural environment. Moreover, we found no evidence of persistent effects of dietary Hg exposure in larvae, highlighting a need for greater focus on maternal effects in amphibian ecotoxicology. Finally, we suggest an increase in the use of longitudinal studies to better understand contaminant impacts to amphibian populations via effects in both aquatic and terrestrial life stages.

  3. Review--Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food industry equipment and premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Brigitte; Cerf, Olivier

    2011-01-31

    To understand why Listeria monocytogenes may persist in food industry equipment and premises, notably at low temperature, scientific studies have so far focused on adhesion potential, biofilm forming ability, resistance to desiccation, acid and heat, tolerance to increased sublethal concentration of disinfectants or resistance to lethal concentrations. Evidence from studies in processing plants shows that the factors associated with the presence of L. monocytogenes are those that favor growth. Interestingly, most conditions promoting bacterial growth were shown, in laboratory assays, to decrease adhesion of L. monocytogenes cells. Good growth conditions can be found in so-called harborage sites, i.e. shelters due to unhygienic design of equipment and premises or unhygienic or damaged materials. These sites are hard to eliminate. A conceptual model of persistence/no persistence based on the relative weight of growth vs. outcome of cleaning and disinfection is suggested. It shows that a minimum initial bacterial load is necessary for bacteria to persist in a harborage site and that when a low initial bacterial charge is applied, early cleaning and disinfection is the only way to avoid persistence. We conclude by proposing that there are no strains of L. monocytogenes with unique properties that lead to persistence, but harborage sites in food industry premises and equipment where L. monocytogenes can persist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Archaeal Persisters: Persister Cell Formation as a Stress Response in Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Megaw

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Persister cells are phenotypic variants within a microbial population, which are dormant and transiently tolerant to stress. Persistence has been studied extensively in bacteria, and in eukaryotes to a limited extent, however, it has never been observed in archaea. Using the model haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii DS2, we demonstrated persister cell formation in this domain, with time-kill curves exhibiting a characteristic biphasic pattern following starvation or exposure to lethal concentrations of various biocidal compounds. Repeated challenges of surviving cells showed that, as with bacteria, persister formation in H. volcanii was not heritable. Additionally, as previously shown with bacteria, persister formation in H. volcanii was suppressed by exogenous indole. The addition of spent culture media to assays conducted on planktonic cells showed that H. volcanii-conditioned media stimulated persistence, whereas conditioned media of other haloarchaea or halophilic bacteria did not, suggesting the involvement of a species-specific signal. Using a TLC overlay assay, the quorum sensing bioreporter Agrobacterium tumefaciens ATCC BAA-2240 detected the presence of C4 and C6 acyl homoserine lactone-like signal molecules in a H. volcanii culture extract. While synthetic bacterial AHLs did not induce persistence, this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum sensing component in haloarchaeal persister formation. The observation of persister cell formation by this haloarchaeon may provide some insights into the survival of these organisms in stressful or dynamic environments.

  5. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mercurio

    Full Text Available Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR. The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities. Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1 so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated

  6. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F.; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  7. Persistently obese youth: interactions between parenting styles and feeding practices with child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H

    2013-12-01

    To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity.

  8. Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

  9. Blogging through cancer: young women's persistent problems shared online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Baernholdt, Marianne; Erickson, Jeanne M; Ropka, Mary E; Schroen, Anneke T; Steeves, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Many young women have turned to illness blogs to describe their lived experience with cancer. Blogs represent an untapped source of knowledge for researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to describe the life disruptions caused by cancer among young women, as well as to understand the facilitators and barriers in accessing healthcare services during and after active treatment. Sixteen Internet illness blogs were analyzed among women, aged between 20 and 39 years, diagnosed with cancer. These blogs were analyzed based on phenomenological qualitative methods and thematic analysis. There were 4 dimensions of persistent problems that were articulated in the narratives of the young women without any relief. They included pain and fatigue, insurance and financial barriers, concerns related to fertility, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and anxiety. The young women's narratives capture fear, uncertainty, anger, and the debilitating nature of these persistent issues. Many of the women expressed their lingering physical, psychosocial, and emotional problems. Online illness narratives are a naturalistic form of inquiry that allows nurses to understand the experience of the patient through their own words and accounts. This study provides a foundation for nursing-based interventions that transcend traditional clinic experiences.

  10. Initiation and Persistence of Preferential Flow in Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Salve; T.A. Ghezzehei; R. Jones

    2006-01-01

    To better understand preferential flow in fractured rock, we carried out an in situ field experiment in the underground Exploratory Studies Facility in the fractured Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Ponded water (with a ∼0.04 m head) was released onto a 3 x 4 m 2 infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) over a period of ∼800 days. As water was released, spatial and temporal variability in infiltration rates was continuously monitored. In addition, changes in moisture content were monitored along horizontal boreholes located in the formation ∼ 19-22 m below. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns. In particular, we observed that in some of the subplots, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests before gradually decreasing, while in others a relatively low infiltration rate persisted for the duration of the experiment. Distinct flow zones, varying in flow velocity, wetted cross-sectional area, and extent of lateral movement, intercepted the monitoring boreholes. There was also evidence of water being diverted above the ceiling of a cavity in the immediate vicinity of the monitoring boreholes. Observations from this field experiment suggest that isolated conduits, each encompassing a large number of fractures, develop within the fractured rock formation to form preferential flow paths that persist if there is a continuous supply of water. An overriding conclusion is that field investigations at spatial scales of tens of meters provide data critical to the fundamental understanding of preferential flow in fractured rock

  11. Persistent agents in Axelrod's social dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model of social dynamics has been studied under the effect of external media. Here we study the formation of cultural domains in the model by introducing persistent agents. These are agents whose cultural traits are not allowed to change but may be spread through local neighborhood. In the absence of persistent agents, the system is known to present a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural regime at some critical Q (number of traits). Our results reveal a dependence of critical Q on the occupation probability p of persistent agents and we obtain the phase diagram of the model in the (p,Q) -plane. The critical locus is explained by the competition of two opposite forces named here barrier and bonding effects. Such forces are verified to be caused by non-persistent agents which adhere (adherent agents) to the set of traits of persistent ones. The adherence (concentration of adherent agents) as a function of p is found to decay for constant Q. Furthermore, adherence as a function of Q is found to decay as a power law with constant p.

  12. Persistent physical symptoms as perceptual dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Peter; Gündel, Harald; Kop, Willem J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the perception and experience of persistent physical symptoms are not well understood, and in the models, the specific relevance of peripheral input versus central processing, or of neurobiological versus psychosocial factors in general, is not clear.In this a......OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the perception and experience of persistent physical symptoms are not well understood, and in the models, the specific relevance of peripheral input versus central processing, or of neurobiological versus psychosocial factors in general, is not clear...... of predictions and sensory input. Two possibilities exist: adaptation of the generative model underlying the predictions or alteration of the sensory input via autonomic nervous activation (in the case of interoception). Following this model, persistent physical symptoms can be described as "failures...

  13. Psychopharmacology of Persistent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jonathan M; Cummings, Michael A; Proctor, George; Stahl, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    Persistent violence not due to acute psychosis or mania can be managed only after appropriate characterization of the aggressive episodes (psychotic, impulsive, or predatory/planned/instrumental). The type of violence combined with the psychiatric diagnosis dictates the evidence-based pharmacologic approaches for psychotically motivated and impulsive aggression, whereas instrumental violence mandates forensic/behavioral strategies. For nonacute inpatients, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, traumatic brain injury, and dementia comprise the majority of individuals who are persistently aggressive, with impulsive actions the most common form of violence across all diagnoses. Neurobiological considerations combined with empirical data provide a comprehensive framework for systematic medication trials to manage persistently aggressive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Economy of Persistence: Mario the Tailor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mario Conte has had a tailor shop in King Street, Newtown since the mid 1960s. Taking an interview with Mario as its point of departure, this article describes the persistence of a skilled worker whose practices and techniques remain the same in a world that has long changed. While inattentive to what rules might be used to decorate a shop window, Mario continues to make and sew in the way that he learnt in post-war Italy. Mario’s persistence could be described as all the skills and other elements that need to be in place to keep him working, in particular the tradition of tailoring techniques he has remained true to over the last fifty years. The hand stitching of his tailoring is like a metronome of that persistence.

  15. International perspectives on retention and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burkholder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to higher education globally is increasing dramatically; attainment of tertiary degrees is a high priority, as educational attainment is associated with increased personal incomes as well as growth of the middle class in developing countries. The purpose of this essay is to briefly examine retention and persistence issues from a global perspective, review some retention strategies that have been employed at schools outside the United States, and to identify several key factors that related to retention and persistence globally, including access, infrastructure, financial consideration, and readiness for tertiary education.  There exists an opportunity to utilize knowledge gained in the evolution of the higher education system in the United States to help address the problems associated with retention and persistence.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.208

  16. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  17. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presman, Benjamin; Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R

    2015-01-01

    and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. METHODS: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg......BACKGROUND: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence...... University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. RESULTS: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire...

  18. Modelling persistence in annual Australia point rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Whiting

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual rainfall time series for Sydney from 1859 to 1999 is analysed. Clear evidence of nonstationarity is presented, but substantial evidence for persistence or hidden states is more elusive. A test of the hypothesis that a hidden state Markov model reduces to a mixture distribution is presented. There is strong evidence of a correlation between the annual rainfall and climate indices. Strong evidence of persistence of one of these indices, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, is presented together with a demonstration that this is better modelled by fractional differencing than by a hidden state Markov model. It is shown that conditioning the logarithm of rainfall on PDO, the Southern Oscillation index (SOI, and their interaction provides realistic simulation of rainfall that matches observed statistics. Similar simulation models are presented for Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth. Keywords: Hydrological persistence,hidden state Markov models, fractional differencing, PDO, SOI, Australian rainfall

  19. How to decode Unemployment Persistence: An econometric framework for identifying and comparing the sources of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2016-01-01

    Most econometric analyses of persistence focus on the existence of non-stationary unemployment but not the origin of this. The present research contains a multivariate econometric framework for identifying and comparing different sources of unemployment persistence (e.g. hysteresis versus a slowly...

  20. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Itan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactase persistence (LP is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (-13,910 C/T indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the--13,910*T (derived allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia's geographic space. Using data on--13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the--13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe. Furthermore, our results suggest that natural selection favouring a lactase persistence allele was not higher in northern latitudes through an increased requirement for dietary vitamin D. Our results provide a coherent and spatially explicit picture of the coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying in Europe.

  1. Amnestically Induced Persistence in Random Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressoni, J. C.; da Silva, Marco Antonio Alves; Viswanathan, G. M.

    2007-02-01

    We study how the Hurst exponent α depends on the fraction f of the total time t remembered by non-Markovian random walkers that recall only the distant past. We find that otherwise nonpersistent random walkers switch to persistent behavior when inflicted with significant memory loss. Such memory losses induce the probability density function of the walker’s position to undergo a transition from Gaussian to non-Gaussian. We interpret these findings of persistence in terms of a breakdown of self-regulation mechanisms and discuss their possible relevance to some of the burdensome behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.

  2. Persistence and drug tolerance in pathogenic yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Regenberg, Birgitte; Folkesson, Sven Anders

    2017-01-01

    leading to drug recalcitrance is the formation of antifungal persister cells. These cells have wild-type genotype with the ability to survive exposure to antifungal agents due to changed membrane composition, upregulated stress response, and enhanced cell wall integrity. Knowledge of the mechanisms...... are quiescent in G0 of the cell cycle. This knowledge leads us to suggest that the identified shared drug-tolerance mechanisms of persister and quiescent cells may serve as a foundation for developing novel treatment strategies that are independent of growth mode against systemic fungal infections....

  3. Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1982-01-01

    Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369

  4. Understanding Unemployment Hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    What explains the persistence of unemployment? The literature on hysteresis, which is based on unit root testing in autoregressive models, consists of a vast number of univariate studies, i.e. that analyze unemployment series in isolation, but few multivariate analyses that focus on the sources o...... by the hysteresis theories. Instead, it is the equilibrium that has evolved persistently as a consequence of exogenous oil prices shifting the price setting relation (in the unemployment-real wage space) in a non-stationary manner....... changing equilibrium, slow adjustment towards the equilibrium (persistent ‡fluctuations), or perhaps even a combination of the two. Different hypotheses of slow adjustment, as implied by theories of hysteresis, nominal rigidities or labor hoarding can also be compared. A small illustrative application...

  5. Preliminary Evidence That Growth in Productive Language Differentiates Childhood Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Brown, Barbara; Weber, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood stuttering is common but is often outgrown. Children whose stuttering persists experience significant life impacts, calling for a better understanding of what factors may underlie eventual recovery. In previous research, language ability has been shown to differentiate children who stutter (CWS) from children who do not stutter,…

  6. Indicators of Persistence for Hispanic Undergraduate Achievement: Toward an Ecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Renelinda; Castaneda-Sound, Carrie; Blanchard, Steve; Aguilar, Teresita E.

    2011-01-01

    By examining Hispanic students both currently and formerly enrolled at a private, Hispanic-serving Institution located in the Southwestern region of the United States, this study attempts to understand the factors that lead to Hispanic undergraduate persistence to graduation. Adapting Bronfenbrenner's theoretical approach, this study explores…

  7. Desisting and persisting gender dysphoria after childhood: a qualitative follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, T.D.; Biemond, R.; de Boer, F.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to obtain a better understanding of the developmental trajectories of persistence and desistence of childhood gender dysphoria and the psychosexual outcome of gender dysphoric children. Twenty five adolescents (M age 15.88, range 14-18), diagnosed with a Gender

  8. Improving Underrepresented Minority Student Persistence in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Burnett, Myra; Campbell, Andrew G.; Campbell, Patricia B.; Denetclaw, Wilfred F.; Gutiérrez, Carlos G.; Hurtado, Sylvia; John, Gilbert H.; Matsui, John; McGee, Richard; Okpodu, Camellia Moses; Robinson, T. Joan; Summers, Michael F.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Zavala, MariaElena

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Joint Working Group on Improving Underrepresented Minorities (URMs) Persistence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)--convened by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute--review current data and propose deliberation about why the academic "pathways"…

  9. Retrospective review of neonates with persistent pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical condition characterised by severe respiratory failure and hypoxaemia.[1] Its incidence is estimated at around 2 per 1 000 live births worldwide and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality.[2,3] Despite the progress in treating PPHN, it remains a.

  10. Persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... level during hypoglycaemia (insulin/glucose >0.3), the absence of ketonuria, and the need for a high dose of glucose infusion (> 15 mg/kg/min) to achieve normoglycaemia and a glycaemic response to glucagon despite the hypoglycaemia, a diagnosis of persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy was made.

  11. Mechanisms of HIV persistence in HIV reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzingwane, Mayibongwe L; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2017-03-01

    The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half-life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia. Some anatomical reservoirs that may harbor such cells include the brain and the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and other lymphoid organs, and the genital tract. The presence of immune cells and other HIV susceptible cells, occurring in differing compositions in anatomical reservoirs, coupled with variable and poor drug penetration that results in suboptimal drug concentrations in some sites, are all likely factors that fuel the continued low-level replication and persistent viremia during treatment. Latently, HIV-infected CD4+ T cells harboring replication-competent virus, HIV cell-to-cell spread, and HIV-infected T cell homeostatic proliferation due to chronic immune activation represent further drivers of this persistent HIV viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-04

    May 4, 1991 ... Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness. A case report. P. RHEEDER, W. L. SIELlNG. Summary auinine-induced blindness arising during empirical treatment for malaria in a young man is reported. The condition was noteworthy because it was total and permanent, which is at varia.nce with other ...

  13. Ethnic Differences in Persistence with COPD Medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yusun; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Frølich, Anne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting bronchodilators (LABDs) are recommended as a first-line maintenance therapy in patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the study was to explore potential ethnic differences in persistence with LABD in COPD patients. METHODS...

  14. High School Economic Composition and College Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of Texas high school seniors of 2002 who enrolled in college within the calendar year of high school graduation, we examine variation in college persistence according to the economic composition of their high schools, which serves as a proxy for unmeasured high school attributes that are conductive to postsecondary…

  15. Persistent pain after mastectomy with reconstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Oonagh T

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP) and its influence on functional status, and to examine associations between PPSP and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene following mastectomy and reconstruction.

  16. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mullerian duct regresses in male due to a glycoprotein secreted by the developing testes called. Mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF). Failure to regress may be due to lack of MIF or defective MIF receptor, resulting in various disorders of regression, and one such disorder is persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS).

  17. Persistence Modeling for Assessing Marketing Strategy Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe question of long-run market response lies at the heart of any marketing strategy that tries to create a sustainable competitive advantage for the firm or brand. A key challenge, however, is that only short-run results of marketing actions are readily observable. Persistence modeling

  18. Persistent trophoblast disease following partial molar pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielsma, S.; Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Pyman, J.; Tan, J.; Quinn, M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) follow-up data were analysed retrospectively in all patients registered in the Hydatidiform Mole Registry at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne from January 1992 to January 2001 to determine the risk of persistent trophoblast disease following

  19. A Primer on Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS) is controversial, and there is ongoing debate as to whether the etiology of PPCS is psychogenic or physiogenic. In addition, there is a lack of agreement on diagnostic definitions of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and concussion and the terms are used interchangeably in the research…

  20. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  1. A Neonate with persistent hypoglycemia and seizures.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBY

    disorder was diagnosed and managed with limited success as the episodes hydroglycemic seizures persisted. ... the presence of hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the hypoglycemic dependent seizures. Case Presentation. A three day old girl was admitted to the neonatal .... the Prader-Willi syndrome, has been reported.

  2. The Contribution of Student Satisfaction to Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Laurie A.; Nelson, Denise D.

    2013-01-01

    This study of nearly 30,000 undergraduates at 61 four-year public and private institutions examines the influence of satisfaction on students' persistence in college. Data were collected using the Student Satisfaction Inventory (Schreiner & Juillerat, 1994) and were analyzed by class level. The hierarchical multiple regression analyses…

  3. Retrospective review of neonates with persistent pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical syndrome characterised by high pulmonary pressures, low systemic pressures and severe hypoxaemia due to circulation transition failure after birth. Objective. To determine the incidence of and describe the risk factors, infant ...

  4. Painful bruising syndrome presenting as Persistent haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonia Ajay

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year old hysterical woman had persistent gross haematuria. She started developing painful ecchymosis 4 years after the onset of haematuria. The diagnosis of painful bruising syndrome was confirmed by intracutaneous sensitivity test and the patient responded excellently to cyproheptadine.

  5. Nitrogen uptake dynamics of a persistent cyanobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, persistent cyanobacterial blooms are becoming more frequent and are often associated with effects of global climate change. In June 2009, a widespread bloom of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp., appeared in North Lake and False Bay of Lake St Lucia – a large (360 km2) estuarine lake system ...

  6. Intermediates, Catalysts, Persistence, and Boundary Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    as cascades of a large class of post-translational modification systems (of which the MAPK cascade and the n-site futile cycle are prominent examples). Since one of the aforementioned sufficient conditions for persistence precludes the existence of boundary steady states, our method also provides a graphical...

  7. Diversity of Lactase Persistence Alleles in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, BL; Raga, TO; Liebert, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The persistent expression of lactase into adulthood in humans is a recent genetic adaptation that allows the consumption of milk from other mammals after weaning. In Europe, a single allele (−13910∗T, rs4988235) in an upstream region that acts as an enhancer to the expression of the lactase gene ...

  8. Primary congenital hypothyroidism complicated by persistent severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-24

    Dec 24, 2013 ... Case Study: Primary congenital hypothyroidism complicated by persistent severe anaemia in early infancy. 85. 2014 Volume 19 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Although anaemia is a common finding in adults with hypothyroidism, there is a general paucity of studies on anaemia in infants with congenital ...

  9. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  10. Persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium following azithromycin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine clinical outcomes and cure rates for M.genitalium genital infection in men and women following azithromycin 1 g. METHODOLOGY: Patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2005 and November 2007 with urethritis/epididymitis, cervicitis/pelvic inflammatory disease and sexual contacts of M.genitalium were tested for M.genitalium by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. M.genitalium-infection was treated with 1 g of azithromycin and a test-of-cure (toc was performed one month post-azithromycin. Response to azithromycin, and response to moxifloxacin (400 mg daily for 10 days in individuals with persistent infection post-azithromycin, was determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 1538 males and 313 females tested, 161 males (11% and 30 females (10% were infected with M.genitalium. A toc was available on 131 (69% infected individuals (median = 36 days [range 12-373]. Of 120 individuals prescribed azithromycin only pre-toc, M.genitalium was eradicated in 101 (84%, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 77-90% and persisted in 19 (16%, 95% CI: 10-23%. Eleven individuals with persistent infection (9%, 95% CI: 5-15% had no risk of reinfection from untreated-partners, while eight (7%, 95% CI: 3-12% may have been at risk of reinfection from doxycycline-treated or untreated-partners. Moxifloxacin was effective in eradicating persistent infection in all cases not responding to azithromycin. Patients with persistent-M.genitalium were more likely to experience persistent symptoms (91%, compared to patients in whom M.genitalium was eradicated (17%, p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Use of azithromycin 1 g in M.genitalium-infected patients was associated with unacceptable rates of persistent infection, which was eradicated with moxifloxacin. These findings highlight the importance of follow-up in M.genitalium-infected patients prescribed azithromycin, and the need to monitor for the development of resistance. Research to determine optimal first and

  11. Persistence of undergraduate women in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Maggie Helene

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a complex problem that continues to persist at the postsecondary level, particularly in computer science and engineering fields. This dissertation explored the pre-college and college level factors that influenced undergraduate women's persistence in STEM. This study also examined and compared the characteristics of undergraduate women who entered STEM fields and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. The nationally representative Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09) data set was used for analysis. BPS:04/09 study respondents were surveyed three times (NPSAS:04, BPS:04/06, BPS:04/09) over a six-year period, which enabled me to explore factors related to long-term persistence. Astin's Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) model was used as the framework to examine student inputs and college environmental factors that predict female student persistence (output) in STEM. Chi-square tests revealed significant differences between undergraduate women who entered STEM and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. Differences in student demographics, prior academic achievement, high school course-taking patterns, and student involvement in college such as participation in study groups and school clubs were found. Notably, inferential statistics showed that a significantly higher proportion of female minority students entered STEM fields than non-STEM fields. These findings challenge the myth that underrepresented female minorities are less inclined to enter STEM fields. Logistic regression analyses revealed thirteen significant predictors of persistence for undergraduate women in STEM. Findings showed that undergraduate women who were younger, more academically prepared, and academically and socially involved in college (e.g., lived on campus, interacted with faculty, participated in study groups, fine arts activities, and school sports) were more likely to persist in STEM

  12. Multiscale Persistent Functions for Biomolecular Structure Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Kelin [Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). Division of Mathematical Sciences, School of Physical, Mathematical Sciences and School of Biological Sciences; Li, Zhiming [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China). Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics; Mu, Lin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division

    2017-11-02

    Here in this paper, we introduce multiscale persistent functions for biomolecular structure characterization. The essential idea is to combine our multiscale rigidity functions (MRFs) with persistent homology analysis, so as to construct a series of multiscale persistent functions, particularly multiscale persistent entropies, for structure characterization. To clarify the fundamental idea of our method, the multiscale persistent entropy (MPE) model is discussed in great detail. Mathematically, unlike the previous persistent entropy (Chintakunta et al. in Pattern Recognit 48(2):391–401, 2015; Merelli et al. in Entropy 17(10):6872–6892, 2015; Rucco et al. in: Proceedings of ECCS 2014, Springer, pp 117–128, 2016), a special resolution parameter is incorporated into our model. Various scales can be achieved by tuning its value. Physically, our MPE can be used in conformational entropy evaluation. More specifically, it is found that our method incorporates in it a natural classification scheme. This is achieved through a density filtration of an MRF built from angular distributions. To further validate our model, a systematical comparison with the traditional entropy evaluation model is done. Additionally, it is found that our model is able to preserve the intrinsic topological features of biomolecular data much better than traditional approaches, particularly for resolutions in the intermediate range. Moreover, by comparing with traditional entropies from various grid sizes, bond angle-based methods and a persistent homology-based support vector machine method (Cang et al. in Mol Based Math Biol 3:140–162, 2015), we find that our MPE method gives the best results in terms of average true positive rate in a classic protein structure classification test. More interestingly, all-alpha and all-beta protein classes can be clearly separated from each other with zero error only in our model. Finally, a special protein structure index (PSI) is proposed, for the first

  13. Directional persistence of EGF-induced cell migration is associated with stabilization of lamellipodial protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Brian D; Bassi, Gina M; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2005-02-01

    Migrating cells can sustain a relatively constant direction of lamellipodial protrusion and locomotion over timescales ranging from minutes to hours. However, individual waves of lamellipodial extension occur over much shorter characteristic times. Little understanding exists regarding how cells might integrate biophysical processes across these disparate timescales to control the directional persistence of locomotion. We address this issue by examining the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation on long-timescale directional persistence and short-timescale lamellipodial dynamics of EGF receptor-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells migrating on fibronectin-coated substrata. Addition of EGF increased persistence, with the magnitude of increase correlating with fibronectin coating concentration. Kymographic analysis of EGF-stimulated lamellipodial dynamics revealed that the temporal stability of lamellipodial protrusions similarly increased with fibronectin concentration. A soluble RGD peptide competitor reduced both the persistence of long-timescale cell paths and the stability of short-timescale membrane protrusions, indicating that cell-substratum adhesion concomitantly influences lamellipodial dynamics and directional persistence. These results reveal the importance of adhesion strength in regulating the directional motility of cells and suggest that the short-timescale kinetics of adhesion complex formation may play a key role in modulating directional persistence over much longer timescales.

  14. The persistence of regional unemployment: evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Z

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the persistence of regional unemployment and to explore the sources of this persistence. Evidence from China suggests three empirical findings. First, provincial relative unemployment is more persistent than aggregate unemployment. Second, youth unemployment is less persistent than total unemployment. Third, although the western region has the highest provincial unemployment rate, it has the lowest persistence of regional unemployment. To explore the so...

  15. Extending and implementing the Persistent ID pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Nicholas; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The recent double decade anniversary of scholarly persistent identifier use has triggered journal special editions such as "20 Years of Persistent Identifiers". For such a publication, it is apt to consider the longevity of some persistent identifier (PID) mechanisms (Digital Object Identifiers) and the partial disappearance of others (Life Sciences IDs). We have previously postulated a set of "PID Pillars" [1] which are design principles aimed at ensuring PIDs can survive technology and social change and thus persist for the long term that we have drawn from our observations of PIDs at work over many years. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers' system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In this presentation, first we extend on our previous work of introducing the pillars by refining their descriptions, giving specific suggestions for each and presenting some work that addresses them. Second, we propose a baseline data model for persistent identifiers that, if used, would assist the separation of PID metadata and PID system functioning. This would allow PID system function specifics to change over time (e.g. resolver services or even resolution protocols) and yet preserve the PIDs themselves. Third, we detail our existing PID system — the PID Service [2] — that partially implements the pillars and describe both its successes and shortcomings. Finally, we describe our planned next-generation system that will aim to use the baseline data model and fully implement the pillars.

  16. A framework for planning and critiquing medication compliance and persistence research using prospective study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida H; Manias, Elizabeth; Zhang, Ying; Roy, Anuja; Yu-Isenberg, Kristina; Hughes, Dyfrig A; Nichol, Michael B

    2009-02-01

    Medication compliance and persistence are important determinants of clinical outcomes. With the application of evidence-based therapy, it is increasingly important to ensure that studies that use compliance or persistence as a primary or secondary outcome are designed suitably and employ appropriate analyses to support the inferences made. The aim of this work was to describe the designs of medication compliance/persistence studies and provide guidance on appropriate analyses, with the ultimate goal of helping health providers and payers of health care understand the impact of compliance and persistence on health outcomes. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and all EBM Reviews databases were searched to locate key research articles about prospective medication compliance and persistence studies. Articles published between 1978 and 2008 were included in the search. Inclusion criteria included a focus on medication compliance and persistence, and prospective research designs. Articles that largely focused on retrospective study designs or were based on opinion rather than evidence were excluded. A systematic framework was developed that comprised a prospective checklist and a quantitative tool to assess the quality of studies. The key elements of the checklist included the following: title and abstract, introduction or background, objectives, methods and study design, statistical analysis and results, discussion, conclusions, and disclosure of conflicts of interest. For each element, examples are provided to help readers make an informed decision about the design, value, and quality of a particular prospective study. The checklist and quantitative tool can be used to provide objective validation of the rigor of prospective research designs. It is anticipated that future research will follow a uniform approach to presentation and evaluation of data, thereby facilitating a clear understanding of the impact of compliance and persistence on health outcomes.

  17. Understanding persistence in the use of online fitness communities : comparing novice and experienced users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stragier, Jeroen; Vanden Abeele, Mariek; Mechant, Peter; De Marez, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Mobile and wearable technologies facilitate physiological data collection for health and wellness purposes. Users typically access these data via Online Fitness Community (OFC) platforms (e.g., Fitbit, Strava, RunKeeper). These platforms present users with functionalities centered on

  18. Understanding the Persistence of Low-Income Students in Postsecondary Education: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary America, postsecondary education has now become almost a prerequisite for anyone wishing to matriculate into a higher socioeconomic class. Over the last five decades there has been a steady increase in the number of high school students entering college and university, with now over 75% of high school graduates enrolling in some…

  19. Understanding DNA Repair in Hyperthermophilic Archaea: Persistent Gaps and Other Reasons to Focus on the Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Grogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although hyperthermophilic archaea arguably have a great need for efficient DNA repair, they lack members of several DNA repair protein families broadly conserved among bacteria and eukaryotes. Conversely, the putative DNA repair genes that do occur in these archaea often do not generate the expected phenotype when deleted. The prospect that hyperthermophilic archaea have some unique strategies for coping with DNA damage and replication errors has intellectual and technological appeal, but resolving this question will require alternative coping mechanisms to be proposed and tested experimentally. This review evaluates a combination of four enigmatic properties that distinguishes the hyperthermophilic archaea from all other organisms: DNA polymerase stalling at dU, apparent lack of conventional NER, lack of MutSL homologs, and apparent essentiality of homologous recombination proteins. Hypothetical damage-coping strategies that could explain this set of properties may provide new starting points for efforts to define how archaea differ from conventional models of DNA repair and replication fidelity.

  20. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Acidosis: new insights into the persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Wertz-Lutz, A E

    2011-04-01

    The Ruminant Nutrition Symposium titled "Acidosis: New insights into the persistent problem" was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, Western Section-ASAS, and the Canadian Society of Animal Science in Denver, Colorado, July 11 to 15, 2010. The objective of the symposium was to provide the ruminant nutrition community with new insights and perspectives from recent research findings on acidosis. Under modern production systems, ruminants are fed high-grain diets to maximize their energy intake and productivity. However, feeding highly fermentable diets often causes excess fermentation and results in accumulation of fermentation acids in the rumen, leading to a decrease in feed intake, poor feed efficiency, liver abscesses, and lameness in feedlot cattle or lactating dairy cows. Although our understanding of nutritional factors (i.e., effects of type and processing method of grains and importance of physically effective fiber) affecting rumen pH have increased substantially over the past few decades, rumen acidosis has continued to be a common problem in the ruminant livestock industry. The symposium program was organized to review recent research findings in acidosis with more emphasis on physiological aspects, and provide novel insights into the persistent problem.

  1. Biodiversity conservation in metacommunity networks: linking pattern and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economo, Evan P

    2011-06-01

    A central goal of conservation science is to identify the most important habitat patches for maintaining biodiversity on a landscape. Spatial biodiversity patterns are often used for such assessments, and patches that harbor unique diversity are generally prioritized over those with high community similarity to other areas. This places an emphasis on biodiversity representation, but removing a patch can have cascading effects on biodiversity persistence in the remaining ecological communities. Metacommunity theory provides a mechanistic route to the linking of biodiversity patterns on a landscape with the subsequent dynamics of diversity loss after habitat is degraded. Using spatially explicit neutral theory, I focus on the situation where spatial patterns of diversity and similarity are generated by the structure of dispersal networks and not environmental gradients. I find that gains in biodiversity representation are nullified by losses in persistence, and as a result the effects of removing a patch on metacommunity diversity are essentially independent of complementarity or other biodiversity patterns. In this scenario, maximizing protected area and not biodiversity representation is the key to maintaining diversity in the long term. These results highlight the need for a broader understanding of how conservation paradigms perform under different models of metacommunity dynamics.

  2. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morrison, Stan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morris, Sarah [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Tigar, Aaron [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Dam, William [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Dayvault, Jalena [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management

    2016-04-26

    Motivation for Study: Natural flushing of contaminants at various U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites is not proceeding as quickly as predicted (plume persistence) Objectives: Help determine natural flushing rates using column tests. Use 1D reactive transport modeling to better understand the major processes that are creating plume persistence Approach: Core samples from under a former mill tailings area Tailings have been removed. Column leaching using lab-prepared water similar to nearby Gunnison River water. 1D reactive transport modeling to evaluate processes

  3. The relationship between institutional experience factors and international student persistence at a public community college in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Jon

    2016-01-01

    In the 1930s, scholars began examining the forces behind students' decision to persist or depart from higher education institutions. These explorations initially looked at U.S. four-year university contexts, but research has since spread to other high education systems around the world and has demarcated for diverse institutional types, academic programs, and student demographics. Within this area of study there is a small contingent of researchers that seek to better understand persistence t...

  4. Geometry Helps to Compare Persistence Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Michael; Morozov, Dmitriy; Nigmetov, Arnur

    2015-11-16

    Exploiting geometric structure to improve the asymptotic complexity of discrete assignment problems is a well-studied subject. In contrast, the practical advantages of using geometry for such problems have not been explored. We implement geometric variants of the Hopcroft--Karp algorithm for bottleneck matching (based on previous work by Efrat el al.), and of the auction algorithm by Bertsekas for Wasserstein distance computation. Both implementations use k-d trees to replace a linear scan with a geometric proximity query. Our interest in this problem stems from the desire to compute distances between persistence diagrams, a problem that comes up frequently in topological data analysis. We show that our geometric matching algorithms lead to a substantial performance gain, both in running time and in memory consumption, over their purely combinatorial counterparts. Moreover, our implementation significantly outperforms the only other implementation available for comparing persistence diagrams.

  5. Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygland, Åse; Ljøstad, Unn; Krossnes, Bård Kronen

    2014-04-08

    An 81-year-old woman treated with simvastatin for several years followed by atorvastatin for about 1 year presented with fatigue, weakness and unsteady gait. The finding of elevated creatine kinase (CK) and symmetric muscle weakness around shoulders and hips led to suspicion of a toxic statin-associated myopathy. Atorvastatin was withdrawn, but her weakness persisted. Owing to persisting weakness, an autoimmune myopathy (myositis) was suspected, but initially disregarded since a muscle biopsy showed necrotic muscle fibres without inflammatory cell infiltrates and myositis-specific autoantibodies were absent. After 18 months with slowly progressive weakness and increasing CK values, awareness of new knowledge about autoimmunity as a cause of necrotic myopathy, led to a successful treatment trial with intravenous immunoglobulines, followed by steroids and metothrexate. Antibodies to the target enzyme of statins (HMGCR (3-hydroksy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)) were detected in her serum, and she was diagnosed with autoimmune necrotic myositis probably triggered by atorvastatin.

  6. On the brink between extinction and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Lars A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The nature of size fluctuations is crucial in forecasting future population persistence, independently of whether the variability stems from external forces or from the dynamics of the population renewal process. The risk of intercepting zero is highly dependent on the way the variance of the population size relates to its mean. The minimum population size required for a population not to go extinct can be determined by a scaling equation relating the variance to the arithmetic mean. By the use of a derived expression for the harmonic mean defined by the parameters of the scaling equation we show how it is possible to separate the domains of persistence from those of extinction and to facilitate the identification of populations on the brink of extinction. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Mark W. Schwartz (nominated by Peter Olofsson, Josef Bryja (nominated by Aniko Szabo and Wai-YuanTan. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Comments section.

  7. Temporal persistence of anomalous self-experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, J; Handest, P; Vollmer-Larsen, A

    2017-01-01

    at baseline and follow-up to assess self-disorders. The scale was a pre-cursor of the later published EASE-scale. Additionally, we examined the development of positive and negative syndromes and of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). RESULTS: There was a high correlation between self-disorders......BACKGROUND: The concept of self-disorders in schizophrenia has gained substantial interest and it has now been established empirically that self-disorders aggregate in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders but not in other mental disorders or in healthy controls. Yet, the issue of temporal persistence...... has not been addressed. AIM: The aim of this study is to examine the temporal persistence of self-disorders. METHODS: 96 first admission patients were thoroughly assessed for psychopathology including SD at baseline and again 5years later. We created a 25-item self-disorder scale which was used both...

  8. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  9. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  10. Emotional persistence in online chatting communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

    2012-05-01

    How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

  11. The persistent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Lucia; Camargo, Suzana J.; Pascale, Salvatore; Pons, Flavio M. E.; Ekström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    The spectrum of ambient seismic noise shows strong signals associated with tropical cyclones, yet a detailed understanding of these signals and the relationship between them and the storms is currently lacking. Through the analysis of more than a decade of seismic data recorded at several stations located in and adjacent to the northwest Pacific Ocean, here we show that there is a persistent and frequency-dependent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise that depends on characteristics of the storm and on the detailed location of the station relative to the storm. An adaptive statistical model shows that the spectral amplitude of ambient seismic noise, and notably of the short-period secondary microseisms, has a strong relationship with tropical cyclone intensity and can be employed to extract information on the tropical cyclones.

  12. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third......, the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition....

  13. Persistent perineal sinus. Incidence, pathogenesis, risk factors, and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohsiriwat, V.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the incidence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapeutic options for persistent perineal sinus (PPS), defined as a perineal wound that remains unhealed more than 6 months after surgery. The incidence of PPS after surgery for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ranges from 3% to 70% and after abdominoperineal resection (APR) for Low rectal cancer, it can be up to 30%. These unhealed wounds are frequently related to perioperative pelvic or perineal sepsis. Crohn's disease (CD) and neoadjuvant radiation therapy are also important risk factors. The management of PPS is based on an understanding of pathogenesis and clinical grounds. The advantages and disadvantages of the current therapeutic approaches, including the topical administration of various drugs, vacuum-assisted closure, and perineal reconstruction with a muscle flap or a myocutaneous flap are also discussed. (author)

  14. Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; van Doorn, Nienke L.

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning...... to exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear...... that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding...

  15. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    , the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition.......Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third...

  16. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of the sensory system either by mechanical, thermal or electrical stimuli, with assessment of the evoked psychophysical response. QST has been used in prospective assessments of how and why some individuals develop persistent postoperative pain. This comprehensive review describes, first, QST as a predictive...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third......, the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition....

  17. The persistent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise

    KAUST Repository

    Gualtieri, Lucia

    2017-12-28

    The spectrum of ambient seismic noise shows strong signals associated with tropical cyclones, yet a detailed understanding of these signals and the relationship between them and the storms is currently lacking. Through the analysis of more than a decade of seismic data recorded at several stations located in and adjacent to the northwest Pacific Ocean, here we show that there is a persistent and frequency-dependent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise that depends on characteristics of the storm and on the detailed location of the station relative to the storm. An adaptive statistical model shows that the spectral amplitude of ambient seismic noise, and notably of the short-period secondary microseisms, has a strong relationship with tropical cyclone intensity and can be employed to extract information on the tropical cyclones.

  18. New and Persistent Gender Equality Challenges in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    This dissertation is about the cumulative disadvantages slowing down women academics’ advancement and keeping them from gaining the same organizational status as their male colleagues. It is also about understanding and explaining how gender relations are reconstituted in a rapidly changing...... academic context characterized by increasing demands for international competitiveness, innovation, flexibility and accountability. The thesis employs a case study approach, adopting a critical realist meta- theoretical framework and a pluralist methodology to investigate the new and persistent gender...... equality challenges at Aarhus University in Denmark. The overall research objective has been divided into four analytically distinct potential explanatory components, each drawing attention to a number of social mechanisms, which under certain circumstances, can be expected to be instrumental...

  19. [Diastema verum and persistent labial frenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, D; Obrez-Oblak, K

    1990-01-01

    In the management of diastema verum associated with persistent labial frenum it is important to distinguish, on the basis of clinical testing, between a normal and abnormal labial frenum. The authors believe that from an orthodontic standpoint, frenotomy ad frenectomy are contraindicated in the deciduous dentition. The latter procedure is indicated in a mixed dentition and is best carried out before the eruption of lateral incisors.

  20. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  1. [Persistent duodenal septum in an adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwing, E; Echtermeyer, V; Otten, G

    1977-02-01

    A case of duodenal obstruction by a congenital duodenal web in a 34-year-old woman is presented. A mucosal diaphragm obstructed the duodenum. It showed an excentric opening of 0.8 cm diameter, but the dilated diaphragm caused a total stop during the last months. Despite a typical history, exact X-ray, and endoscopic examination, the correct preoperative diagnosis was not found, because nobody thought it possible, that a mucosal diapharm of the duodenum could persist for 34 years.

  2. Veteran Student Persistence: The Lived Experiences of Veteran Students Coping with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder While Enrolled in Online Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-White, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Persistence as it pertained to traditional college students had been widely researched, but little was known about persistence and the role of resilience and engagement for veteran students experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder while enrolled in online degree programs. The focus of the study was to understand the lived experiences of veteran…

  3. Lactase Non-persistence and Lactose Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Theodore M; Brown, Elizabeth; Paige, David M

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population. Milk consumption is decreasing in the USA and is the lowest in countries with a high prevalence of lactase non-persistence. The dairy industry and Minnesota investigators have made efforts to minimize the influence of lactose intolerance on milk consumption. Some lactose intolerant individuals, without co-existent irritable bowel syndrome, are able to consume a glass of milk with a meal with no or minor symptoms. The high frequency of lactase persistence in offspring of Northern European countries and in some nomadic African tribes is due to mutations in the promoter of the lactase gene in association with survival advantage of milk drinking. Educational and commercial efforts to improve calcium and Vitamin D intake have focused on urging consumption of tolerable amounts of milk with a meal, use of lowered lactose-content foods including hard cheeses, yogurt, and lactose-hydrolyzed milk products.

  4. Trichomonas gallinae Persistence in Four Water Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple, Kathryn E; Humm, Jacob M; Kirby, R Brian; Saidak, Christina G; Gerhold, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite commonly found in columbids, passerines, and several raptor species. Although T. gallinae is thought to spread between individuals and across species through shared water sources, little research has been conducted regarding the persistence of T. gallinae in the environment. To determine the persistence of T. gallinae in various communal water sources, we inoculated 1 × 10(6) trichomonads into 500 mL samples of distilled water, quarry water, bird bath water, and rain barrel water in two replicates. Aliquots of 0.5 mL were collected from each source at -1, 0, 15, 30, and 60 min; aliquots were incubated at 37 C and examined for trichomonads by light microscopy for five consecutive days. Live trichomonads were observed in all samples and at all sampling times except prior to inoculation (-1 min). The pH of water sources ranged from an average of 5.9 to 7.4 postsampling. Our findings indicate that T. gallinae can persist for up to 60 min in various water treatments and thus be infectious for birds drinking T. gallinae-contaminated water.

  5. Microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padhy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections. Materials and Methods: The total wound samples (n=172 taken from both traumatic (140 and post-surgical (32 persistent wounds in canines were processed for routine microbial isolation and identification during a period of 15 months. Results: Staphylococcus intermedius was found to be the predominant isolate from all types of wounds under study. It was followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Pasteurella spp., Corynaebacterium spp. and Bacillus spp. From different traumatic wounds of dogs, S. intermedius (92/140=65.7% and from surgical wounds, P. aeruginosa (24/32=75% were found to be the predominant isolates recovered whereas the most commonly isolated bacterial genus in both traumatic and surgical wounds of dogs was Staphylococcus spp. Conclusion: Canine wounds are polymicrobial in nature. Hence proper microbial laboratory diagnosis and presence of multiple organisms in a wound are to be taken into consideration for effective treatment of persistent wound infections in dogs.

  6. Reoperation for persistent or recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Alida; Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Buscemi, Salvatore; Lo Monte, Giulia; Gulotta, Leonardo; Buscemi, Giuseppe; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2017-10-23

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common acquired disorder seen in chronic renal failure. Its pathophysiology is mainly due to hyperphosphatemia and vitamin D deficiency and resistance. When medical treatment fails, subtotal and total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation are the standard procedures, although both are associated with high recurrence rates. 4 patients experienced persistence and 9 relapse. The first 4 were subjected to reoperation after 6 months for the persistence of symptoms due to the finding of a supernumerary adenomatous gland while the remaining patients at the reoperation showed in 5 cases 2 more glands in over thymic position, and 4 an hyperplasia of the residual glandular tissue. A classic cervicotomy was sufficient to remove the residual parathyroid in patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism. For cases of recurrent hyperparathyroidism it was enough a medial approach and sometimes lateral for the complete excision of the hyperplastic tissue. The advent of the intraoperative technique of parathyroid hormone dosage allowed a better performance of the surgical technique for the last 3 patients undergoing reoperation. After reoperation all patients had immediate regression of clinical symptoms with normalization of serum calcium and PTH levels. On the basis of these considerations, diagnostic imaging has a not negligible role because during the first intervention helps to have an idea of the possible location of the glands and thus to avoid the risk of recurrence and relapse due to ectopic or supernumerary tissue.

  7. Metaphor, skepticism, understanding Metaphor, skepticism, understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Martins

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts.

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts

  8. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  9. Understanding Hereditary Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Understanding Hereditary Angioedema Share | Understanding Hereditary Angioedema This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic condition. People with ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., ... find our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using ...

  11. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  12. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  13. Trustworthy persistent identifier systems of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Car, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades, persistent identifier (PID) systems have seen some significant changes in their governance policies, system capabilities, and technology. The development of most systems was driven by two main application areas, namely archives and libraries. Guidelines and criteria for trustworthy PID systems have been clearly devised (Bütikofer, 2009) and many PID system implementations for the identification of static digital objects have been built (e.g., PURL). However systems delivering persistent identifiers for dynamic datasets are not yet mature. There has been a rapid proliferation of different PID systems caused by the specific technical or organisational requirements of various communities that could not be met by existing systems such as DOI, ISBN, and EAN. Many of these different systems were limited by their inability to provide native means of persistent identifier resolution. This has prompted a decoupling of PID-associated data from the resolution service and this is where the Handle system has played a significant role. The Handle allowed to build a distributed system of independently managed resolver services. A trustworthy PID system must be designed to outlive the objects it provides persistent identifiers for, which may cease to exist or otherwise be deprecated, and the technology used to implement it, which will certainly need to change with time. We propose that such a system should rest on four pillars of agreements - (i) definitions, (ii) policies, (iii) services, and (iv) data services, to ensure longevity. While we believe all four pillars are equally important, we intentionally leave regulating aspects of issuing of identifiers and their registration out of the scope of this paper and focus on the agreements that have to be established between PID resolver services and the data sources indicated by the persistent identifiers. We propose an approach to development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system

  14. Persistent arm pain is distinct from persistent breast pain following breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Dale J; Paul, Steven M; West, Claudia; Abrams, Gary; Elboim, Charles; Levine, Jon D; Hamolsky, Deborah; Luce, Judith A; Kober, Kord M; Neuhaus, John M; Cooper, Bruce A; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Miaskowski, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Persistent pain following breast cancer surgery is well documented. However, it is not well characterized in terms of the anatomic site affected (ie, breast, arm). In 2 separate growth mixture modeling analyses, we identified subgroups of women (N = 398) with distinct breast pain and arm pain trajectories. The fact that these latent classes differed by anatomic site, types of tissue affected, and neural innervation patterns suggests the need for separate evaluations of these distinct persistent pain conditions. The purposes of this companion study were to identify demographic and clinical characteristics that differed between the 2 arm pain classes and determine if differences existed over time in sensitivity in the upper inner arm and axillary lymph node dissection sites, pain qualities, pain interference, and hand and arm function, as well as to compare findings with persistent breast pain. Higher occurrence rates for depression and lymphedema were found in the moderate arm pain class. Regardless of pain group membership, sensory loss was observed in the upper inner arm and axillary lymph node dissection site. Arm pain was described similarly to neuropathic pain and interfered with daily functioning. Persistent arm pain was associated with sustained impairments in shoulder mobility. For persistent breast and arm pain, changes in sensation following breast cancer surgery were notable. Persistent arm pain was associated with sustained interference with daily functioning and upper body mobility impairments. Long-term management of persistent pain following breast cancer surgery is warranted to improve the quality of survivorship for these women. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The ecophysiology of seed persistence: a mechanistic view of the journey to germination or demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rowena L; Gorecki, Marta J; Renton, Michael; Scott, John K; Colville, Louise; Goggin, Danica E; Commander, Lucy E; Westcott, David A; Cherry, Hillary; Finch-Savage, William E

    2015-02-01

    Seed persistence is the survival of seeds in the environment once they have reached maturity. Seed persistence allows a species, population or genotype to survive long after the death of parent plants, thus distributing genetic diversity through time. The ability to predict seed persistence accurately is critical to inform long-term weed management and flora rehabilitation programs, as well as to allow a greater understanding of plant community dynamics. Indeed, each of the 420000 seed-bearing plant species has a unique set of seed characteristics that determine its propensity to develop a persistent soil seed bank. The duration of seed persistence varies among species and populations, and depends on the physical and physiological characteristics of seeds and how they are affected by the biotic and abiotic environment. An integrated understanding of the ecophysiological mechanisms of seed persistence is essential if we are to improve our ability to predict how long seeds can survive in soils, both now and under future climatic conditions. In this review we present an holistic overview of the seed, species, climate, soil, and other site factors that contribute mechanistically to seed persistence, incorporating physiological, biochemical and ecological perspectives. We focus on current knowledge of the seed and species traits that influence seed longevity under ex situ controlled storage conditions, and explore how this inherent longevity is moderated by changeable biotic and abiotic conditions in situ, both before and after seeds are dispersed. We argue that the persistence of a given seed population in any environment depends on its resistance to exiting the seed bank via germination or death, and on its exposure to environmental conditions that are conducive to those fates. By synthesising knowledge of how the environment affects seeds to determine when and how they leave the soil seed bank into a resistance-exposure model, we provide a new framework for

  16. Mechanisms of Disease Persistence in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Defoe, Richard L; Druker, Brian J

    2007-01-01

    Disease persistence is the main issue faced by CML patients on therapy with imatinib and eradication of persistent malignant cells will be critical for the long-term success of kinase inhibitor therapy...

  17. Mechanisms of Disease Persistence in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Druker, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    Disease persistence is the main issue faced by CML patients on therapy with imatinib and eradication of persistent malignant cells will be critical for the longterm success of kinase inhibitor therapy...

  18. Variable Persister Gene Interactions with (pppGpp for Persister Formation in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Persisters comprise a group of phenotypically heterogeneous metabolically quiescent bacteria with multidrug tolerance and contribute to the recalcitrance of chronic infections. Although recent work has shown that toxin-antitoxin (TA system HipAB depends on stringent response effector (pppGppin persister formation, whether other persister pathways are also dependent on stringent response has not been explored. Here we examined the relationship of (pppGpp with 15 common persister genes (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, pspF, tnaA, sucB, ssrA, smpB, recA, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ using Escherichia coli as a model. By comparing the persister levels of wild type with their single gene knockout and double knockout mutants with relA, we divided their interactions into five types, namely A “dependent” (dnaK, recA, B “positive reinforcement” (rpoS, pspF, ssrA, recA, C “antagonistic” (clpB, sucB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ, D “epistasis” (clpB, rpoS, tnaA, ssrA, smpB, hipA, and E “irrelevant” (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, tnaA, sucB, smpB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ. We found that the persister gene interactions are intimately dependent on bacterial culture age, cell concentrations (diluted versus undiluted culture, and drug classifications, where the same gene may belong to different groups with varying antibiotics, culture age or cell concentrations. Together, this study represents the first attempt to systematically characterize the intricate relationships among the different mechanisms of persistence and as such provide new insights into the complexity of the persistence phenomenon at the level of persister gene network interactions.

  19. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    An important aim for the teacher in Higher Education is that students, in order to learn, achieve understanding in terms of being able to handle knowledge in a certain way. In this paper focus will be on understanding as a phenomenon which is permeated with values of what good understanding might...... be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...

  20. Memorandum of Understanding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siple, Bud H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A Memorandum of Understanding establishes a clear understanding of how an agreement is going to be implemented. The Memorandum of Understanding allows all involved to specifically understand that they are agreeing to the same thing and the terms are clearly identified. It also includes the clear distinction of functions and the level of involvement of the agencies involved. Specifically, a Memorandum of Understanding gives a chance to all of those involved in the agreement to see on paper as to what they all have agreed to.

  1. Integrodifference equations in the presence of climate change: persistence criterion, travelling waves and inside dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark A; Marculis, Nathan G; Shen, Zhongwei

    2018-01-13

    To understand the effects that the climate change has on the evolution of species as well as the genetic consequences, we analyze an integrodifference equation (IDE) models for a reproducing and dispersing population in a spatio-temporal heterogeneous environment described by a shifting climate envelope. Our analysis on the IDE focuses on the persistence criterion, travelling wave solutions, and the inside dynamics. First, the persistence criterion, characterizing the global dynamics of the IDE, is established in terms of the basic reproduction number. In the case of persistence, a unique travelling wave is found to govern the global dynamics. The effects of the size and the shifting speed of the climate envelope on the basic reproduction number, and hence, on the persistence criterion, are also investigated. In particular, the critical domain size and the critical shifting speed are found in certain cases. Numerical simulations are performed to complement the theoretical results. In the case of persistence, we separate the travelling wave and general solutions into spatially distinct neutral fractions to study the inside dynamics. It is shown that each neutral genetic fraction rearranges itself spatially so as to asymptotically achieve the profile of the travelling wave. To measure the genetic diversity of the population density we calculate the Shannon diversity index and related indices, and use these to illustrate how diversity changes with underlying parameters.

  2. Life Span Studies of ADHD—Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caye, Arthur; Swanson, James; Thapar, Anita; Sibley, Margaret; Arseneault, Louise; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene; Niclasen, Janni; Moffitt, Terrie

    2018-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD. Estimates of persistence vary widely in the literature, and diagnostic criteria, sample characteristics, and information source are the most important factors explaining variability among studies. Evidence indicates that ADHD severity, comorbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, and treatment for ADHD are the main predictors of ADHD persistence from childhood to adulthood. Comorbid conduct disorder and ADHD severity in childhood are the most important predictors of adverse outcomes in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span. PMID:27783340

  3. Persisting mathematics and science high school teachers: A Q-methodology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins-Lavicka, Michelle M.

    There is a lack of qualified mathematics and science teachers at all levels of education in Arkansas. Lasting teaching initiative programs are needed to address retention so qualified teachers remain in the classroom. The dearth of studies regarding why mathematics and science teachers persist in the classroom beyond the traditional 5-year attrition period led this Q-methodological study to evaluate the subjective perceptions of persistent mathematics and science teachers to determine what makes them stay. This study sought to understand what factors persisting mathematics and science teachers used to explain their persistence in the classroom beyond 5 years and what educational factors contributed to persisting mathematics and science teachers. Q-methodology combines qualitative and quantitative techniques and provided a systematic means to investigate personal beliefs by collecting a concourse, developing a Q-sample and a person-sample, conducting a Q-sorting process, and analyzing the data. The results indicated that to encourage longevity within mathematics and science classrooms (a) teachers should remain cognizant of their ability to influence student attitudes toward teaching; (b) administrators should provide support for teachers and emphasize the role and importance of professional development; and (c) policy makers should focus their efforts and resources on developing recruitment plans, including mentorship programs, while providing and improving financial compensation. Significantly, the findings indicate that providing mentorship and role models at every level of mathematics and science education will likely encourage qualified teachers to remain in the mathematics and science classrooms, thus increasing the chance of positive social change.

  4. Persistent Delirium in Chronic Critical Illness as a Prodrome Syndrome before Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Anna; Blinderman, Craig D

    2017-05-01

    Chronic critical illness (CCI) patients have poor functional outcomes, high risk of mortality, and significant sequelae, including delirium and cognitive dysfunction. The prognostic significance of persistent delirium in patients with CCI has not been well described. We report a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiac surgery who was hemodynamically stable following a long course in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CTICU), but had persistent and unremitting delirium. Despite both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to improve his delirium, the patient ultimately continued to have symptoms of delirium and subsequently died in the CTICU. Efforts to reconsider the goals of care, given his family's understanding of his values, were met with resistance as his cardiothoracic surgeon believed that he had a reasonable chance of recovery since his organs were not in failure. This case description raises the question of whether we should consider persistent delirium as a prodrome syndrome before death in patients with CCI. Study and analysis of a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiothoracic surgery who was hemodynamically stable with persistent delirium. Further studies of the prevalence and outcomes of prolonged or persistent agitated delirium in patients with chronic critical illness are needed to provide prognostic information that can assist patients and families in receiving care that accords with their goals and values.

  5. Bacterial persistence: some new insights into an old phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    the involvement of the alarmone (p) ppGpp in the generation of persisters. However, the precise mechanisms are ... Bigger noticed that treatment of cultures of Staphylococcus aureus with high concentrations of ...... Li Y and Zhang Y 2007 pho U is a persister switch involved in persister formation and tolerance to multiple ...

  6. Are seed dormancy and persistence in soil related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, K; Ceriani, RM; Bakker, JP; Bekker, RM

    There is confusion in the ecological literature between seed dormancy and persistence in soil. Some ecologists seem to assume that dormancy is necessary for persistence, while others imply that dormancy and persistence are virtually synonymous. Here, we show that there is no close relationship

  7. Persistent delusional disorder in a 32 year old male | Makput ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... continue to function effectively and his lack of insight conform to the ICD 10 diagnosis of persistent delusional disorder (persecutory type). Conclusion: Cases of persistent delusional disorder (persecutory type), though very rare do occur in our environment. Key words: persistent delusional disorder, persecutory type, male ...

  8. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  9. LHC MD 2042: Persistent Injection Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, Ivan; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Baudrenghien, Philippe; Chapochnikova, Elena; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    This MD note summarizes the measurements performed to study persistent longitudinal oscillations after injection into the LHC. It was found that they build up due to mismatch, and can lead to particle losses and uncontrolled bunch lengthening. For the first time, profile measurements and ObsBox data acquisitions were triggered at injection to obtain first-turn data. The measurements took place on 16th September 2017 between 14:30 and 19:30, and between 27th November 2017 20:00 and 28th November 2017 04:00.

  10. Cricket: A Mapped, Persistent Object Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekita, Eugene; Zwilling, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Cricket, a new database storage system that is intended to be used as a platform for design environments and persistent programming languages. Cricket uses the memory management primitives of the Mach operating system to provide the abstraction of a shared, transactional single-level store that can be directly accessed by user applications. In this paper, we present the design and motivation for Cricket. We also present some initial performance results which show that, for its intended applications, Cricket can provide better performance than a general-purpose database storage system.

  11. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2006-01-01

    therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...... and for prevention and possible treatment of this important entity of chronic pain....

  12. Obesity in Scotland: a persistent inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, Elaine; Bromley, Catherine; Millard, Andrew D; Boyd, Allan; Mackie, Phil; McCartney, Gerry

    2017-07-27

    Obesity is a health problem in its own right and a risk factor for other conditions such as cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in Scotland between 1995 and 2008 with socio-economic inequalities persisting in adults over time and increasing in children. This paper explores changes in the underlying distribution of body mass index (BMI) which is less well understood. Using data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) between 1995 and 2014 for adults aged 18-64 years, we calculated population distributions for BMI for the population overall, and for age, sex and deprivation strata. We used SHeS data for children aged 2-15 years between 1998 and 2014, in addition to data from the Child Health Systems Programme (CHSP) collected from primary one (P1) children in participating local authorities, to describe the overall trends and to compare trends in inequalities by deprivation strata. Amongst adults, the BMI distribution shifted upwards, with a large proportion of the population gaining a small amount of weight between 1995 and 2008 before subsequently stabilising across the distribution. In men the prevalence of obesity showed a linear deprivation gradient in 1995 but over time obesity declined in the least deprived quintile while the remaining four quintiles converged (and stabilised). In contrast, a persistent and generally linear gradient is evident among women for most of the 1995-2014 period. For those aged 2-15 years, obesity increased between 1998 and 2014 for the most deprived 40% of children contrasted with stable trends for the least deprived. The surveillance data for P1 children in Scotland showed a persistent inequality between 2005/06 and 2014/15 though it was less clear if this is widening. The BMI distribution for adults increased between 1995 and 2008 with a large proportion of the population gaining a small amount of weight before stabilising across the distribution. Inequalities in obesity persist for adults

  13. Calculation of Persistent Currents in Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Völlinger, Christine; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors. The model is based on the critical state model considering the dependency of the critical current density on the varying local field in the superconducting filaments. By combining this hysteresis model with numerical field computation methods, it is possible to calculate the persistent current multipole errors in the magnet taking local saturation effects in the magnetic iron parts into consideration. As an application of the method, the use of soft magnetic iron sheets (coil protection sheets mounted between the coils and the collars) for the part compensation of the multipole errors during the ramping of the magnets is investigated.

  14. [Persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Charly; Ettlin, Dominik; Pfau, Doreen B

    2013-01-01

    The terms 'persistent idiopathic facial pain' (PIFP) and 'atypical odontalgia' (AO) are currently used as exclusion diagnoses for chronic toothache and chronic facial pain. Knowledge about these pain conditions in medical and dental practices is of crucial importance for the prevention of iatrogenic tissue damage by not-indicated invasive interventions, such as endodontic treatment and tooth extraction. In the present paper, etiology and pathogenesis, differential diagnostic criteria, and diagnostic approaches will be explained and relevant therapeutic principles will be outlined. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Distributed design approach in persistent identifiers systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Car, Nicholas; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID) systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementations, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, persistence, and trustworthiness, regardless of the identifier's application domain, the scope of which has expanded significantly in the past two decades. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by small communities, or even a single organisation, they have faced challenges in gaining widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. This has left a legacy of identifiers that still exist and are being used but which have lost their resolution service. We believe that one of the causes of once successful PID systems fading is their reliance on a centralised technical infrastructure or a governing authority. Golodoniuc et al. (2016) proposed an approach to the development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system, as a distributed system for the registration and first-degree resolution of persistent identifiers, and (b) the PID Service (Golodoniuc et al., 2015), to enable fine-grained resolution to different information object representations. The proposed approach solved the problem of guaranteed first-degree resolution of identifiers, but left fine-grained resolution and information delivery under the control of a single authoritative source, posing risk to the long-term availability of information resources. Herein, we develop these approaches further and explore the potential of large-scale decentralisation at all levels: (i) persistent identifiers and information resources registration; (ii) identifier resolution; and (iii) data delivery. To achieve large-scale decentralisation

  16. Grails Persistence with GORM and GSQL

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Unique to the popular Grails web framework is its architecture. While other frameworks are built from the ground up, Grails leverages existing and proven technologies that already have advanced functionality built in. One of the key technologies in this architecture is Hibernate, on top of which Grails builds its GORM (Grails Object Relational Mapping) model layer. This provides Grails a persistence solution. Published with the developer in mind, firstPress technical briefs explore emerging technologies that have the potential to be critical for tomorrow's industry. Apress keeps developers one

  17. Persistence of innovation in unstable environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Diana Valeria

    2014-01-01

    of the environment impact on the type of profitable innovations, and past innovations might not be suitable for the new environment. As a result, firm's innovative behavior might change, which means that the firm's set of decisions about engaging in the seek for innovations or not and, if so, the set of investments...... and capabilities it allocates to innovate could be modified. Empirical evidence is provided to reject the persistence hypothesis and to show that past innovations do not necessarily impact present ones. This paper examines the relationship between past and present innovations for a group of Argentinean firms...... of successfully responding to changes in the environment and continuing to innovate....

  18. Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcic, Maria; Hall, Callie; Fletcher, Rose; Russell, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Primary goal: Provide resource managers with remote sensing products that support ecosystem forecasting models requiring salinity and inundation data. Work supports the habitat-switching modules in the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) model, which provides scientific evaluation for restoration management (Visser et al., 2008). Ongoing work to validate flooding with radar (NWRC/USGS) and enhance persistence estimates through "fusion" of MODIS and Landsat time series (ROSES A.28 Gulf of Mexico). Additional work will also investigate relationship between saltwater dielectric constant and radar returns (Radarsat) (ROSES A.28 Gulf of Mexico).

  19. Echocardiographic diastolic function assessment is of modest utility in patients with persistent and longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kohári

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Accurate assessment of diastolic dysfunction in patients with persistent and longstanding persistent AF is difficult using TTE. A combination of LAVmin, PVS, and E might be helpful to determine elevated LAP.

  20. Persistence of deaf students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics undergraduate programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchut, Amber E.

    Diversifying the student population and workforce under science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a necessity if innovations and creativity are to expand. There has not been a lot of literature regarding Deaf students in STEM especially regarding understanding how they persist in STEM undergraduate programs to successfully become STEM Bachelor of Science degree recipients. This study addresses the literature gap by investigating six students' experiences as they navigate their STEM undergraduate programs. The investigation uses narrative inquiry methodology and grounded theory method through the lens of Critical Race Theory and Critical Deaf Theory. Using videotaped interviews and observations, their experiences are highlighted using narratives portraying them as individuals surviving in a society that tends to perceive being deaf as a deficit that needs to be treated or cured. The data analysis also resulted in a conceptual model providing a description of how they persist. The crucial aspect of the conceptual model is the participants learned how to manage being deaf in a hearing-dominated society so they can reach their aspirations. The essential blocks for the persistence and managing their identities as deaf undergraduate STEMs include working harder, relying on familial support, and affirming themselves. Through the narratives and conceptual model of the six Deaf STEM undergraduates, the goal is to contribute to literature to promote a better understanding of the persistence of Deaf students, members of a marginalized group, as they pursue their dreams.

  1. Gate-controlled switching between persistent and inverse persistent spin helix states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate gate-controlled switching between persistent spin helix (PSH) state and inverse PSH state, which are detected by quantum interference effect on magneto-conductance. These special symmetric spin states showing weak localization effect give rise to a long spin coherence when the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is close to that of Dresselhaus SOI. Furthermore, in the middle of two persistent spin helix states, where the Rashba SOI can be negligible, the bulk Dresselhaus SOI parameter in a modulation doped InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well is determined.

  2. Gate-controlled switching between persistent and inverse persistent spin helix states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J. [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate gate-controlled switching between persistent spin helix (PSH) state and inverse PSH state, which are detected by quantum interference effect on magneto-conductance. These special symmetric spin states showing weak localization effect give rise to a long spin coherence when the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is close to that of Dresselhaus SOI. Furthermore, in the middle of two persistent spin helix states, where the Rashba SOI can be negligible, the bulk Dresselhaus SOI parameter in a modulation doped InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well is determined.

  3. Understanding quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  4. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler A. Kummer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Darwin described evolution as “descent with modification.” Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as “tree thinking.” We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic (reading the tips and node counting were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory (ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses.

  5. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Tyler A; Whipple, Clinton J; Jensen, Jamie L

    2016-12-01

    Darwin described evolution as "descent with modification." Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as "tree thinking." We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic ( reading the tips and node counting ) were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory ( ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness ) proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses.

  6. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Tyler A.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Jensen, Jamie L.

    2016-01-01

    Darwin described evolution as “descent with modification.” Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as “tree thinking.” We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic (reading the tips and node counting) were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory (ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness) proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses. PMID:28101265

  7. Contextual Influences on Distress Intolerance: Priming Effects on Behavioral Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuhany, Kristin L; Otto, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of "Interminability" and "Brevity") in predicting behavioral persistence, in relation to self-reported DI. Results indicated that priming Brevity was associated with terminating a cold-pressor task more quickly. Self-reported DI was linked to earlier termination, but there was no interaction between self-reported DI and priming condition. Results indicate that contextual cues modulate performance on behavioral measures of DI. Hence, models of DI should consider both trait-like and contextual factors in understanding variability in DI measures.

  8. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), s. 201-275 ISSN 0065-3527 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West-Nile virus * Tick-borne encephalitis * Louping-ill virus * Cache-Valley virus * African-swine-fever * California serogroup virus * Kyasanur-forest-disease * sparrows Passer domesticus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.571, year: 2014

  9. SEQUENTIAL IMMUNIZATION PROCEDURE AGAINST GROUP B ARBOVIRUSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    neuropathology as criteria of protection. It also protects against St. Louis encephalitis virus. A combination of 17D yellow fever vaccine plus dengue ...4 virus gives protection in monkeys against a challenge of dengue 1 virus. The subcutaneous or oral administration of Langat virus to spider monkeys...protects them against challenges by Russian spring summer encephalitis virus or Omsk hemorraghic fever virus. This protection lasts at least 22

  10. Vector Competence of Mosquitoes for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-30

    encephalomyelitis (VEE), Sindbis (SIN) and vesicular stomatitis (VS) viruses with an without the addition of the eucaryotic DNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor a...refractory compared to susceptible strains differs by as much as 10,000-fold. It has been firmly established, through the use of DNA dependent RNA...peus Grasshopper Slough Culex pipiens Poldervaart Culex quinquefasciatus Kern Culex tarsalis Chico; Ft. Collins; Knights Landing; Poso Creek; Manitoba

  11. Persistent Histamine Excitation of Glutamatergic Preoptic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarean, Iustin V.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory neurons of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) represent a target at which histamine modulates body temperature. The mechanism by which histamine excites a population of MnPO neurons is not known. In this study it was found that histamine activated a cationic inward current and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, actions that had a transient component as well as a sustained one that lasted for tens of minutes after removal of the agonist. The sustained component was blocked by TRPC channel blockers. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 subunits in neurons excited by histamine. These studies also established the presence of transcripts for the glutamatergic marker Vglut2 and for the H1 histamine receptor in neurons excited by histamine. Intracellular application of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic sites of the TRPC1 or TRPC5 channel subunits decreased the histamine-induced inward current. The persistent inward current and elevation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration could be reversed by activating the PKA pathway. This data reveal a novel mechanism by which histamine induces persistent excitation and sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in glutamatergic MnPO neurons. PMID:23082195

  12. Persistence of muscle catabolism after severe burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D W; Wolf, S E; Mlcak, R; Chinkes, D L; Ramzy, P I; Obeng, M K; Ferrando, A A; Wolfe, R R; Herndon, D N

    2000-08-01

    The hypermetabolic response to severe burn is characterized by muscle protein catabolism. Current opinion states that the hypermetabolic state resolves soon after complete wound closure. Clinically, we have witnessed that burned children appear to be hypermetabolic and catabolic long after full healing of their wounds. Our goal in this study was to determine scientifically if burn-associated hypermetabolism persists after full wound healing. To determine the duration of muscle catabolism and systemic hypermetabolism after severe burn in children, patients with > 40% total body surface area burns were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study; resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry, muscle protein kinetics were determined by using stable isotopic methodology, and body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging. Data were collected at 6, 9, and 12 months after injury. The mean total body surface area burned was 65% +/- 13%, and the mean age was 7.6 +/- 1. 5 years. Resting energy expenditure was elevated above the predicted age-matched levels from the Harris-Benedict equation and incrementally declined throughout the 12-month study. The net protein balance and lean mass reflected catabolic persistence at 6 and 9 months after severe burn. Between 9 and 12 months, protein breakdown decreased, net protein balance improved, and lean body mass increased. In severely burned children, hypermetabolism and catabolism remain exaggerated for at least 9 months after injury. This suggests that therapeutic attempts to manipulate the catabolic and hypermetabolic response to severe injury should be continued long after injury.

  13. Resonant activation: a strategy against bacterial persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Zhu, Meng; Xing, Jianhua

    2010-03-01

    A bacterial colony may develop a small number of cells genetically identical to, but phenotypically different from, other normally growing bacteria. These so-called persister cells keep themselves in a dormant state and thus are insensitive to antibiotic treatment, resulting in serious problems of drug resistance. In this paper, we proposed a novel strategy to 'kill' persister cells by triggering them to switch, in a fast and synchronized way, into normally growing cells that are susceptible to antibiotics. The strategy is based on resonant activation (RA), a well-studied phenomenon in physics where the internal noise of a system can constructively facilitate fast and synchronized barrier crossings. Through stochastic Gilliespie simulation with a generic toggle switch model, we demonstrated that RA exists in the phenotypic switching of a single bacterium. Further, by coupling single cell level and population level simulations, we showed that with RA, one can greatly reduce the time and total amount of antibiotics needed to sterilize a bacterial population. We suggest that resonant activation is a general phenomenon in phenotypic transition, and can find other applications such as cancer therapy.

  14. PERSISTENCE MAPPING USING EUV SOLAR IMAGER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Young, C. A., E-mail: barbara.j.thompson@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 670, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We describe a simple image processing technique that is useful for the visualization and depiction of gradually evolving or intermittent structures in solar physics extreme-ultraviolet imagery. The technique is an application of image segmentation, which we call “Persistence Mapping,” to isolate extreme values in a data set, and is particularly useful for the problem of capturing phenomena that are evolving in both space and time. While integration or “time-lapse” imaging uses the full sample (of size N ), Persistence Mapping rejects ( N − 1)/ N of the data set and identifies the most relevant 1/ N values using the following rule: if a pixel reaches an extreme value, it retains that value until that value is exceeded. The simplest examples isolate minima and maxima, but any quantile or statistic can be used. This paper demonstrates how the technique has been used to extract the dynamics in long-term evolution of comet tails, erupting material, and EUV dimming regions.

  15. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANS (POPS DAN KONVENSI STOCKHOLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Warlina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs are toxic chemicals that adversely affect human health and the environment around the world. Because they can be transported by wind and water, most POPs generated in one country can affect people and wildlife far from where they are used and released. They persist for long periods of time in the environment and can accumulate and pass from one species to the next through the food chain. To address this global concern, many countries in the world joined forces with 90 other countries and the European Community to sign a groundbreaking United Nations treaty in Stockholm, Sweden, in May 2001, known as the Stockholm Convention. One of important agreement is all countries agreed to reduce or eliminate the production, use, and/or release of 12 key POPs. The Convention specifies a scientific review process that could lead to the addition of other POPs chemicals of global concern. POPs include a range of substances that include intentionally produced chemicals currently or once used in agriculture, disease control, manufacturing, or industrial processes. Also it can be produced by unintentionally produced chemicals, such as dioxins, that result from some industrial processes and from combustion (for example, municipal and medical waste incineration and backyard burning of trash.

  16. Microbial Biofilms: Persisters, Tolerance and Dosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, N. G.

    2005-03-01

    Almost all moist surfaces are colonized by microbial biofilms. Biofilms are implicated in cross-contamination of food products, biofouling, medical implants and various human infections such as dental cavities, ulcerative colitis and chronic respiratory infections. Much of current research is focused on the recalcitrance of biofilms to typical antibiotic and antimicrobial treatments. Although the polymer component of biofilms impedes the penetration of antimicrobials through reaction-diffusion limitation, this does not explain the observed tolerance, it merely delays the action of the agent. Heterogeneities in growth-rate also slow the eradication of the bacteria since most antimicrobials are far less effective for non-growing, or slowly growing bacteria. This also does not fully describe biofilm tolerance, since heterogeneities arr primairly a result of nutrient consumption. In this investigation, we describe the formation of `persister' cells which neither grow nor die in the presence of antibiotics. We propose that the cells are of a different phenotype than typical bacterial cells and the expression of the phenotype is regulated by the growth rate and the antibiotic concentration. We describe several experiments which describe the dynamics of persister cells and which motivate a dosing protocol that calls for periodic dosing of the population. We then introduce a mathematical model, which describes the effect of such a dosing regiment and indicates that the relative dose/withdrawal times are important in determining the effectiveness of such a treatment. A reduced model is introduced and the similar behavior is demonstrated analytically.

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  18. Neurophysiological characterization of persistent pain after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, G; Kehlet, H; Aasvang, E K

    2011-01-01

    About 2-5% of patients undergoing laparoscopic inguinal repair experience persistent pain influencing everyday activities. However, compared with persistent pain after open repair, the combined clinical and neurophysiological characteristics have not been described in detail. Thus, the aim of the...... of the study was to describe and classify patients with severe persistent pain after laparoscopic herniorrhaphy.......About 2-5% of patients undergoing laparoscopic inguinal repair experience persistent pain influencing everyday activities. However, compared with persistent pain after open repair, the combined clinical and neurophysiological characteristics have not been described in detail. Thus, the aim...

  19. The persistence of women in STEM: A constructivist grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Ryan

    Men and women have reached relative parity in most sectors of the United States workforce. Yet women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (AAUW, 2010). Underrepresentation persists despite several decades of research, legislation, and intervention focused on gender equality in STEM fields (Clewell, 2002). The underrepresentation or shortage of women in STEM fields is identifiable primarily in degree attainment, in workforce demographics, and in a gender wage gap. Situated in constructivist grounded theory, this study asks how do women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, particularly those in established career positions, persist when encountering personal and institutional barriers, resistance, and hostility? I use an interpretive-constructivist lens to conduct a grounded theory study exploring the experiences of women who persist in STEM fields, their relation to extant literature on this topic, and the connections to K-12 education practices, specifically curriculum. To understand the connections to curriculum I employ Pinar's (2012) method of currere. Pinar (2012) contends currere "provides a strategy for students of curriculum to study the relations between academic knowledge and life history in the interests of self-understanding and social reconstruction" (p.44). This qualitative study explored nine female STEM workers stories of persistence as each respondent works in STEM fields were gender parity has yet to be established. This study presents a substantive theory: As women persist in STEM fields they reframe themselves to be situated in the overlapping intersection of the social processes that correspond to "engagement" and "persistence." This reframing is possible by interpreting one's present day circumstances by independently removing oneself from current circumstances to understand the cumulative effect of both past and present. The findings highlight the importance

  20. Tracing Scientific Facilities through the Research Literature Using Persistent Identifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Maull, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tracing persistent identifiers to their source publications is an easy task when authors use them, since it is a simple matter of matching the persistent identifier to the specific text string of the identifier. However, trying to understand if a publication uses the resource behind an identifier when such identifier is not referenced explicitly is a harder task. In this research, we explore the effectiveness of alternative strategies of associating publications with uses of the resource referenced by an identifier when it may not be explicit. This project is explored within the context of the NCAR supercomputer, where we are broadly interesting in the science that can be traced to the usage of the NCAR supercomputing facility, by way of the peer-reviewed research publications that utilize and reference it. In this project we explore several ways of drawing linkages between publications and the NCAR supercomputing resources. Identifying and compiling peer-reviewed publications related to NCAR supercomputer usage are explored via three sources: 1) User-supplied publications gathered through a community survey, 2) publications that were identified via manual searching of the Google scholar search index, and 3) publications associated with National Science Foundation (NSF) grants extracted from a public NSF database. These three sources represent three styles of collecting information about publications that likely imply usage of the NCAR supercomputing facilities. Each source has strengths and weaknesses, thus our discussion will explore how our publication identification and analysis methods vary in terms of accuracy, reliability, and effort. We will also discuss strategies for enabling more efficient tracing of research impacts of supercomputing facilities going forward through the assignment of a persistent web identifier to the NCAR supercomputer. While this solution has potential to greatly enhance our ability to trace the use of the facility through

  1. Mandible reconstruction: History, state of the art and persistent problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José J; Zagalo, Carlos M; Oliveira, Marta L; Correia, André M; Reis, Ana R

    2015-06-01

    Mandibular reconstruction has been experiencing an amazing evolution. Several different approaches are used to reconstruct this bone and therefore have a fundamental role in the recovery of oral functions. This review aims to highlight the persistent problems associated with the approaches identified, whether bone grafts or prosthetic devices are used. A brief summary of the historical evolution of the surgical procedures is presented, as well as an insight into possible future pathways. A literature review was conducted from September to December 2012 using the PubMed database. The keyword used was "mandible reconstruction." Articles published in the last three years were included as well as the relevant references from those articles and the "historical articles" were referred. This research resulted in a monograph that this article aims to summarize. Titanium plates, bone grafts, pediculate flaps, free osteomyocutaneous flaps, rapid prototyping, and tissue engineering strategies are some of the identified possibilities. The classical approaches present considerable associated morbidity donor-site-related problems. Research that results in the development of new prosthetics devices is needed. A new prosthetic approach could minimize the identified problems and offer the patients more predictable, affordable, and comfortable solutions. This review, while affirming the evolution and the good results found with the actual approaches, emphasizes the negative aspects that still subsist. Thus, it shows that mandible reconstruction is not a closed issue. On the contrary, it remains as a research field where new findings could have a direct positive impact on patients' life quality. The identification of the persistent problems reveals the characteristics to be considered in a new prosthetic device. This could overcome the current difficulties and result in more comfortable solutions. Medical teams have the responsibility to keep patients informed about the predictable

  2. Reliable and Persistent Identification of Linked Data Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David

    Linked Data techniques rely upon common terminology in a manner similar to a relational database'vs reliance on a schema. Linked Data terminology anchors metadata descriptions and facilitates navigation of information. Common vocabularies ease the human, social tasks of understanding datasets sufficiently to construct queries and help to relate otherwise disparate datasets. Vocabulary terms must, when using the Resource Description Framework, be grounded in URIs. A current bestpractice on the World Wide Web is to serve vocabulary terms as Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and present both human-readable and machine-readable representations to the public. Linked Data terminology published to theWorldWideWeb may be used by others without reference or notification to the publishing party. That presents a problem: Vocabulary publishers take on an implicit responsibility to maintain and publish their terms via the URLs originally assigned, regardless of the inconvenience such a responsibility may cause. Over the course of years, people change jobs, publishing organizations change Internet domain names, computers change IP addresses,systems administrators publish old material in new ways. Clearly, a mechanism is required to manageWeb-based vocabularies over a long term. This chapter places Linked Data vocabularies in context with the wider concepts of metadata in general and specifically metadata on the Web. Persistent identifier mechanisms are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on Persistent URLs, or PURLs. PURLs and PURL services are discussed in the context of Linked Data. Finally, historic weaknesses of PURLs are resolved by the introduction of a federation of PURL services to address needs specific to Linked Data.

  3. Persistence of Bacteroides ovatus under simulated sunlight irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Shengkun

    2014-07-04

    Background: Bacteroides ovatus, a member of the genus Bacteroides, is considered for use in molecular-based methods as a general fecal indicator. However, knowledge on its fate and persistence after a fecal contamination event remains limited. In this study, the persistence of B. ovatus was evaluated under simulated sunlight exposure and in conditions similar to freshwater and seawater. By combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection, the decay rates of B. ovatus were determined in the presence and absence of exogenous photosensitizers and in salinity up to 39.5 parts per thousand at 27°C. Results: UVB was found to be important for B. ovatus decay, averaging a 4 log10 of decay over 6 h of exposure without the presence of extracellular photosensitizers. The addition of NaNO2, an exogenous sensitizer producing hydroxyl radicals, did not significantly change the decay rate of B. ovatus in both low and high salinity water, while the exogenous sensitizer algae organic matter (AOM) slowed down the decay of B. ovatus in low salinity water. At seawater salinity, the decay rate of B. ovatus was slower than that in low salinity water, except when both NaNO2 and AOM were present. Conclusion: The results of laboratory experiments suggest that if B. ovatus is released into either freshwater or seawater environment in the evening, 50% of it may be intact by the next morning; if it is released at noon, only 50% may be intact after a mere 5 min of full spectrum irradiation on a clear day. This study provides a mechanistic understanding to some of the important environmental relevant factors that influenced the inactivation kinetics of B. ovatus in the presence of sunlight irradiation, and would facilitate the use of B. ovatus to indicate the occurrence of fecal contamination.

  4. Differences in Meteorological Conditions between Days with Persistent and Non-Persistent Pollution in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting; Wu, Renguang; Huang, Gang

    2018-02-01

    We compared the regional synoptic patterns and local meteorological conditions during persistent and non-persistent pollution events in Beijing using US NCEP-Department of Energy reanalysis outputs and observations from meteorological stations. The analysis focused on the impacts of high-frequency (period pollution events (those lasting for at least 3 days). Persistent pollution events tended to occur in association with slow-moving weather systems producing stagnant weather conditions, whereas rapidly moving weather systems caused a dramatic change in the local weather conditions so that the pollution event was short-lived. Although Beijing was under the influence of anomalous southerly winds in all four seasons during pollution events, notable differences were identified in the regional patterns of sea-level pressure and local anomalies in relative humidity among persistent pollution events in different seasons. A region of lower pressure was present to the north of Beijing in spring, fall, and winter, whereas regions of lower and higher pressures were observed northwest and southeast of Beijing, respectively, in summer. The relative humidity near Beijing was higher in fall and winter, but lower in spring and summer. These differences may explain the seasonal dependence of the relationship between air pollution and the local meteorological variables. Our analysis showed that the temperature inversion in the lower troposphere played an important part in the occurrence of air pollution under stagnant weather conditions. Some results from this study are based on a limited number of events and thus require validation using more data.

  5. The Persistence of the Self over Time in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Lynette J; Prebble, Sally C; Addis, Donna Rose

    2018-01-01

    suggest a more nuanced and multifaceted relationship than originally proposed in our model. In AD, diminished life narratives that retain features of cultural life scripts are sufficient for strong subjective beliefs of self-persistence, but not for sophisticated explanations about persistence. Better semantic continuity, with the ability to weave high-quality life narratives, may scaffold the capacity to understand and explain one's diachronic unity, but this produces less surety about self-persistence.

  6. The Persistence of the Self over Time in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette J. Tippett

    2018-02-01

    unity, but suggest a more nuanced and multifaceted relationship than originally proposed in our model. In AD, diminished life narratives that retain features of cultural life scripts are sufficient for strong subjective beliefs of self-persistence, but not for sophisticated explanations about persistence. Better semantic continuity, with the ability to weave high-quality life narratives, may scaffold the capacity to understand and explain one's diachronic unity, but this produces less surety about self-persistence.

  7. Understanding cancer onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations.......Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations....

  8. Understanding Menstrual Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Anne H

    2018-04-01

    Menstrual-related migraine is very prevalent, very disabling, yet very easy to manage given a good understanding of its cause. This article is intended to help with that understanding and to enable headache specialists to prescribe or create effective hormonal preventives of menstrual-related migraine. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  9. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  11. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses Gestão imprópria do ecossistema natural na Amazônia brasileira resulta na emergência e reemergência de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.Um total de 187 diferentes espécies de arbovírus, além de outros vírus de vertebrados, foram identificados pelo Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC no período de 1954 a 1998, entre as mais de 10.000 cepas de vírus isoladas de seres humanos, insetos hematófagos e vertebrados-sentinela e silvestres. Apesar dos estudos intensivos realizados na Amazônia brasileira, sobretudo no Estado do Pará, pouco se sabe a respeito da maioria desses vírus, com exceção de dados a respeito de data, hora, fonte e método de isolamento, assim como a capacidade de infectar animais laboratoriais. Os autores fazem uma revisão dos dados ecológicos e epidemiológicos e procuram associar o impacto, sobre os diversos vírus, das mudanças populacionais dos vetores e hospedeiros induzidas por profundas alterações no meio ambiente. O desmatamento, o uso do subsolo, a construção de represas e de rodovias, a colonização humana e a urbanização foram as principais modificações ambientais

  12. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Arandelovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45 and control group B (n = 20. Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (3.55 vs. 3.65 (p < 0.01, FVC (forced vital capacity (4.27 vs. 4.37 (p < 0.05, PEF (peak expiratory flow (7.08 vs. 7.46 (p < 0.01, and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01 (p < 0.001. In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05 and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37, FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55, PEF (6.79 vs.7.46, and variability (p <0.001, and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75 (p < 0.001. Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine

  13. Sources, transport and deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacyna, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a study on the behaviour of heavy metals (HMs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. The conclusion is that many of these compounds create serious problems due their toxicity and bioaccumulation in various environmental compartments. Several scientific questions have been posed for improved understanding of the nature and the extent of these problems. The present paper addresses questions related to sources, fluxes, and atmospheric pathways of HMs and POPs in Europe

  14. Neuroendocrine Associations Underlying the Persistent Therapeutic Effects of Classic Serotonergic Psychedelics

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle A. D. Schindler; Emmanuelle A. D. Schindler; Ryan M. Wallace; Jordan A. Sloshower; Jordan A. Sloshower; Deepak C. D’Souza; Deepak C. D’Souza

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be criti...

  15. Persistent Ambivalence: Theorizing Queer East German Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackman, Kyle

    2018-01-16

    The German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) had an ambivalent relationship with homosexuality. Under the principles of socialism, everyone was welcome to contribute to the greater good. The situation for queer people, here lesbians and gay men, was different: one of illegality and invisibility. A difficulty in analyzing these experiences is the theory and methodology necessary to find them and draw them together in an historical narrative. This essay offers a mode of analysis in which theories of affect illustrate long-term trends in East German conceptualizations of same-sex sexuality. By discussing a 1950 court ruling and a 1989 film, the essay demonstrates the persistence of homophobic prejudice and fear of homosexual seduction of young people and the links to historical and legal developments.

  16. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongyu; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Choi, Anna L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prospective data regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited, and the results for individual POPs are not entirely consistent across studies. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine plasma POP concentrations in relation to incident T2D...... and total PCBs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support an association between POP exposure and the risk of type 2 diabetes.......-1990 and participated in two case-control studies in the Nurses' Health Study. We identified 48 incident T2D cases through June 30, 2008. We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE and EMBASE through December 2011 to identify prospective studies on POPs in relation to diabetes. We used a fixed-effects model...

  17. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on sensory function in persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) have only identified pressure pain threshold to be significantly different from pain-free patients despite several patients reporting cutaneous pain and wind-up phenomena. However the limited number of patients studied...... hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z...

  18. Low latency and persistent data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Blake G; Franceschini, Michele M; Jagmohan, Ashish; Takken, Todd E

    2014-02-18

    Persistent data storage is provided by a method that includes receiving a low latency store command that includes write data. The write data is written to a first memory device that is implemented by a nonvolatile solid-state memory technology characterized by a first access speed. It is acknowledged that the write data has been successfully written to the first memory device. The write data is written to a second memory device that is implemented by a volatile memory technology. At least a portion of the data in the first memory device is written to a third memory device when a predetermined amount of data has been accumulated in the first memory device. The third memory device is implemented by a nonvolatile solid-state memory technology characterized by a second access speed that is slower than the first access speed.

  19. Rev Variation during Persistent Lentivirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin S. Dorman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of lentiviruses to continually evolve and escape immune control is the central impediment in developing an effective vaccine for HIV-1 and other lentiviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV is considered a useful model for immune control of lentivirus infection. Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and broadly neutralizing antibody effectively control EIAV replication during inapparent stages of disease, but after years of low-level replication, the virus is still able to produce evasion genotypes that lead to late re-emergence of disease. There is a high rate of genetic variation in the EIAV surface envelope glycoprotein (SU and in the region of the transmembrane protein (TM overlapped by the major exon of Rev. This review examines genetic and phenotypic variation in Rev during EIAV disease and a possible role for Rev in immune evasion and virus persistence.

  20. Persistent impact of cigarette smoking on asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Gruchała-Niedoszytko, Marta; Chełminska, Marta; Sieminska, Alicja; Jassem, Ewa

    2008-08-01

    In the present study we assessed the impact of former cigarette smoking on asthma control and treatment effectiveness. A total of 104 patients with uncontrolled asthma were included in the study. The group of former smokers consisted of 33 subjects, whereas the never smokers group consisted of 71 subjects of similar age and gender. Spirometry, classification of asthma severity, and control were assessed according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Quality of life was measured with the use of the Saint George Hospital Respiratory Questionnaire (SGHRQ). Asthma was more severe in the group of former smokers both before and after treatment; p 0.05. Cigarette smoking has a persistent, dose-dependent, negative impact on the response to treatment in patients with uncontrolled asthma even after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation should remain the ultimate goal in treatment of asthmatic patients. More efforts should be undertaken to decrease smoking initiation, especially in teenagers.

  1. Persistence of malathion residues in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The persistence of succinate- 14 C-malathion in stored wheat was investigated under local conditions during a storage period of 32 weeks. The insecticide penetrated readily into the seed and up to 16% of the applied dose was found to be bound after 32 weeks in storage. Total terminal residues declined to 9.3 and 21.0 mg/kg from initially applied doses of 12.2 and 24.4 mg/kg respectively. A small percentage of malaoxon was detected only during the early weeks after treatment (3-5%). Malathion was the major constituent of the extractable residues. In addition, seven degradation products were detected and identified. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z......Previous studies on sensory function in persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) have only identified pressure pain threshold to be significantly different from pain-free patients despite several patients reporting cutaneous pain and wind-up phenomena. However the limited number of patients studied...... hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...

  3. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  4. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long...... suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood...... development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some...

  5. Persistent Respiratory Symptoms following Prolonged Capsaicin Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Copeland

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin causes direct irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract. It is used in self-defense, in crowd control, and as a less lethal weapon in police work. Controlled trials suggest that capsaicin has minimal serious acute effects. Herein, we report a woman who had a 20-minute exposure to capsaicin during a jail riot. She subsequently developed episodic dyspnea and cough, and increased sensitivity to scents, perfumes, and cigarette smoke. She has not had wheezes on physical examination or abnormal pulmonary function tests. Her response to inhaled steroids and long-acting beta-agonists has been incomplete. She appears to have developed airway sensory hyperreactivity syndrome after the inhalation of capsaicin, which likely injured sensory nerves and/or caused persistent neurogenic inflammation.

  6. High Stakes and Persistent Challenges –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    In this separate rejoinder to Jan Klabbers' and Ino Augsberg's comments to the articles in the symposium on New Legal Realism in International Law (Leiden Journal of International Law, Volume 28:2, 2015), we respond from the point of view of the European New Legal Realism (ENLR) as propounded...... in our initial contribution to the symposium. Agreeing with Ingo Venzke who wrote in his introduction to the symposium that ‘stakes are high’ in the debate over international law and methodology, we argue that both Klabbers and Augsberg, each in their own way, fail to take sufficiently seriously the ENLR...... challenge to doctrinal scholarship. We argue that Klabbers underestimates the evergreen and persistent character of this challenge when he portrays the current push for New Legal Realism as merely a whimsy fashion wave. And we argue that Augsberg's essentially Kelsenian defence of doctrinal scholarship...

  7. Patients with persistent medically unexplained physical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Further research on effective interventions for patients with peristent Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS) in general practice is needed. Prevalence estimates of such patients are conflicting, and other descriptive knowledge is needed for development and evaluation...... of effective future interventions. In this study, we aimed to estimate the consultation prevalence of patients with persistent MUPS in general practice, including patients' characteristics and symptom pattern, employment status and use of social benefits, and the general practitioners' (GPs) management...... was musculoskeletal problems, followed by asthenia/fatigue. There was no significant gender difference in symptom pattern. Almost half of the patients were currently working (45%), significantly more men. The major GP management strategy was supportive counseling. CONCLUSION: A consultation prevalence rate of 3...

  8. Stability under persistent perturbation by white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyakin, L

    2014-01-01

    Deterministic dynamical system which has an asymptotical stable equilibrium is considered under persistent perturbation by white noise. It is well known that if the perturbation does not vanish in the equilibrium position then there is not Lyapunov's stability. The trajectories of the perturbed system diverge from the equilibrium to arbitrarily large distances with probability 1 in finite time. New concept of stability on a large time interval is discussed. The length of interval agrees the reciprocal quantity of the perturbation parameter. The measure of stability is the expectation of the square distance from the trajectory till the equilibrium position. The method of parabolic equation is applied to both estimate the expectation and prove such stability. The main breakthrough is the barrier function derived for the parabolic equation. The barrier is constructed by using the Lyapunov function of the unperturbed system

  9. Cognitive implications of facilitating echoic persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carryl L

    2007-06-01

    Seventeen participants performed a tone-pattern-matching task at different presentation levels while concurrently engaged in a simulated-driving task. Presentation levels of 60, 65, and 70 dBC (SPL) were combined factorially with tone-matching delays of 2, 3, and 4 sec. Intensity had no effect on performance in single-task conditions and short-delay conditions. However, when the participants were engaged concurrently in the driving task, a significant interaction between presentation level and delay was observed. In the longest delay condition, the participants performed the tone-pattern-matching task more efficiently (more quickly and without additional errors) as presentation intensity increased. These findings demonstrate the interaction between sensory and cognitive processes and point to a direct-intensity relationship where intensity affects the persistence of echoic memory. Implications for facilitating auditory processing and improving auditory interfaces in complex systems (i.e., transportation environments), particularly for older and hearing-impaired listeners, are discussed.

  10. Persistent Hypercalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism in a Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old, American Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, a swelling on the right, cranial aspect of the neck, and signs of esophageal obstruction. Serum biochemical analyses revealed hypophosphatemia, total and ionized hypercalcemia, and hemoconcentration. Sonographic examination of the neck revealed a 1.7 cm diameter mass within the right lobe of the thyroid. The serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH was increased. The right lobe of the thyroid was excised with the horse sedated. The mass within that lobe was determined, by histological examination, to be a parathyroid adenoma. Despite excision of the mass, serial blood analyses revealed persistent hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and increased iPTH. Anorexia and lethargy resolved, and follow-up communication with the owner and referring veterinarian one year later indicated that the horse was clinically stable.

  11. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  12. Oral Mirtazapine in Persistent Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kulaç

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria accounts for up to 75% of patients with urticaria attending dermatology clinics and can persist for many years. Chronic urticaria often causes significant quality of life issues due to pruritus and urticarial lesions resistant to treatment. Patients attending urticaria clinics have a similar impairment of quality of life as those with eczema or those with coronary disease awaiting by pass surgery. A good response to standard treatment with oral H1 receptor antagonists occurs in under 50%. Immunomodulatory or immunosuppression therapy might therefore required in patients with severe refractory chronic urticaria. But these treatments have too many adverse effects and difficulties in their using. In two current reports, three cases of severe chronic urticaria, unresponsive to conventional therapy, with a successful response to antidepressant mirtazapine were presented. Herein we present three cases responding oral mirtazapine, resistant combination therapies including antihistaminics, leucotrien antagonists and systemic corticosteroids. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 31-3

  13. Scalable persistent identifier systems for dynamic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, P.; Cox, S. J. D.; Klump, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and persistent identification of objects, whether tangible or not, is essential in information management. Many Internet-based systems have been developed to identify digital data objects, e.g., PURL, LSID, Handle, ARK. These were largely designed for identification of static digital objects. The amount of data made available online has grown exponentially over the last two decades and fine-grained identification of dynamically generated data objects within large datasets using conventional systems (e.g., PURL) has become impractical. We have compared capabilities of various technological solutions to enable resolvability of data objects in dynamic datasets, and developed a dataset-centric approach to resolution of identifiers. This is particularly important in Semantic Linked Data environments where dynamic frequently changing data is delivered live via web services, so registration of individual data objects to obtain identifiers is impractical. We use identifier patterns and pattern hierarchies for identification of data objects, which allows relationships between identifiers to be expressed, and also provides means for resolving a single identifier into multiple forms (i.e. views or representations of an object). The latter can be implemented through (a) HTTP content negotiation, or (b) use of URI querystring parameters. The pattern and hierarchy approach has been implemented in the Linked Data API supporting the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure (UNSDI) initiative and later in the implementation of geoscientific data delivery for the Capricorn Distal Footprints project using International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSN). This enables flexible resolution of multi-view persistent identifiers and provides a scalable solution for large heterogeneous datasets.

  14. Persistence With Statins in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Findings From a Cohort of Spanish Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Sara; Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Feja, Cristina; Menditto, Enrica; Lallana, María Jesús; Andrade, Elena; Casasnovas, José Antonio; Rabanaque, María José

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns of treatment persistence in a cohort of male Spanish workers receiving statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This descriptive study was conducted within the framework of the prospective longitudinal Aragon Workers' Health Study (N = 5400). Incident male statin users were identified based on data collected from the regional government's medication consumption information system. Patterns of treatment persistence with statins prescribed for primary cardiovascular disease prevention were assessed and the relevance of potential predictors explored. Among the 725 new statin users, less than one third remained persistent during the 1 year of follow-up. About 15% of nonpersistent users discontinued statin therapy after dispensation of the first prescription; of these, 42.1% did not recommence treatment within the following year. Factors reducing the likelihood of treatment discontinuation were older age (HR, 0.55; 95%CI, 0.39-0.77) and cotreatment with antihypertensive drugs (HR, 0.68; 95%CI, 0.56-0.82). No association was observed between treatment persistence and cotreatment with antidiabetic or antithrombotic drugs, baseline low-density lipoprotein levels, or total cholesterol levels. However, persistence was influenced by the type of statin first prescribed. Our analysis of a cohort of healthy male workers revealed poor statin persistence. These findings underscore the need for a better understanding of patterns of statin use, especially in apparently healthy individuals, and for the incorporation of patient behavior into prescribing decisions. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Geomorphic factors related to the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline; Hayes, Miles O.; Irvine, Gail V.; Short, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill has persisted along shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska, for more than two decades as both surface and subsurface oil residues. To better understand the distribution of persistent subsurface oil and assess the potential need for further restoration, a thorough and quantitative understanding of the geomorphic factors controlling the presence or absence of subsurface oil is required. Data on oiling and geomorphic features were collected at 198 sites in Prince William Sound to identify and quantify the relationships among these geomorphic factors and the presence and absence of persistent subsurface oil. Geomorphic factors associated with the presence of subsurface oil were initial oil exposure, substrate permeability, topographic slope, low exposure to waves, armoring on gravel beaches, tombolos, natural breakwaters, and rubble accumulations. Geomorphic factors associated with the absence of subsurface oil were impermeable bedrock; platforms with thin sediment veneer; fine-grained, well-sorted gravel beaches with no armor; and low-permeability, raised bay-bottom beaches. Relationships were found between the geomorphic and physical site characteristics and the likelihood of encountering persistent subsurface oiling at those sites. There is quantitative evidence of more complex interactions between the overall wave energy incident at a site and the presence of fine-scale geomorphic features that may have provided smaller, local wave energy sheltering of oil. Similarly, these data provide evidence for interactions between the shoreline slope and the presence of angular rubble, with decreased likelihood for encountering subsurface oil at steeply sloped sites except at high-angle sheltered rubble shoreline locations. These results reinforce the idea that the interactions of beach permeability, stability, and site-specific wave exposure are key drivers for subsurface oil persistence in exposed and intermittently exposed mixed

  16. A worldwide correlation of lactase persistence phenotype and genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingram Catherine JE

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of adult humans to digest the milk sugar lactose - lactase persistence - is a dominant Mendelian trait that has been a subject of extensive genetic, medical and evolutionary research. Lactase persistence is common in people of European ancestry as well as some African, Middle Eastern and Southern Asian groups, but is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. The recent identification of independent nucleotide changes that are strongly associated with lactase persistence in different populations worldwide has led to the possibility of genetic tests for the trait. However, it is highly unlikely that all lactase persistence-associated variants are known. Using an extensive database of lactase persistence phenotype frequencies, together with information on how those data were collected and data on the frequencies of lactase persistence variants, we present a global summary of the extent to which current genetic knowledge can explain lactase persistence phenotype frequency. Results We used surface interpolation of Old World lactase persistence genotype and phenotype frequency estimates obtained from all available literature and perform a comparison between predicted and observed trait frequencies in continuous space. By accommodating additional data on sample numbers and known false negative and false positive rates for the various lactase persistence phenotype tests (blood glucose and breath hydrogen, we also apply a Monte Carlo method to estimate the probability that known lactase persistence-associated allele frequencies can explain observed trait frequencies in different regions. Conclusion Lactase persistence genotype data is currently insufficient to explain lactase persistence phenotype frequency in much of western and southern Africa, southeastern Europe, the Middle East and parts of central and southern Asia. We suggest that further studies of genetic variation in these regions should reveal additional nucleotide

  17. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Prenatal Tests Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... be done before pregnancy or at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Funding for ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ...

  19. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  20. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...