Littlejohn-Blake, Sheila M.; Darling, Carol Anderson
Focuses on strengths of African-American families and how they function, relevant conceptual approaches, and trends and issues in studying African-American families that can facilitate understanding. A shift from studying dysfunctional families to more positive aspects can help African-American families meet societal challenges. (SLD)
Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…
McDonald, Jasmine A; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Guerra, Carmen E; Troxel, Andrea B; Domchek, Susan; Bowen, Deborah; Shea, Judy A; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Understanding genetic factors that contribute to racial differences in cancer outcomes may reduce racial disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality. Achieving this goal will be limited by low rates of African American participation in cancer genetics research. We conducted a qualitative study with African American adults (n = 91) to understand attitudes about participating in cancer genetics research and to identify factors that are considered when making a decision about participating in this type of research. Participants would consider the potential benefits to themselves, family members, and their community when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. However, concerns about exploitation, distrust of researchers, and investigators' motives were also important to participation decisions. Individuals would also consider who has access to their personal information and what would happen to these data. Side effects, logistical issues, and the potential to gain knowledge about health issues were also described as important factors in decision making. African Americans may consider a number of ethical, legal, and social issues when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. These issues should be addressed as part of recruitment efforts.
Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K
Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results
Martin, Ardis C
Increasing the cultural competence of child and adolescent psychiatrists through the use of film, literature, and music can improve their ability to understand what African Americans experience and the impact these experiences have on mental health. It also may help clinicians recognize their own underlying biases. This understanding, in turn, could improve their ability to address effectively in treatment the issues pertinent to the African-American community and help eliminate the well-documented disparities in the health care quality and health status of minorities.
Peek, Monica E; Lopez, Fanny Y; Williams, H Sharif; Xu, Lucy J; McNulty, Moira C; Acree, M Ellen; Schneider, John A
Enhancing patient-centered care and shared decision making (SDM) has become a national priority as a means of engaging patients in their care, improving treatment adherence, and enhancing health outcomes. Relatively little is known about the healthcare experiences or shared decision making among racial/ethnic minorities who also identify as being LGBT. The purpose of this paper is to understand how race, sexual orientation and gender identity can simultaneously influence SDM among African-American LGBT persons, and to propose a model of SDM between such patients and their healthcare providers. We reviewed key constructs necessary for understanding SDM among African-American LGBT persons, which guided our systematic literature review. Eligible studies for the review included English-language studies of adults (≥ 19 y/o) in North America, with a focus on LGBT persons who were African-American/black (i.e., > 50 % of the study population) or included sub-analyses by sexual orientation/gender identity and race. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases using MESH terms and keywords related to shared decision making, communication quality (e.g., trust, bias), African-Americans, and LGBT persons. Additional references were identified by manual reviews of peer-reviewed journals' tables of contents and key papers' references. We identified 2298 abstracts, three of which met the inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, one was cross-sectional and two were qualitative; one study involved transgender women (91 % minorities, 65 % of whom were African-Americans), and two involved African-American men who have sex with men (MSM). All of the studies focused on HIV infection. Sexual orientation and gender identity were patient-reported factors that negatively impacted patient/provider relationships and SDM. Engaging in SDM helped some patients overcome normative beliefs about clinical encounters. In this paper, we present a
Brawner, Bridgette M
Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively, primarily from an individual-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyperincarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. In this article I propose a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Lewis, Linwood J; Kertzner, Robert M
This paper examined five challenges to clear understanding of African American male sexualities: incorrect assumptions of African American homogeneity; an underemphasis on developmental change, the contexts and the meanings of sexual behaviors; and a lack of compelling theoretical grounding for African American sexualities. Critical elements for effective theorizing and research about African American sexualities (i.e. multiple levels of analysis, examination of phenomenological meaning of sexuality, measurement of dynamic/developmental change) were outlined and candidate theories within sexual science (social exchange theories, symbolic interactionism, sexual scripting theory) were analyzed in light of these elements. It is suggested that a re-orientation of sex research about African American men using these elements will result in improved understanding of African American sexualities in multiple contexts.
Presley, G; Smith, C; Hilsenroth, M; Exner, J
In this study we sought to identify Rorschach differences between African Americans and White Americans and to understand these differences within a social and cultural framework. Data from the Exner (1993) Comprehensive System normative sample (N = 700) was used to form a group of 44 African Americans and 44 White Americans matched for age, sex, education, and socioeconomic status. Twenty-three Rorschach variables were chosen a priori and group differences were analyzed. The only clinically significant difference found was that African Americans offered significantly less cooperative movement. This lower frequency of cooperative movement may suggest African Americans do not anticipate cooperative interactions with others as a routine event. This may reflect a shared feeling among African Americans that most members of our society are less likely to be sensitive to or responsive to their needs relative to others. However, the study demonstrates a striking similarity between the groups, supporting the clinical use of the Rorschach with African Americans.
Sidibe, Turquoise; Turner, Kea; Sparks, Alicia; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lightfoot, Alexandra
African Americans have the highest rate of new HIV infection in the United States. This photovoice study explored the perspectives and experiences of African American female youth and sought to understand how adolescent development impacts HIV risk. This study used the photovoice methodology with seven African American or Biracial female youth, in…
Allan Marsinko; John Dwyer
Public forest managers need an awareness and understanding of their clients in order to better address their needs for recreational uses of forest lands. This study examines and characterizes African American and Hispanic American sportsmen (hunters and anglers) in the North Central Region of the United Stares (IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, WI) and compares them to African...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...
Hayes, Robert E., III
Globalization of the world economy has confirmed the need for citizens to exemplify competitive capacities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Since the 1970s, American higher education has seen increasing numbers of students entering college but has witnessed a decline in the number of students enrolling in STEM programs. African American men fall behind other students in regards to academic performance, persistence, and success throughout primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling. Accordingly, participation of African American men in STEM disciplines is low in comparison to White males and other race groups. Various factors have been identified as contributing to the academic failures of Black men. Poor academic and social preparedness, racial identity issues, institutional climates, negative stereotypes, and fear of success have been cited as potential contributors to the relative invisibility of African American men in STEM disciplines. This study explores the life stories of five African American male scholars in the college of engineering at a predominantly white university. The goal of the qualitative investigation is to help university faculty and administrators understand the institutional, interpersonal, and collective mechanisms influencing the success identities of African American male undergraduates in STEM academic programs. Understanding the lived experiences of this population may help universities innovate stronger supports for men of color in college and broaden the borders for all students interested in STEM careers.
Plowden, Keith O; Young, Anthony E
African-American men are suffering disproportionately from most illnesses. Seemingly, action is needed if health disparities that disproportionately affect African-American men as compared to their White and female counterparts are to be reduced or eliminated. An important step in decreasing common health disparities evidenced among African-American men is to understand social factors that act as motivators and barriers to seeking care for most of this vulnerable population. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social structure factors that motivate urban African-American men to seek care. Leininger's Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory guided this study. Qualitative interviews were conducted with urban African-American men and other individuals in the community to explore understanding, attitudes, and beliefs about health. Critical issues examined included social factors associated with health seeking behaviors. Themes that emerged from these data indicated that critical social factors include: 1) Kinship/significant others; 2) accessibility of resources; 3) ethnohealth belief; and 4) accepting caring environment. The data also indicated a relationship between these social factors and health seeking behaviors of urban African-American men.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
Walker, Janiece L; Thorpe, Roland J; Harrison, Tracie C; Baker, Tamara A; Cary, Michael; Szanton, Sarah L; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E
Older African Americans consistently report diminished capacities to perform activities of daily living (ADL) compared with other racial groups. The extent to which bodily pain is related to declining abilities to perform ADL/ADL disability in African Americans remains unclear, as does whether this relationship exists to the same degree in African American men and women. For nurses to provide optimal care for older African Americans, a better understanding of the relationship between bodily pain and ADL disability and how it may differ by sex is needed. The aim of this study was to examine whether pain, age, education, income, marital status and/or comorbid conditions were associated with ADL disabilities in older African American women and men. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample included 598 participants (446 women, 152 men) from the first wave of the Baltimore Study on Black Aging. African American women (odds ratio [OR] = 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.63-6.26) and African American men (OR = 6.44; 95% CI = 2.84-14.57) who reported bodily pain had greater ADL disability than those who did not report bodily pain. Having two or more comorbid conditions also was significantly associated with ADL disability in African American women (OR = 3.95; 95% CI: 2.09-7.47). Further work is needed to understand pain differences between older African American women and men to develop interventions that can be tailored to meet the individual pain needs of both groups. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…
Johnson, Jonathan Lee
The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…
Bryant-Bedell, Keneshia; Waite, Roberta
This paper is a report of a study of how a cohort of African American men recognized and expressed symptoms of depression, and how depression affected their lives. Major depressive disorder has had global financial consequences in the form of healthcare visits, lost work hours, and disruption of family lives. Early recognition of depression and engagement of depressed individuals to promote management and treatment of this disorder is crucial in controlling its impact. African American men are often not included in research exploring factors that limit their engagement in mental health care. A descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in 2008 with ten African American men between the ages of 40 and 59 years. All participants self-reported a history of depression. Three central themes were identified: life events, the funk, and the breakdown. Life events were identified as stressors which led the men to experience what they described as the funk, which was later identified as depression. Due to lack of resolution of the funk, a breakdown was experienced. Over time study participants became informed about their condition, and their responses to managing depression varied depending on individual and contextual factors. It is important to approach depression diagnoses from a broad perspective rather than as a limited list of symptoms. Healthcare providers would benefit from taking into account cultural factors, gender and age, examining them carefully in relation to the development of depressive symptoms.
Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O
Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.
... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...
Taylor, Teletia R; Huntley, Edward D; Makambi, Kepher; Sween, Jennifer; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Frederick, Wayne; Mellman, Thomas A
The goals of this study were (i) to report the prevalence and nature of sleep disturbances, as determined by clinically significant insomnia symptoms, in a sample of African-American breast cancer survivors; (ii) to assess the extent to which intrusive thoughts about breast cancer and fear of recurrence contributes to insomnia symptoms; and (iii) to assess the extent to which insomnia symptoms contribute to fatigue. African-American breast cancer survivors completed surveys pertaining to demographics, medical history, insomnia symptoms, and intrusive thoughts about breast cancer, fear of cancer recurrence, and fatigue. Hierarchical regression models were performed to investigate the degree to which intrusive thoughts and concerns of cancer recurrence accounted for the severity of insomnia symptoms and insomnia symptom severity's association with fatigue. Forty-three percent of the sample was classified as having clinically significant sleep disturbances. The most commonly identified sleep complaints among participants were sleep maintenance, dissatisfaction with sleep, difficulty falling asleep, and early morning awakenings. Intrusive thoughts about breast cancer were a significant predictor of insomnia symptoms accounting for 12% of the variance in insomnia symptom severity. After adjusting for covariates, it was found that insomnia symptom severity was independently associated with fatigue accounting for 8% of variance. A moderate proportion of African-American breast cancer survivors reported significant problems with sleep. Sleep disturbance was influenced by intrusive thoughts about breast cancer, and fatigue was associated with the severity of participants' insomnia symptoms. This study provides new information about sleep-related issues in African-American breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.
Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T
African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.
Schenke, Katerina; Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W; Sarama, Julie H; Clements, Douglas H
We examined whether African American students differentially responded to dimensions of the observed classroom-learning environment compared with non-African American students. Further, we examined whether these dimensions of the classroom mediated treatment effects of a preschool mathematics intervention targeted at students from low-income families. Three observed dimensions of the classroom (teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness; teacher confidence and enthusiasm; and support for mathematical discourse) were evaluated in a sample of 1,238 preschool students in 101 classrooms. Using multigroup multilevel mediation where African American students were compared to non-African American students, we found that teachers in the intervention condition had higher ratings on the observed dimensions of the classroom compared with teachers in the control condition. Further, ratings on teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness had larger associations with the achievement of African American students than for non-African Americans. Findings suggest that students within the same classroom may react differently to that learning environment and that classroom learning environments could be structured in ways that are beneficial for students who need the most support.
The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…
Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E
Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.
del Bene, Susan B
More African American grandmothers are becoming caregivers for their grandchildren when the parents are unable or unwilling to provide care. This qualitative study used hermeneutic phenomenology based on in-dept interviews with 15 African American women who have assumed the role of caregivers. The following themes, with subthemes emerged regarding this new role for the grandmothers: Finding a Voice to Match Medical Needs, The Role of the Confidante: The Power of the Group, The Relationship with the Biological Parents, and Legal Issues. These finding provide rich understand. These findings provide rich understanding of the African American women and the challenges they face related to culture, race, lack of political voice and power, and limited resources--in essence, the impact of marginalization in society. The underlying point is the potential impact on this population and the degree to which the health profession can draw on an interdisciplinary model to frame, analyze and dress future health care problems in marginalized African American women.
Juergensen, Miyoshi B.
This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…
J. Camille Hall
Full Text Available For many African Americans, the extended family has been the source of strength, resilience, and survival. Although changes in African American families, like changes in all families in the United States that have diluted the importance of kinship ties, many African Americans continue to place a high value on extended family members. Children of Africans and communities of African descent traditionally interact with multiple caregivers, consisting of kin, and fictive kin.Utilizing both attachment theory and risk and resilience literature, this paper discusses ways to better understand the resilient nature of African American families and how multiple attachment relationships assist at-risk African American children, specifically adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs.
Gross, Jessica M
African American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time. We used a model-based clustering method to generate distributions of African ancestry in three samples comprised of 147 African Americans from two published sources. We used a log-likelihood method to examine the fit of four models to these distributions and used a log-likelihood ratio test to compare the relative fit of each model. The mean ancestry estimates for our datasets of 77% African/23% European to 83% African/17% European ancestry are consistent with previous studies. We find admixture models that incorporate continuous gene flow from Europeans fit significantly better than one-time event models, and that a model involving continuous gene flow from Africans and Europeans fits better than one with continuous gene flow from Europeans only for two samples. Importantly, models that involve continuous input from Africans necessitate a higher level of gene flow from Europeans than previously reported. We demonstrate that models that take into account information about the rate of African migration over the past 500 years fit observed patterns of African ancestry better than alternative models. Our approach will enrich our understanding of the admixture process in extant and past populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…
This inquiry used reflective autobiographical research to reveal my beliefs, values, and practices of science teaching by using participatory action research with two students of my science tutoring organization. Also, I conducted an ethnographic inquiry using African-American teachers to understand how my early schooling experiences influenced my beliefs, values, and science practices. I collected data for this inquiry from three African-American teachers through interview-conversation that were videotaped and audiotaped. In addition, I audiotaped two African-American students' tutoring practices along with students' and researcher's journals. The findings indicate that African-American teachers during the school years 1942-1954 used families, churches, and communities to secure teaching resources to provide equal education for their African-American students who received limited resources from the board of education. Also indicated was how African-American teachers instilled in their African-American students a level of motivation that remained with some African-American students for their future endeavors. This researcher's beliefs/values similar to those of her segregated teachers emerged from this action research. Researcher's additional beliefs/values arose out of emerging technologies in teaching science. However, I, as the researcher, believe that the origin of my beliefs/values occurred during those segregated, public school experiences at Monitor Schools during the school years 1942-1954.
Holt, Yolanda Feimster
This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.
Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza
African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...
Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell
To provide an understanding of the experiences of three generations of African American women in the transition to motherhood. Hermeneutic phenomenology from an Afrocentric feminist perspective is the methodological approach used in this study. Using the snowball technique, a purposive sample of 18 African American women from three generations who were mostly middle class, partnered, and educated was recruited. Individual open-ended interviews were used to identify information-rich cases that would provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Generation 1 included seven women, between the ages of 65 and 83 years, who became mothers between 1950 and 1970, prior to the Civil Rights Movement. Generation 2 included five women, between the ages of 51 and 58 years, who became mothers between 1971 and 1990, after the Civil Rights Movement. There were six women in Generation 3, between the ages of 30 and 41 years, who became mothers between 1991 and 2003. Three constitutive patterns and their associated themes were identified. The first pattern, It Took Me a Minute, had three themes: Finding Out, Realizing What Mothers Do, and Way Tricked! The second pattern, Preserving Our Home, had four themes: Mothering Within the isms: Racism, Classism, and Sexism, I Did the Best I Could, Mothers and Others, and Spiritual Mothers. Eat the Meat, Throw Away the Bone, the third pattern, had two themes: The Ways in Which We Learn and Someone Who Looks Like Me. The results of this study reveal some consistency with current descriptions of maternal identity and becoming a mother and add to our understanding of the complexities that racism, classism, and sexism play in the lives of African American mothers and their families. The data from this study also suggest that future development of theoretical frameworks and analytical tools, used to assess the effects of stress and other psychosocial factors on health, need to be grounded in a historic understanding of the African American
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
Hunter, Carla D.
Cultural worldviews and perceived racial discrimination were examined among Americans (n = 106) and British Caribbean Americans (n = 95), both of African descent, who were recruited through university student organizations, community organizations, and snowball sampling. Consistent with public perceptions of differences in the experience of race…
Best Al M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.
Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge
Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…
Gurak, Kayla; Weisman de Mamani, Amy
Expressed emotion (EE) is a family environmental construct that assesses how much criticism, hostility, and/or emotional over-involvement a family member expresses about a patient (Hooley, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2007, 3, 329). Having high levels of EE within the family environment has generally been associated with poorer patient outcomes for schizophrenia and a range of other disorders. Paradoxically, for African-American patients, high-EE may be associated with a better symptom course (Rosenfarb, Bellack, & Aziz, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2006, 115, 112). However, this finding is in need of additional support and, if confirmed, clarification. In line with previous research, using a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers, we hypothesized that having a caregiver classified as low-EE would be associated with greater patient symptom severity. We also aimed to better understand why this pattern may exist by examining the content of interviews taken from the Five-Minute Speech Sample. Results supported study hypotheses. In line with Rosenfarb et al. (2006), having a low-EE caregiver was associated with greater symptom severity in African-American patients. A content analysis uncovered some interesting patterns that may help elucidate this finding. Results of this study suggest that attempts to lower high-EE in African Americans may, in fact, be counterproductive. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Pate, David; Lazar, Katie; Paul, Nelly; Pritchard, Kathleen; Morris, George
Infant mortality is a major public health issue in the United States that disproportionally affects African Americans. Evidence suggests reducing stress on African American women and engaging African American fathers may improve health and social outcomes for families. This study sought to understand the experiences of African American fathers through a positivistic lens and to inform future interventions that support father engagement. A descriptive, qualitative study using the Person, Environment, Occupation-Performance (PEO-P) model as a framework for analysis was conducted involving 45 fathers participating in four focus groups and one member-checking group. An initial content analysis was followed by constant comparative methods to identify categories related to the PEO-P model. Transcripts revealed a range of factors that enable or inhibit fathers' occupational performance and engagement including environmental barriers such as societal expectations and perceptions. Occupational therapy practitioners may utilize population health approaches to support African American fathers' occupational engagement.
Nelson, Kesha Marie
African-American baccalaureate nursing students have a limited persistence to graduation. This constructivist grounded theory study was designed to generate a substantive theory, emerged from these data, that explained and provided insight the African-American academic nurse leader's role in the persistence to graduation of African-American…
Rodgers, Laura S
In spite of the increase in research on spousal bereavement, researchers have not specifically addressed the impact that ethnicity may have on the bereavement experience. The results of this descriptive phenomenological study increase the understanding of spousal bereavement among older African American widows. Storytelling was at the heart of every participant's description of her bereavement experience. Six themes were identified: awareness of death, care giving, getting through, moving on, changing feelings, and financial security. For nurses to effectively intervene in the lives of bereaved older African American widows, they must consider each widow's culture, heritage, and lived experiences, which can be ascertained through eliciting and listening to the widow's life stories.
Plowden, Keith O; Fletcher, Audwin; Miller, J Lawrence
Urban African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV, the virus associated with AIDS. Although incidence and mortality appear to be decreasing in some populations, they continue to remain steady among inner-city African Americans. A major concern is the number of HIV-positive individuals who continue to practice high-risk behaviors. Understanding factors that increase risks is essential for the development and implementation of effective prevention initiatives. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social and cultural factors that influence high-risk behaviors among inner-city HIV-positive African Americans. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory guided the study. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-positive African Americans in the community to explore social and cultural factors that increase HIV-risky behaviors. For this study, family/kinship, economic, and education factors played a significant role in risky behaviors. Reducing HIV disparity among African Americans is dependent on designing appropriate interventions that enhance protective factors. Clinicians providing care to HIV-positive individuals can play a key role in reducing transmission by recognizing and incorporating these factors when designing effective prevention interventions.
Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano
Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…
Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W
Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gaydos, Laura M; Blake, Sarah C; Gazmararian, Julie A; Woodruff, Whitney; Thompson, Winifred W; Dalmida, Safiya George
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be placed in the supine position on firm bedding and not bed share with parents or other children. Health professionals increasingly understand that many African-American parents do not follow these recommendations, but little research exists on provider reactions to this non-compliance. This study was intended to better understand how low-income, African-American mothers understand and act upon safe sleep recommendations for newborns and how providers counsel these mothers. We conducted focus groups with 60 African-American, low-income, first-time mothers and telephone interviews with 20 providers serving these populations to explore provider counseling and patient decision making. The large majority of mothers reported understanding, but not following, the safe-sleeping recommendations. Key reasons for non-compliance included perceived safety, convenience, quality of infant sleep and conflicting information from family members. Mothers often take measures intended to mitigate risk associated with noncompliance, instead increasing SIDS risk. Providers recognize that many mothers are non-compliant and attribute non-compliance largely to cultural and familial influence. However, few provider attempts are made to mitigate SIDS risks from non-compliant behaviors. We suggest that counseling strategies should be adapted to: (1) provide greater detailed rationale for SIDS prevention recommendations; and (2) incorporate or acknowledge familial and cultural preferences. Ignoring the reasons for sleep decisions by African-American parents may perpetuate ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in SIDS.
Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim
A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congre...
Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.
Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…
Jones, Anthony D., Sr.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the role that spirituality plays in the leadership of African American men who are both a pastor and a public school administrator. Very little has been written about the role of African American spirituality in educational leadership or about school administrators who are also pastors.…
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.
The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…
Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.
Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
McBride, Chantee Earl
This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…
Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Anderson, Lorraine Ballard
Little is known about how African American men with schizophrenia experience their every day existence. Through applying interpretive phenomenology and using a methodological structure designed by van Manen (1990, 1997), this research aimed to enrich the current understanding of what it is like for these African American males to live with schizophrenia. In this study, five men ranging in age from 21 to 57 described their lives within the context of existing with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lived experiences across the interviews revealed four overarching themes: They know that they are mentally ill; they make a special effort to test reality; they assert their autonomy and; they experience reality differently, which they see as a gift. To provide appropriate treatment support to African American males diagnosed with schizophrenia, it is important to recognize the clients' ability to assert their autonomy and appreciate each man's view of himself as unique and special. Moreover, in terms of symptom management, it is pivotal to understand that although the client may not be free of hallucinations and delusions, he nevertheless may be at his optimum state of wellness. The realization that these men have transcended their diagnosis of schizophrenia rather than being crushed by their condition is evident in their stories.
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.
Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.
Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636
Samson, Marsha E; Adams, Swann Arp; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R
In South Carolina, the co-occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and breast cancer (BrCA) is much more prevalent among African American populations than among European American populations. The underlying relationship between diabetes and breast cancer may influence breast cancer survival. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effect of diabetes on developing breast cancer and to reduce racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Study participants included women of European American (EA) and African American (AA) ethnicity from both the Medicaid ICD-9 designations and the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry (SCCCR). A historical prospective cohort design was used to determine the risk of developing breast cancer among women of different ethnicities with and without DM. The chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the association; the logistic model was used to assess the relationship between breast cancer and other factors among EA and AA women. Menopause may have protective properties for AA compared to EA women. AA women have twice the odds of not surviving from each breast cancer stage compared to EA women with respect to their breast cancer stage. Adherence to diabetes medication may contribute to lower breast cancer death in EA. This study illustrates the discrepancy between EA and AA women in terms of breast cancer survival. AA women bear a higher disease burden than EA women. To create ethnic-appropriate public health policies, it is imperative that we understand the effect of comorbidities on breast cancer and how we can prevent them from occurring.
Vetta L. Sanders Thompson
Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.
Harris, Allyssa L; Sutherland, Melissa A; Hutchinson, M Katherine
This study examined the influence of parental marital status, parent-child sexual communication, parent-child closeness on the HIV-related knowledge, safer-sex intentions, and behaviors of late adolescent urban African American males. The study employed a cross-sectional design with retrospective recall of salient parental influences and behaviors. Data were collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaire from 134 late adolescent African American males, 18 to 22 years of age, recruited from urban communities in and around Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations, paired t tests, and regression modeling. Young men reported greater amounts of sexual communication with mothers than fathers (p fathers (p permissive sexual attitudes (p father-son communication and develop strategies to help parents communicate effectively with sons. Evidence has shown that African American adolescent males are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Understanding the sexual risk communication between African American adolescent males and their parents is important to developing strategies in reducing sexual risk behavior. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…
Samantha M. Bomotti
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.
in Military and Business Tuskegee Airman Shares History Soldier's Life Provides Example for West Department of Defense Submit Search During National African-American History Month, we celebrate the rich In honor of African-American History Month, Fred Moore, the first African-American Tomb Guard
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female
Banks, Angela D; Malone, Ruth E
Understand the meaning of delayed treatment seeking in African-American women with unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Phenomenologic analysis of in-depth interview data and field notes on 12 African-American women hospitalized with unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Women's interpretation of and response to symptoms were informed by experiences of marginalization and their self-understanding as people who were strong and who had endured life's hardships. When hospitalized, some women experienced trivialization of their complaints by clinicians and a focus on technological procedures over respectfully attending to their concerns, which provided further disincentives to seeking care. Three major themes emerged: misrecognition and discounting of symptoms, enduring, and influence of faith. Experiences of marginalization shape responses to symptoms, care-seeking behavior, and interpretation of subsequent care experiences for African-American women with cardiac disease, who may experience different symptoms as well as interpret them differently than members of other groups.
The consistent underperformance of African American students casts a disparaging shadow on the success of American public schools. Research was necessary to understand the reason for such a difference in scores. Parents, teachers, and administrators must understand the reason for the gap in order to determine the strategies and support systems…
Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.
Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…
Harris, Allyssa L
Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Fasules, Megan L.; Porter, Andrea; Landis-Santos Jennifer
Access to college for African Americans has increased, but African Americans are highly concentrated in lower-paying majors. The college major, which has critical economic consequences throughout life, reflects personal choices but also reflects the fact that African-American students are concentrated in open-access four-year institutions that…
Kennedy, Sara M; Patel, Roshni P; Cheh, Paul; Hsia, Jason; Rolle, Italia V
African American youth use marijuana at similar rates and tobacco at lower rates compared with white youth; however, in adulthood, tobacco use is similar. Tobacco and marijuana use are closely associated; differing initiation patterns may contribute to observed racial differences in tobacco prevalence by age. Therefore, it is important to assess tobacco and marijuana initiation patterns by race. Data were obtained from 56,555 adults aged 18-25 who completed the 2005-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The analysis was restricted to those who reported ever use of marijuana and combustible tobacco (cigarettes and/or cigars). Three mutually exclusive categories of initiation patterns were evaluated: use of marijuana before tobacco; marijuana and tobacco at the same age; and tobacco before marijuana. Multivariable regression models were used to assess changes over time and compare these outcomes by race while controlling for sociodemographics, risk perceptions, and current substance use. In 2005, 26.6% of African American and 14.3% of white young adults used marijuana before tobacco, compared with 41.5% of African American and 24.0% of white young adults in 2012 (P young adults had greater odds of using marijuana before tobacco (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.67, 1.91) compared with whites. African American young adults were more likely than whites to use marijuana before tobacco and both groups were increasingly likely to use marijuana before tobacco over time. A greater understanding of how marijuana initiation interacts with tobacco initiation could inform more effective tobacco and marijuana use prevention efforts. Among ever users of combustible tobacco and marijuana, greater proportions of African American young adults used marijuana before tobacco or at the same age than their white counterparts. Moreover, both African Americans and whites were more likely to use marijuana before tobacco in 2012 compared with 2005. Tobacco control policy may benefit from a
O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.
Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227
Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the job satisfaction of 16 tenure-line, African American male faculty at a historically Black university and a predominantly White institution. The common themes found in this study were autonomy and flexibility, location, institutional fit, and salary. In addition, there were some themes that were unique to institutional type such as the opportunity to give back to students and student diversity. Findings provide insight for institutional leaders to understand what influences the satisfaction of African American male faculty in different institutional contexts.
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.
Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine; McHale, Susan M
This research examined the longitudinal trajectories and family correlates of gender role attitudes in African American youth in a sample of 166 sibling pairs residing with their mothers and fathers. Multilevel modelling revealed that (1) girls and boys exhibited significant declines in gender attitude traditionality from ages 9 to 15 that levelled off through age 18, (2) mothers' (but not fathers') gender role attitude traditionality was positively related to youth's attitude traditionality, and (3) within-person variation in mothers' (but not fathers') racial discrimination experiences was negatively related to within-person variation in youth's gender role attitude traditionality. The utility of applying a cultural ecological framework within an ethnic homogenous, accelerated longitudinal design to understand African American family processes, in conjunction with the intersectionality between race and gender, is the focus of the discussion. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Gender role attitude traditionality declined for girls, but not for boys, in European and Mexican American families. Little is known about the roles of African American parents in shaping their children's gender development. What does this study add? For African American girls and boys, gender role attitude traditionality declined from ages 9 to 15 and then levelled off through age 18. At the between-person level, African American mothers', but not fathers', attitude traditionality was positively linked to that of their children. At the within-person level, African American mothers', but not fathers', experiences of racial discrimination were negatively linked to their children's attitude traditionality. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J
With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they identified in the families and how they use those strengths in therapy. Themes emerging from data analysis confirmed the continued importance of the five strengths Hill noted. In addition, two new strengths were identified by the participants: a willingness of a greater number of families to seek therapy, and the importance of family structure. Strategies used in engaging the families in therapy and practice implications for family therapists are discussed.
Powers, Brian W; White, Augustus A; Oriol, Nancy E; Jain, Sachin H
African Americans remain substantially less likely than other physicians to hold academic appointments. The roots of these disparities stem from different extrinsic and intrinsic forces that guide career development. Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. Although essential, these initiatives fail to confront the unique intrinsic forces that shape career development. America's ignoble history of violence, racism, and exclusion exposes African American physicians to distinct personal pressures and motivations that shape professional development and career goals. This article explores these intrinsic pressures with a focus on their historical roots; reviews evidence of their effect on physician development; and considers the implications of these trends for improving African American representation in academic medicine. The paradigm of "race-conscious professionalism" is used to understand the dual obligation encountered by many minority physicians not only to pursue excellence in their field but also to leverage their professional stature to improve the well-being of their communities. Intrinsic motivations introduced by race-conscious professionalism complicate efforts to increase the representation of minorities in academic medicine. For many African American physicians, a desire to have their work focused on the community will be at odds with traditional paths to professional advancement. Specific policy options are discussed that would leverage race-conscious professionalism as a draw to a career in academic medicine, rather than a force that diverts commitment elsewhere.
Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.
The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.
Perry, Theresa; Steele, Claude; Hilliard, Asa G., III
In three linked but separate essays, this book explores how African-American students experience school in a society that has historically devalued their intellectual abilities. It calls for a new understanding of the unique obstacles black students face in American schools and points to a variety of educational practices that can mitigate those…
The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…
Griffith, Derek M; Bergner, Erin M; Cornish, Emily K; McQueen, Chelsea M
Relatively little is known about what helps increase physical activity in African American men, and even less is known about promoting physical activity among Latino men. This systematic review aimed to address the key questions: (a) what is the state of the evidence on health-related behavior change interventions targeting physical activity among African American or Latino men? and (b) What factors facilitate physical activity for these men? For this review, nine electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2011-2017 that reported interventions to promote physical activity among African American or Latino men. Following PRISMA guidelines, nine articles representing seven studies that met our criteria were identified: six published studies that provided data for African American men, and one published study provided data for Latino men. Consistent with previous reviews, more research is needed to better understand how gender can be incorporated in physical activity interventions for African American and Latino men. Future interventions should explore how being an adult male and a man of color shapes motivations, attitudes, and preferences to be physically active. Studies should consider how race and ethnicity intersect with notions of masculinity, manhood and Machismo to enhance the effectiveness of physical activity interventions for these populations. Despite the health benefits of physical activity, rates of these behaviors remain low among African American and Latino men. It is essential to determine how best to increase the motivation and salience for these men to overcome the obesogenic environments and contexts in which they often live.
Marie N Fongwa
Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors
King, G; Polednak, A P; Bendel, R
The impact of geographic region and metropolitan residence on smoking prevalence among African Americans has not been adequately examined. This study analyzed 5 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey (1990-1994) on current smoking and regional variation among 16,738 African Americans. Results. Respondents in the West had the lowest unadjusted smoking prevalence rates and Midwest residents had the highest. Current smoking was lower among African Americans living in non-central cities than in central cities even after adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that black women in the South were significantly less likely to be smokers compared with any other gender/region group. These findings suggest the significance of gender and regional factors such as the social history of migration, social stress and racism, exposure to tobacco advertisement, variations in cultural influences, community structures, and coping strategies in under standing African American smoking behavior. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.
Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F
This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.
Shriner, Daniel; Bentley, Amy R; Doumatey, Ayo P; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N
We surveyed 26 quantitative traits and disease outcomes to understand the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by local ancestry in admixed African Americans. After inferring local ancestry as the number of African-ancestry chromosomes at hundreds of thousands of genotyped loci across all autosomes, we used a linear mixed effects model to estimate the variance explained by local ancestry in two large independent samples of unrelated African Americans. We found that local ancestry at major and polygenic effect genes can explain up to 20 and 8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. These findings provide evidence that most but not all additive genetic variance is explained by genetic markers undifferentiated by ancestry. These results also inform the proportion of health disparities due to genetic risk factors and the magnitude of error in association studies not controlling for local ancestry.
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.
Galloway, Stephanie Nicole
African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with
Wilson, Kimi Leemar
National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these
Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O
The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males ( N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Wickline, Virginia B; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen
The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students (15 men, 15 women). The participants determined emotions in African American and European American faces and voices. Results showed an in-group advantage-sometimes by culture, less often by race-in recognizing facial and vocal emotional expressions. African international students were generally less accurate at interpreting American nonverbal stimuli than were European American, African American, and European international peers. Results suggest that, although partly universal, emotional expressions have subtle differences across cultures that persons must learn.
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…
Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.
Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…
Black, Helen K
This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community. PMID:24186304
Anton, Margaret T.; Jones, Deborah J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.
African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. PMID:26053349
Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J; Youngstrom, Eric A
African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Paranjape, Anuradha; Tucker, Alyce; Mckenzie-Mack, LaTasha; Thompson, Nancy; Kaslow, Nadine
Objective Little is known about how older African American women define family violence (FV) and what FV survivors might expect from their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how these women define FV, where they seek help for FV, and what barriers they face in these efforts. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups with 30 African American women over the age of 50, including some FV survivors, at a large, inner-city public hospital. Results Participants defined FV broadly, citing examples of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional and financial) and neglect. Spiritual sources were cited over physicians as being available to help FV survivors. Barriers to receiving assistance included negative encounters with physicians, lack of trust in the system and dearth of age-appropriate resources. Conclusions For older African American women, FV takes many forms of which many may not be obvious during the clinical encounter. Like younger FV survivors, they expect physicians to serve as a resource for FV. Practice implications Physicians caring for older African American women need to remember to ask them about FV, and when making referrals for abuse and neglect, consider offering referrals to pastoral care if appropriate. PMID:17644300
Christopher A Haiman
Full Text Available GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls, we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p≤0.05 with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p≤6×10(-4 that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR = 1.17 over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR = 1.08. In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry.
Walker, Taurean Mashawn
The purpose of this research is to explore the social context (the nature and cultural environment) of the aeronautical training experience of African-American civilian, commercial, and military pilots. This research highlights the challenges African-American pilots are exposed to in addition to drawing parallels between the social context and the obstacles they are subjected to along the way. This study is valuable for stakeholders, African-American pilot aspirants, aviation corporations, Federal Aviation Administration, flight schools - in the aviation industry in understanding ways to initiate a paradigm shift and increase awareness about representation and participation of African-American aviation professionals. The qualitative approach was selected to gather a better understanding of the sociological hurdles black aviators face while going through the journey of becoming a pilot. Hardiman (2010) states, "While quantitative research is valuable, qualitative research provides the researcher the ability to view real world situations as they naturally unfold" ( p. 25). According to OBAP (2014), less than 2% of pilots in the United States are African-American. The experiences shared by the participants can provide helpful insight of possible policy implications for the aeronautical industry. There were three research questions in the study: 1) What factors hindered pilot training? 2) What were the resilience factors experienced during pilot training? 3) What were the defining features of the social context surrounding pilot training? Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted of six professional pilots. A qualitative data analysis was conducted to illustrate the context of the social challenges during the course of pilot training. Three themes were revealed: 1) access, 2) perception of inferiority, and 3) support. Implications of the significance of providing social networks to expose African-Americans to aviation were discussed. Additional means of
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary
Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.
Model, S; Fisher, G
In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.
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Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
Randolph, Schenita; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey
Improving the health of black and minority ethnic (BME) men in the US continues to be a public health priority. Compared with men of other races and ethnicities, African-American men have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from chronic illness and diseases including cancer, heart disease, prostate cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS. One way to address these disparities is to include African-American men in health research, to elicit their perspectives on health risks and protective factors. These can then inform interventions aimed at reducing health disparities. However, challenges remain in recruiting and engaging African-American men in health research. To provide strategies for recruiting African-American men in health research, using as an exemplar a qualitative study of fathers' perspectives of sexual health promotion with young African-American males. Efforts are needed to increase the representation of African-American men in health research. Ensuring that researchers are aware of the cultural, social and environmental factors related to decisions to participate in research can lead to effective methods to recruit and engage them. There are several essential strategies for increasing African-American men's participation in health research: ensuring the research team is culturally and gender-sensitive; recruiting in trusted environments; using respected gatekeepers; developing trust with participants; and being transparent. Implementing strategies to include African-American men in health research has the potential to improve health disparities in the US. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Okech, Allan Prince; Harrington, Rick
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among Black consciousness, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy in African American men. The participants were 120 African American male college students at a predominantly African American university. The authors administered 3 instruments--the Developmental Inventory of Black Consciousness (DIB-C; J. Milliones, 1980), the M. Rosenberg (1965) Self-Esteem Scale, and R. E. Wood and E. A. Locke's (1987) Academic Self-Efficacy Scale--to test the hypotheses. They used an independent-measures t test and a Pearson r correlation to analyze the data. The results of the study supported the hypotheses under investigation. Significant positive relationships were found between Black consciousness and self-esteem and Black consciousness and academic self-efficacy. The results of the study showed that Black consciousness appears to be an important construct to use in understanding self-esteem and academic self-efficacy in African American men.
Eastman, Charmane I; Suh, Christina; Tomaka, Victoria A; Crowley, Stephanie J
Successful adaptation to modern civilization requires the internal circadian clock to make large phase shifts in response to circumstances (e.g., jet travel and shift work) that were not encountered during most of our evolution. We found that the magnitude and direction of the circadian clock's phase shift after the light/dark and sleep/wake/meal schedule was phase-advanced (made earlier) by 9 hours differed in European-Americans compared to African-Americans. European-Americans had larger phase shifts, but were more likely to phase-delay after the 9-hour advance (to phase shift in the wrong direction). The magnitude and direction of the phase shift was related to the free-running circadian period, and European-Americans had a longer circadian period than African-Americans. Circadian period was related to the percent Sub-Saharan African and European ancestry from DNA samples. We speculate that a short circadian period was advantageous during our evolution in Africa and lengthened with northern migrations out of Africa. The differences in circadian rhythms remaining today are relevant for understanding and treating the modern circadian-rhythm-based disorders which are due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythms and the times for sleep, work, school and meals.
Trice, Rodney Nathaniel
This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major
Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E
African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.
Being an African-American parent in White America is an issue that becomes complicated simply by the difference in cultural values and traditions passed down to African-American families that are generally contradictory to contemporary White American culture. This guide addresses a number of issues for African-American parents in the following…
Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Simons, Ronald L; Beach, Steven R H
We examined the mediational role of symptoms of anxiety in accounting for the association of discrimination and chronic health conditions among African-American women. Participants were 646 African-American women who completed self-report measures of perceived racial discrimination, symptoms of anxiety, and diagnosed chronic health problems. We examined the mediation hypothesis using a path analytic procedure. Mediational analyses indicated that, above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and education status, anxiety symptoms were associated with both racial discrimination (β = .03, SE = .01, p role of symptoms of anxiety in the process that occurs from an individual's perception of discrimination to reported chronic health outcomes. Future research expanding our understanding of the interconnection of psychosocial stressors, discrimination, and their biological sequelae is needed.
Parada, Humberto; Sun, Xuezheng; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A; Conway, Kathleen
To examine racial differences in smoking rates at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent survival among African American and non-African American women in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (Phases I/II), a large population-based North Carolina study. We interviewed 788 African American and 1,020 Caucasian/non-African American women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1993 to 2000, to assess smoking history. After a median follow-up of 13.56 years, we identified 717 deaths using the National Death Index; 427 were breast cancer-related. We used Cox regression to examine associations between self-reported measures of smoking and breast cancer-specific survival within 5 years and up to 18 years after diagnosis conditional on 5-year survival. We examined race and estrogen receptor status as potential modifiers. Current (vs never) smoking was not associated with 5-year survival; however, risk of 13 year conditional breast cancer-specific mortality was elevated among women who were current smokers at diagnosis (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.25), compared to never smokers. Although smoking rates were similar among African American (22.0%) and non-African American (22.1%) women, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was elevated among African American (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.85), but only weakly elevated among non-African American (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.70-2.14) current (vs. never) smokers (P Interaction = 0.30). Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was also elevated among current (vs never) smokers diagnosed with ER - (HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.35-4.93), but not ER + (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.69-1.78) tumors (P Interaction = 0.17). Smoking may negatively impact long-term survival following breast cancer. Racial differences in long-term survival, as related to smoking, may be driven by ER status, rather than by differences in smoking patterns.
Spurgeon, Shawn L.; Myers, Jane E.
African American males of all ages constitute a population at risk. Most research to date has emphasized the identification and treatment of problem behaviors within this population, and little research on positive behaviors is available. For example, multiple studies reveal a widespread lack of self-esteem in this population across the lifespan.…
Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M
The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.
Rigg, Khary K
Despite the growing popularity of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) among African Americans, their motives for using the drug are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the most salient motivations for using MDMA among this understudied population. In-depth interviews (n = 15) were conducted with a sample of African American young adults in Southwest Florida between August 2014 and November 2015. The primary motivations for using MDMA included: (1) altering the effects of marijuana and alcohol; (2) lasting longer sexually; (3) enhancing sexual pleasure; and (4) facilitating "freaky" sexual experiences. This is the first study to directly examine MDMA motivations specifically among African American drug users, and findings shed light on why some African Americans use MDMA. A better understanding of why African Americans use this drug should help to inform prevention and harm-reduction efforts. Study findings show the need for health messages that include the potential consequences of mixing MDMA with other drugs, and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors after taking MDMA. These data contrast with motivations (e.g., introspection, self-enlightenment, getting into the music) commonly reported among groups of largely White MDMA users, suggesting that interventions tailored specifically for African American users are needed.
Bowen, Felesia; O'Brien-Richardson, Patricia
Hair holds cultural meaning and value for women of African descent. The values placed on hair type and hair style date back to preslavery days. There is a small body of literature that addresses the relationship between cultural hair practices and physical inactivity among black women. Understanding this is important because inactivity during childhood and adolescent years contributes to increased weight-related morbidity and mortality during adult years. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cultural hair practices, physical activity, and obesity among urban African-American adolescent girls. A convenience sample of 50 African-American girls completed questionnaires and were weighed and measured for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Cultural hair practices such as the amount of money (p = .047) and time (p = .015) spent on hair maintenance were associated with decreased physical activity but were not associated with BMI. Inactivity during adolescence can result in obesity, a major cause of chronic health conditions that contribute to morbidity and mortality as an adult. When nurse practitioners understand and appreciate the cultural differences and beliefs around cultural hair practices they will be able to develop culturally appropriate strategies that will aid in weight loss. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Gillum, Richard F; Dodd, Kristen D
This book review analyzes the complex and profound impact active religious participation has on relationships and family outcomes among African Americans and Latinos. In Soul Mates, Wilcox and Wolfinger discuss the legacy of slavery and Jim Crow laws and the resulting devastating effects on African American and Latino families despite their high religious involvement. The authors make the case that many African American men are unlikely candidates for marriage or stable relationships due to trends of family instability driven by the declining income-power of working-class men as well as entry of more women into the labor force, government penalties for low-income couples, revolt against traditional values, increased access to birth control and abortion, and the persistence of discrimination and incarceration of minority men. The authors examine data from six national surveys as well as additional data from interviews, focus groups, ethnographic field work, and an extensive literature review. Wilcox and Wolfinger find evidence that when African American couples actively participate in Christian churches, the men are more likely to adhere to a "code of decency" which decreases street behaviors, such as binge drinking, having multiple sex partners, and having multi-partner fertility, which are known to inhibit family stability. This book will be helpful for health providers who would like to better understand and serve their African American and Latino patients. The findings suggest that health care providers can promote a healthy emotional environment for families by encouraging minority men to renew or maintain church involvement. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.
In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…
Effective psychotherapy with African-American women explicitly requires cultural literacy and competence of its practitioners. Cultural literacy includes understanding the collective social plight of African-American women and the individual client in the context of the prevailing reality of race, gender, and sexual orientation bias and the interpersonal and institutional barriers that result from that bias. Cultural literacy presumes a willingness on the part of the therapist to educate himself or herself about the clients cultural background and milieu and validate the client's accurate perceptions of discrimination and bias and their impact on the client's life. Cultural competence may be seen as the appropriate level of technical skill in applying those concepts to the understanding of the client and the conduct of the psychotherapeutic inquiry. The culturally literate practitioner will acknowledge and appreciate the wide range of diversity within African-American women as a group. The individual client's intrapsychic and familial endowments and personal relationship history as they are embedded in the aforementioned context should be carefully explored and understood as well as are all relevant social factors. Finally, therapists must be willing to scrutinize their own feelings and motivations for working with African-American women. What should follow is a careful analysis of the developmental interactions of these variables, how they promote an individual's view of the world, her perceptions of her options, her strategies for negotiating institutional barriers, her relationships with other persons, as well as any contributions she makes, consciously or unconsciously, to her own dilemma. A culturally literate and antiracist therapist must begin with an understanding of the role of multiple identities and oppressions in client's lives and must have or be willing to acquire a familiarity with the clients' cultural and ethnic heritage and the role of
... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...
Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T
There is limited information about what African Americans think about biobanks and the ethical questions surrounding them. Likewise, there is a gap in capacity to successfully enroll African Americans as biobank donors. The purposes of this community-based participatory study were to: (a) explore African Americans' perspectives on genetics/genomic research, (b) understand facilitators and barriers to participation in such studies, and (c) enlist their ideas about how to attract and sustain engagement of African Americans in genetics initiatives. As the first phase in a mixed methods study, we conducted four focus groups with 21 African American community leaders in one US Midwest city. The sample consisted of executive directors of community organizations and prominent community activists. Data were analyzed thematically. Skepticism about biomedical research and lack of trust characterized discussions about biomedical research and biobanks. The Tuskegee Untreated Syphilis Study and the Henrietta Lacks case influenced their desire to protect their community from harm and exploitation. Connections between genetics and family history made genetics/genomics research personal, pitting intrusion into private affairs against solutions. Participants also expressed concerns about ethical issues involved in genomics research, calling attention to how research had previously been conducted in their community. Participants hoped personalized medicine might bring health benefits to their people and proposed African American communities have a "seat at the table." They called for basic respect, authentic collaboration, bidirectional education, transparency and prerogative, and meaningful benefits and remuneration. Key to building trust and overcoming African Americans' trepidation and resistance to participation in biobanks are early and persistent engagement with the community, partnerships with community stakeholders to map research priorities, ethical conduct of research, and
During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.
In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…
Pittman, Chavella T.
This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…
SNPs from the African American breast cancer scan to COGs , a European collaborative study which is has designed a SNP array with that will be genotyped...Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0383 TITLE: A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher A...SUBTITLE A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0383 5c. PROGRAM
Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema
Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.
Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia
OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663
Catherine E. Harnois
Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...
Baker, Tamara A; Whitfield, Keith E
This study examined factors that influence sleep quality in older African American women (N = 181) reporting chronic pain. Participants completed a series of questions assessing demographic and behavioral characteristics, health status, pain intensity, and sleep disturbance. Findings indicated that younger participants and those experiencing poorer physical functioning reported more difficulty sleeping due to pain. Similarly, participants who reported being awakened from sleep due to pain were younger and experienced greater pain intensity. Understanding the relationship between sleep and pain in this group of women may be useful in promoting effective disease management and sleep awareness among patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals.
Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer
Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes
Trinidad, Dennis R; Blanco, Lyzette; Emery, Sherry L; Fagan, Pebbles; White, Martha M; Reed, Mark B
The objective of this study was to examine changes in the annual number of cigarette advertisements in magazines with a predominantly African-American audience following the broadcast ban on tobacco, and whether fluctuations in cigarette print advertising targeting African Americans during the late-1970s until the mid-1980s were associated with declines in smoking initiation. We tabulated the annual number of cigarette advertisements from magazines with large African-American readerships (Ebony, Essence, and Jet) from 1960 to 1990. Advertisements were coded depending on whether they featured African-American models. We calculated the incidence rate of regular smoking initiation from 1975 to 1990 for African-American 14-25 years old using data from the 1992-1993, 1995-1996, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey. We examined whether trends in smoking initiation coincided with trends in cigarette advertising practices among African Americans. The annual aggregated number of printed cigarette advertisements in Ebony, Essence, and Jet magazines increased at least five-fold starting in 1971, following the broadcast ban on cigarette advertising. A decrease in the percentage of ads by Brown & Williamson that showed African-American models was positively correlated (r = 0.30) with declines in the incidence rate of smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to the mid-1980s. The tobacco industry adapted quickly following the broadcast ban on cigarettes by increasing print advertising in African-American magazines. However, changes in print advertising practices by were associated with declines in smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to mid-1980s.
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.
Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming
Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…
Wagner, Julie A; Abbott, Gina L; Heapy, Alicia; Yong, Lynne
This study of African Americans with diabetes investigated: (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; (2) the relationship between depressive symptoms and long-term diabetes complications; (3) the relationship between depressive symptoms and medication usage; and (4) the effects of demographic and diabetes variables on these relationships. One-hundred twenty five African American diabetic adults who were attending health fairs reported demographic and medical history and provided blood samples for A1c assessment of glycemic control. They also completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire, and the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory. After controlling for confounders, higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher A1c, more long-term diabetes complications, and more diabetes medications. Diabetes self-care did not fully account for these relationships. The relationship between depression and poor diabetes control exists in African Americans as it does in Whites. Providers are encouraged to attend to depression in their African American patients with diabetes.
Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J
Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A
African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.
Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Kim Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary
The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Achter, Paul; Parrott, Roxanne; Silk, Kami
Research on attitudes toward genetics and medicine registers skepticism among minority communities, but the reasons for this skepticism are not well known. In the past, studies linked mistrust of the medical system to historical ethics violations involving minority groups and to suspicions about ideological premise and political intent. To assess public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding human-genetics research, we surveyed 858 Americans onsite in four community settings or online in a geographically nonspecific manner. Compared to participants as a whole, African Americans were significantly more likely to believe that clinical trials might be dangerous and that the federal government knowingly conducted unethical research, including studies in which risky vaccines were administered to prison populations. However, African Americans were also significantly more likely to believe that the federal government worked to prevent environmental exposure to toxicants harmful to people with genetic vulnerabilities. Our data suggest that most Americans trust government to act ethically in sponsoring and conducting research, including genetics research, but that African Americans are particularly likely to see government as powerfully protective in some settings yet selectively disingenuous in others.
Lamborn, Susie D; Felbab, Amanda J
This study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from 93 14- and 15-year-old African-American adolescents. The parenting styles model was more strongly represented in both open-ended and structured interview responses. Using variables from the structured interview as independent variables, regression analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self-esteem, self-reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, the findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models provides a richer understanding of African-American families.
Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Keith, Verna M; Nicklett, Emily J; Chatters, Linda M
This study examined the impact of everyday discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans. This analysis is based on the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) (n = 773). We examined the associations between everyday discrimination and both general distress and psychiatric disorders as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Six dependent variables were examined: lifetime mood disorders, lifetime anxiety disorders, any lifetime disorder, number of lifetime disorders, depressive symptoms as measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Scale of Depression (CES-D), and serious psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6). Overall, racial and non-racial everyday discrimination were consistently associated with worse mental health for older African Americans. Older African Americans who experienced higher levels of overall everyday discrimination had higher odds of any psychiatric disorder, any lifetime mood disorder, any lifetime anxiety disorder, and more lifetime DSM-IV disorders, in addition to elevated levels of depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress. These findings were similar for both racial discrimination and non-racial discrimination. This study documents the harmful association of not only racial discrimination, but also non-racial (and overall) discrimination with the mental health of older African Americans. Specifically, discrimination is negatively associated with mood and anxiety disorders as well as depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Galloway, Charlotte T.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Dixon, Rena P.; Fuller, Taleria R.
Purpose Reducing disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates among African American and Latina teens is a central focus of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative implemented by the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates are driven, in part, by differential access to contraception and reproductive health care services. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand African American and Latino teens? 1) preferen...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it's still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.
Hunter, Teressa Sanders; Tilley, Donna Scott
This review of the literature identifies themes, variable, goals, and gaps in the literature related to HIV and AIDS among African American women. Black Feminist Epistemology and symbolic interactionism are used as a theoretical perspective and philosophical framework to examine experiences and social behaviors of African-American women and to guide and framework to explain the findings from the literature. This theoretical perspective/philosophical framework can also be used in understanding processes used by African-American women in behavioral, social, and intimate interactions.
Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Williams, Joel E; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders
Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85) and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Child and parent focus group analysis revealed 11 barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities. Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
In African and therefore, African American cultural world-view, some perceive witchcraft as evil and some identify it as an art that unifies and orders ... as evil conspirators and collaborators with the demonic world who are rarely benevolent and should be purged from the society; whereas, Toni Morrison sees them as ...
In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.
Herbert Harris, Eboni T; Hillfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Timmons, Shirley M; Felder, Tisha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson
Effective health promotion among African American women requires knowledge and understanding of cultural influences and practices. This scoping review focused on rest, related concepts, and cultural perspectives and practices. We found a lack of conceptual distinction between fatigue and sleep and limited research on cultural meanings and practices of rest.
Swift, Damon L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Lavie, Carl J.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.; Newton, Robert L.; Church, Timothy S.
Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a well-established risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease compared to their Caucasian counterparts. However, the extent to which lower CRF levels contribute to the excess risk in African Americans has not been fully explored. The purpose of this review is to: 1) explore the literature evaluating the relationship between CRF and mortality specifically in African American populations; and 2) critically evaluate the studies which have compared CRF between African American and Caucasians in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. We have further discussed several potential mechanisms that may contribute to the observation of lower CRF levels in African American compared to Caucasian adults including potential racial differences in physical activity levels, muscle fiber type distribution, and hemoglobin levels. If lower CRF is generally present in African Americans compared to Caucasians, and is of a clinically meaningful difference, this may represent an important public health concern. PMID:23982718
Fikes, Robert Jr.
A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…
Halasa, Katrina Bassam
The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition
Buchanan, Robert J; Zuniga, Miguel A; Carrillo-Zuniga, Genny; Chakravorty, Bonnie J; Tyry, Tuula; Moreau, Rachel L; Huang, Chunfeng; Vollmer, Timothy
Identify racial/ethnic differences among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and health services received. We analyzed enrollment data from the Registry of the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Project to compare 26,967 Caucasians, 715 Latinos, and 1,313 African Americans with MS. Racial/ethnic analyses of NARCOMS data focused on descriptive characteristics, using ANOVA and chi-square tests to identify significant differences in means and frequencies among Caucasians, Latinos, and African Americans. We identified significant racial/ethnic differences in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and treatments. Caucasians were older when first MS symptoms were experienced (30.1 years) and at MS diagnosis (37.4 years) than Latinos (28.6 years and 34.5 years) or African Americans (29.8 years and 35.8 years). Larger proportions of Latinos reported normal function for mobility and bladder/bowel function compared to Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos (44.2 percent) and African Americans (45.8 percent) reported at least mild depression compared to only 38.7 percent of Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos never received mental health care or care from rehabilitation specialists than Caucasians or African Americans. A larger proportion of African Americans had never been treated by a neurologist specializing in MS and a smaller proportion of African Americans received care at a MS clinic than Caucasians or Latinos. Our findings highlight the need for future analyses to determine if age, disease duration, MS symptoms, and disability levels provide additional insights into racial/ethic differences in the use of MS-related providers.
Uzogara, Ekeoma E.; Lee, Hedwig; Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Jackson, James S.
This study investigated perceptions of skin tone discrimination among adult African American men. Research suggests that through negative African American stereotypes, out-group members (Whites) perceive light-skinned African Americans favorably and dark-skinned African Americans unfavorably. However, it is unclear how treatment by in-group members (other African Americans) uniquely affects men. Using data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the 2003 National Survey of America...
Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra
The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira
Full Text Available The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and to the subjectivation modes of African American women attended by the SOS Racism program. The women showed intense emotional suffering due to discrimination and racism they have faced. In the group process new meanings for the violence were produced, transforming the personal narrative into a public report.
Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne
The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.
Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Redmond, Nakeva; Williamson, Dana Hz; Thompson, Nancy J; Perryman, Jennie P; Patzer, Rachel E; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob
Increasing public commitment to organ donation is critical to improving donor kidney availability for end-stage renal disease patients desiring transplant. This study surveyed ( N = 1339) African Americans, measuring perceived pros relative to cons of organ donation, to evaluate an existing Transtheoretical Model decisional balance scale and associations between decisional balance and expressing donation intentions. Findings supported the existing scale structure. More positive decisional balance ratios were associated with 1.76 times the odds of expressing intentions (95% confidence interval = 1.52-2.04). Pros were more strongly linked to donation intentions than cons. Greater understanding of organ donation decision-making is valuable for informing interventions that encourage donation.
Cerezo, Alison; Lyda, James; Enriquez, Alma; Beristianos, Matthew; Connor, Michael
The purpose of this study was to share findings from semistructured qualitative interviews with 9 African American and 12 Latino men about their ideas on how university personnel could better support their needs. Stressing the need for African American men to learn self-reliance to counter microaggressions, African American participants offered…
Pedraza, Otto; Clark, Joy Humphreys; O'Bryant, Sid E; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Lucas, John A
To investigate whether demographic (age and education) adjustments for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) attenuate mean score discrepancies between African-American and Caucasian adults and whether demographically adjusted MMSE scores improve the diagnostic classification accuracy of dementia in African-American adults over unadjusted MMSE scores. Cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry and Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Three thousand two hundred fifty-four adults (2,819 Caucasian, 435 African American) aged 60 and older. MMSE score at study entry. African-American adults had significantly lower unadjusted MMSE scores (23.0 ± 7.4) than Caucasian adults (25.3 ± 5.4). This discrepancy persisted despite adjustment of MMSE scores for age and years of education using established regression weights or newly derived weights. Controlling for dementia severity at baseline and adjusting MMSE scores for age and quality of education attenuated this discrepancy. In African-American adults, an age- and education-adjusted MMSE cut score of 23/24 provided optimal dementia classification accuracy, but this represented only a modest improvement over an unadjusted MMSE cut score of 22/23. The posterior probability of dementia in African-American adults is presented for various unadjusted MMSE cut scores and prevalence rates of dementia. Age, dementia severity at study entry, and quality of educational experience are important explanatory factors in understanding the existing discrepancies in MMSE performance between Caucasian and African-American adults. These findings support the use of unadjusted MMSE scores when screening older African Americans for dementia, with an unadjusted MMSE cut score of 22/23 yielding optimal classification accuracy. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.
Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…
John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Rory Fraser; Viniece Jennings; Amadou Diop
The Sustainable Forestry and African American Land Retention Program is a comprehensive effort to address theÂ long-standing problem of underparticipation of African Americans in forest management. We conducted rapidÂ appraisal baseline research for pilot projects in this program in three Southern states using a carefully selectedÂ purposive sample to enhance our...
Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220
Sampson, Kristin Morgan
As the U.S. becomes more diverse, school leaders, major corporations, and areas of national defense continue to investigate science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education issues. African-American female students have historically been underrepresented in STEM fields, yet educational leadership research, examining this population is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how principals support African-American female students in schools with a STEM program. The Critical Race Theory (CRT)was used as a theoretical framework to highlight the inadequacies to support educational inequalities. The application of the CRT in this study is due to the embedded inequality practices within the educational system, that have resulted in the underrepresentation of African-American female students in STEM. To complement CRT, the transformative leadership model was also utilized to examine the emancipatory leadership practices principals utilized. These theories framed the context of this study by recognizing the need to address how support is actualized to African-American female students in STEM by their principals. A case study approach was an appropriate method to answer the two research questions, 1) How do principals feel they support African-American female students in their STEM programs? and 2) What practices do principals engage in that support underrepresented students in STEM? This approach intended to uncover how a principal leads a multifaceted population of underrepresented students in STEM programs. Two principals of STEM schools, where more than 50% of the population were African-American, were interviewed and observed completing daily operations at community-wide events. The STEM Coordinators and a teacher were also interviewed, and test scores were examined to provide further information about the STEM program, and public records were obtained to analyze the principals' means of communication. I found that principals supported
Hall, Ronald E.
Discusses the impact of racial stereotyping on the performance of African American and European American athletes, providing an alternative to race-based intelligence differentials. Focuses on stereotypes of African American men; the Bell Curve; the high proportion of African Americans in U.S. athletics; and masculinity and the stereotype of the…
This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E
We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.
Catherine E. Harnois
Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.
Yu, Sophia S K; Ramsey, Natalie L M; Castillo, Darleen C; Ricks, Madia; Sumner, Anne E
The prevalence of cardiometabolic disease in Africa now rivals that of Western nations. Therefore, screening programs that lead to effective prevention of cardiometabolic disease in Africans is imperative. Most screening tests for cardiometabolic disease use triglyceride (TG) levels as a criterion. However, the failure rate of TG-based screening tests in African Americans is high. In Africans, the efficacy of TG-based screening tests is unknown. Our goal was to determine the association between hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥150 mg/dL) and cardiometabolic disease in African and African-American men. This was a cross-sectional study of 155 men (80 African immigrants, 75 African Americans) [age, 35±9 years, mean±standard deviation (SD), body mass index (BMI) 28.5±5.2 kg/m(2)] who self-identified as healthy. Lipid profiles were performed. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was determined by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), respectively. Cardiometabolic disease was defined by four possible subtypes--prediabetes, diabetes, insulin resistance, or metabolic triad [hyperinsulinemia, hyperapolipoprotein B, small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles]. TG levels were higher in men with cardiometabolic disease than without (88±43 versus 61±26 mg/dL, Pfail to identify both African immigrants and African-American men with cardiometabolic disease. As a consequence, the opportunity for early intervention and prevention is lost.
Neha P. Gothe PhD
Full Text Available According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults ( N = 20. Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.
Gothe, Neha P; Kendall, Bradley J
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults ( N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.
... have insurance or can’t afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers or programs that charge you according to ... how he found healing in an African American community. Other Resources ... Institute of Mental Health Phone Number: 301-443-4513 Toll Free Number: ...
Brooks Greaux, Lisa
Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…
Felton, Teena M; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Serrano, Elena; Hosig, Kathy W
African-American professionals are underrepresented in the profession of dietetics. This preliminary qualitative study identified African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major/profession to understand why they did or did not enter dietetics. It was hypothesized that dietetics students chose dietetics primarily for altruistic reasons, whereas students in other fields of study did not choose dietetics due to lack of awareness of dietetics. To learn students' views, African-American college students engaged in elicitation interviews or focus group discussions. Twenty-eight women and 12 men participated. Phenomenologic analysis identified common themes and meanings: African-American students selected their majors for a variety of reasons, including desire to help people, interest in the field, recommendation from an adult, and family influence. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics believed that the dietetics major was not selected due to lack of awareness about dietetics. Both dietetics students and students in other fields of study perceived versatility, ability to work with/help people, and to have an influence as positive qualities about their future professions. Advanced degree and training requirements, lack of diversity, and low salary were identified as negative qualities about future professions. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics had not been exposed to the dietetics major, careers, and profession. Recruitment efforts should begin early to increase the number of African-American students in dietetics.
Singleton, Judith L; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa
African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation, and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred that their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our health care and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation.
Veronnie Faye Jones
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.
Friedman, Daniela B.; Hooker, Steven P.; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Rheaume, Carol E.
African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men’s recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from. 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45–64 years) and older (65–84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited; middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914
Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.
Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work-family literatures, the authors…
Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability,…
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...
Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D
This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries
to involve African American farmers in climate services and outline lessons that can inform similar initiatives seeking to work with under-represented groups. In the conclusions we propose that engagement of this community challenges climate services to fully embrace a “social justice” perspective and an understanding of science as transformative of society.
Melinda C Aldrich
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.
Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie
To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Broman, Clifford L.
Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…
Avent Harris, Janeé R.; Wong, Christine D.
African American undergraduate students face numerous challenges during college; however, they are less likely to seek help from college counseling services. Often, African Americans seek support from spiritual resources. In the current phenomenological study, participants shared in a focus group interview. Overall, participants seemed to value…
Oh, Sam S; Du, Randal; Zeiger, Andrew M; McGarry, Meghan E; Hu, Donglei; Thakur, Neeta; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Galanter, Joshua M; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine Keiko; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A; Ford, Jean G; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Williams, Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Burchard, Esteban G
In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that the history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. As part of the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE II), we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629). We investigated the association between any breastfeeding in infancy and FEV 1 % predicted using multivariable linear regression; Poisson regression was used to determine the association between breastfeeding and asthma exacerbations. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in African Americans (59.4%) and Puerto Ricans (54.9%) compared to Mexican Americans (76.2%) and mixed/other Latinos (66.9%; p asthma exacerbations (p = 0.03) in African Americans only. Breastfeeding was associated with higher FEV 1 % predicted in asthma and reduced number of asthma exacerbations in African American youths, calling attention to continued support for breastfeeding.
In May 2002 there was a backpage article published in American Physical Society Newsletter by the President of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). This article showed that of the 3372 professional physicists employed at the DOE national labs, only 11 are African American, which on a percentage basis is 4 times less than the total availability of Ph.D. African American physicists in the labor force. NSBP want to provide an update of the interaction between National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and the department of Energy in particular the Office of Science on the issue of employment of African American Physicists in scientific and technical. You might ask the following question: Why should the current generation of African American Physicists be concerned about their underepresentation on the scientific staffs of the DOE National Laboratories? The answer to this question may vary from person to person, but I would like to propose the following: The National Laboratories are the largest providers of career opportunities in Physics in the United States. There is a general view in the community; African Americans are not getting a return on their national investment in the DOE National Labs. Failure to engage with HBCU’s through their user facilities causes a training or skills deficit when it comes to preparing students to participate at the forefront of physics research. By rebuffing interactions with HBCU¹s, as many the laboratories have done, the national laboratories are in effect refusing to transfer scientific knowledge to the stakeholders in the African American community. The update will contain some additional information about NSBP proposals to solve the problem of underepresentation of African American and Hispanic physicists within the National Laboratories and how the Office of Science has response these proposals.
Stansbury, Kim L.
African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…
Nasser, Samar A; Ferdinand, Keith C
The purpose of this review is to examine the impact and effectiveness of community interventions for controlling hypertension in African-Americans. The questions addressed are as follows: Which salient prior and current community efforts focus on African-Americans and are most effective in controlling hypertension and patient-related outcomes? How are these efforts implemented and possibly sustained? The integration of out-of-office blood pressure measurements, novel hypertension control centers (i.e., barbershops), and community health workers improve hypertension control and may reduce the excess hypertension-related complications in African-Americans. Several community-based interventions may assist effectiveness of clinical care teams, decrease care barriers, and improve adherence. A multifaceted, tailored, multidisciplinary community-based approach may effectively reduce barriers to blood pressure control among African-Americans. Future research should evaluate the long-term benefits of community health workers, barbershops as control centers, and out-of-office blood pressure monitoring upon control and eventually on morbidity and mortality.
Holden, Kisha B; Hall, Stephanie P; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L DiAnne
African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic (n = 23), a small private academic institution (n = 25), and an urban community setting (n = 15). Self-report data concerning selected psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results indicated several similarities and differences among the 3 groups of women concerning levels of depressive symptoms and their correlates. Among the total sample, symptoms of depression were mild among 65% of the women. Depressive symptoms were significant and positively associated with negative and ruminative thinking (r = 0.79, p indication of chronic diseases (r = 0.34, p data concerning contributors to depressive symptoms for African American women.
This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it's still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.
Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.; Arnold, Lauren D.; Notaro, Sheri R.
This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents’ intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vacc...
Woda, Aimee; Belknap, Ruth Ann; Haglund, Kristin; Sebern, Margaret; Lawrence, Ashley
The purpose of this study was to understand the influences of heart failure (HF) self-care among low income, African Americans. Compared to all other racial groups, African Americans have the highest risk of developing HF, coupled with high mortality and morbidity rates. Using the photovoice method, participants related important lifestyle factors through photography. The participants and researcher met for reflection and discussion 2 h per week for six weeks. Four themes emerged: family support gives me the push I need, social interaction lifts me up, improving my mind to lift depression can improve my heart, and it is important but challenging to follow the HF diet. The findings from this study may assist policy makers, health care professionals, patients, and support systems in understanding the complexity of engaging in HF self-care. This understanding may lead to the development of appropriate patient-centered assessments and interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study develops a framework for systematic examination of information and communication technologies (ICTs usage differences within a group. This framework situates the digital divide and digital inequalities model within a broader conceptual model of digital practice, exemplified by how groups of people use ICTs. I use nationally representative data to examine online activities on social networking sites (SNS for African Americans and other ethnoracial groups. The data for this research comes from the Pew Internet and American Life’s “Spring Tracking Survey 2008”. The results from regression analyses support the digital practice framework which moves discussions of ICT usage beyond social and economic advantages or disadvantages, and addresses individual and group needs in using these technologies.
Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.
Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…
Sims, Mario; Rainge, Yolanda
This study examined neighborhood and infant health disparities between African-American and white mothers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Census-block data were used for 1990 and Vital Statistics data were used for 1992 through 1994. African-American mothers lived in less desirable, more segregated neighborhoods than white mothers did in 1990. African-American infant and neonatal mortality rates were twice those of whites (2.3 and 2.0, respectively), while African-American postneonatal mortality rates were three times that of whites (3.0). African-American low and very low birth weight rates were more than twice those of whites (2.5 and 2.6, respectively). All African-American mothers were nearly eight times as likely as all white mothers to have inadequate prenatal care, whereas poor African-American mothers were three times as likely to have inadequate prenatal care as were poor white mothers. Public health experts and practitioners may want to consider the communities of minority patients to devise interventions suitable for addressing health disparities.
Malat, Gregory E; Culkin, Christine; Palya, Aniruddha; Ranganna, Karthik; Kumar, Mysore S Anil
are discussed further in this review in the hope of identifying an ideal healthcare model for caring for the African American transplant recipient, from diagnosing chronic kidney disease through to successful kidney graft outcomes. An indepth review of the literature is described and organized in a fashion that highlights all of the issues affecting success in African Americans. The compilation of the literature in this review will enable the reader to get closer to understanding the caveats of kidney transplantation in the African American patient, but falls short of delivering an actual 'equation' for post-transplant care in an African American kidney recipient.
Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin
African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Gaston, Robert; Segev, Dorry L.; Mannon, Elinor C.; Martin, Michelle Y.
Background and objectives African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. Results In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants’ reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). Conclusions These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one’s death
Ahye, Brenda A; Devine, Carol M; Odoms-Young, Angela M
This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.
Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Clark, Jack A; Bauchner, Howard; Walsh, Jared P; Mercilus, Glory; Figaro, Jean; Bibbo, Caroline; Perkins, Rebecca B
Black women have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of HPV vaccination than White women in the United States, and Haitians may be an especially vulnerable subgroup of Black women. To reduce these disparities, understanding differences among subgroups of Black women is crucial. The objective of our study was to assess similarities and differences in the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices toward HPV vaccination and actual vaccination rates among African-American and Haitian immigrant women and their daughters. We used validated surveys of HPV knowledge, trust in physicians, acculturation, and constructs of the health belief model: Perceived susceptibility, severity, and barriers. We probed women's thought processes about vaccination using open-ended questions. We then reviewed medical records to determine vaccination rates. Nineteen African Americans and 51 Haitians participated. Although 75% of Haitians and 63% of African Americans intended to vaccinate their daughters, only 47% of African-American and 31% of Haitian daughters were vaccinated. African Americans were more knowledgeable than Haitians and had more prior experience with HPV disease. Most African Americans felt that vaccination fell within the parental role, whereas many Haitians felt uncomfortable vaccinating against sexually transmitted infections because they felt children should not be having sex. Both ethnic groups wanted more information about HPV vaccines. Cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant mothers revealed distinct barriers for vaccine acceptance. Improving HPV vaccine rates in Black women may require culturally competent and sensitive approaches that address ethnic-specific barriers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise
Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.
The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…
Full Text Available In most cases, African American poetry eschews traditional literary norms. Contemporary African American poets tend to ignore grammatical rules, use unusual typography on many occasions, include much of their cultural heritage in their poetry, and interweave musical elements into literary genres. The influence of such musical genres as jazz, blues, soul, and gospel, together with the dilemmas that occur for the translator, will be shown to great extent, since music, like black speech, is a major part of African American culture and literature. The translator will have to maintain the specific African American rhythm, blues adaptations and the improvisational language under the jazz impact. The paper presents the problems in translating post-1950 African American poetry into Slovene, and asks to what extent can one successfully transfer the musical elements within this poetry for the target culture? Inevitably, it will identify a share of elements that are lost in translation.
Gibson, Lynette M
The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations.
Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM.
Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such
Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as frameworks to better understand the participants'…
Allen, Richard L.; Bagozzi, Richard P.
Examined the structure of African American belief systems (racial attitudes and self-esteem) and its relationship to wellbeing, other group attachments, and system orientations across different age and generation groups. Interview data from three age-groupings of adults demonstrated substantial similarity across age cohorts in understanding of…
Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Street, Darlene J
To explore issues related to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. Qualitative design using focus groups, guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality. Three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. Fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. Three focus groups were conducted with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were fully explored in the group and included as a guiding question for the next group. Categories identified from the data were reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding that was useful or not useful, and cultural issues related to breastfeeding that were perceived to be unique among African Americans. Three overall themes were identified that cut across categories: perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a support system for continued breastfeeding. Women need to be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding and offered continuing support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Peer support groups for breastfeeding African American women should be established. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Adjei Boakye, Eric; Hussaini, Adnan S.; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Ganesh, Rajan N.; Snider, Matthew; Thompson, Devin; Varvares, Mark A.
Purpose To characterize smoking and alcohol use, and to describe predictors of oral cancer knowledge among a predominantly African-American population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between September, 2013 among drag racers and fans in East St. Louis. Oral cancer knowledge was derived from combining questionnaire items to form knowledge score. Covariates examined included age, sex, race, marital status, education status, income level, insurance status, tobacco and alcohol use. Adjusted linear regression analysis measured predictors of oral cancer knowledge. Results Three hundred and four participants completed questionnaire; 72.7% were African Americans. Smoking rate was 26.7%, alcohol use was 58.3%, and mean knowledge score was 4.60 ± 2.52 out of 17. In final adjusted regression model, oral cancer knowledge was associated with race and education status. Compared with Caucasians, African Americans were 29% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge (β = -0.71; 95% CI: -1.35, -0.07); and participants with a high school diploma or less were 124% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge compared with college graduates (β = -1.24; 95% CI: -2.44, -0.41). Conclusions There was lower oral cancer knowledge among African Americans and those with low education. The prevalence of smoking was also very high. Understanding predictors of oral cancer knowledge is important in future design of educational interventions specifically targeted towards high-risk group for oral cancer. PMID:28545057
Shaz, Beth H.; Demmons, Derrick G.; Crittenden, Colleen P.; Carnevale, Claudine V.; Lee, Mark; Burnett, Miriam; Easley, Kirk; Hillyer, Christopher D.
Background An adequate blood supply depends on volunteer non-remunerated blood donors. African Americans have lower blood donation rates than whites. To improve African American blood donation rates, the motivators and barriers to African Americans must be explored. To study the differences in motivators and barriers to blood donation between donor and non-donor African American college students. Methods African Americans college students at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities completed a 41-item, self-administered questionnaire, which assessed participant’s donation frequency, motivators and barriers toward donation, and knowledge and beliefs towards blood donation. Results 364 primarily female college students (96% African Americans, 93% female) completed the questionnaire. 49% reported prior blood donation experience (donors) and 51% were non-donors. The primary motivator for donors and non-donors was convenience (89% donor, 82% non-donor). Donors were more likely than non-donors to disagree with statements regarding blood donation as being too painful (82% donor, 44% non-donor), resulting in feeling faint, dizzy, or nauseated (61% donor, 29% non-donor). Donors more often agreed that the blood supply is safe (77% donor, 58% non-donor), less often concerned about receiving a transfusion (61% donor, 73% non-donor), and more often aware of local blood shortages (50% donor, 35% non-donor). Conclusions African Americans female college students are willing to donate blood given convenience and support from their university. Educational campaigns to increase knowledge regarding the safety of the blood donation process and the ongoing needs of an adequate blood supply might be effective methods to increase blood donation. PMID:19782000
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…
This article explores different aspects of the Islamic religion, or Al-Islam, including the beliefs and religious practices of Muslims; the historical relationship among Africa, African Americans, and Al-Islam; and the current and future implications for African Americans. (Contains 25 references.) (GCP)
Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm
Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.
of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...... in the literature, the authors suggest an analytical framework for understanding African business performance, underlining the interplay between contextual specificities, firm capabilities, and firm strategy....
Woda, Aimee; Haglund, Kristin; Belknap, Ruth Ann; Sebern, Margaret
African Americans have a higher risk of developing heart failure (HF) than persons from other ethnic groups. Once diagnosed, they have lower rates of HF self-care and poorer health outcomes. Promoting engagement in HF self-care is amenable to change and represents an important way to improve the health of African Americans with HF. This study used a community-based participatory action research methodology called photovoice to explore the practice of HF self-care among low-income, urban, community dwelling African Americans. Using the photovoice methodology, themes emerged regarding self-care management and self-care maintenance.
Dana L. Carthron
Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.
Harden, Brenda Jones; Sandstrom, Heather; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel
Persistent disparities exist between African American children and their European American counterparts across developmental domains. Early childhood intervention may serve to promote more positive outcomes among African American children. The current study examined whether and how the Early Head Start (EHS) program benefited African American…
Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R
This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Matsephe M. Letseka
Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.
Blackwell, Jacqueline A.
In 1983, when the author began graduate school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville as the only black student in the Graduate English School, it offered no graduate-level African-American Literature course. Today an undergraduate student at the University of Virginia can major in African-American and African Studies and take courses…
Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin
African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their non-marital coparents who participated in a study of African American single mother families with an 11 to 16 year old child. Specifically, the study examines: 1) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; 2) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and 3) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. PMID:24479612
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but itâs still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle. Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 5/2/2017.
Marlow B. Hernandez
Full Text Available Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, <0.001. In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.
Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.
Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…
Harmon, Brook E; Strayhorn, Shaila; Webb, Benjamin L; Hébert, James R
Religious leaders, particularly African-American pastors, are believed to play a key role in addressing health disparities. Despite the role African-American pastors may play in improving health, there is limited research on pastoral influence. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American pastors' perceptions of their influence in their churches and communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African-American pastors and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Three themes emerged: the historical role of the church; influence as contextual, with pastors using comparisons with other pastors to describe their ability to be influential; and a reciprocal relationship existing such that pastors are influenced by factors such as God and their community while these factors also aid them in influencing others. A conceptual model of pastoral influence was created using data from this study and others to highlight factors that influence pastors, potential outcomes and moderators as well as the reciprocal nature of pastoral influence.
Tabet, Maya; Sanders, Erin A; Schootman, Mario; Chang, Jen Jen; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, Douglas K
We examined associations between observed neighborhood conditions (good/adverse) and psychosocial outcomes (stress, depressive symptoms, resilience, and sense of control) among middle-aged and older African Americans. The sample included 455 middle-aged and older African Americans examined in Wave 10 of the African American Health (AAH) study. Linear regression was adjusted for attrition, self-selection into neighborhoods, and potential confounders, and stratified by the duration at current address (stress (standardized β = -0.18; P = .002) and depressive symptoms (standardized β = -0.12; P = .048). Among those who lived at their current address for stress (standardized β = 0.18; P = .305) or depressive symptoms (standardized β = 0.36; P = .080). Neighborhood conditions appear to have significant, complex associations with psychosocial factors among middle-aged and older African Americans. This holds important policy implications, especially since adverse neighborhood conditions may still result in adverse physical health outcomes in individuals with >5 years at current residence despite being associated with better psychosocial outcomes.
Vickery, Amanda E.
This qualitative study focuses on how 5 African American women social studies teachers utilized their experiential knowledge and understanding of history to make sense of the construct of citizenship. Drawing from Black feminism, this study asks how African American women social studies teachers define and teach the construct of citizenship.…
Amankwaa, Linda Clark
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.
Jasmine L Travers
Full Text Available During the Great Recession in America, African-Americans opted to forgo healthcare more than other racial/ethnic groups. It is not understood whether disparities in forgone care returned to pre-recession levels. Understanding healthcare utilization patterns is important for informing subsequent efforts to decrease healthcare disparities. Therefore, we examined changes in racial disparities in forgone care before, during, and after the Great Recession.Data were pooled from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Forgone medical, mental, and prescription care due to affordability were assessed among African-Americans and Whites. Time periods were classified as: pre-recession (May 2006-November 2007, early recession (December 2007-November 2008, late recession (December 2008-May 2010 and post-recession (June 2010-December 2013. Multivariable logistic regressions of race, interacted with time periods, were used to identify disparities in forgone care controlling for other demographics, health insurance coverage, and having a usual place for medical care across time periods. Adjusted Wald tests were performed to identify significant changes in disparities across time periods.The sample consisted of 110,746 adults. African-Americans were more likely to forgo medical care during the post- recession compared to Whites (OR = 1.16, CI = 1.06, 1.26; changes in foregone medical care disparities were significant in that they increased in the post-recession period compared to the pre-recession (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.08, 1.28 and OR = 0.89, CI = 0.77, 1.04, respectively, adjusted Wald Test p-value < 0.01. No changes in disparities were seen in prescription and mental forgone care.A persistent increase in forgone medical care disparities existed among African-Americans compared to Whites post-Great Recession and may be a result of outstanding issues related to healthcare access, cost, and quality. While health insurance is an important component of access
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.
African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592
Hinson, Tyonne D; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Spatz, Diane L
To examine cultural and socioenvironmental factors that affect breastfeeding initiation among African American women. Qualitative descriptive design and conventional content analysis. A large, inner-city, primary care center affiliated with a 500-bed children's hospital within a large, Northeastern U.S. city. Participants were 34 U.S.-born African American mothers of healthy term infants 0 to 3 months of age. Six focus groups were conducted using a 16-question, scripted interview guide. A number of complex factors that influenced breastfeeding initiation included certain cultural beliefs about sexuality, the influence of family and peer networks, information sources, intentions, and a variety of other barriers and facilitators. Our findings suggest that the decision to initiate breastfeeding is not solely determined by the woman within the African American community. Because this decision is contingent on multiple factors external to the woman, it is important to recognize the role that partners, grandmothers, communities, information sources, and health care providers/organizations play in women's decisions. Implementation of multilevel strategies is critical to increase breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Bryan A.
This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…
Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith
Background: There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic.…
Ervin, Kelly S.
Hypothesized that African American college students with higher racial self-esteem would be more open to diversity and multiculturalism than students with lower racial self-esteem. Surveys indicated that most students valued diversity-oriented courses, though most also believed that diversity courses were biased against African Americans. Students…
Christy L Avery
Full Text Available The QT interval (QT is heritable and its prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Most genetic studies of QT have examined European ancestral populations; however, the increased genetic diversity in African Americans provides opportunities to narrow association signals and identify population-specific variants. We therefore evaluated 6,670 SNPs spanning eleven previously identified QT loci in 8,644 African American participants from two Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial. Of the fifteen known independent QT variants at the eleven previously identified loci, six were significantly associated with QT in African American populations (P≤1.20×10(-4: ATP1B1, PLN1, KCNQ1, NDRG4, and two NOS1AP independent signals. We also identified three population-specific signals significantly associated with QT in African Americans (P≤1.37×10(-5: one at NOS1AP and two at ATP1B1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans assisted in narrowing the region likely to contain the functional variants for several loci. For example, African American LD patterns showed that 0 SNPs were in LD with NOS1AP signal rs12143842, compared with European LD patterns that indicated 87 SNPs, which spanned 114.2 Kb, were in LD with rs12143842. Finally, bioinformatic-based characterization of the nine African American signals pointed to functional candidates located exclusively within non-coding regions, including predicted binding sites for transcription factors such as TBX5, which has been implicated in cardiac structure and conductance. In this detailed evaluation of QT loci, we identified several African Americans SNPs that better define the association with QT and successfully narrowed intervals surrounding established loci. These results demonstrate that the same loci influence variation in QT
Johnson, Jerry; Hayden, Tara; True, Jennifer; Simkin, Daren; Colbert, Louis; Thompson, Beverly; Stewart, Denise; Martin, Latoya
African Americans underuse palliative care and hospice services because of a combination of factors including faith beliefs. As the spiritual family for many African Americans, the church presents an opportunity to improve communication about palliative care and hospice and end-of-life (EOL) decision making. We conducted a focus group study to understand the cultural and spiritual perspectives that influence decisions about palliative care and hospice among African American church members who visit and support persons with life-limiting illnesses. Our specific aims were to elicit their perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about: (1) the relation between faith beliefs and EOL care; (2) emotional and family influences on EOL decision making; (3) palliative care and hospice resources; and (4) opportunities to improve communication among lay persons and health professionals and within families. Seven focus groups using purposeful sampling. We partnered with two African American churches. Of 51 persons, 27 were deacons or deaconesses, 17 were members of health or bereavement ministries, and 7 were other members of the congregations. We found that faith beliefs of African Americans can support discussions about palliative care and hospice. Participants perceived that many of their congregants harbor beliefs, perceptions, and feelings about death and dying that were often not communicated to family members or to health providers. Among African Americans, faith beliefs, emotional issues, family dynamics, and insufficient knowledge of palliative care and hospice are intertwined and influence decision making about palliative care and hospice. Our findings confirm the influence of faith beliefs of African Americans on decisions about palliative care and hospice and demonstrate the opportunity to improve communication about palliative care and hospice and EOL through collaborations with the African American church.
Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.
Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…
Hughes Halbert, Chanita; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Delmoor, Ernestine; Coyne, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Arocho, Justin; Mahler, Brandon; Malkowicz, S Bruce
Although cultural values are increasingly being recognized as important determinants of psychological and behavioral outcomes following cancer diagnosis and treatment, empirical data are not available on cultural values among men. This study evaluated differences in cultural values related to religiosity, temporal orientation, and collectivism among African American and European American men. Participants were 119 African American and European American men who were newly diagnosed with early-stage and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cultural values were evaluated by self-report using standardized instruments during a structured telephone interview. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, African American men reported significantly greater levels of religiosity (Beta = 24.44, P cultural values, clinical experiences with prostate cancer may also be important. This underscores the importance of evaluating the effects of both ethnicity and clinical factors in research on the influence of cultural values on cancer prevention and control.
This report is a program users manual for the Cycling in the African American Community (CAAC) safety training intervention. The CAAC safety training intervention was designed to nudge more African Americans, who are often beginning cyclists...
Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco
The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.
López, Ivette A; Boston, Patricia Q; Dutton, Matthew; Jones, Chauneva Glenn; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Vilme, Helene
To explore causal explanations of obesity among African-American women of diverse weight across the life spectrum. In-depth interviews were conducted with adult African-American women of healthy weight (N = 10), overweight (N = 10), and obese weight (N = 20) to evaluate the relationship between causal explanations of obesity and weight. Generally overlooked dimensions of health definitions were discovered. Differences in weight definitions were detected between women of different weights. Terminology, symptoms, and solutions to obesity were detected between the women of different weights and public health recommendations. Identified causal discrepancies will help bridge the disconnection between public health recommendations and African-American women's perceptions with tailored interventions.
McDaniel, Sharon L.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives on empowerment held by African American women who work in executive positions within higher educational settings. This study also seeks to provide other women with a deeper level of awareness regarding the journey towards executive leadership. Current literature explores…
State standardized tests results indicated that between 2012 and 2016, fewer African American students at a rural, Title I elementary school met state standards in reading compared with other racial/ethnic groups of students. A gap in practice existed because the school and district had not conducted studies to understand teacher knowledge and…
This research investigated African American fathers' involvement in the school-based lives of their elementary-aged children using the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement and Epstein's framework of involvement. Questionnaires were administered to 101 African American males in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.…
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
Bentley L Gibson
Full Text Available Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development, are typically pro-ingroup, and remain stable across the lifespan. Such findings have been interpreted in terms of an automatic ingroup bias similar to what is observed with minimal groups paradigms. These studies are typically conducted with groups of high cultural standing (e.g., Caucasians in North America and Europe. Research conducted among culturally lower status groups (e.g., African-Americans, Latino-Americans reveals a notable absence of an implicit ingroup bias. Understanding the environmental factors that contribute to the absence of an implicit ingroup bias among people from culturally lower status groups is critical for advancing theories of implicit intergroup cognition. The present study aimed to elucidate the factors that shape racial group bias among African-American children and young adults by examining their relationship with age, school composition (predominantly Black schools or racially mixed schools, parental racial attitudes and socialization messages among African-American children (N = 86 and young adults (N = 130. Age, school-type and parents' racial socialization messages were all found to be related to the strength of pro-Black (ingroup bias. We also found that relationships between implicit and explicit bias and frequency of parents' racial socialization messages depended on the type of school participants attended. Our results highlight the importance of considering environmental factors in shaping the magnitude and direction of implicit and explicit race bias among African-Americans rather than treating them as a monolithic group.
Spears, Erica C.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.; Harvey, Idethia S.
There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often…
Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G
Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.
Edward C. Bush
Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.
Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell
Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races.
McDougall, Graham J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat
A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Background: Higher socioeconomic status is known to decrease the risk for poor mental health overall. However, African American males of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are at an increased risk for having a major depressive episode (MDE). It is not known whether perceived discrimination (PD) explains this risk. The current study used nationally representative data to explore the role of PD in explaining the association between high-SES and having MDE among African American men. Methods: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, included 4461 American adults including 1271 African American men. SES indicators (i.e., household income, educational attainment, employment status, and marital status) were the independent variables. 12-month MDE measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was the outcome. Age, gender, and region were the covariates. PD was the potential mediator. For data analysis, we used logistic regression. Results: Among African American men, household income was positively associated with odds of 12-month MDE. The positive association between household income and odds of MDE remained unchanged after adding PD to the model, suggesting that PD may not explain why high-income African American men are at a higher risk of MDE. Conclusions: Perceived discrimination does not explain the increased risk for depression among African American males of higher SES. Future research should explore the role of other potential mechanisms such as stress, coping, social isolation, and/or negative social interaction that may increase psychological costs of upward social mobility for African American males.
Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Kaur Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Baskin, Monica L
According to recent research studies, the built and socioeconomic contexts of neighborhoods are associated with African American adolescents' participation in physical activity and obesity status. However, few research efforts have been devoted to understand how African American adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhood environments may affect physical activity behaviors and obesity status. The objective of the current study was to use a perceived neighborhood disorder conceptual framework to examine whether physical activity mediated the relationship between perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity status among African American adolescents. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that examined social and cultural barriers and facilitators of physical activity among African American adolescents. The study included a sample of 101 African American adolescents age 12 to 16 years and their parents who were recruited from the Birmingham, Alabama metropolitan area. The primary outcome measure was obesity status which was classified using the International Obesity Task Force cut off points. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Perceived neighborhood disorder was assessed using the Perceived Neighborhood Disorder Scale. Mediation models were used to examine whether the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status was mediated by physical activity. Perceived neighborhood disorder was significantly and positively related to obesity status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with obesity status. However, there was no evidence to support a significant mediating effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status. Future studies should longitudinally assess perceived neighborhood disorder characteristics and childhood adiposity to examine the timing, extent, and the mechanisms by which perceived neighborhood
Danielle Taana Smith
This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS), and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I us...
Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.
Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…
Neeleman, J; Wessely, S; Lewis, G
Rates of suicidal behavior are lower among African- than white Americans. We analyzed the association of suicide acceptability with religious, sociodemographic, and emotional variables in representative samples of African-and white Americans (1990). Adjusted for ethnic response bias, the former were
Hoffman, Robert P.
African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10–18 years old) were subdiv...
Hammond, Marie S.; Betz, Nancy E.; Multon, Karen D.; Irvin, Tawana
The psychometric properties of Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (SWVI-R) were examined in a sample of 213 African American college students. Results indicated that the 12-values scales were as reliable and as valid in a sample of African Americans as has been demonstrated within a predominantly White college student sample. Values of…
Northcutt, Kellen Jamil
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…
Walters, Sabrina Denise
African American males face daunting obstacles as they pursue higher education as research has shown. This study sought to better understand the impact of specific factors--social support, racial identity, perceived racial discrimination, coping, and religious coping--on the academic achievement of African American male college student…
Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany; Pressler, Susan J; Coleman-Burns, Patricia; McCall, Alecia
Self-management of hypertension requires patients to find, understand, and use information to lower their blood pressure. Little is known about information use among African American women with hypertension, therefore the purpose of this study was to examine predictors of self-reported information use to self-manage blood pressure. Ninety-four Midwestern African American women (mean age = 59) completed questionnaires about information behaviors (seeking, sharing, use) and personal beliefs (attitude, social norms) related to self-management of blood pressure. Linear regression was used to identify significant predictors of information use. The total variance explained by the model was 36%, F(7, 79) = 6.29, p < .001. Information sharing was the only significant predictor (beta = .46, p < .001). These results provide evidence that information sharing is a potential health behavior to support intervention strategies for African American women with hypertension.
Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Farber, Naomi B
Trends in social welfare policy and programs place increasing expectations on families to provide members with various forms of material and socioemotional support. The historic ability of kin networks of many African Americans to provide such support has been compromised by long-term community and family poverty. The potential mismatch between the expectations of social welfare systems for kin support and the actual functional capacities of kin networks places African Americans living in poverty at great risk of chronic poverty and its long-term multiple consequences. This article reviews historical and contemporary research on the structure and function of African American kin networks. On the basis of evidence of functional decline, the authors argue that social workers must re-examine the a priori assumption of viable kin networks as a reliable source of resilience among African Americans living in poverty. Social workers must focus assessment at all levels of practice on a variety of aspects of kin networks to make accurate judgments about not only the availability of resources, but also the perceived costs and benefits of participation in exchange for resources.
Taylor, Kenneth J.
This study examined the identity development for a sample of 90 African American undergraduate engineering male and female students attending an HBCU. Using the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which is based on Chickering and Reisser's identity development theory, differences in identity development were examined with respect to gender, academic classification, and grade point average. Previous research has shown the need to look beyond academic factors to understand and influence the persistence of African American engineering students. Non-cognitive factors, including identity development have proven to be influential in predicting persistence, especially for African American engineering students. Results from the analysis revealed significant means for academic classification and five of the dependent variables to include career planning peer relations, emotional autonomy, educational involvement, and establishing and clarifying purpose. Post hoc analysis confirmed significant differences for four of those dependent variables. However, the analysis failed to confirm statistical significant differences in peer relations due to academic classification. The significant decline in the mean scores for development in these four areas, as students progressed from sophomore to senior year revealed strong implications for the need to provide programming and guidance for those students. Institutions of higher education should provide more attention to the non-cognitive areas of development as a means of understanding identity development and working toward creating support systems for students.
Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D
This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents.
James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A
The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen
Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…
Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.
Bartlett, Robin; Buck, Raymond; Shattell, Mona M
African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV infection is often acquired during adolescence, a time when risky sexual behaviors are at their peak. This study explored relationships among selected risk factors, protective factors, and risky sexual behaviors among African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents, from a sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. African-Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have sexual intercourse without the use of birth control than were Whites. African-Americans were more likely to have sexual behavior with multiple sexual partners than either Hispanics or Whites were, and African-Americans had higher self-esteem than did Hispanics and Whites. In order to develop culturally sensitive, effective interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS in adolescents, racial differences in risk and protective factors must be examined.
Full Text Available Environmental stressors, such as perceived discrimination (PD, are linked to Binge Eating Disorder (BED. The current study investigated the association between PD and BED among African Americans, and the variation in such an association based on gender. Data of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003, with a nationally-representative sample of African American adults, were used (n = 3516. The independent variable in the study was PD. The dependent variable was BED, measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Socio-demographics (age, education, employment, and marital status were covariates, and gender was the moderator variable. Survey logistic regressions with and without gender × PD interaction terms were used for data analysis. In the pooled sample, PD was associated with higher odds of BED, net of socio-demographic factors. Models also showed a significant gender × PD interaction term suggesting a stronger association between PD and BED for women, compared to men. Gender specific models showed an association between PD and BED among female, but not male, African Americans. Although a link may exist between PD and BED among African Americans, the magnitude of this association depends on gender, with a stronger association among females than males. This finding is in line with the literature that has shown gender-specific consequences of environmental stress for African Americans.
Full Text Available Background: Higher socioeconomic status is known to decrease the risk for poor mental health overall. However, African American males of higher socioeconomic status (SES are at an increased risk for having a major depressive episode (MDE. It is not known whether perceived discrimination (PD explains this risk. The current study used nationally representative data to explore the role of PD in explaining the association between high-SES and having MDE among African American men. Methods: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2003, included 4461 American adults including 1271 African American men. SES indicators (i.e., household income, educational attainment, employment status, and marital status were the independent variables. 12-month MDE measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was the outcome. Age, gender, and region were the covariates. PD was the potential mediator. For data analysis, we used logistic regression. Results: Among African American men, household income was positively associated with odds of 12-month MDE. The positive association between household income and odds of MDE remained unchanged after adding PD to the model, suggesting that PD may not explain why high-income African American men are at a higher risk of MDE. Conclusions: Perceived discrimination does not explain the increased risk for depression among African American males of higher SES. Future research should explore the role of other potential mechanisms such as stress, coping, social isolation, and/or negative social interaction that may increase psychological costs of upward social mobility for African American males.
Harris, Charlene; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Bolland, John M.
The current study assessed for bidirectional relationships among supportive parenting (knowledge), negative parenting (permissiveness), and deviance in a sample (N = 5,325) of poor, inner-city African American youth from the Mobile Youth Survey (MYS) over 4 years. Cross-lagged path analysis provided evidence of significant bidirectional paths among parenting processes (knowledge and permissiveness) and deviance over time. Follow-up multigroup tests provided only modest evidence of dissimilar relationships by sex and by developmental periods. The findings improve our understanding of developmental changes between parenting behaviors and deviance during adolescence and extended current research of the bidirectionality of parent and child relationships among inner-city African American youth. PMID:28316460
Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell
African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery
Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.
Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.
History and Reconstruction is an interdisciplinary project to assess the impact of African American history education for black men. Under the theory of trauma recovery, leading scholars of African American history worked with a group of ten ex-offenders, supported by the services of a psychologist and an African American cultural expert and storyteller. Results based on psychological testing and qualitative feedback showed that history can be a catalyst for personal development and transformation. It also demonstrated that difficult history can be taught and assimilated for audience benefit. History and Reconstruction was supported by the Pew Center for Arts and Heritage.
Zulu, Itibari M.
Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…
Gibbs, J T
African-American suicide rates have traditionally been lower than White rates despite a legacy of racial discrimination, persistent poverty, social isolation, and lack of community resources. This paper focuses on four issues: (1) patterns and trends of Black suicide across the lifespan; (2) risk and protective factors in subgroups of Blacks; (3) the influence of cultural factors on suicide patterns of Blacks; and (4) implications of these patterns for prevention and early intervention of suicidal behavior among African Americans. Risk factors for Black suicide include: male sex, early adulthood, substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, family or interpersonal conflict, antisocial behavior, and homosexuality. Protective factors that mitigate the risks of suicide include religiosity, older age, southern residence, and social support. Implications for preventive policies and programs are discussed to counter the recent trend of rising suicide rates among adolescents and very elderly Blacks.
Mitchell, Jamie A; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Williams, Ed-Dee G; Thorpe, Roland
This study represents an effort to contribute to the limited body of research on biopsychosocial contextual factors that influence or contribute to mobility limitations for older African American men. Specifically, we were interested in examining associations between socio-demographic, physical and emotional health experiences with mobility limitations. A secondary analysis of 1666 older African American men was performed to investigate socio-demographic, mental and physical health correlates to a specific measures of mobility limitation. In the final model, difficulty with self-care, severe pain interference, and problems with usual activities were most strongly associated with mobility limitations. Men who were married were significantly less likely to experience mobility limitations. Findings highlighted the relationship between mobility limitations and difficulty performing activities of daily living. Additional research should examine the impact of poor emotional health and the buffering effects of marriage on mobility for older African American men, a population at high risk of experiencing disparate health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shearin, Sherin A
As the achievement gap between African American and while students persists, an examination of factors outside the school setting are essential. Acknowledging the dynamics of family environment as perceived by African American adolescent males is apposite to understanding the relationship between family environment and academic achievement. Utilizing an ecological perspective, this study describes the characteristics of family process variables and analyzes the adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent interaction and its influence on their psychological well-being. Results indicate that a substantial proportion of the 179 adolescent males who perceived parent-adolescent interaction as positive and were identified as having a stable psychological well-being, were more likely to have average to above-average grade point averages, high Stanford Nine scores and high achievement group membership, than those adolescent males who did not perceive parent-adolescent interaction as positive.
Stroud, George H.
Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hamade, Hiam; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Palamisono, Gloria; Zambrana, Ruth E.
Introduction We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Methods Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 20...
Ray, Tiffany Monique
The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level
Nelson, Devin S; Gerras, Julia M; McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Gill, Amaanat K; Kanneganti, Kamala; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental factors, including household education, community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and cultural identity, and BMI in African American adolescents. A community-based sample of 198 African American youth (120 girls, 78 boys; ages 11-19 years) from Washtenaw County, Michigan, were included in this analysis. Violence exposure was assessed by using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence; racial discrimination by using the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index; cultural identity by using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents; and household education by using a seven-category variable. Measured height and body weight were used to calculate BMI. Racial discrimination was positively associated with BMI, whereas household education was inversely associated with BMI in African American adolescents (discrimination: β = 0.11 ± 0.04, p = 0.01; education: β = -1.13 ± 0.47, p = 0.02). These relationships were significant when accounting for the confounding effects of stress, activity, diet, and pubertal development. Significant gender interactions were observed with racial discrimination and low household education associated with BMI in girls only (discrimination: β = 0.16 ± 0.05, p = 0.003; education: β = -1.12 ± 0.55, p = 0.045). There were no significant relationships between culture, community violence exposure, and BMI (all p's > 0.05). Environmental factors, including racial discrimination and low household education, predicted higher BMI in African American adolescents, particularly among girls. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which these environmental factors increase obesity risk in African American youth.
Ijames, Erika Denise
Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of
Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Hood, Kristina B; Corneille, Maya A; Fitzgerald, Angela Y; Belgrave, Faye Z
African-American women continue to be at high risk for HIV and better prevention efforts are needed. The current paper sought to investigate the relationship between gender roles and condom-related outcomes among African American women. The sample consisted of 398 African-American women, who were administered a survey that contained measures of condom-related outcomes and gender role beliefs. We factor analysed their responses and three domains emerged: caretaking/mindful, interpersonal sensitivity and persistent/active coping. Results indicated that the interpersonal sensitivity domain was a significant predictor of condom use and intention with higher interpersonal sensitivity scores associated with less condom use and intentions. The persistent/active coping domain was a significant predictor of condom negotiation efficacy and condom use with higher scores in this domain associated with more condom negotiation efficacy and use. Results suggest that re-conceptualisations offer a better understanding of underlying traits that may influence condom-related outcomes for this population.
McClelland, Molly L; Weekes, Carmon V N; Bazzi, Hussein; Warwinsky, Joshua; Abouarabi, Wassim; Snell, Felicia; Salamey, Tarick
Effectiveness of health education programs and interventions, designed to improve obesity rates, may vary according to perceptions of health within cultural groups. A qualitative approach was used. Two minority cultural groups (Arab-American and African-American) living in the same county were studied to compare perceptions of health, nutrition, and obesity and subsequent health behaviors. Control, expectations, bias, acceptance, and access were the five themes identified. Arab-Americans that had lower weights, lower prevalence of chronic diseases, expected healthy weights, reported age and gender bias related to being overweight were not as accepting of being overweight and did not report difficulties in accessing healthy food choices compared to their African-American counterparts. Health interventions aimed at reducing obesity rates and related chronic diseases should be culturally specific and aimed at changing expected and accepted cultural norms. Cultural group's void of certain disease states should be studied and used as models to ameliorate the problem in other cultures. Changing health behaviors within a certain cultural group may produce better outcomes when initiated from a member of that same group. The impact of economic and environmental factors on health behaviors must also be considered.
Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.
Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…
Stone, Daryl Bryant
The literature on African-American males (AAM) begins with a statement to the effect that "Today young Black men are more likely to be killed or sent to prison than to graduate from college." Why are the numbers of African-American male college graduates decreasing? Why are those enrolled in college not majoring in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines? This research explored why African-American males are not filling the well-recognized industry need for Computer Scientist/Technologists by choosing college tracks to these careers. The literature on STEM disciplines focuses largely on women in STEM, as opposed to minorities, and within minorities, there is a noticeable research gap in addressing the needs and opportunities available to African-American males. The primary goal of this study was therefore to examine the computer science "pipeline" from the African-American male perspective. The method included a "Computer Science Degree Self-Efficacy Scale" be distributed to five groups of African-American male students, to include: (1) fourth graders, (2) eighth graders, (3) eleventh graders, (4) underclass undergraduate computer science majors, and (5) upperclass undergraduate computer science majors. In addition to a 30-question self-efficacy test, subjects from each group were asked to participate in a group discussion about "African-American males in computer science." The audio record of each group meeting provides qualitative data for the study. The hypotheses include the following: (1) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between fourth and eighth graders. (2) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eighth and eleventh graders. (3) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree" self-efficacy between eleventh graders and lower-level computer science majors. (4) There is no significant difference in "Computer Science Degree
Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven
The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...
Satia, Jessie A; Galanko, Joseph A
To describe associations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for dietary change with participant characteristics and current diet among African Americans. Cross-sectional survey of 658 African American adults in North Carolina provided information on intrinsic (self-image and health concerns) and extrinsic (social influence) motivation scales, participant characteristics, and diet. Most respondents considered it important to change their diet for health reasons; fewer were motivated by self-image or social influence. Motivation scales were significantly associated with demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics and fat, but not fruit/vegetable consumption, after adjustment for covariates (Pextrinsic motives may improve the effectiveness of dietary interventions in African Americans.
Lee, E Bun
This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.
Jackson, Lisa D
This article will examine the social implications for African American homosexual males seeking to achieve the American Dream. Invisible Life and Just as I Am-the first two novels in a trilogy by the late E. Lynn Harris writing from a semi-autobiographical perspective in late-twentieth century America-will serve as the texts that drive this research topic. Careful analysis of these works will substantiate the assertion that the American Dream, even on the cusp of the new millennium, is just beyond the grasp of this specific subpopulation.
Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Amy L.; Cancelli, Anthony A.
Study examines the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. Results indicate that women preferred avoidance coping for racism experienced on a personal level. For African Americans in general, seeking social support and racism condition were the best predictors of racism-related stress. Life…
Teen dating violence is more prevalent among African Americans than any other racial group in the United States leading to serious health consequences for victims. However, limited data exists on how African American adolescents' attitudes and perceptions regarding dating violence are formed, and whether they are influenced by family members. The…
Blake, Jamilia J.; Keith, Verna M.; Luo, Wen; Le, Huong; Salter, Phia
African American female students' elevated suspension risk has received national attention. Despite a number of studies documenting racial/ethnic disparities in African American females' school suspension risk, few investigations have attempted to explain why these disparities occur. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of colorism in…
This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…
Moskowitz, Gordon B; Stone, Jeff; Childs, Amanda
We investigated whether stereotypes unconsciously influence the thinking and behavior of physicians, as they have been shown to do in other professional settings, such as among law enforcement personnel and teachers. We conducted 2 studies to examine whether stereotypes are implicitly activated in physicians. Study 1 assessed what diseases and treatments doctors associate with African Americans. Study 2 presented these (and control terms) to doctors as part of a computerized task. Subliminal images of African American and White men appeared prior to each word, and reaction times to words were recorded. When primed with an African American face, doctors reacted more quickly for stereotypical diseases, indicating an implicit association of certain diseases with African Americans. These comprised not only diseases African Americans are genetically predisposed to, but also conditions and social behaviors with no biological association (e.g., obesity, drug abuse). We found implicit stereotyping among physicians; faces they never consciously saw altered performance. This suggests that diagnoses and treatment of African American patients may be biased, even in the absence of the practitioner's intent or awareness.
Tate, Nutrena H; Dillaway, Heather E; Yarandi, Hossein N; Jones, Lenette M; Wilson, Feleta L
African American adolescents experience higher rates of obesity and have an increased risk of obesity-related diseases than do White American adolescents. Despite culturally sensitive obesity preventive interventions, obesity rates are increasing within the African American adolescent population. Current obesity interventions do not usually address the heterogeneity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], gender, and residential status differences) within the African American adolescent community that can affect the efficacy of these interventions. To examine the gender, SES, and residential status differences related to obesity and weight behaviors in African American adolescents. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 15- to 17-year-old African American adolescents (n = 145) from community clinics, youth organizations, churches, and social networks in metropolitan and inner-city Detroit. Data were collected through use of survey methods and analyzed with use of descriptive statistics, independent sample t tests, and multiple regression equations. Female adolescents consumed foods higher in fat and calories (t = -2.36, p = .019) and had more body fat (t = -9.37, p = .000) than did males. Adolescents of lower SES consumed food higher in fat and calories (t = -2.23, p = .027) and had higher body mass (t = -2.57, p = .011) than did adolescents of higher SES. Inner-city African American adolescents had higher levels of physical activity (t = -2.39, p = .018) and higher body mass (t = 2.24, p = .027) than did suburban African American adolescent counterparts. Gender, SES, and residential status were statistically significant predictors of eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index, and body fat. The initial findings from the study will assist in better understanding the obesity epidemic that affects African American adolescents in disparate proportions. Further examination of the study variables is essential to serve as a basis for
Muna Sulaiman Al-Badaai
Full Text Available Ayyub Ben Suleiman Diallo, better known as Job ben Solomon was among thousands of African Muslims enslaved in America. Job was a son of a high Priest from Senegal. He was kidnapped by his African enemy and sold as a slave in the New World in 1731. He worked on a tobacco plantation in Maryland. He ran away and was captured and imprisoned. Job’s literacy in Arabic attracted the attention of the philanthropist James Oglethorpe who helped to free him. In 1733, Job sailed to England and later returned to Africa. Upon Job’s request, Thomas Bluett wrote Some Memoirs of the Life of Job the Son of Solomon (1734. Allan Austin claims in his book African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles (1997 that Job might be considered as the “father of African American Literature”. Muhammad Al-Ahari (2006 states that this account “is perhaps the earliest biography of any African-Americans”. However, William Andrews (1988 with other scholars consider the year of 1760 the appearance of slave narrative as genre. What is more, African Muslim slave narratives have been excluded from African American anthologies. Florence Marfo (2009 in her article entitled “African Muslims in African American Literature” discusses some possible reasons for this omission which mostly relate to the perceived identity of enslaved African American Muslims and the absence of an anti-slavery goal in their narratives. This paper aims to position Job’s testimony in the light of arguments made by the other scholars.
Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D
The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.
Peprah, Emmanuel; Xu, Huichun; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Royal, Charmaine D.
Genomic research is one of the tools for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases of global health relevance, and paving the research dimension to clinical and public health translation. Recent advances in genomic research and technologies have increased our understanding of human diseases, genes associated with these disorders, and the relevant mechanisms. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proliferated since the first studies were published several years ago, and have become an important tool in helping researchers comprehend human variation and the role genetic variants play in disease. However, the need to expand the diversity of populations in GWAS has become increasingly apparent as new knowledge is gained about genetic variation. Inclusion of diverse populations in genomic studies is critical to a more complete understanding of human variation and elucidation of the underpinnings of complex diseases. In this review, we summarize the available data on GWAS in recent-African ancestry populations within the western hemisphere (i.e. African Americans and peoples of the Caribbean) and continental African populations. Furthermore, we highlight ways in which genomic studies in populations of recent African ancestry have led to advances in the areas of malaria, HIV, prostate cancer, and other diseases. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting GWAS in recent African ancestry populations in the context of addressing existing and emerging global health conditions. PMID:25427668
Peprah, Emmanuel; Xu, Huichun; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Royal, Charmaine D
Genomic research is one of the tools for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases of global health relevance and paving the research dimension to clinical and public health translation. Recent advances in genomic research and technologies have increased our understanding of human diseases, genes associated with these disorders, and the relevant mechanisms. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proliferated since the first studies were published several years ago and have become an important tool in helping researchers comprehend human variation and the role genetic variants play in disease. However, the need to expand the diversity of populations in GWAS has become increasingly apparent as new knowledge is gained about genetic variation. Inclusion of diverse populations in genomic studies is critical to a more complete understanding of human variation and elucidation of the underpinnings of complex diseases. In this review, we summarize the available data on GWAS in recent African ancestry populations within the western hemisphere (i.e. African Americans and peoples of the Caribbean) and continental African populations. Furthermore, we highlight ways in which genomic studies in populations of recent African ancestry have led to advances in the areas of malaria, HIV, prostate cancer, and other diseases. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting GWAS in recent African ancestry populations in the context of addressing existing and emerging global health conditions.
Duffrin, Christopher; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Briley, Alexis; Christiano, Cynthia
This study analysed the validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire designed for African-American patients with low literacy. This instrument was designed specifically to meet the need for a tool that was short, easy to understand, and met clinical reliability and validity standards. Assessing patient nutritional status and dietary intake is crucial to the care of patients in end stage kidney disease. The development of a quick and reliable nutritional assessment tool for patients with low literacy could increase nutritional counselling effectiveness and improve patient outcomes. The renal food frequency questionnaire (RFF) and a standard 24-hour recall were administered to a general population of African-American patients undergoing dialysis. Registered Dieticians and statistical analyses were used to validate the content and structural validity and reliability of the RFF to adequately measure dietary intake. The study sample consisted of 30 African-American patients who received dialysis treatment at a regional teaching hospital facility. The RFF was found to be a simple, easy to understand instrument with low reading complexity (grade level 4.4). Inter-rater reliability was found to be high (.81-1.00), and statistical analysis determined a high level of clinical validity. The RFF was found to be a valid dietary recall tool that is appropriate for patients with limited literacy. It was found to have acceptable reliability and validity when compared with a standard 24-hour recall and has potential for use as a dietary intake and monitoring tool in patients undergoing dialysis. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Porter, Lauren; Shriver, Lenka H; Ramsay, Samantha
Objectives Health disparities are prevalent in the U.S., with low-income African American children suffering from high rates of obesity and related conditions. Better understanding of parental attitudes and barriers related to healthy eating and obesity risk is needed to suggest more effective intervention foci for this at-risk population. Methods African American caregivers of 3-5 year old children were recruited for focus groups and a questionnaire completion from two Head Start programs in a southeastern state of the U.S. The Social Cognitive Theory was utilized to develop a focus group guide. Focus group recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the comparative content analysis. Results Eight focus groups (all participants were mothers) yielded the following main themes: (1) general nutrition knowledge but common misconceptions about foods/beverages; (2) beliefs that meals have to include meat and starch and be home-cooked to be healthy; (3) desire to feed children better than their own parents; (4) lack of family support and child pickiness perceived as the greatest barriers to healthy eating; (5) awareness of family history of diseases; and (6) low concern about children's current diet and weight status. Over 25 % of mothers underestimated their child weight status. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of understanding maternal perspectives related to food, eating, and weight among low-income African American mothers of preschoolers. Nutrition educators should be aware of misconceptions and recognize that mothers might not perceive diet quality in early childhood as having strong impact on the child's future health and/or obesity risks.
Hensley Alford, Sharon; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B; Merajver, Sofia D
Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973-2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American women. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women.
Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J
The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.
Robinson, W Lavome; Paxton, Keisha C; Jonen, Lynn P
Youth violence continues to present a serious public health challenge in the United States, particularly so for African American adolescent males. The present study utilized a multilevel approach to predict aggression within a community sample of low-income, urban African American adolescent males (n = 80). Participants' self-report data on normative beliefs about aggression, exposure to community violence, and depressive symptoms were used in multiple regression equations to predict (a) self-reported interpersonal aggression and (b) self-reported aggressive response style when angered. Results of this study indicate that all three of the independent variables contributed significantly to the prediction of interpersonal aggression and aggressive response style when angered. The findings are important for increasing our understanding of pathways to various types of youth aggression and guiding the development of evidence-based approaches to violence prevention among African American adolescent males.
Crim, Sharan R.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) reports an achievement gap between male and female students and majority and minority students in science literacy. Rutherford and Algren (2000) describe a scientifically literate person as one who is aware that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent human enterprises with strengths and limitations; understands key concepts and principles of science; is familiar with the natural world and recognizes both its diversity and unity; and uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for individual and social purposes. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to investigate African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy. A social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) and constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1977) served as a guide for the researcher. Two questions were explored: (1) What are African American eighth grade female students' perceptions and experiences as learners of science literacy? (2) In what ways do the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students influence their learning of science literacy? Purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998) was used with four African American eighth grade female students selected as participants for the study. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and August in a single year. Data sources included an open-ended questionnaire, two in-depth interviews with each participant (Seidman, 1991); classroom observations, participant reflective journals, student artifacts, and a researcher's log. Data were analyzed through the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and richly descriptive participant portraits and qualitative case studies (Merriam, 1998) were used to report the findings. Three themes emerged from the study that positively affected the perceptions and experiences of African American eighth grade female students as
Benjamin, Ludy T; Henry, Keisha D; McMahon, Lance R
Inez Beverly Prosser (ca. 1895-1934) was arguably the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in psychology. Her dissertation, completed in 1933, examined personality differences in black children attending either voluntarily segregated or integrated schools and concluded that black children were better served in segregated schools. This research was one of several studies in the 1920s and 1930s that was part of the debate on segregated schools as maintained in the United States under the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This article examines the life and career of Prosser in the context of educational barriers and opportunities for African Americans in the early part of the twentieth century and explores the arguments that pitted African Americans against one another in determining how best to educate black children, arguments that eventually led to the desegregation decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A
To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.
A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…
Best, Bonnie M.
Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.
Traces the long and varied history of interaction and collective action by African Americans and Latinos, focusing on common culture and political cooperation. Outlines issues related to the continued cooperation of African Americans and Latinos, and common political projects. (SLD)
Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.
Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…
Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A
Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Sitarik, Alexandra R; Havstad, Suzanne; Park, Sung Kyun; Bielak, Lawrence F; Austin, Christine; Johnson, Christine Cole; Arora, Manish
Recent public health lead crises in urban areas emphasize the need to better understand exposure to environmental toxicants, particularly in higher risk groups. Although African-American children have the highest prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in the United States, little is known about when this trajectory of disproportionate burden of lead exposure first emerges. Using tooth-matrix biomarkers that directly measure fetal and early childhood metal levels, the primary goal of this study was to determine if there were racial disparities in lead levels during fetal development and early childhood. Manganese, an essential nutrient that modifies the neurotoxic effects of lead, was also measured. Pregnant women served by the Henry Ford Health System and living in a predefined geographic area in and around Detroit, Michigan, were recruited during the second trimester or later into the Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study (WHEALS), a population-based birth cohort. Offspring born between September 2003 and December 2007 were studied in childhood. Child race was parent-reported. Lead and manganese during the second and third trimesters, early postnatal life (birth through age 1year) and early childhood (age 1 through time of tooth shedding, which ranges from 6 to 12years) were measured via high-resolution microspatial mapping of dentin growth rings, a validated biomarker for prenatal and childhood metal exposure. African-American children (N=71) had 2.2 times higher lead levels in the second and third trimesters (both pAfrican-American children were also higher during childhood, but this effect was only marginally significant (p=0.066) and was attenuated after covariate adjustment. Additionally, we observed that African-American children had lower tooth‑manganese levels during the third trimester (p=0.063) and postnatally (p=0.043), however these differences were attenuated after covariate adjustment. The disproportionate burden
Zellner Lawrence, Tiffany; Henry Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia; Archie-Booker, Elaine; Johnson, Tarita; Evans, Donoria
African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE) Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12-18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008-2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention ( n = 651) and comparison ( n = 112) groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent ( p = 0.0005). Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60). Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions.
Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.
The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate African American fathers’ perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health.Methods: This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n=3 and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included African American fathers (n=20 with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79, with at least one child between 6-18 years old.Results: Four major themes were revealed: (1 appropriate health education for participants’ children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents; (2 participants’ paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive; (3 participants’ perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints; and (4 paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet.Conclusion: Understanding African American fathers’ perceived and desired role in their children’s health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities.
Knezevic, Alexander; Munk, Marion R; Pappas, Frankie; Merrill, Pauline T; Goldstein, Debra A
To report the first documented case of HLA-A29-positive birdshot chorioretinopathy in an African American patient. A 51-year-old African American woman presented with a 10-year history of photopsia, progressive decrease in visual acuity, metamorphopsia, and new nyctalopia. Both fundi showed evidence of periphlebitis, arterial attenuation, macular edema, and diffuse chorioretinal atrophy. Fluorescein angiography revealed diffuse vascular leakage, and indocyanine green showed evenly distributed and symmetrical hypofluorescent spots, which were difficult to appreciate on fundoscopy. Workup revealed a positive HLA-A29 and was negative for sarcoid, tuberculosis, and syphilis. Birdshot chorioretinopathy overwhelmingly affects non-Hispanic Caucasians, but there have been rare reported cases in other ethnicities including Hispanics and African Americans. This patient's ethnicity may have contributed to the 10-year delay in diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first documented HLA-A29 positive case of birdshot chorioretinopathy in an African American. HLA-A29 may be a useful supportive test in cases with classic clinical presentation in non-Caucasian patients to enable the correct diagnose in a timely manner.
Farkas, George; And Others
Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…
Cené, Crystal W; Akers, Aletha Y; Lloyd, Stacey W; Albritton, Tashuna; Powell Hammond, Wizdom; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
African Americans (AA) and rural communities often suffer disproportionately from poorer health. Theory-guided research examining how individual- and community-level factors influence health behaviors and contribute to disparities is needed. To understand how a social network model that captures the interplay between individual and community factors might inform community-based interventions to reduce HIV risk in rural AA communities. Qualitative study. Eleven focus groups with 38 AA 16-24 year olds, 42 adults over age 25, and 13 formerly incarcerated individuals held in community settings in two rural, predominantly AA counties in North Carolina. Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with multiethnic key informants. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with open-ended questions assessed a) perceptions of multi-level HIV risk determinants from a social network model (individual, interpersonal, social, economic, political and structural) identified through literature review and b) community needs and assets affecting local HIV rates. Qualitative data was analyzed using directive content analysis guided by a social network model. We identified four themes regarding the interaction between individuals and their communities that mediate HIV risk: interpersonal processes, community structural environment, social disorder, and civic engagement. Communities were characterized as having a high degree of cohesiveness, tension, and HIV-related stigma. The community structural environment-characterized by neighborhood poverty, lack of skilled jobs, segregation, political disenfranchisement and institutional racism-was felt to reduce the availability and accessibility of resources to combat HIV. Adults noted an inability to combat social problems due to social disorder, which fuels HIV risk behaviors. Civic engagement as a means of identifying community concerns and developing solutions is limited by churches' reluctance to address HIV-related issues. To combat HIV
Full Text Available This article provides a series of close readings of Barack Obama’s autobiography Dreams from My Father. It places the narrative within the history of African American literature and rhetoric and argues that Obama uses the text to create a life story that resonates with central concepts of African American selfhood and black male identity, including double consciousness, invisibility, and black nationalism. The article reads Dreams from My Father as an attempt to arrive at a state of “functional Blackness,” which moves away from questions of racial authenticity and identity politics but recognizes the narrative powers of African American literature to shape a convincing and appealing black self.
Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…
Doward, Jr, Oscar W
.... The monograph examines the African American Army officer's service during each period of major conflict over the last 100 years to explain why modern-day African American Army officers are prone...
Kamoun, Camilia; Spatz, Diane
Little is known regarding the influence of religion on breastfeeding in African American communities. In particular, whether Islamic traditions influence breastfeeding beliefs and practices among African American Muslims has not been studied. Research aim: This study sought to gain understanding of breastfeeding attitudes, rates, and education among African American Muslims in West Philadelphia and to examine if engaging Islamic teachings in breastfeeding education can positively influence breastfeeding attitudes. Open-ended, in-person, digitally recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 community leaders and analyzed by conventional content analysis. A study tool distributed to a convenience sample of 44 community members and 11 leaders was used to gather information about education received from community leaders, breastfeeding attitudes and practices, and the potential for Islamic teachings to positively affect breastfeeding attitudes and practices. To obtain further data on this last topic, preliminary data analysis guided the creation of an education pamphlet, about which feedback was gathered through another study tool. Education surrounding Islamic perspectives on breastfeeding was not prevalent. African American Muslims in West Philadelphia view breastfeeding favorably and have higher rates of breastfeeding than African Americans as a whole. Community education about breastfeeding that engaged Islamic teachings improved respondents' breastfeeding attitudes. Increasing education among providers and African American Muslims about Islamic perspectives on breastfeeding may improve breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. Healthcare providers who care for Muslim women should be aware of Islam's tradition of positive attitudes toward breastfeeding and partner with Muslim leaders to improve breastfeeding rates and duration among such women.
Baker, Robert B; Washington, Harriet A; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R
An independent panel of experts, convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) Institute for Ethics, analyzed the roots of the racial divide within American medical organizations. In this, the first of a 2-part report, we describe 2 watershed moments that helped institutionalize the racial divide. The first occurred in the 1870s, when 2 medical societies from Washington, DC, sent rival delegations to the AMA's national meetings: an all-white delegation from a medical society that the US courts and Congress had formally censured for discriminating against black physicians; and an integrated delegation from a medical society led by physicians from Howard University. Through parliamentary maneuvers and variable enforcement of credentialing standards, the integrated delegation was twice excluded from the AMA's meetings, while the all-white society's delegations were admitted. AMA leaders then voted to devolve the power to select delegates to state societies, thereby accepting segregation in constituent societies and forcing African American physicians to create their own, separate organizations. A second watershed involved AMA-promoted educational reforms, including the 1910 Flexner report. Straightforwardly applied, the report's population-based criterion for determining the need for phySicians would have recommended increased training of African American physicians to serve the approximately 9 million African Americans in the segregated south. Instead, the report recommended closing all but 2 African American medical schools, helping to cement in place an African American educational system that was separate, unequal, and destined to be insufficient to the needs of African Americans nationwide.
My thesis presents Hip Hop as a continuation of the African American protest tradition. Drawing upon literature from recognized African American protest movements, including abolitionism, antilynching campaigns, the Civil Rights movement and Black Power, I present Hip Hop as the current embodiment of the protest aesthetic. My work develops the existing understanding of the African American protest aesthetic through the creation of three rhetorical devices or identifiers, embodied by all canon...
Jones, Keith Wayne
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government
Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence
Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…
Williams, Monnica T; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin E
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig's List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kollipara, Usha K; Mo, Vivian; Toto, Kathleen H; Nelson, Lauren L; Schneider, Ruth A; Neily, Jennifer B; Drazner, Mark H
Sodium restriction is important in the management of heart failure (HF). Although many low-sodium educational resources are available, few are directed specifically at urban African Americans. A registered dietitian prospectively interviewed 50 African-American and 25 white patients in an urban public hospital (derivation cohort) in Dallas, TX, using a food-frequency instrument that listed 146 food choices. Foods >300 mg sodium/serving consumed at least weekly by 50% of an ethnic group were classified as being a high-sodium core food for that group. Classification of foods (core or not core) was validated in a second African-American cohort (n = 144). Five high-sodium food choices were classified as core food in both the derivation and validation African-American cohorts (salt in cooking, canned vegetables, cheese, processed meats, and cold cereal) and another 3 when the derivation and validation cohorts were combined (fast food, fried chicken, and corn bread). Four of these 8 foods were not classified as core foods in whites. Eight high-sodium foods were frequently consumed by southern, urban African Americans with heart failure. Several of these foods were not commonly consumed by whites, emphasizing the need to be sensitive to ethnic differences in dietary habits when educating patients about sodium intake.
Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise
Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.
Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons
The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.
Travers, Jasmine L; Cohen, Catherine C; Dick, Andrew W; Stone, Patricia W
During the Great Recession in America, African-Americans opted to forgo healthcare more than other racial/ethnic groups. It is not understood whether disparities in forgone care returned to pre-recession levels. Understanding healthcare utilization patterns is important for informing subsequent efforts to decrease healthcare disparities. Therefore, we examined changes in racial disparities in forgone care before, during, and after the Great Recession. Data were pooled from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Forgone medical, mental, and prescription care due to affordability were assessed among African-Americans and Whites. Time periods were classified as: pre-recession (May 2006-November 2007), early recession (December 2007-November 2008), late recession (December 2008-May 2010) and post-recession (June 2010-December 2013). Multivariable logistic regressions of race, interacted with time periods, were used to identify disparities in forgone care controlling for other demographics, health insurance coverage, and having a usual place for medical care across time periods. Adjusted Wald tests were performed to identify significant changes in disparities across time periods. The sample consisted of 110,746 adults. African-Americans were more likely to forgo medical care during the post- recession compared to Whites (OR = 1.16, CI = 1.06, 1.26); changes in foregone medical care disparities were significant in that they increased in the post-recession period compared to the pre-recession (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.08, 1.28 and OR = 0.89, CI = 0.77, 1.04, respectively, adjusted Wald Test p-value Great Recession and may be a result of outstanding issues related to healthcare access, cost, and quality. While health insurance is an important component of access to care, it alone should not be expected to remove these disparities due to other financial constraints. Additional strategies are necessary to close remaining gaps in care widened by the Great Recession.
Halasa, Katrina Bassam
The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…
Many people regard the doctorate as the pinnacle of success. Despite the challenges of completing the terminal degree, the dream of earning the doctoral degree remains a goal for many every year. Understanding the phenomenon of African American student enrollment at for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs) is necessary because many African…
Payne, Richard; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha N.
Abstract Background: Experts and national organizations recommend that hospices work to increase service to African Americans, a group historically underrepresented in hospice. Objective: The study objective was to describe strategies among hospices in North and South Carolina to increase service to African Americans and identify hospice characteristics associated with these efforts. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using investigator-developed scales to measure frequency of community education/outreach, directed marketing, efforts to recruit African American staff, cultural sensitivity training, and goals to increase service to African Americans. We used nonparametric Wilcoxon tests to compare mean scale scores by sample characteristics. Results: Of 118 eligible hospices, 79 (67%) completed the survey. Over 80% were at least somewhat concerned about the low proportion of African Americans they served, and 78.5% had set goals to increase service to African Americans. Most were engaged in community education/outreach, with 92.4% reporting outreach to churches, 76.0% to social services organizations, 40.5% to businesses, 35.4% to civic groups, and over half to health care providers; 48.0% reported directed marketing via newspaper and 40.5% via radio. The vast majority reported efforts to recruit African American staff, most often registered nurses (63.75%). Nearly 90% offered cultural sensitivity training to staff. The frequency of strategies to increase service to African Americans did not vary by hospice characteristics, such as profit status, size, or vertical integration, but was greater among hospices that had set goals to increase service to African Americans. Conclusions: Many hospices are engaged in efforts to increase service to African Americans. Future research should determine which strategies are most effective. PMID:26840854
Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven
The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...
Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin
When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.
Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips
The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…
Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…
Alston, Chandra L.
The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…
Scholars in African American religion engage the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as the focal point of the African American experience in institutional medicine. Seeking a way forward from this history and its intentional evil, the author proposes to position Tuskegee as a form of Lynch's culturally contextual sacred rhetoric to make use of its metaphoric value in the emerging field of African American religion and health. In this broader meaning-making frame, Tuskegee serves as a reminder that African American religious sensibility has long been an agential resource that counters abuse of the Black body. It also acknowledges the complex decisions facing African American clinical trial participants.
Barrington, Wendy E; Schenk, Jeannette M; Etzioni, Ruth; Arnold, Kathryn B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Ian M; Lucia, M Scott; Kristal, Alan R
African American men have the highest rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Understanding underlying reasons for this disparity could identify preventive interventions important to African American men. To determine whether the association of obesity with prostate cancer risk differs between African American and non-Hispanic white men and whether obesity modifies the excess risk associated with African American race. Prospective study of 3398 African American and 22,673 non-Hispanic white men who participated in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (2001-2011) with present analyses completed in 2014. Total, low-grade (Gleason score American men and a corresponding 1453, 898, and 441 cases in non-Hispanic white men, respectively. Although not associated with risk among non-Hispanic white men, BMI was positively associated with an increase in risk among African American men (BMI, American race increased from 28% (HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 0.91-1.80]) among men with BMI less than 25 to 103% (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.38-2.98]) among African American men with BMI at least 35 (P for trend = .03). Body mass index was inversely associated with low-grade prostate cancer risk within non-Hispanic white men (BMI, American men (BMI, American men, although the increase may be larger within African American men, albeit the racial interaction was not statistically significant (BMI, Obesity is more strongly associated with increased prostate cancer risk among African American than non-Hispanic white men and reducing obesity among African American men could reduce the racial disparity in cancer incidence. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of obesity in African American and non-Hispanic white men.
Brannon, Tiffany N; Markus, Hazel Rose; Taylor, Valerie Jones
African Americans can experience a double consciousness-the two-ness of being an American and an African American. The present research hypothesized that: (a) double consciousness can function as 2 self-schemas-an independent self-schema tied to mainstream American culture and an interdependent self-schema tied to African American culture, and (b) U.S. educational settings can leverage an interdependent self-schema associated with African American culture through inclusive multicultural practices to facilitate positive academic consequences. First, a pilot experiment and Studies 1 and 2 provided evidence that double consciousness can be conceptualized as 2 self-schemas. That is, African Americans shifted their behavior (e.g., cooperation) in schema-relevant ways from more independent when primed with mainstream American culture to more interdependent when primed with African American culture. Then, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that incorporating African American culture within a university setting enhanced African Americans' persistence and performance on academic-relevant tasks. Finally, using the Gates Millennium Scholars dataset (Cohort 1), Study 5 conceptually replicated Studies 3 and 4 and provided support for one process that underlies the observed positive academic consequences. Specifically, Study 5 provided evidence that engagement with African American culture (e.g., involvement with cultural events/groups) on college campuses makes an interdependent self-schema more salient that increases African American students' sense of academic fit and identification, and, in turn, enhances academic performance (self-reported grades) and persistence (advanced degree enrollment in a long-term follow-up). The discussion examines double consciousness as a basic psychological phenomenon and suggests the intra- and intergroup benefits of inclusive multicultural settings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Akan, G E; Grilo, C M
Eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning were evaluated in 98 female college students: 36 African-Americans, 34 Asian-Americans, and 28 Caucasians. African-Americans had significantly higher body mass index than either Asian-American or Caucasians. In contrast, Caucasians reported greater levels of disordered eating and dieting behaviors and attitudes and greater body dissatisfaction than did Asian-Americans and African-Americans who differed little on these measures. The nature of variability in these eating behaviors and attitudes and body image was also examined within each of the three groups. A generally consistent pattern emerged within each racial group: low self-esteem and high public self-consciousness were associated with greater levels of problematic eating behaviors and attitudes and body dissatisfaction. A history of being teased about weight and size was associated with problematic eating behaviors and attitudes and body dissatisfaction in African-Americans and Caucasians but not in Asian-Americans. The findings suggest that there exist important racial differences on various aspects of eating, dieting, and body image in college women. Contrary to hypothesis, the degree of acculturation and assimilation within the African-American and Asian-American groups was unrelated to variability in these domains.
Over one-third of all adults in the United States are obese and African Americans represent over 49.5% of these cases. Young adults with some college education show the most rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, with African Americans leading among all groups. The purpose of this paper is to consider why students gain weight in college and if racial and ethnic differences exist in the context of weight gain. Both physical environment and psychological factors affect the college students' weight-related behaviors. College students experience significant increases in their weight and African Americans are disproportionately affected. However, the role of race and ethnicity is under-examined. Future research should explore racial and ethnic differences in weight gain in college students.
Beard, Kenya V; Julion, Wrenetha A
The rise in undergraduate enrollment of African-American students has not translated into more African-American faculty members, although they could mentor minority students and promote an ethos that encourages their academic success. Discrimination against African-American faculty members continues, which could lessen their presence. This study explored the narratives of 23 African-American faculty members to determine if race still matters in nursing. A narrative approach grounded in social constructionism and critical race theory was used to illustrate the journey of African-American faculty into and throughout academia and to reveal factors related to decisions to enter and remain in academia. Most of the participants stated that they faced racial discrimination that tested their resilience and reinforced their commitment to the academy. Intentional actions and open discourse could strengthen institutional commitments to racial diversity and facilitate the recruitment and retention of racially diverse nursing faculties. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peters Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and
James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer
The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...
This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…
This project examines the oral accounts of former slaves, as recorded in the WPA narratives in the 1930s, to study the development of African American medical culture in the Antebellum South. Through an examination of these transcribed memories, my research investigates how African American praxes with medicinal flora, healing techniques, and spiritual harmony, reflected their ethnomedical and cosmological ideologies. The duality of these ideologies represents an African American medical iden...
Lavner, Justin A; Barton, Allen W; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H
Racial discrimination is a common stressor for African Americans, with negative consequences for mental and physical well-being. It is likely that these effects extend into the family, but little research has examined the association between racial discrimination and couple functioning. This study used dyadic data from 344 rural, predominantly low-income heterosexual African American couples with an early adolescent child to examine associations between self-reported racial discrimination, psychological and physical aggression, and relationship satisfaction and instability. Experiences of discrimination were common among men and women and were negatively associated with relationship functioning. Specifically, men reported higher levels of psychological aggression and relationship instability if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination, and women reported higher levels of physical aggression if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination. All results replicated when controlling for financial hardship, indicating unique effects for discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination may be negatively associated with relationship functioning among African Americans and call for further research on the processes underlying these associations and their long-term consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Bussing, Regina; Williamson, Pamela; Wilder, JeffriAnne; Mills, Terry
Cultural differences in illness perceptions and treatment access of teens with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are evident yet under studied. The purpose of this qualitative paper is to explore how African-American teenagers describe and narrate stories about their lives with ADHD. Data were gathered from four African-American…
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…
Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel
The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…
Joe, Emanique M.; Davis, James Earl
This study examined the relationship between parental influence and the school readiness of African American boys, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: ECLS-K, Parents' influence, via their academic beliefs and behaviors, was associated with the cognitive performance of African American boys during kindergarten. While previous…
Allen, Junior Lloyd; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Holosko, Michael J.; Briggs, Harold E.
Purpose: This study explored the scholarship experiences of top-ranked African American faculty in schools of social work. Method: Qualitative interviews were conducted with N = 10 top-ranked African American faculty identified as achieving considerable productivity and impact of scholarship. Findings: Four major themes were identified, each of…
Williams, Jeanine L.
Race plays a major role in the lived experiences of African Americans. Consequently, race significantly impacts the identities and educational experiences of African American college students--many of whom require developmental reading courses. These courses, which are gateway courses in higher education, should address race along with reading…
King, LaGarrett Jarriel
Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…
Holliday, Bertha Garrett
The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development. In addition, the author describes 4 major intellectual traditions that informed not only the strategies of inclusion but also the theoretical, research, and intervention perspectives and other professional and academic efforts of African American psychologists. Those perspectives are the Afrocentric/African-centered tradition derived from longstanding nationalist/Pan-African and culturally centered traditions within African American communities; the social contextual/multidisciplinary research tradition of the University of Chicago School of Social Science; the empirical social science research tradition of the University of Michigan; and the Black scholar/activist tradition of Howard University. This article also presents a chronological timeline of major events in the history of African American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Green, Lisa J.
How do children acquire African American English? How do they develop the specific language patterns of their communities? Drawing on spontaneous speech samples and data from structured elicitation tasks, this book explains the developmental trends in the children's language. It examines topics such as the development of tense/aspect marking,…
Tan, Marcia M; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Resnicow, Ken; Dietz, Noella A; Antoni, Michael H; Webb Hooper, Monica
Research has shown that African Americans gain more than average weight after smoking cessation. However, African Americans have been underrepresented in post-cessation weight gain research. The current study examined 1) the pattern of weight gain and 2) the association between smoking status and weight gain in a sample of African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. Data were drawn from a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a 4-week culturally specific smoking cessation cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention among African American smokers (N = 342). Weight was measured and self-reported smoking status was biochemically verified at baseline, end of counseling, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Random effects multilevel modeling was used to examine weight gain over twelve months post CBT, and a fully unconditional model tested the pattern of weight gain over time. Smoking status was included as a time-varying factor to examine its effect on weight gain, controlling for potential confounding variables. Weight significantly increased among those who remained abstinent over 12 months post CBT [average gain of seven lbs. (three kg)]. Controlling for covariates, abstinence was predictive of the rate of weight gain for those with high weight concern. Weight gain among African American abstainers was comparable to the average post-cessation weight gain observed among the general population. It is possible that exposure to CBT (culturally specific or standard) may have mitigated excessive weight gain. Future research should assess predictors of weight gain in African American smokers to inform future smoking cessation interventions and help elucidate factors that contribute to tobacco- and obesity-related health disparities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Speck, Aimee L; Hess, Michael; Baptist, Alan P
Health disparities are seen in many chronic conditions including asthma. Young African American adults represent a population at high risk for poor asthma outcomes due to both their minority status and the difficult transition from adolescence to adulthood. Recruitment and retention has been challenging in this demographic stratum, and traditional asthma education is often not feasible. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the feasibility of an electronic asthma self-management program for young African American adults. A total of 44 African American adults (age 18-30 years) with uncontrolled persistent asthma were enrolled in an asthma self-management program. The 6-week Breathe Michigan program (predicated on the social cognitive theory) was tailored specifically to the concerns and preferences of young African American adults. The entire program was completed electronically, without any specialized human support. At 2 weeks and 3 months after program completion, participants were contacted for follow-up. A total of 89% of enrolled subjects completed the 6-week intervention, and 77% were available for evaluation at 3 months. All subjects completing the 2-week postprogram survey reported that the program was helpful, and 97% would recommend it to others. Asthma control as measured by the Asthma Control Test improved from 16.1 to 19.3 (P young African American adults. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ducci, Francesca; Roy, Alec; Shen, Pei-Hong; Yuan, Qiaoping; Yuan, Nicole P; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, Lynn R; Goldman, David
Genetic variation influences differential vulnerability to addiction within populations. However, it remains unclear whether differences in frequencies of vulnerability alleles contribute to disparities between populations and to what extent ancestry correlates with differential exposure to environmental risk factors, including poverty and trauma. The authors used 186 ancestry-informative markers to measure African ancestry in 407 addicts and 457 comparison subjects self-identified as African Americans. The reference group was 1,051 individuals from the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, which includes 51 diverse populations representing most worldwide genetic diversity. African Americans varied in degrees of African, European, Middle Eastern, and Central Asian genetic heritage. The overall level of African ancestry was actually smaller among cocaine, opiate, and alcohol addicts (proportion=0.76-0.78) than nonaddicted African American comparison subjects (proportion=0.81). African ancestry was associated with living in impoverished neighborhoods, a factor previously associated with risk. There was no association between African ancestry and exposure to childhood abuse or neglect, a factor that strongly predicted all types of addictions. These results suggest that African genetic heritage does not increase the likelihood of genetic risk for addictions. They highlight the complex interrelation between genetic ancestry and social, economic, and environmental conditions and the strong relation of those factors to addiction. Studies of epidemiological samples characterized for genetic ancestry and social, psychological, demographic, economic, cultural, and historical factors are needed to better disentangle the effects of genetic and environmental factors underlying interpopulation differences in vulnerability to addiction and other health disparities.
O'Connor, Michelle Y.; Thoreson, Caroline K.; Ricks, Madia; Courville, Amber B.; Thomas, Francine; Yao, Jianhua; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Sumner, Anne E.
Background: The healthy immigrant effect is a phrase that has been used for decades to describe better cardiometabolic health in African immigrants than African Americans. The recent global increase in cardiometabolic diseases raises the possibility that immigrant health may be changing. Therefore, a new assessment of cardiometabolic health in African immigrants is warranted.
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zaller, Nickolas; Cheney, Ann M; Curran, Geoffrey M; Booth, Brenda M; Borders, Tyrone F
African Americans are incarcerated at rates much higher than other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We sought to qualitatively explore the relationships between ongoing involvement in the criminal justice system and continued drug use in a population of urban and rural African American cocaine users in a southern state. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted among African American cocaine users in Arkansas between 2010 and 2012. Participants resided in both rural (two counties located in the eastern Arkansas Mississippi delta region) and urban (the county including the capital city of Little Rock) areas. Numerous important themes emerged from participants' narratives, including chronic involvement with the criminal justice system (being a "career criminal"), continued access to drugs while incarcerated, relapse, and reincarceration and lack of access to effective drug treatment. Conclusion/Importance: The themes which emerged from our data speak to the collective experience that many substance using populations in the United States face in dealing with the criminal justice system. Our findings highlight the need to better, more holistic ways of engaging African American substance users in community based substance use treatment and supportive services.
Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Gordon, Shalanda; Clark, Elijah; Abayomi, Kobi A.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.
Background Individuals at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) display poorer cognitive functioning across various cognitive domains. This finding is particularly prevalent among older adults; however, few studies examine these relationships among younger adults or among African Americans. Purpose The objective was to examine the relationships among 2 cardiovascular risk factors, elevated blood pressure and elevated triglycerides, and verbal learning in a community-based sample of African Americans. Methods Measurements of blood pressure and triglycerides were obtained in 121 African-American adults and compared to performance on 3 domains of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Results Blood pressure was not related to CVLT-II performance. Triglyceride levels were inversely related to CVLT-II performance. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with poorer immediate, short delay and long delay recall. Conclusions Consistent with studies involving older participants, the current investigation shows that in a nonelderly sample of African Americans, triglyceride levels may be related to cognitive functioning. Because early detection and intervention of vascular-related cognitive impairment may have a salutary effect, future studies should include younger adults to highlight the impact of cardiovascular risk on cognition. PMID:18942281
Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A; Adair, Linda S; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S
Associations between individual foods and nutrients and colorectal cancer have been inconsistent, and few studies have examined associations between food, nutrients, dietary patterns, and rectal cancer. We examined the relationship between food groups and dietary patterns and risk for rectal cancer in non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans. Data were from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II and included 1,520 Whites (720 cases, 800 controls) and 384 African-Americans (225 cases, 159 controls). Diet was assessed using the Diet History Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Among Whites, non-whole grains and white potatoes were associated with elevated risk for rectal cancer whereas fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish, and poultry were associated with reduced risk. In African-Americans, high consumption of other fruit and added sugar suggested elevated risk. We identified three major dietary patterns in Whites and African-Americans. The high fat/meat/potatoes pattern was observed in both race groups but was only positively associated with risk in Whites (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.15). The vegetable/fish/poultry and fruit/whole grain/dairy patterns in Whites had significant inverse associations with risk. In African-Americans, there was a positive dose-response for the fruit/vegetables pattern (P(trend) pattern (P(trend) dietary patterns with rectal cancer risk differ between Whites and African-Americans, highlighting the importance of examining diet and cancer relationships in racially diverse populations.
Mohammed, Alana; Harrell, Jules P; Makambi, Kepher H; Campbell, Alfonso L; Sloan, Lloyd Ren; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Taylor, Teletia R
The primary aims of this study were to: (1) characterize exercise stages of change among a sample of African-American men, (2) determine if exercise motivation was associated with self-reported exercise behavior, and (3) examine if groups of personal (i.e., age, BMI, income, educational attainment, and perceived health), psycho-social (i.e., exercise self-efficacy, personality type, social influence), and environmental factors (i.e., neighborhood safety) predicted stages of change for physical exercise among African-American men. One hundred seventy African-American male participants were recruited for this study (age: 47.63(10.23) years). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing study variables. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of exercise stages of change with an array of personal, psychosocial, and environmental factors. BMI, exercise self-efficacy, and nighttime neighborhood safety were entered as independent variables in the full model. BMI and exercise self-efficacy continued to be significant predictors of exercise stages of change in the full model. Obese men had a 9.24 greater odds of being in the action stage of change than in the maintenance stage. Also, men reporting greater exercise self-efficacy had lower odds of being in the lower stages of change categories (pre-preparation, preparation, and action) than in the maintenance stage. Our results confirmed that using an ecological framework explained more of the variance in exercise stages of change than any of the individual components alone. Information gleaned from this study could inform interventionists of the best ways to create tailored exercise programs for African-American men.
Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth
Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families.
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Pine, Sharon R.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Enewold, Lindsey; Bowman, Elise D.; Ryan, Bríd M.; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Chaturvedi, Anil; Caporaso, Neil E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Harris, Curtis C.
Background African Americans have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than European Americans. Previous studies suggested that certain circulating cytokines were associated with lung cancer. We hypothesized that variations in serum cytokine levels exist between African Americans and European Americans, and increased circulating cytokine levels contribute to lung cancer differently in the two races. Methods Differences in ten serum cytokine levels, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α between 170 African-American and 296 European-American controls from the National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case-control study were assessed. Associations of the serum cytokine levels with lung cancer were analyzed. Statistically significant results were replicated in the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Wayne State University (WSU) Karmanos Cancer Institute case-control study. Results Six cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα, were significantly higher among European-American as compared to African-American controls. Elevated IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated with lung cancer among both races in all three studies. Elevated IL-1β, IL-10 and TNFα levels were associated with lung cancer only among African Americans. The association between elevated TNFα levels and lung cancer among European Americans was significant after adjustment for additional factors. Conclusions Serum cytokine levels vary by race and might contribute to lung cancer differently between African Americans and European Americans. Impact Future work examining risk prediction models of lung cancer can measure circulating cytokines to accurately characterize risk within racial groups. PMID:26711330
Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918
Studies show that African Americans are less likely than other ethnic groups to complete advance directives. However, what influences African Americans' decisions to complete or not complete advance directives is unclear. Using a faith-based promotion model, 102 African Americans aged 55 years or older were recruited from local churches and community-based agencies to participate in a pilot study to promote advance care planning. Focus groups were used to collect data on participants' preferences for care, desire to make personal choices, values and attitudes, beliefs about death and dying, and advance directives. A standardized interview was used in the focus groups, and the data were organized and analyzed using NUDIST 4 software (QRS Software, Victoria, Australia). Three fourths of the participants refused to complete advance directives. The following factors influenced the participants' decisions about end-of-life care and completion of an advance directive: spirituality; view of suffering, death, and dying; social support networks; barriers to utilization; and mistrust of the health care system. The dissemination of information apprises individuals of their right to self-determine about their care, but educational efforts may not produce a significant change in behavior toward completion of advance care planning. Thus, ongoing efforts are needed to improve the trust that African Americans have in medical and health care providers.
Shen, Huei-Wern; Pickard, Joseph G; Johnson, Sharon D
Research on the influence of volunteering on mental health outcomes has not placed enough focus on African American female caregivers who are at risk for adverse outcomes such as depression. This study addresses this gap by examining the mechanism through which volunteering might influence depressive symptoms using data collected from 521 African American female caregivers of older adults. Regression results indicate that although volunteering is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, self-esteem mediates this relationship. Findings suggest inclusion in volunteering for African American female caregivers may be relevant to promotion of their mental well-being.
Research from the last two decades indicates that African-American women have faced extreme mental health challenges in overcoming experiences of isolation, depression and somatization. Unfortunately, the sources of these stressors are largely attributed to racial and gender discrimination and societal expectations and norms associated with African-American women. Additionally, minimal research has been conducted to determine the most effective counseling approaches to aid this population. A ...
Granek, Leeat; Peleg-Sagy, Tal
Pathological bereavement outcomes (i.e., complicated grief, traumatic grief, prolonged grief disorder) are a robust and growing research area in the psychological and medical sciences. Although grief is considered to be a universal phenomenon, it is well documented that grieving processes and outcomes are culturally and contextually bound. The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine representations of African Americans in the grief and mourning literature and to assess the extent to which this research utilizes pathological grief outcomes; and (b) to examine the characteristics of pathological grief constructs in the literature to assess their relevance for African American populations. We conducted comprehensive searches of three scientific databases including PsycNET, Medline, and CINAHL, which contain the majority of grief and mourning literature published between January 1998 and February 2014. We found 59 studies addressing grief and mourning in African Americans. Thirteen of these studies used pathological grief outcomes. Pathological grief outcomes that were constructed and validated on White populations were frequently used as outcome variables with African American participants. We discuss the implications for the grief and mourning field and argue that the failure to use culturally sensitive outcome measures in research studies is a form of epistemological violence that may have negative research and clinical implications for African Americans and other ethnic minorities.
Kind, Terry; Wallace, Jasmine; Moon, Rachel Y
We sought to assess the quality of health information on internet sites with missions to serve African Americans and to compare the quality to that of sites targeting a general audience. Sites were identified by entering "black Health," "African American health," and "health" into 2 search engines. Websites were assessed for quality and usability by 2 independent readers using published criteria. Disease-specific information was found on 64.7% of African-American sites and 86.2% of general sites. Among these sites, 73% of African-American sites listed authors' qualifications, compared to 96% of general sites (p=0.04). Sixty-four percent of African-American sites provided date last updated, compared with 100% of general sites (p=0.001). The mean literacy level for both types of sites was approximately 10th grade. The literacy level of African-American sites at governmental and educational domains was lower (NS). This is the first study to examine critically the quality of health information on Internet sites serving African-American audiences. Our study suggests methods to guide healthcare providers and health educators in counseling patients regarding internet-based health information. The "digital divide" is about quality as well as access.
LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Christensen, Julie J; Kreher, Donna; Kearney, Margaret H; Kitzman, Harriet J
In this qualitative descriptive study, 30 young, unmarried, low-income African American mothers in Memphis, TN, were interviewed in 2011-2012 about their discipline strategies with their 12- to 19-month-old children. Using content analyses, their strategies were described and compared with those from a similar sample in 1992. Findings suggest both continuity and change during that 20-year period. More mothers in 2011-2012 described the use of distraction and time out, suggesting a wider variety of strategies than were used in 1992. These findings may help clinicians to better understand disciplinary methods in young low-income African American mothers such as these in Memphis. Approaching mothers in a respectful and culturally sensitive manner will help them focus on effective, developmentally appropriate strategies consistent with their own parenting goals. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
socially significant. While the glass ceiling for African Americans appears to have been shattered for society as a whole, the fact that only eight of more...Chief of Staff, and there has yet to be an African American Chief of Staff of the Army all suggest that the glass ceiling still exists in the Army.34...whole of society had even accepted these individuals as more than three-fifths of a person.1 In the twentieth century, women integrated into the
Tiffany Zellner Lawrence
Full Text Available African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12–18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008–2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention (n = 651 and comparison (n = 112 groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent (p = 0.0005. Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60. Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions.
Williams, Monnica T; Jahn, Matthew E
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations. This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious communities. Implications of findings are discussed. There is an urgent need for research to understand the needs of African American children and adolescents with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…
Frazier, Kimberly N.
The author discusses the problem of retention of African American faculty due to tenure and promotion issues. The author outlines obstacles that African American face in the workplace while seeking tenure and promotion in academia. A case example is presented that illuminates how these stressors manifest in the academic setting and recommendations…
Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B.
Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 predominantly low-SES African American women. We find that African American women’s risk for suicidal ideation is linked to stressors occurring as a function of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. In addition, we find that gendered racism has no effect on suicidal ideation among women with moderate levels of well-being, self-esteem, and active coping, but has a strong adverse influence in those with high and low levels of psychosocial resources. PMID:23565018
Willis, Salatha T.
The purpose of this study was to examine, understand, and describe the life, leadership, and influence of Dr. James Edward Scott on higher education and more specifically student affairs; as one of the most well-known and respected African American male chief student affairs officers in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Using a qualitative…
Vinson, Ebony S; Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L
Stigma surrounding mental illness and mental health treatment remains a significant problem, particularly among African Americans. This study sought to examine the effects of 2 intervention delivery methods in reducing reported stigma. African Americans (n = 158) were nonrandomly assigned to an in-person contact or video condition and administered a survey immediately before, after, and 2 weeks following the stigma intervention. The in vivo contact condition consisted of an African American man discussing his experiences with mental illness and psychotherapy. The session was recorded, and the recording was used for the video condition. There were no significant effects based on delivery method; however, there was a significant effect for time on stigma and help-seeking attitude measures. Further research is needed to determine the overall effectiveness of the intervention.
Flórez, Karen R; Richardson, Andrea S; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Troxel, Wendy; DeSantis, Amy; Colabianchi, Natalie; Dubowitz, Tamara
Social support and social networks can elucidate important structural and functional aspects of social relationships that are associated with health-promoting behaviors, including Physical Activity (PA) and weight. A growing number of studies have investigated the relationship between social support, social networks, PA and obesity specifically among African Americans; however, the evidence is mixed and many studies focus exclusively on African American women. Most studies have also focused on either functional or structural aspects of social relationships (but not both) and few have objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional surveys of adult African American men and women living in two low-income predominantly African American neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, PA (N = 799) measured numerous structural features as well as functional aspects of social relationships. Specifically, structural features included social isolation, and social network size and diversity. Functional aspects included perceptions of social support for physical activity from the social network in general as well as from family and friends specifically. Height, weight, and PA were objectively measured. From these, we derived Body Mass Index (BMI) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). All regression models were stratified by gender, and included age, income, education, employment, marital status, physical limitations, and a neighborhood indicator. Greater social isolation was a significant predictor of lower BMI among men only. Among women only, social isolation was significantly associated with increased MVPA whereas, network diversity was significantly associated with reduced MVPA. Future research would benefit from in-depth qualitative investigations to understand how social networks may act to influence different types of physical activity among African Americans, as well as understand how they can be possible levers
Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank
Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…
Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D
The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Morales, Knashawn H; Spangler, Elaine; Chang, Bao-Li; Rebbeck, Timothy R
Early-onset baldness has been linked to prostate cancer; however, little is known about this relationship in African-Americans who are at elevated prostate cancer risk. We recruited 219 African-American controls and 318 African-American prostate cancer cases. We determined age-stratified associations of baldness with prostate cancer occurrence and severity defined by high stage (T3/T4) or high grade (Gleason 7+.) Associations of androgen metabolism genotypes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A43, AR-CAG, SRD5A2 A49T, and SRD5A2 V89L), family history, alcohol intake, and smoking were examined by baldness status and age group by using multivariable logistic regression models. Baldness was associated with odds of prostate cancer [OR = 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.74]. Frontal baldness was associated with high-stage (OR = 2.61; 95% CI, 1.10-6.18) and high-grade (OR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.05-4.61) tumors. For men diagnosed less than the age of 60 years, frontal baldness was associated with high stage (OR = 6.51; 95% CI, 2.11-20.06) and high grade (OR = 4.23; 95% CI, 1.47-12.14). We also observed a suggestion of an interaction among smoking, median age, and any baldness (P = 0.02). We observed significant associations between early-onset baldness and prostate cancer in African-American men. Interactions with age and smoking were suggested in these associations. Studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms influencing the relationship between baldness and prostate cancer in African-American men. African-American men present with unique risk factors including baldness patterns that may contribute to prostate cancer disparities.
Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Johnson, Kory; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Karkera, Deepa; Trachiotis, Gregory; Adib, Houtan; Hoffman, Eric P; Wadleigh, Robert G
Esophageal carcinoma is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide and is largely unresponsive to therapy. African-Americans have an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the subtype that shows marked variation in geographic frequency. The molecular architecture of African-American ESCC is still poorly understood. It is unclear why African-American ESCC is more aggressive and the survival rate in these patients is worse than those of other ethnic groups. To begin to define genetic alterations that occur in African-American ESCC we conducted microarray expression profiling in pairs of esophageal squamous cell tumors and matched control tissues. We found significant dysregulation of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and stress response components of the NRF2- mediated oxidative damage pathway, potentially representing key genes in African-American esophageal squamous carcinogenesis. Loss of activity of drug metabolizing enzymes would confer increased sensitivity of esophageal cells to xenobiotics, such as alcohol and tobacco smoke, and may account for the high incidence and aggressiveness of ESCC in this ethnic group. To determine whether certain genes are uniquely altered in African-American ESCC we performed a meta-analysis of ESCC expression profiles in our African-American samples and those of several Asian samples. Down-regulation of TP53 pathway components represented the most common feature in ESCC of all ethnic groups. Importantly, this analysis revealed a potential distinctive molecular underpinning of African-American ESCC, that is, a widespread and prominent involvement of the NRF2 pathway. Taken together, these findings highlight the remarkable interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of African-American ESCC.
Hawthorne, Dorothy J
This study was conducted to identify and describe symbolic themes of menarche. The qualitative case study design was used with a purposive sample of 30 participants (15 mothers and their 15 daughters) in answering 2 questions: (a) How do 9- and 10-year-old African American girls view the meaning of their menarcheal flow?, and (b) How do African American mothers view the meaning of menarche? Data were collected through interviews 2 to 5 days after completion of menarche. A cross-case comparison analysis of the interviews revealed 4 themes: (a) vaginal bleeding, (b) sexual maturation, (c) premenarcheal sexual activity, and (d) sexual payback to fathers. With the exception of the latter all themes were supported in earlier studies of Euro-American girls. These findings indicate the need for further research addressing self-concept at menarche, impact of menarche on family relationships, and views of fathers about sexual payback as a symbol of menarche.
Muze, Ruth H
Parenting young children while living with HIV is an important public health concern. This article reviews maternal HIV and the impact it has on the parenting experience of African American mothers. Because living with HIV has been considered a family illness, the Family Systems Model provided a framework for this article. The model demonstrated an important link between maternal HIV and its impact on the health and wellbeing of not only the mother and her children, but her parenting and family roles as well. Research has documented an association between maternal HIV and negative parent-child outcomes among African American mothers. I examined studies on parenting and child outcomes among African American mothers living with HIV. The review assists in conceptualizing parenting with HIV as an area of increasing importance in health services delivery to HIV-infected African American mothers who are caring for young children.
Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Wallace, John M; Jackson, James S
This study utilizes data from the older African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n=837) to examine the sociodemographic and denominational correlates of organizational religious involvement among older African Americans. Six measures of organizational religious participation are utilized, including two measures of time allocation for organized religious pursuits. The findings indicate significant gender, region, marital status and denominational differences in organizational religiosity. Of particular note, although older black women generally displayed higher levels of religious participation, older black men spent more hours per week in other activities at their place of worship. The findings are discussed in relation to prior work in the area of religious involvement among older adults. New directions for research on religious time allocation are outlined.
Mitchell, Jamie A; Thompson, Hayley S; Watkins, Daphne C; Shires, Deirdre; Modlin, Charles S
Given the benefits of health-related Internet use, we examined whether sociodemographic, medical, and access-related factors predicted this outcome among African American men, a population burdened with health disparities. African American men (n = 329) completed an anonymous survey at a community health fair in 2010; logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Only education (having attended some college or more) predicted health-related Internet use (P Internet use.
Wyatt, G E; Riederle, M
This study examined the relationship between sexual harassment in work, educational, and social settings and sexual abuse in childhood and/or adulthood in a stratified community sample of 248 African-American and white American women. The cumulative impact of sexual victimization on women's sense of general well-being was also examined. Those most likely to be sexually harassed in work and social settings were women with contact sexual abuse histories, regardless of ethnicity. The work status of harassers of women with sexual abuse histories differed significantly by ethnic group. Although women with prior sexual abuse experiences from both ethnic groups most frequently reported a response to sexual harassment at work, they least frequently did so in social settings. A history of childhood sexual abuse was more negatively associated with African- American women's well-being than were repeated experiences of sexual violence. Future research should address the implications of ethnic and cultural issues on the cumulative impact of incidents of sexual violence on women of color.
Stories are the foundation of qualitative research. However, the development of qualitative methods rooted in oral traditions remains largely unexplored by researchers. The contextual and historical influences on storytelling and storytaking are critical features of the African American oral tradition that are often ignored or minimized in qualitative research. Despite the complex and often contentious history of African Americans, their oral traditions have not been explored to reveal the depth of their lived experiences and the way those experiences inform their health concerns. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, dialogues about storytelling and storytaking are revisited and critiqued. Second, a comprehensive analytic process for gathering and interpreting stories rooted in African American oral tradition is outlined.
McDaniel, Tyler C; Wilson, Dawn K; Coulon, Sandra M; Hand, Gregory A; Siceloff, E Rebekah
African Americans have the highest rate of obesity in the United States relative to other ethnic minority groups. Bioecological factors including neighborhood social and physical environmental variables may be important predictors of weight-related measures specifically body mass index (BMI) in African American adults. Baseline data from the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial were collected from 417 African American adults. Overall a multiple regression model for BMI was significant, showing positive associations with average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (B =-.21, Psocial interaction (B =-.13, Psocial interaction was associated with healthier BMI, highlighting it as a potential critical factor for future interventions in underserved, African American communities.
Wanda Lott Collins
Full Text Available Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the professional realm. The vignettes include a scenario for a supervisor and a client.
Before the living history museum of Colonial Williamsburg started its concerted interpretation of slavery in 1979, the African American coachmen were already representing the past and implicating black history and slavery in this restored eighteenth-century capital of Virginia. Various records of photographs, postcards, letters, newspaper clippings, oral history accounts, visitor observations, and corporate papers provide awindow to understand the social climates of the museum's period in the 1930s to the 1970s. This body of evidence supports the contention that the coachmen were visible and influenced public history within and outside the museum.
Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Henderson, Brian E; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick A; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Tucker, Margaret A; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L
The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapman, L Kevin; Petrie, Jenny M; Richards, Allyn
Empirical literature pertaining to anxiety in African Americans has been relatively sparse. More recent studies indicate that the construct of social fear is different in African Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Although some of these studies have examined factor structure utilizing self-report measures of anxiety in African American samples, none to date have examined the clinical utility of these measures in predicting anxiety diagnoses, particularly social phobia. A total of sixty-five African American adults from the community completed the Fear Survey Schedule-Second Edition (FSS-II), Social Anxiety Interaction Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ). The Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-Fourth Edition (ADIS-IV) was administered to all participants to specify differential diagnoses of anxiety and related disorders. Twenty-three African American adults were diagnosed with social phobia leaving 42 diagnostic controls. Results suggest that the social anxiety factors were highly predictive of a social phobia diagnosis (AUC=.84 to .90; CI .73-.98, p<.01) and sensitivity and specificity rates revealed optimal cutoff scores for each measure. The optimal cutoff scores reveal the clinical utility of the social fear factor from these measures in screening for social phobia in African Americans. Future direction and implications are discussed. Psychinfo, PubMed, Medline. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lackey, N R; Gates, M F; Brown, G
To describe the experiences of African American women living with breast cancer following the primary diagnosis and while undergoing initial treatment. Phenomenologic. 13 African American women (ages 30-66) purposefully selected from two oncology clinics in the mid-South. Phenomenologic interviews (transcribed verbatim) and field notes were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of phenomenologic description and analysis. Experience Trajectory, Femininity, and Spirituality were the three major themes. The Experience Trajectory subthemes were finding the lump, getting the diagnosis, undergoing surgery and adjuvant treatment. The Femininity subthemes were loss of all or part of the breast, loss of hair, and sexual attractiveness to a man. Spirituality was reflected as a reliance on God. Telling the story of their experience trajectory during their breast cancer experience is valuable in assessing African American women's feelings, emotions, and fears of body changes that occur during surgery and treatment. Their spirituality helps them through this experience. Research involving both African American women and their partners would provide greater insight into specific relationship patterns and communication related to sexuality during this experience. Nurses need to listen to the stories of African American women about the initial experience of discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer so they can be more informed advocates for these women. African American women need more information from healthcare providers regarding the whole experience trajectory.
Kleier, Jo Ann; Dittman, Patricia Welch
Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of end stage renal disease among African Americans. The complications associated with diabetes can largely be reduced with effective diabetes self-management. Selected variables were tested as predictors of self-reported self-care, and self-reported self-care was tested as a predictor of A1C among 100 African-American individuals with diabetes. Participants scored high on their understanding of diabetes, its treatment, and engagement in self-care activities, but this was not reflected in their body mass index levels or A IC values.
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2014
The current state of low academic achievement among a large majority of African American students is complex. While the U.S. has long professed that a world-class education is the right of every child, there are still major inequities in the education system that leave African American children with fewer opportunities to receive a quality…
Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi
African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625
Fasula, Amy M; Miller, Kim S; Wiener, Jeffrey
This study explored the sexual double standard (SDS) (in which males are afforded more freedom and power than females in heterosexual interactions) in African American mothers' sexual messages to sons and daughters. We used a convenience sample of 129 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, and their mothers who reported SDS attitudes. Qualitative analyses revealed gender differences based on an SDS in mothers' sexual risk reduction socialization. Mothers typically took a proactive approach with sons and a neutral or prohibitive approach with daughters. Findings provide directions for socially relevant programs for African American parents, schools, and communities.
Sa, Jaesin; Heimdal, James; Sbrocco, Tracy; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Beatrice
Little is known about correlates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American students at historically Black colleges and universities. To assess overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American college students at a historically Black university in Maryland in the USA. Data were collected from 268 African American college students in 2013. Data were analyzed with percentage difference z-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression. Cross-sectional survey (student response rate = 49.9%). The overweight/obesity rate of participants was 47.5%, which was higher than that of the U.S. college student population overall (34.1%) and a representative sample of African American college students (38.3%). When age and sex were controlled, a family history of obesity, skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated drinks, lower family income, and smoking a pipe, cigars, or cigarettes daily were significant correlates of overweight (obesity included). The percentage of physical inactivity was 68.3, and physical inactivity was higher among women and overweight or obese students. Given the high overweight and obesity prevalence among African American college students, historically Black colleges and universities in the USA should increase health promotion efforts targeting weight-related behaviors, particularly physical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Affuso, Olivia; Cox, Tiffany L; Durant, Nefertiti H; Allison, David B
More than 60% of African American adults do not meet recommendations for moderate physical activity. We sought to discover the extent to which health attitudes and beliefs are associated with leisure-time physical activity in this population. Cross-sectional study. African American adults were asked about their health attitudes and beliefs during a national survey. Participants were 807 African American men and women aged 18 years and older. Random-digit dialing was employed, sampling telephone numbers by geographical region, area code, and population size. Participants were asked six health belief questions on the importance of exercise and body weight in health. Logistic regression was used to determine which of these factors were associated with physical activity participation. The percent of respondents participating in some form of physical activity during the past month was 87.1% in men and 82.9% in women. Factors associated with previous month physical activity in men were perceived personal importance of exercise (P importance of exercise (P important to exercise or be physically active for health predicts physical activity participation in both African American men and women. Creating a sense of importance of physical activity to relieve stress and foster good health may stimulate physical activity participation in African American adults.
Bockwoldt, Denise; Staffileno, Beth A; Coke, Lola; Hamilton, Rebekah; Fogg, Lou; Calvin, Donna; Quinn, Lauretta
African American (AA) adults are disproportionally affected by type 2 diabetes and are diagnosed at an earlier age, but are less adherent to diabetes medications compared with the general population. This qualitative study sought to describe the experiences of taking diabetes medications among midlife AA men and women with type 2 diabetes and to identify factors that influence these experiences. Fifteen AAs completed semistructured interviews. Using the Roy adaptation model, thematic analysis coded for both adaptive and ineffective experiences. Adaptive experiences included self-confidence in one's ability to control diabetes, a belief in the value of diabetes medication, assuming responsibility for one's health, developing a routine for taking medication, and positive relationships with the care team. Ineffective experiences for medication taking included: feeling powerless over diabetes, self-blame, and fear. One's self-concept as a person with diabetes, as well as assuming the role of "medication taker," were prominent themes.
Peek, Monica E.; Quinn, Michael T.; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilson, Shannon C.; Chin, Marshall H.
Objective This study investigates how shared decision-making (SDM) is defined by African-American patients with diabetes, and compares patients’ conceptualization of SDM with the Charles model. Methods We utilized race-concordant interviewers/moderators to conduct in-depth interviews and focus groups among a purposeful sample of African-American patients with diabetes. Each interview/focus group was audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and imported into Atlas.ti software. Coding was done using an iterative process and each transcription was independently coded by two members of the research team. Results Although the conceptual domains were similar, patient definitions of what it means to “share” in the decision-making process differed significantly from the Charles model of SDM. Patients stressed the value of being able to “tell their story and be heard” by physicians, emphasized the importance of information sharing rather than decision-making sharing, and included an acceptable role for non-adherence as a mechanism to express control and act on treatment preferences. Conclusion Current instruments may not accurately measure decision-making preferences of African-American patients with diabetes. Practice Implications Future research should develop instruments to effectively measure decision-making preferences within this population. Emphasizing information-sharing that validates patients’ experiences may be particularly meaningful to African-Americans with diabetes. PMID:18684581
Kulka, Tamar Ringel; Jensen, Elizabeth; McLaurin, Sue; Woods, Elizabeth; Kotch, Jonathan; Labbok, Miriam; Bowling, Mike; Dardess, Pamela; Baker, Sharon
OBJECTIVE: Lack of support for breastfeeding mothers has been consistently identified in the literature as a barrier for breastfeeding across racial and ethnic groups. Using a community-based participatory approach, academic and community-based partners conducted an iterative process to assess barriers, facilitators and potential mediating interventions for breastfeeding in the African-American community in Durham, North Carolina. METHODS: Eight focus groups were conducted with African-American mothers, fathers and grandmothers. Researchers transcribed and coded each focus group and analyzed using Atlas ti. 5.2. Patterns and themes that emerged informed the development of community stakeholder interviews; 41 interviews were conducted with community representatives. These findings informed the development of a support group pilot intervention. The pilot support groups were evaluated for increase in knowledge of attendees. RESULTS: Focus group and community interviews indicate that African Americans may disproportionately experience inadequate support for breastfeeding. This lack of support was reported in the home, the workplace, among peers, and from healthcare providers. The pilot support groups resulted in increased knowledge of breastfeeding among group participants OR=3.6 (95% CI: 2.5, 5.2). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this research underscore the importance of a multi-level approach to breastfeeding support for African American women to address breastfeeding disparities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined vitamin D insufficiency in African American men although they are at very high risk. We examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D insufficiency among African American men in Philadelphia. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional analysis were 194 African American men in the Philadelphia region who were enrolled in a risk assessment program for prostate cancer from 10/96–10/07. All participants completed diet and health history questionnaires and provided plasma samples, which were assessed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. We used linear regression models to examine associations with 25(OHD concentrations and logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR for having 25(OHD ≥ 15 ng/mL. Results Mean 25(OHD was 13.7 ng/mL, and 61% of men were classified as having vitamin D insufficiency (25(OHD 400 vs. 0 IU/day, milk consumption (OR 5.9, 95% CI 2.2, 16.0 for ≥ 3.5 vs. Conclusion The problem of low vitamin D status in African American men may be more severe than previously reported. Future efforts to increase vitamin D recommendations and intake, such as through supplementation, are warranted to improve vitamin D status in this particularly vulnerable population.
Describes the Amistad Research Center housed at Tulane University which is a repository of primary documents on African-American history. Topics addressed include the development and growth of the collection; inclusion of the American Missionary Association archives; sources of support; civil rights; and collecting for the future. (LRW)
... character of our Nation--often in the face of both racial and gender discrimination. As courageous... women who took extraordinary risks to change our Nation for the better. During National African American... they have made to perfecting our Union. This year's theme, ``Black Women in American Culture and...
Through the interpretation of labor department documents, journalism, and state discourses, I historicize the formation of both the construction of black "pathology" and the Asian "model minority" by analyzing the comparative racialization of African Americans and Asian Americans in the United States. Beginning with the Moynihan Report and journalistic reports about Asian Americans as "model minority," Black and Asian men were racialized together, as if "racially magnetized," in an attempt to...
Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli
This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…
Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.
Investigated the influence of racial identity on the relationship between media and perception of risk among African Americans. A radio campaign was implemented to reduce domestic violence among African Americans. Telephone interviews before, during, and after the campaign indicated that the correlations between racial identity and risk…
Nebbitt, Von E.; Lambert, Sharon F.
This study examines individual, social, and contextual correlates of anxiety sensitivity among African American adolescents living in public housing. The study also reports prevalence of anxiety sensitivity among this population of youth. Participants included 238 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.6) living in three public housing…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Caldwell, M B; Brownell, K D; Wilfley, D E
The present study examined the relationship among weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in a large group of African American and white female dieters who were generally overweight and of middle to high socioeconomic status. Subjects were participants in a survey of dieting practices undertaken by Consumer Reports magazine. Major outcome measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an assessment of shape and weight attitudes. No significant differences between African American and white women were found for body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, discrepancies between actual and ideal weight and shape, or the relationship between self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index contributed less to body satisfaction scores in African American than in white women. This study provides a comparison of African American and white women in the upper social classes, and raises the possibility that previous findings of less body concern in African American women reflect class rather than race effects.
In the United States there is a prevalence of obesity among ethnic groups, especially African American girls. The author in this column examines through an ecological lens selected American federal, state, and city policies and program interventions aimed at reducing obesity. Specifically, the eating behavior of African American girls is discussed as a population subset for which significant gaps are present in current obesity policy and implementation. Policy recommendations should include parents as research has shown a significant relationship in the eating behaviors of African American girls and their parents. Opportunities for nurses in practice and research to test the effectiveness of family and community level policy and program initiatives that address the ecological perspectives of the adolescent environment are discussed.
Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena
The purpose of this study is to see if there are differences in the social relationships that older African Americans, older whites, and older Mexican Americans form with the people where they worship. Data from two nationwide surveys are pooled to see if race differences emerge in eleven different measures of church-based social relationships. These measures assess social relationships with rank-and-file church members as well as social relationships with members of the clergy. The findings reveal that older African Americans tend to have more well-developed social relationships in the church than either older whites or older Mexican Americans. This is true with respect to relationships with fellow church members as well as relationships with the clergy. In contrast, relatively few differences emerged between older Americans of European descent and older Mexican Americans. However, when differences emerged in the data, older whites tend to score higher on the support measures than older Mexican Americans.
Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.
With a sample of African American and European American 3rd and 4th grade children (N = 486, ages 8–11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American—but not European American—children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-eth...
Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria
Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Maslowsky, Julie; Laudenslager, Mark L; Steinhardt, Mary A
African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the relationship of hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with HbA1c. Participants were 61 community-dwelling African American adults (85% female; mean age 54.30 years). The first 3cm of scalp-near hair were analyzed for cortisol and DHEA concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis. Glycated hemoglobin was assessed, and regression analyses predicting HbA1c from hair cortisol and DHEA were performed in the full sample and in a subsample of participants (n=20) meeting the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disease (NIDDK) criteria for type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥6.5%). In the full sample, HbA1c increased with hair cortisol level (β=0.22, p=0.04, f(2)=0.10), independent of age, sex, chronic health conditions, diabetes medication use, exercise, and depressive symptoms. In the subsample of participants with an HbA1c≥6.5%, hair cortisol was also positively related to HbA1c (β=0.45, p=0.04, f(2)=0.32), independent of diabetes medication use. Glycated hemoglobin was unrelated to hair DHEA in both the full sample and HbA1c≥6.5% subsample. Long-term HPA axis dysregulation in the form of elevated hair cortisol is associated with elevated HbA1c in African American adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamm, J V
Variability in adolescent-friend similarity is documented in a diverse sample of African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Similarity was greatest for substance use, modest for academic orientations, and low for ethnic identity. Compared with Asian American and European American adolescents, African American adolescents chose friends who were less similar with respect to academic orientation or substance use but more similar with respect to ethnic identity. For all three ethnic groups, personal endorsement of the dimension in question and selection of cross-ethnic-group friends heightened similarity. Similarity was a relative rather than an absolute selection criterion: Adolescents did not choose friends with identical orientations. These findings call for a comprehensive theory of friendship selection sensitive to diversity in adolescents' experiences. Implications for peer influence and self-development are discussed.
African-American boys who receive exclusionary discipline (i.e. in- or out-of-school suspensions) are overrepresented at the elementary (kindergarten through fifth grade) level. Although African-American boys comprised only 15% of the population of this school, they accounted for 70% of the exclusionary discipline incidents. This…
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Croom, Dan B.; Alston, Antoine
The model of agricultural and industrial education for African Americans in the United States was created by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. Armstrong developed a paternal approach to educating African Americans and developed the Hampton Institute curriculum with moral education as its base. Booker…
Grekin, Emily R
Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Jackson, Alicia D.
African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary S
Among African-Americans, the faith community has a long history of providing support to its members. Because African-American men tend to delay and decline traditional depression treatment, the faith community may be an effective source of support. The aim of this study was to determine how a rural African-American faith community describes and perceives experiences of depression among African-American males. A convenience sample of 24 men and women participated in focus groups and interview. Four themes were identified: defining depression, etiology of depression, denial of depression, and effect of masculine roles on depression experience.
Parham, Groesbeck P; Scarinci, Isabel C
Low-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1) their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2) their attitudes toward CDC's suggested physical activity strategies, and 3) their suggestions on how to achieve CDC's strategies within their own environment. A qualitative method (focus groups) was used to conduct the study during 2005. Prestudy meetings were held with African American lay health workers to formulate a focus group topic guide, establish inclusion criteria for focus group participants, select meeting sites and times, and determine group segmentation guidelines. Focus groups were divided into two phases. All discussions and focus group meetings were held in community centers within African American neighborhoods in the Mississippi Delta and were led by trained African American moderators. Phase I focus groups identified the following themes: overeating, low self-esteem, low income, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy methods of food preparation, a poor working definition of healthy energy balance, and superficial knowledge of strategies for achieving healthy energy balance. Phase 2 focus groups identified a preference for social support-based strategies for increasing physical activity levels. Energy balance strategies targeting low-income, rural African Americans in the Deep South may be more effective if they emphasize social interaction at the community and family levels and incorporate the concept of community volunteerism.
Doctor, Jason N.
Objectives. We studied if both observed and unobserved maternal health in African American women in hospitals or communities were associated with cesarean delivery of infants. Methods. We examined the relationship between African American race and cesarean delivery among 493 433 women discharged from 255 Californian hospitals in 2010 using administrative data; we adjusted for patient comorbidities and maternal, fetal, and placental risk factors, as well as clustering of patients within hospitals. Results. Cesarean rates were significantly higher overall for African American women than other women (unadjusted rate 36.8% vs 32.7%), as were both elective and emergency primary cesarean rates. Elevated risks persisted after risk adjustment (odds ratio generally > 1.27), but the prevalence of particular risk factors varied. Although African American women were clustered in some hospitals, the proportion of African Americans among all women delivering in a hospital was not related to its overall cesarean rate. Conclusions. To address the higher likelihood of elective cesarean delivery, attention needs to be given to currently unmeasured patient-level health factors, to the quality of provider–physician interactions, as well as to patient preferences. PMID:25790391
Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine
Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...
Hudson, Darrell L.; Eaton, Jake; Banks, Andrae; Sewell, Whitney; Neighbors, Harold
Depression is one of the most common, costly, and debilitating psychiatric disorders in the United States. One of the most persistent mental health disparities is the underutilization of treatment services among African American men with depression. Little is known about appropriateness or acceptability of depression care among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of depression and determine barriers to depression treatment among African American men. A s...
Burgess, Norma J.
Examines the black female's role in U.S. society, particularly with regard to working outside the home, and argues that one cannot understand what African American women are today without having a historical perspective for what their ancestors and their ancestors' roles, functions, and responsibilities were. An Afrocentric perspective is…
Barroso, Cristina S; Peters, Ronald Joseph; Johnson, Regina Jones; Kelder, Steven H; Jefferson, Troy
Focus groups, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, examined the beliefs and perceived norms regarding body image in a sample of urban African-American and Latino teenagers (N = 83, 18-19 years old) from Texas. Cultural eating (behavioral belief) explained the acceptance and tolerance of overweight. Popularity of hip-hop fashion and limited income explicated peer and familial normative beliefs, respectively. Thinness equated HIV infection in African-Americans (parental normative belief). Barriers to healthy eating and active living (control beliefs) included willpower, laziness, fast food, and excessive work. Findings can guide the development and implementation of culturally appropriate obesity interventions for African-American and Latino adolescents.
Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt
The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…
Wang, Zhenghe; Li, Li; Guda, Kishore; Chen, Zhengyi; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Park, Young Soo; Markowitz, Sanford D; Willis, Joseph
African Americans have the highest incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) of any US racial group. We recently described a panel of 15 genes that are statistically significantly more likely to be mutated in CRCs from African Americans than in Caucasians (AA-CRC genes). The current study investigated the outcomes associated with these mutations in African American CRCs (AA-CRCs). In a cohort of 66 patients with stage I-III CRCs, eight of 27 CRCs with AA-CRC gene mutations (Mut+) developed metastatic disease vs only four of 39 mutation-negative (Mut-) cases (P = .03, Cox regression model with two-sided Wald test). Moreover, among stage III cases (n = 33), Mut+ cancers were nearly three times more likely to relapse as Mut- cases (7 of 15 Mut+ vs 3 of 18 Mut-; P = .03, Cox regression model with two-sided Wald test). AA-CRC mutations may thus define a high-risk subset of CRCs that contributes to the overall disparity in CRC outcomes observed in African Americans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Villarruel, Antonia M; Ronis, David L
Poor patient-provider interaction among racial/ethnic minorities is associated with disparities in health care. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we examine African American women's perspectives and experiences of patient-provider interaction (communication and perceived discrimination) during their initial prenatal visit and their influences on perceptions of care received and prenatal health behaviors. Pregnant African American women (n = 204) and their providers (n = 21) completed a pre- and postvisit questionnaire at the initial prenatal visit. Women were also interviewed face to face at the subsequent return visit. Women perceived high quality patient-provider communication (PPC) and perceived low discrimination in their interaction with providers. Multiple regression analyses showed that PPC had a positive effect on trust in provider (p prenatal care satisfaction (p prenatal health behaviors. Findings suggest that quality PPC improves the prenatal care experience for African American women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M
To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for
Ukoli, Flora A. M
.... In 2002 the scope of the study was expanded to include African-Americans and African migrants in the United States so as to investigate the role of dietary nutrients associated with increased prostate cancer risk (fatty acids...
Mitchell, Stephanie J; Ronzio, Cynthia R
Understanding the risk and protective factors related to maternal mental health problems is important for improving the well-being of mothers and children, particularly in African American populations which may be at greater risk for maternal depression and resulting child behavior problems. This study explored whether three psychosocial resources--emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity--serve as protective factors in the face of specific stressful events that may trigger African American mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms. Standard self-report measures of depression, anxiety, negative life events, community violence, abuse, emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity were administered to African American mothers (N=209) of 2-18 month-old children. Linear regression models revealed main effects of negative life events and abuse on increased depression and anxiety symptoms, while emotional resilience and social support predicted decreased symptoms. There was also a significant interaction revealing a protective-reactive effect of ethnic identity on the associations of witnessed community violence with depression and anxiety symptoms. It is important for primary care providers to screen African American mothers for negative life events and abuse to identify those at increased risk for maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment programs should target emotional resilience, enhanced social support, and stronger ethnic group affiliation, which may be most effective at preventing mental health problems among mothers exposed to relative lower levels of community violence.
Ellis, Katrina; Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J.; Bruce, Marino A.
Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly specify the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men’s health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men’s health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 women (8 focus groups). Women’s perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men’s and women’s perceptions of men’s coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018
Luke, Sabrina; Salihu, Hamisu M; Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Jeffers, Dee; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Mishkit, Vanessa R
Data on risk factors for major antenatal depression among African American women are scant. In this study, we seek to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women receiving prenatal services through the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start (CHHS). Women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff of > or =13 as positive for risk of major antenatal depression. In total, 546 African American women were included in the analysis. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for major antenatal depression. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology consistent with major antenatal depression was 25%. Maternal age was identified as the main risk factor for major antenatal depression. The association between maternal age and risk for major antenatal depression was biphasic, with a linear trend component lasting until age 30, at which point the slope changed markedly tracing a more pronounced likelihood for major depression with advancing age. Women aged > or =30 were about 5 times as likely to suffer from symptoms of major antenatal depression as teen mothers (OR = 4.62, 95% CI 2.23-9.95). The risk for major antenatal depression increases about 5-fold among low-income African American women from age 30 as compared to teen mothers. The results are consistent with the weathering effect resulting from years of cumulative stress burden due to socioeconomic marginalization and discrimination. Older African American mothers may benefit from routine antenatal depression screening for early diagnosis and intervention.
McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda L.; Lashley, Maudry-Beverley; Marshall, Vanessa J.
Background: Young African American women are disproportionately affected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintentional pregnancies. Despite adequate knowledge, assertiveness, and negotiation skills, consistent condom use remains low. Aims: We sought to assess the role of pregnancy and STI risk perception in condom decision making…
Bondima, Michelle Harris
This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher
Wright, Brian L.
This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…
Klotman, Phyllis R.; Gibson, Gloria J.
A reference guide on African American film professionals, this book is a companion volume to the earlier "Frame by Frame I." It focuses on giving credit to African Americans who have contributed their talents to a film industry that has scarcely recognized their contributions, building on the aforementioned "Frame by Frame I,"…
Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober
Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…
Rowlett, Joel Everett
This case study examined the beliefs of African American males on the psychosocial and pedagogical factors contributing to the underrepresentation of African American males in advanced high school math courses. Six 11th grade African American male juniors from a large, comprehensive, Southeastern high school served as individual cases. Within- and…
Chisolm, Deena J; Sarkar, Madhurima
Web-based health information may be of particular value among the African American population due to its potential to reduce communication inequalities and empower minority groups. This study explores predictors of e-health behaviors and activities for African American Internet users. We used the 2010 Pew Internet and American Life Health Tracking Survey to examine sociodemographic and health status predictors of e-health use behaviors among African Americans. E-health use behaviors included searching for e-health information, conducting interactive health-related activities, and tracking health information online. In the African American subsample, 55% (n=395) were at least "occasional" Internet users. Our model suggests that searching for health information online was positively associated with being helped/knowing someone helped by online information (odds ratio [OR]=5.169) and negatively associated with lower income (OR=0.312). Interactive health activities were associated with having a college education (OR=3.264), being 65 years of age or older (OR=0.188), having a family member living with chronic conditions (OR=2.191), having a recent medical crisis (OR=2.863), and being helped/knowing someone helped by online information (OR=8.335). E-tracking behaviors were significantly stronger among African Americans who had health insurance (OR=3.907), were helped/knowing someone helped by online information (OR=4.931), and were social media users (OR=4.799). Findings suggest significant differences in e-health information-seeking behaviors among African American Internet users-these differences are mostly related to personal and family health concerns and experiences. Targeted online e-health resources and interventions can educate and empower a significant subset of the population.
Acton Ronald T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans. Methods We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls' acid ferrocyanide-reactive iron in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of 341 consecutive African American adults who were autopsied in the coroner/medical examiner office. Heavy staining was defined as grade 3 or 4 hepatocyte iron or grade 3 Kupffer cell iron. Results There were 254 men and 85 women (mean age ± 1 SD: 44 ± 13 y vs. 48 ± 14 y, respectively; p = 0.0255; gender was unstated or unknown in two subjects. Approximately one-third of subjects died of natural causes. Heavy staining was observed in 10.2% of men and 4.7% of women. 23 subjects had heavy hepatocyte staining only, six had heavy Kupffer cell staining only, and one had a mixed pattern of heavy staining. 15 subjects had histories of chronic alcoholism; three had heavy staining confined to hepatocytes. We analyzed the relationships of three continuous variables (age at death in years, hepatocyte iron grade, Kupffer cell iron grade and two categorical variables (sex, cause of death (natural and non-natural causes in all 341 subjects using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. This revealed two positive correlations: hepatocyte with Kupffer cell iron grades (p Conclusions The present results confirm and extend previous observations that heavy liver iron staining is relatively common in African Americans. The pertinence of these observations to genetic and acquired causes of iron overload in African Americans is discussed.
McDonald, Evangeline L; Powell, C Lamonte; Perryman, Jennie P; Thompson, Nancy J; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob
Transplantation is the favored therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unfortunately, demand for available organs far outpaces the supply. African Americans are disproportionately affected by the ever-widening gap between organ supply and demand. Additionally, structural, biological, and social factors contribute to feelings of unease some African Americans may feel regarding living donor transplant (LDT). The present research examines the relationship between trust in health care and attitudes toward LDT among African American ESRD patients. We hypothesized that lower trust in health care would be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward LDT, and that this relationship would be moderated by patient attitudes toward dialysis. Data were collected from August 2011 to April 2012 as part of a larger study. Measures included trust (of doctors, racial equity of treatment, and hospitals) and attitudes toward both LDT and dialysis. Bivariate analysis revealed that trust in one's doctor, hospital, and in racial equity in health care was significantly correlated with attitudes toward LDT (r = 0.265; r = 0.131; and r = 0.202, respectively). Additionally, attitudes toward dialysis moderated the relationships between Trust in Doctors/Attitudes toward LDT and Trust in Racial equity of treatment/Attitudes toward LDT. Findings suggest a strong relationship between trust in health care and attitudes toward LDT. These findings also shed light on how dialysis experiences are related to the relationship between trust in health care and attitudes toward LDT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…
Csokmay, John M; Hill, Micah J; Maguire, Marcy; Payson, Mark D; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Armstrong, Alicia Y
To determine whether frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer pregnancy rates (PR) are lower in African-American compared with white women. Retrospective review of frozen blastocyst cycles. University-based assisted reproductive technology (ART) program. All patients who underwent a frozen blastocyst transfer between 2003 and 2008. None. Live birth rate. One hundred sixty-nine patients underwent transfer of a frozen-thawed blastocyst. African-American women had a higher incidence of leiomyoma (40% vs. 10%) and tubal and uterine factor infertility. There was no difference in the live birth rate for African-American patients (28.0%) compared with white patients (30.2%). Of the patients who underwent a frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, 58% (n=98) had their fresh, autologous IVF cycle, which produced the cryopreserved blastocyst, at Walter Reed Medical Center. A higher peak serum E2 level was noted in African-American patients (5,355 pg/mL) compared with white patients (4,541 pg/mL). During the fresh cycle, the live birth rates between African-American and white patients were significantly different at 16.7% versus 39.7%, respectively. Live birth rates after frozen blastocyst transfer are not different between African-American and white women despite a fourfold higher incidence of leiomyomas in African-American women. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gregory, Anne; Mosely, Pharmicia M.
While the achievement gap between African American students and white and Asian students is discussed widely in the media (e.g. Schemo, 2003), the gap in discipline between African Americans and these groups has gained much less attention. Few studies have explored teacher processes that affect the over-representation of African American students…
Cornelius, Judith B; Whitaker-Brown, Charlene D
Guided by the relational cultural theory, we conducted a qualitative study to examine the relationship experiences of African American transgender women living in North Carolina. A convenience sample of 15 transgender women participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, guided by an investigator-developed interview guide, were used to explore the personal experiences of transgender women on individual, family, and organizational levels. The findings provide a scheme for understanding the process through which transgender women's relationships hinder or enhance their ability to connect with individuals, family, and organizations. Nurses can use these findings to better understand the connectedness that occurs or does not occur in transgender women's relationships and provide culturally competent care to empower them to become resilient.
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…
Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rana, Aadia; Rosengard, Cynthia
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women, or the social, structural and behavioural factors influencing concurrency. We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioural factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships, guided by grounded theory. Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors included social normalisation of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners' concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting partners. Lack of trust was the most commonly cited reason that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners' dependence on women for economic support and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioural factors included alcohol and cocaine use. Social, structural and behavioural factors strongly influenced these African American women's concurrent sexual partnerships. Many HIV interventions disseminated by the CDC focus largely on behavioural factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women's sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women's HIV risks are urgently needed.
Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L
African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.
Booker, Staja Q
The purpose of this systematic review is to explore the perceptions of acute, persistent, and disease-specific pain and treatment options held by adult African Americans. Underassessment and undermanagement of pain in African Americans has been well documented; however, the cultural continuum of pain perceptions and their influence on pain assessment and management has not been synthesized. Electronic database searches of the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed, Web-based searches of the pain-specific journals plus a manual search of reference lists identified 41 relevant articles addressing perceptions of pain and/or pain management. Analysis of the literature revealed six themes: (a) meaning of pain, (b) description of pain, (c) coping with pain, (d) impact of pain, (e) patient-provider relationship, and (f) treatment approaches. These findings warrant further research and indicate the need for more precise evaluation of pain in African Americans, highlighting an imperative to incorporate cultural patterns into pain management practice and education. © The Author(s) 2014.
Baggerly, Jennifer; Parker, Max
African American boys face numerous challenges in society within the United States, including prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardship, limited access to support services, educational biases, and community violence. According to Pierce (1988), the psychic assault of subtle racism against African American boys erode their…
Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne M; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M
This study examined reciprocal support networks involving extended family, friends and church members among African Americans. Our analysis examined specific patterns of reciprocal support (i.e., received only, gave only, both gave and received, neither gave or received), as well as network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) as correlates of reciprocal support. The analysis is based on the African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Overall, our findings indicate that African Americans are very involved in reciprocal support networks with their extended family, friends and church members. Respondents were most extensively involved in reciprocal supports with extended family members, followed closely by friends and church networks. Network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) were significantly and consistently associated with involvement with reciprocal support exchanges for all three networks. These and other findings are discussed in detail. This study complements previous work on the complementary roles of family, friend and congregational support networks, as well as studies of racial differences in informal support networks.
Squires, Stephanie Michelle
This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will